History of Rock and Roll Introduction

What is ³Rock and Roll´ and who coined the term?


Rock and Roll History I
Sam Phillips Finds His Star Who was Sam Phillips?


Sam Phillips (1923-2003) 

Sam Phillips was a disc jockey who started the Memphis Recording Service on January 3, 1950. It later became the Sun Records label. From 1950-1954 he recorded black R&B artists that included: Bobby ³Blue´ Bland, Chester ³Howlin¶ Wolf´ Burnett, James Cotton, Roscoe Gordon, Riley ³B.B.´ King, Little Milton, Herman ³Little Junior´ Parker, Rufus ³Hound Dog´ Thomas. Was concerned his black artists would not be able to break through into the ³white mainstream´ market. Began searching for a white artist ³who could play and sing in this same exciting, alive way.´ Who would be that artist?

SOURCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Phillips; Shirley, 14.

and bluegrass. country.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley. . Early influences included: hymns. In 1947 his family moved to Memphis and he began listening to blues and R&B. In 1953 he paid $4 to record ³My Happiness´ and ³That¶s When Your Heartaches Begin´ at Sun 4 Studios. In 1950 he began hearing Sam Phillips¶ Sun Studios recordings.Elvis Presley (1935-1977)      Elvis Presley SOURCES: http://en. Received his first guitar at 11. Shirley. 14-15. gospel.

 During a break in a 1954 recording session with guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black. SOURCES: http://en. and Black released ³Good Rockin¶ Tonight´ and in less than a year he became the most popular entertainer in the mid-south. Elvis began singing an Arthur Crudup blues song. In 1955 Colonel Tom Parker arranged for RCA to buy out Elvis¶ contract for $35.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley.´ It was released 2 weeks later with ³Blue Moon of Kentucky´ and caused a sensation. 5 . ³That¶s All Right.Elvis¶ Break    Elvis at the MississippiAlabama State Fair in 1956. Two months later Presley.000. Shirley. 16-18. Moore.

Army in 1958. I Love You).´ Jailhouse Rock.Elvis conquers the charts    In 1956.´ ³Don¶t Be Cruel.´ ³All Shook Up. the #1 R&B single (³Heartbreak Hotel´). 18-19. SOURCES: http://en.´ ³Love Me Tender. Drafted by the U.´ He appeared on January 6 on The Ed Sullivan Show from the waist up.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley. he released the following hit singles: ³Hound Dog. 6 . Elvis had the #1 country single (³I Forgot to Remember to Forget´).wikipedia.S. In 1957. Shirley.´ and ³Teddy Bear. I Need You. and the #1 Pop single (³I Want You.

wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley. 19-20. Jailhouse Rock (1957). Loving You. Shirley. Blue Hawaii (1961). Graphic: http://en.Elvis conquers Hollywood  SOURCES: http://en. Love Me Tender (1956).org/wiki/Jailhouse_Rock_%28movie%29. 7 . Flaming Star (1960). King Creole (1958). Viva Las Vegas (1964) are among the 31 motion pictures he made.

In 1969 a song introduced during the Special. SOURCES: http://en.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley.wikipedia. 8 . 20-21. Shirley. Elvis during the Comeback Special.´ hit #1 on the pop charts. ³Suspicious Minds.The ³Comeback Special´ (1968)   Elvis did a one hour prime time TV special on NBC in December of 1968 in which he went back to his rock and roll roots in an attempt to revive his career.

the first to be broadcast worldwide by satellite. the 70s and Vegas    From 1969 to 1977 Elvis performed over 1000 sold-out shows in Las Vegas and on tour. 1977. He was 42. 21. Elvis Presley died on August 16.wikipedia. Shirley. is the best of his career.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley. Many believe the January 1973 ³Aloha from Hawaii´ concert. The 70s Elvis SOURCES: http://en. He had been addicted to prescription drugs and also had a history of a weak heart and kidneys. 9 .Elvis.

Elvis Presley:  Other records set by Elvis Presley:     recorded 104 singles that hit the Top 40 of the Billboard pop chart.5 million albums and approximately 50 million singles certified by RIAA in the United States.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley. "It's Now Or Never" reached #1 in the week of January 30. 2005. had 38 Top 10 Billboard hits. he had 24 top 5 hit singles in a row. who had 20 #1 hits. From 1956 to 1962. 27 years after Presley's death. The Beatles had 34 Top 10 hits during their career.Musical Milestones During his lifetime. His closest competitor is Mariah Carey with a total of 16 #1 hits. This total is currently unchallenged. there was at least one Elvis song on the singles chart. The total (18) is surpassed only by The Beatles. has 35.    From 3/1956 to 11/1959. SOURCES: http://en. with 19 consecutive top 5 hits. His closest competitor is Mariah Carey with 73 weeks. Madonna. Elvis Presley has 116. had 18 #1 Billboard hits. each of which sold in excess of one million copies.wikipedia. On the official UK Top 40 chart. The closest anyone has come to this was Madonna in the late 1980s and early 1990s. including four singles in 1956 that occupied the top of the charts for a cumulative total of 25 weeks. the closest competitor. 10 . making his total US record sales aproximately 167 million. has spent a total of 79 Weeks at the #1 position.

there was nothing. Then came Elvis. No one will ever touch Elvis. Elvis recorded a song of mine. 1957. When I first heard Elvis' voice. He is the deity supreme of rock and roll religion as it exists in today's form. glorious Technicolor.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley. Don't blame it on Elvis. I just knew that I wasn't going to work for anybody.Bruce Springsteen SOURCES: http://en.Garth Brooks. Hearing him for the first time was like busting out of jail..Jimmy Buffett. -. 11 .Bob Dylan. That Elvis. -. Zoom. There ain't no more.. -. that's the one recording I treasure the most. none of us could have made it. Before Elvis. man. cops. he is all there is. Shakin' the pelvis been in style way back since the River Nile. and nobody was going to be my boss. calypso singers. -.John Lennon. I thank God for Elvis Presley. Without Elvis. everything was in black and white. -. and hippies.Buddy Holly.Quotes about Elvis         Elvis was the only man from Northeast Mississippi who could shake his hips and still be loved by rednecks. for shakin' his pelvis. -. -.The Fabulous McClevertys. He wrote the book.wikipedia. -. Before Elvis. Everything starts and ends with him.Keith Richards.

Rock and Roll 12 . Hail.Rock and Roll History II Hail.

13 . Turn them into smash hits by making them less daring and gearing them towards white middle America. Example: Fats Domino¶s ³Ain¶t that a Shame´ was covered by Pat Boone.Major label recording practices in the early 1950s    Rerecord minor hits released by small companies.

´ Who are 3 artists that fall into this category? 14 .Goal of small record labels   Find artists ³so talented and unique²or so outrageous²that their styles could not be easily imitated by other artists on the major labels.

Answer    ³Little Richard´ Penniman Jerry Lee Lewis Chuck Berry 15 .

Little Richard (1932. On September 13.)     Little Richard Born Richard Wayne Penniman.´ The lyrics were changed from ³Tutti-frutti loose booty´ to ³Tutti frutti all rooty´ because Blackwell felt they were over the line. (Tuttifrutti was a slang term meaning a ³gay male.org/wiki/Little_Richard. 24-25. 16 . 1955 Richard recorded ³Tutti Frutti. Producer Bumps Blackwell was looking for a ³new Ray Charles´ for Specialty Records.wikipedia.´) SOURCES: http://en. Shirley.

written by Bobby Troup. 27-29. SOURCES: http://en. and John Fogerty (Creedence Clearwater Revival).org/wiki/Little_Richard.´ In October 1957 he left show business to enroll at a Pentecostal Bible college. Shirley. Mick Jagger.´ ³Lucille. for which he sang the title song.wikipedia. 17 . His vocal style would influence Paul McCartney.´ and ³Jenny-Jenny.´ Heeby-Jeebies.Richard¶s hits 1956-57      Little Richard in a 1957 performance ³Long Tall Sally´ / ³Slippin¶ and Slidin´ ³She¶s Got It.´ ³His frantic performing style can be seen in such period films as Don't Knock the Rock (1956) and The Girl Can't Help It (1956).

starred Leon Robinson in the title role. In 1962. SOURCES: http://en. scoring a hit with ³Great Gosh-a-Mighty.More Little Richard     In 1959 he returned to the music business.´ In 2000 a made-for-TV film. In 1986 was one of the first inductees into the new Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Little Richard. He also appeared in the movie. he toured the UK supported by The Beatles and The Rolling Stones who were big fans. 18 .org/wiki/Little_Richard. but was never as popular as he had been earlier. Down and Out in Beverly Hills.wikipedia.

and Billy Lee Riley (Rockabilly artist) at Sam Phillips¶ Sun Records in Memphis. Jerry Lee Lewis SOURCES: Shirley. Roy Orbison. Joined Carl Perkins.wikipedia.)      Cousin of Mickey Gilley and Jimmy Swaggart. Recorded ³Whole Lotta Shakin¶ Goin¶ On´ in 1957. Nicknamed ³The Killer´ for his outrageous onand-off-stage antics. Recorded ³Crazy Arms´ in 1956. http://en. 30-32. Went wild kicking out the piano stool on the Steve Allen Show. Johnny Cash.Jerry Lee Lewis (1935.org/wiki/Jerry_Lee_Lewis 19 .

In 1958 appeared in the film. Myra Gale Brown.wikipedia.´ ³Crazy´ is an error in the text. http://en. performing the title cut standing on the open deck of a truck. High School Confidential. Jerry Lee at the piano. In December 1957 wed his 13 year old second cousin. SOURCES: Shirley.org/wiki/Jerry_Lee_Lewis 20 . 32-33.Lewis¶ hits (1957-1958)     ³Breathless³ and ³Great Balls of Fire. starting a scandal that hurt his career.

http://theband.More Jerry     Lewis with fan Lisa Marie Presley 1n 1986 was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.hiof. In February of 2005 he was given a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Recording Academy.html 21 . starring Dennis Quaid based on the book by his exwife Myra. In 1989 was the subject of the film.wikipedia. ³Last Man Standing.´ SOURCE: http://en.´ with an ³amazing list of guest artists. Great Balls of Fire.no/albums/the_pilgrim.org/wiki/Jerry_Lee_Lewis. He released in September of 2006 a new CD.

Known primarily for the song. Cited Paul Robeson and Enrico Caruso as influences. The film.Sidebar: Screamin¶ Jay Hawkins      Screamin¶ Jay Hawkins  Jalacy Hawkins (1929-2000). Stranger than Paradise.org/wiki/Screamin%27_Jay_Hawkins 22 . as a hotel night clerk. he would emerge from a coffin dressed in a Draculalike cape. Also used leopard fur and red leather. Mystery Train. repopularized ³I put a spell on you´ in 1983.´ At the beginning of his shows. Hawkins also appeared in the film. 34. ³I put a spell on you. SOURCES: Shirley.wikipedia. http://en.

35-36. ³Ida Red (May)´ which reached #5 on the pop charts and #1 on the R&B charts. Bone Walker.com/about/biography3. In September ¶55 he recorded ³Maybellene. and Muddy Waters.´ a remake of the country hit. Louis. T.)    Born in St.Chuck Berry (1926. http://en. In 1955 Waters discovered him at a small blues club in Chicago and introduced him to Leonard and Cliff Chess of Chess Records who had recently signed Bo Diddley.chuckberry.html 23 . The dapper Chuck Berry SOURCES: Shirley.org/wiki/Chuck_Berry. http://www. Influences included Nat King Cole.wikipedia.

http://www.Berry¶s hits (1956-58)    ³Roll Over. Beethoven.´ SOURCES: Shirley.´ ³Johnny B. Goode.´ ³School Days.´ and ³Sweet Little Sixteen. Chuck doing the ³duck walk. http://en.com/music/charts. Had legal troubles in 1960 and would never regain his popularity.´ Influenced numerous guitarists including Jimi Hendrix and Keith Richards.chuckberry.org/wiki/Chuck_Berry. 38-39.html 24 .wikipedia.

     SOURCES: http://en. Is backed by Bruce Springsteen at the Concert for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland. http://www.html. Still performs regularly. a documentary film tribute to Berry directed by Keith Richards is released.wikipedia. In 1985 receives Lifetime Achievement Award at the 27th Annual Grammy Awards.chuckberry. In 1979 pled guilty to income tax evasion.com/about/career.  More³My Ding-a-ling.´ Chuck Berry Had a #1 hit in 1972 with In 1978 appeared as himself in American Hot Wax. Hail. 25 . In 1987 publishes his autobiography. In 1986 inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.org/wiki/Chuck_Berry. Rock and Roll. Hail. a film bio of Alan Freed.

Rock and Roll History III The Day the Music Died 26 .

Early Rock and Roll a Combination of Six Styles 

Blues Gospel Country and Western Boogie Woogie Rhythm and Blues Folk

SOURCE: Shirley, 40. 27

Rock and Roll as Synthesis  

The most successful musicians and performers were those who combined the previous elements into a sum greater than its parts. Rock and Roll was neither ³black´ or ³white,´ but an ³exciting mix of the two.´

SOURCE: Shirley, 40-41.



The great success of Elvis and others led to a decline in orginality in the late 50s as more artists imitated rather than originated. This was especially true of country-inspired Rockabilly musicians with the possible exceptions of Eddie Cochran and Gene Vincent. Rockabilly is a ³fusion of blues, hillbilly boogie, bluegrass, and country.´

SOURCES: Shirley, 41; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockabilly 29

com/html/photos.html 30 . Little Susie.everlybrothers. 41-42. Bye Love´ and ³Wake Up. http://www.) Everly began mixing bluegrass and rock and roll. Biggest hits were ³Bye.The Everly Brothers   In 1957 Don (1937.´ The Everly Brothers in 1957 SOURCES: Shirley.) and Phil (1939.

Holly and Bob Montgomery had been trying to bring elements of rhythm and blues into country music. http://en.Buddy Holly     Holly with trademark glasses. SOURCE: Shirley. Called it quits with Decca in 1956.  Charles Hardin Holley (1936-1959). Recorded ³Love Me´ and ³Modern Don Juan´ ± modest hits.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddy_Holly 31 . 42-43. Influenced by Elvis Presley to give their music a ³harder rhythm and blues edge.´ In October 1955 Decca Records wanted only Holly for a record deal.

´ ³It¶s So Easy to Fall in Love.´ First white performer to use the ³hiccup´ vocal technique on a popular recording. http://www. ³Oh Boy!. In 1958 toured England (influenced The Beatles) and also released ³It Doesn¶t Matter Anymore.com/ 32 .Holly¶s Hits (1957-1958)     Buddy Holly and the Crickets Rerecorded ³That¶ll Be the Day´ which reached #2 on the R&B charts.buddyholly.´ ³Every Day.´ SOURCES: Shirley.´ and ³Peggy Sue.´ ³Not Fade Away. 43-44.

http://en. J.The Day the Music Died February 3.´ SOURCES: Shirley. Richardson. ³American Pie. 1959    Crash site memorial   Holly joined the ³Winter Dance Party. and Valens.org/wiki/Buddy_Holly 33 . ND. Immortalized in Don McClean¶s 1971 anthem. After their February 2 gig at the Surf Ballroom.wikipedia. Featured Dion and the Belmonts. Holly chartered a plane to Fargo. Frankie Sardo. 44-46. Clear Lake. Holly. IA. The plane crashed shortly after takeoff killing the pilot. P. ³Big Bopper´ Richardson. and Ritchie Valens (³La Bamba´).´ a 2week tour of the northern Midwest.

Labels sign ³safer´ teen idols    

Bobby Rydell, Bobby Vee, Jimmy Clanton, Frankie Avalon, and Fabian replaced rockers Eddie Cochran, Chuck Berry, and Gene Vincent on radio and the charts. Dick Clark¶s American Bandstand helps make rock and roll more acceptable and advances the careers of Avalon and Fabian. Chancellor Records¶ Bob Marcucci later admitted Fabian ³couldn¶t sing. He knew it and I knew it.´ Looks began to be as or more important than sound.

SOURCE: Shirley 47-48. 34

Ricky Nelson (1940-1985) 


One of the more talented teen idols. Son of Ozzie and Harriet Nelson of the popular radio and TV series, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. At 16 recorded Fats Domino¶s ³I¶m Walkin¶.´ Featured in the 1959 film, Rio Bravo. ³It¶s Late´ and ³Hello, Mary Lou´ among the best releases of that time.

Ricky Nelson

SOURCES: Shirley, 48-49. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricky_Nelson 35

Emergence of Producers 

Berry Gordy, Jr. (1929- ) at Motown produced early hits by Smokey Robinson and Mary Wells. Known as ³Mr. Hitsville.´ Over the next 25 years was responsible for recording such artists as: Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, The Four Tops, Diana Ross and the Supremes, The Jackson Five. Phil Spector (1940- ) used bass drums, ³sparkling´ keyboards, and multi-layered vocals to produce his signature ³wall of sound.´ Spector produced the recordings of Ben E. King (³Stand by Me´), The Crystals, The Chiffons, The Shirelles, and The Righteous Brothers (³You¶ve Lost That Lovin¶ Feelin¶).

SOURCES: Shirley, 49-50; Wikipedia ³Berry Gordy´ and ³Phil Spector.´


´ and ³Walk Don¶t Run. 50.´ ³Walk Like a Man.The early sixties    The Seattle band.´ and ³Big Girls Don¶t Cry. Frankie Valli and The Four Seasons had hits: ³Sherry.´ SOURCE: Shirley. The Ventures were popular with ³The Real McCoy. 37 .´ The Beach Boys with their ³Four Freshman´ style vocal harmonies begin to capitalize on the ³surf´ craze.

Rock and Roll History IV The British Invasion 38 .

51-52. The band began to do Lennon and McCartney originals ± ³Please. and Buddy Holly and the Crickets.´ and ³She Loves You.´ ³From Me to You.British Bands discover Rock and Roll in the early 60s     In 1961 when Brian Epstein discovered The Beatles they were doing covers of 1950s American rock and roll standards. 39 . The ³Liverpool sound´ is ³«the same as the rock from five years ago.´ SOURCE: Shirley. Early influences were Little Richard. Chuck Berry.´ (George Harrison) In 1962 drummer Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) replaced Pete Best. Please Me.

Beatlemania    In January 1963 ³I Want to Hold Your Hand´ reaches #1 on the pop charts.wikipedia. the Dave Clark Five. http://en. 52-53. In February 1963 The Beatles debuted on The Ed Sullivan Show. and Freddie and the Dreamers.org/wiki/The_Beatles 40 . The ³British Invasion´ also included the less popular Gerry and the Pacemakers. On the Ed Sullivan Show in 1963 SOURCES: Shirley.

´ It established Lennon and McCartney as the ³preeminent popular songwriting team of their generation.´ ³Nowhere Man. Rubber Soul. 53-54. Frank Zappa.´ The soundtrack to Help! (1965) also reached the top of the charts. A Hard Day¶s Night was a ³complete success.´ and ³In My Life. 41 . their first album of all original material included: ³Norwegian Wood. and The Rolling Stones. SOURCES: Shirley.´ ³Michelle.1965 ± Films and Rubber Soul     The Beatles¶ film debut. Brian Wilson. Graphics courtesy of Amazon.´ It would influence Bob Dylan.com.

Amazon. 55-56. Pepper¶s Lonely Hearts Club Band appeared in record stores. http://en.1966-1967 ± Controversy & Sgt.´ quit playing concerts.org/wiki/The_Beatles.com. who had held the group together as a creative unit. Pepper. 42 . Pepper    The Beatles in 1967  ³Christianity will go « We¶re more popular than Jesus now«´ (John Lennon. died. they gradually ³lost their edge. Considered one of the ³most influential and frequently discussed´ albums of the decade. and devoted their energy to recording. In 1968 their manager Brian Epstein. After Sgt.wikipedia. SOURCES: Shirley. 1966) In July 1967 Sgt.

End of an era     At the end of the decade they had several successes including Magical Mystery Tour. Graphics: Amazon. and Abbey Road. 43 . SOURCES: Shirley. The White Album.com. McCartney. The latter two were more collections of songs by the band¶s members. Yellow Submarine. By the end of 1970. and Harrison had all released solo albums and The Beatles had disbanded. 56-57. Lennon. In 1969 Paul McCartney¶s ³Hey Jude´ would become the Beatles¶ biggest hit ever.

´ Debut album of The Animals SOURCES: Shirley. ³House of the Rising Sun.wikipedia. had their biggest hit.org/wiki/The_Animals 44 .The Animals   Headed by organist Alan Price and lead singer Eric Burdon. 58. In 1964. http://en.

´ and ³Tired of Waiting for You. Dave Davies. Muswell Hillbillies.The Kinks    The Kinks (from left) Pete Quaife.´ ³All Day and All of the Night. 58. Some of the more interesting rock albums of the 60s and 70s included: Face to Face. and The Kink Kronikles. Mick Avory.org/wiki/The_Kinks 45 .wikipedia. In 1965 had hits: ³You Really Got Me. SOURCES: Shirley. http://en. Ray Davies.´ With ³A Well Respected Man´ their lyrics became more complex and their sound influenced by traditional British music.

Who¶s Next. In 1970. SOURCES: Shirley. Pete Townshend. Roger Daltrey.   Led by guitarist Pete Townshend and vocalist Roger Daltrey.The Who    The Who in 1965 (from left) John Entwistle. In 1969 they released Tommy. http://en. the first commercially successful rock opera.wikipedia. Keith Moon..g. 1969).org/wiki/The_Who 46 . In 1965 had hits with: ³I Can¶t Explain´ and ³My Generation. Woodstock. 58-59.´ Were known for wild antics in their live performances such as smashing instruments (e. featured the hits ³Baba O¶Riley´ and ³Won¶t Get Fooled Again.

http://en.´ the two songs are banned from airplay on many American radio stations due to their sexually charged lyrics. Brian Jones. ³Sympathy for the Devil´ (1968) was a deliberate attempt to offend their critics.org/wiki/The_Rolling_Stones 47 . In 1964 released their first top ten single. ³Time Is on My Side.  Most successful of the hard rock. bluesinspired British bands. Charlie Watts and Keith Richards. 59-60.wikipedia. Along with ³Let¶s Spend the Night Together.The Rolling Stones    The Rolling Stones in 1964 (from left). Bill Wyman. Mick Jagger. SOURCES: Shirley.´ With the 1965 hit ³Satisfaction´ Keith Richards comes into his own as a guitarist.

Exile on Main St.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rolling_Stones 48 .´ In 1972 they released an even darker masterpiece.   The Rolling Stones released A Bigger Bang in July of 2005. Notable are the title cut. ³marked the band¶s full maturity as rock and roll musicians. The release of Let It Bleed put the group on par with the Beatles.´ and ³Gimme Shelter..´ SOURCES: Shirley. http://en. the double album Exile on Main St.´ ³You Can¶t Always Get What You Want. 63. ³Country Honk. In 1969 guitarist Brian Jones died.

´ and ³Private Sorrow. Formed in 1963 by Phil May and Dick Taylor.Sidebar ± The Pretty Things      Possibly the most unfairly neglected band of the 60s. In 1967 their music took an ³artier. more psychedelic edge´ with ³Walking Through My Dreams. SOURCES: Shirley. ³Don¶t Bring Me Down´ and ³Honey I Need´ were hits in ¶64 and ¶65. http://en.´ Their ³startlingly eclectic musical tastes became legendary among other rock musicians.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pretty_Things 49 . 62.´ ³Defecting Grey.

Rock and Roll History V Bringing It All Back Home 50 .

64. 51 .Fighting the British Invasion  Bob Dylan. SOURCE: Shirley. Beach Boys¶ Brian Wilson and Frank Zappa of the Mothers of Invention created new personal styles that would have an enormous impact throughout the rest of the 60s.

Joan Baez.. 64-65. This changed in 1958 with the Kingston Trio¶s ³Hang Down Your Head Tom Dooley.´) SOURCE: Shirley. 52 . Theodore Bikel. Woody Guthrie). The Weavers. Paul and Mary had joined the Kingston Trio on the charts. Paul and Mary¶s cover of his ³If I Had a Hammer. Ramblin¶ Jack Elliot.Folk Music     The 1950s had been a difficult period for folk singers (e. and Peter.g.´ By 1960 Odetta. (Pete Seeger and Peter. In 1961-1962 folk artists had some success with protest anthems.

org/wiki/Bob_Dylan 53 .).´ ³Masters of War. Debut album that year contained folk standards ³In My Time of Dying. Arrived in New York in 1961. SOURCES: Shirley 65-67.´ The Freewheelin¶ Bob Dylan (1963) and The Times They Are A-Changin¶ (1964) were his next two albums. Took name from Welsh poet Dylan Thomas.´ ³A Hard Rain¶s A-Gonna Fall. http://en.wikipedia. Born Robert Allen Zimmerman (1941.´ ³Man of Constant Sorrow.´ and the title cut of the latter. Songs included: ³Blowin¶ in the Wind.´ ³Oxford Town.Bob Dylan    Photo by Daniel Kramer.´ and ³The House of the Rising Sun.

Another Side    Another Side of Bob Dylan (1964) contained more personal. Folk purists were offended. but the album was his first to sell a million copies. 54 .com. 67-68. Bringing It All Back Home (1965) was recorded with rock and roll and blues musicians playing electric instruments. Amazon. introspective material. SOURCES: Shirley.

http://en. His next two albums John Wesley Harding (1967) and Nashville Skyline (1969) featured country ballads ³Lay Lady Lay. Was in seclusion for a year after a 1967 motorcycle accident.´ a duet with Johnny Cash. SOURCES: Shirley. 68-69.org/wiki/Bob_Dylan_discography 55 . Recent releases of original material include: Time Out of Mind (1997) and Love and Theft (2001).³Like a Rolling Stone´      Highway 61 Revisited (1965) and Blonde on Blonde (1966) are considered ³two of the finest recordings of the rock and roll era.wikipedia.´ Began touring with The Hawks (who later became The Band).´ and ³Girl from North Carolina.´ ³Tonight I¶ll Be Staying With You.

The Beach Boys   The Beach Boys outside Capitol Records.´ ³Little Deuce Coup.S.´ and ³Surf City. Dennis and Carl Wilson. and Al Jardine.´ ³Surfin¶ U.´ SOURCES: Shirley. http://thebeachboys.A.. 69-70.html 56 . Early hits: ³Surfer Girl. dragracing and dating. Known for their vocal harmonies influenced by the Four Freshmen and songs about surfing.  Formed in 1961 by Brian Wilson and his cousin Mike Love. The band also included younger brothers.com/photos.

71-73. Competition with The Beatles inspired Wilson to produce Pet Sounds in 1966 which would raise the standard of the quality of artists¶ recordings.´ It also contained personal introspective numbers ³I Know There¶s an Answer´ and ³I Wasn¶t Made for These Times.´ SOURCES: Shirley.com/photos. There and Everywhere.  As the group became more successful.html 57 . the demands of touring took their toll.´ Influenced Lennon and McCartney to write ³Here. In 1964 Brian Wilson suffered his first of many nervous breakdowns. http://thebeachboys. Songs included: ³Wouldn¶t It Be Nice´ and ³Sloop John B.Pet Sounds    The Beach Boys in Concert.

http://en. 74-75. SOURCES: Shirley.´ Later teamed up with Van Dyke Parks to produce an album (Smile) that would be as complex and demanding.000 on the hit ³Good Vibrations.wikipedia. Project was doomed. But the band would never approach the level of quality on Pet Sounds and ³Good Vibrations. A few of the songs ended up on Smiley Smile (1967).Smile     Wilson spent an unprecedented $16.org/wiki/Brian_Wilson 58 . Early takes on ³Surf¶s Up´ and ³Cabin Essence´ showed promise.´ In 2004 a rerecorded version of Smile was released and was a critical and financial success. Wilson¶s drug use and behavior caused the project to be cancelled.

MD.org/wiki/Frank_Zappa 59 . As a teenage was inspired by classical composers Stravinsky and Varese (³Deserts´). During the early 60s he wrote the soundtracks for Run Home Slow and The World¶s Greatest Sinner. http://en. later became the Mothers of Invention. Was introduced by Don Van Vliet (³Captain Beefheart´) to the blues. 75-77. In 1964 joined the Soul Giants.Frank Zappa (1940-1993)     Frank Zappa at the piano.   Born in Baltimore. SOURCES: Shirley. was groundbreaking and eclectic.wikipedia. Their debut album in 1966. Freak Out.

.´ (Rolling Stone). for Captain Beefheart. jazz musicians. .org/wiki/Frank_Zappa 60 . Zappa produced the double album. SOURCES: Shirley 78-79.wikipedia. The 1969 album. Hot Rats. Could ³whale the tar out of every other informal jam. and vocals by Zappa and Captain Beefheart (³Willie the Pimp´).Hot Rats     In 1970 the Mothers of Invention broke up. http://en. featured violinist Jean-Luc Ponty. . Trout Mask Replica.

Rock and Roll History VI Crossroads 61 .

and American bands. introduced a big-guitar. urban sound and a new style of performance and improvisation. SOURCE: Shirley. 80. 62 . British bands. Electric Flag and the Allman Brothers.Influence of the Blues   The blues continued to be an important influence on Rock and Roll in the late 60s. TheYardbirds and Ten Years After.

)   Clapton with B. During the mid-60s he played with the Blues Breakers and the Yardbirds.   Began career as a rhythm and blues guitarist for the Roosters and Casey Jones and the Engineers. 80-81. B. http://www.uk/ http://en. Was determined to transfer King¶s style into rock and roll. and B.co. King. Blind Boy Fuller. Skip James.wikipedia. King. Bill Bill Broonzy.Eric Clapton (1945. SOURCES: Shirley.org/wiki/Eric_Clapton 63 . Abandoned performing to study guitar techniques of blues masters Robert Johnson.eric-clapton. B.

uk/ 64 .Cream    Cream  In 1966 Clapton formed Cream with Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker. SOURCES: Shirley.S. Cream combined ³aggressive covers of blues standards´ like ³Crossroads´ and ³I¶m So Glad´ with their own ³off-beat. Their 1968 double album.co.´ Disraeli Gears¶ release marked the band¶s success in the U. as well. 81-83. reached #1.eric-clapton. Wheels of Fire. http://www. drug-inspired tunes.´ In concert Cream was ³thunderously loud´ and would expand ³3 minute songs into 20-30 minute improvisations.

Eric Clapton. SOURCES: Shirley. 83.org/wiki/Eric_Clapton 65 . http://en. Toured with Delaney and Bonnie and released his first solo album. Included ³Bell Bottom Blues´ and ³Why Does Love Got to Be So Sad´ successfully producing a unique blues-inspired rock and roll style. in 1970. Later in the year formed Derek and the Dominoes and recorded Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs. 2005.wikipedia.More Clapton     Eric Clapton at the Tsunami Relief Concert. regarded by many as Clapton¶s best. In 1969 formed Blind Faith with Traffic¶s Steve Winwood.

Their debut album. and keyboardist Ray Manzarek. Drummer John Densmore. SOURCES: Shirley 84-85. http://en. included ³Light My Fire´ and ³Break on Through´ and peaked at #2 behind Sgt. Pepper. Morrison died of a heart attack in Paris on July 3.Jim Morrison and The Doors   Doors¶ debut album.   Morrison (1943-1971) formed The Doors in 1966 with guitarist Robby Krieger.org/wiki/Doors 66 .wikipedia. The Doors (1967). Other hit singles include ³Hello. 1971. I Love You´ (1968) and ³Riders on the Storm´ (1971).

avant-garde movements converged in the San Francisco Bay Area. Drug usage influenced ³Psychedelic´ Rock. Bands and songs included: Country Joe and the Fish (³I Feel Like I¶m Fixin¶ to Die Rag´). ³Beat´ poets and writers. a number of radical. and the ³hippies´ who began to crowd into the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood.San Francisco 60s Scene     During the 1960s. Quicksilver Messenger Service. Big Brother and the Holding Company (with Janis Joplin). SOURCE: Shirley. These included the student ³free speech movement´ at Berkeley. 85-86. 67 . and the Jefferson Airplane (³Volunteers´).

Deadheads. spontaneous jams in Golden Gate Park.  Led by Country and Jazz-influenced guitarist Jerry Garcia (1942-1995).. i. During the 60s.e. http://en.wikipedia. the band lived in an old Victorian house near the corner of Haight and Ashbury and often played live. Their fans.The Grateful Dead    The Dead. Workingman¶s Dead (1970) featured folk and country style ballads and made no attempt to reproduce their extended instrumental jams. 1971. Their best album of the period.org/wiki/Grateful_Dead 68 . SOURCE: Shirley. 87. would make them the most popular live act in the history of rock and roll.

Enlisted in the Army 101st Airborne Division (1961-1964). WA.org/wiki/Jimi_Hendrix 69 . In ¶67 ³Hey Joe´ and ³Purple Haze´ reached the top of the UK charts. Toured with Little Richard.wikipedia. Formed the Jimi Hendrix Experience in England in 1966. 88-89. Influenced strongly by the blues. SOURCES: Shirley. and King Curtis.Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970)      Hendrix in concert. Born Johnny Allen Hendricks in Seattle. Also played with the Isley Bros. http://en.. Curtis Knight and the Squires.

Died from complications following an overdose of sleeping pills on September 18. explosive version´ of ³The Star-Spangled Banner. . The albums. SOURCE: Shirley. Axis: Bold as Love (1968). .Electric Ladyland    Hendrix at Woodstock.wikipedia. 89-92. and unorthodox chordings. http://en. and Smash Hits (1969) were all hits. 1969.org/wiki/Jimi_Hendrix 70 . at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and also toured with the Monkees. he created a roaring. Electric Ladyland (1968).S.   Debuted in U. carefully controlled feedback. Are You Experienced? (1967). He was 27. furious guitar style .´ Left the Experience to form the Band of Gypsies in 1970. ³Using hammered strings.´ Had top billing at Woodstock and performed a ³huge.

Rock and Roll History VII Things Quiet Down 71 .

72 SOURCE: Shirley.The Late 60s and Early 70s    Young people who earlier believed that rock and roll music could be used to fight racism and injustice.´ In early 1970 folk music regained popularity. became less confident and more introspective. to stop war. and to change the status quo. ³Intensely personal´ folk songs began to replace the ³hard. . aggressive protest songs. 93-94.

94-95. Taylor and the soft folk rock he inspired was harshly criticized in the rock and roll media. was one of the most successful pop recordings of that year. however. 73 . Sweet Baby James (1970). nasal tenor. NY. he had a high. http://www. but lacked Dylan¶s gifts as a songwriter.)    Cover of Taylor¶s debut album.com/gallery/ Grew up in Chapel Hill.jamestaylor.James Taylor (1948. NC and made a name for himself in the mid-60s playing in coffee houses in Greenwich Village.  SOURCES: Shirley. Like Dylan.

´ SOURCES: Shirley.) and Art Garfunkel (1941.) enjoyed their biggest success in 1969 with ³Bridge Over Troubled Water.org/wiki/Simon_and_Garfunkel 74 .wikipedia. http://en.Simon and Garfunkel  The duo of Paul Simon (1941. 95-96.

97. Plastic Ono Band.´ SOURCE: Shirley.Beatles Solo Careers   In 1970 Paul McCartney released McCartney. All Things Must Pass. George Harrison. Lennon¶s Imagine (1971) was an ³especially impressive solo performance. 75 . and John Lennon.

http://en. Married Gerry Goffin and churned out many chart-topping hits (³The Locomotion. 97-98. NY. Now regarded as one of pop music¶s most beloved and respected recordings. SOURCES: Shirley. ³I Feel the Earth Move´ and ³A Natural Woman´ were controversial for their sexually suggestive content.   Born Carole Klein in 1942 in Brooklyn. In 1971 released Tapestry. It was also the first time a young woman had sung so openly about her own feelings. a rich collection of new highly personal tunes with her older pop standards.´ ³Will You Love Me Tomorrow´) during the 1960s from the famous Brill Building.org/wiki/Carole_King 76 . In 1968 released her first solo recording.wikipedia.Carole King     Cover of Tapestry (1971). Now That Everything¶s Been Said.

Elton John (1947- ) 

³Pinball Wizard´ from Tommy (1975).  

Born Reginald Kenneth Dwight in Pinner, England. In 1969 released his first album, Empty Sky. In 1970 had better success with his album, Elton John, because of ³Your Song.´ Was known for his live performances with huge sunglasses and wild onstage antics. Honky Chateau (1972) captured some of that energy and rose to #1 on the pop charts as did his next 6 albums. Popular mid-70s singles included: ³Benny and the Jets,´ ³Rocket Man,´ and ³Philadelphia Freedom.´

SOURCES: Shirley, 98-99. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elton_John


Bruce Springsteen (1949) 

On the cover of Rolling Stone. 

Born in Longbranch, NJ. Inspired to become a musician when he saw Elvis on The Ed Sullivan Show. Discovered in 1972 by John Hammond of Columbia Records and billed as ³the new Bob Dylan.´ Released Greetings from Asbury Park and The Wild, the Innocent, and the E Street Shuffle in 1973 to critical, but not commercial acclaim. Songs included: ³Rosalita,´ ³Blinded by the Light,´ and ³Growing Up.´ Rolling Stone critic Jon Landau wrote, ³I have seen rock and roll¶s future, and his name is Bruce Springsteen.´

SOURCES: Shirley, 99-102. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Springsteen


Born to Run    

Released Born to Run in 1975. Was one of the era¶s most exciting albums. Springsteen became a nationwide phenomenon. In 1979 released Darkness at the Edge of Town, a darker more brooding picture of American life. His most popular tune of the 80s was ³Born in the U.S.A.´ (1984) a song about a country that had turned its back on its citizens. The solo album, Nebraska (1982), told stories about ³murder, death, and disappointment in the American heartland.´

SOURCES: Shirley, 102-104. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Springsteen 79

80 . and the sincerity of their offbeat lyrics. Earned ³Comeback band of the Year´ from Rolling Stone.Sidebar: The Shaggs      In March 1969 Austin Wiggins. NH recorded his three completely musically untrained daughters. Their music had no conventional chords or melodies. Was rereleased in 1975 and 1980. They remain one of the most unusual events in the history of rock and roll. of Fremont. 100-101. Jr. ³Philosophy of the World´ got airplay in Boston and positive critiques from Terry Adams and Frank Zappa. but was held together by the intensity of the band¶s weird notes and rhythms. SOURCE: Shirley.

The Byrds   Began introducing folk and country elements into their songs. 104. they popularized such folk songs as Seeger¶s ³Turn.´ SOURCES: Shirley. Tambourine Man. Turn.vh1.com/artists/az/byrds/artist.jhtml 81 . http://www. Led by singers Roger McGuinn and David Crosby. Turn´ and Dylan¶s ³Mr.

country.html 82 .thebuffalospringfield. they infused folk. and bluegrass elements into their rock songs. http://www.´ ³Rock and Roll Woman. ³Bluebird.com/index2.The Buffalo Springfield  With its talented lead singer-guitarists Stephen Stills and Neil Young. 104-105.´ and ³For What It¶s Worth.´ SOURCES: Shirley.

org/wiki/Flying_Burrito_Brothers 83 .wikipedia.The Flying Burrito Brothers  Most often connected with Gram Parsons (1946-1973). SOURCES: Shirley. The Gilded Palace of Sin (1969). The Flying Burrito Brothers brought a ³rougher. more traditional edge´ to their music. http://en. 105.

´ For Woodstock Stills recruited Neil Young (Buffalo Springfield) to play guitar.org/wiki/Crosby%2C_Stills_and_Nash 84 .wikipedia. Stills. Stills & Nash (and Young)     In 1969 Stills (Buffalo Springfield) and Crosby (The Byrds) lured Graham Nash from the Hollies to form a vocal trio. Déjà Vu (1970) and 4Way Street (1971). 105-106. http://en.Crosby. Nash and Young released two very successful albums. chirpy harmonies´ on songs such as ³Marrakesh Express´ and ³Suite: Judy Blue Eyes. SOURCES: Shirley. Their 1969 debut album (left) featured Still¶s ³sinewy guitar solos´ and their ³high. Crosby.

his brother Tom.´ ³Green River. jangling. 106-107.   SOURCES: Shirley. http://en.org/wiki/Creedence_Clearwater_Revival Started out as The Blue Velvets.´ and ³Bad Moon Rising.wikipedia. Stu Cooke.´ ³Proud Mary. rock-inspired folk music. then The Golliwogs.Creedence Clearwater Revival     Willy and the Poor Boys (1969).´ In 1969-70 they released 7 Top 10 singles. Remade Van Morrison¶s ³Brown-Eyed Girl´ in the mid60s. CCR included John Fogerty.´ Music was ³hard. 85 . and Doug Clifford. Hits included: ³Born on the Bayou.

bassist Rick Danko.´ Toured with Dylan again in the early 70s.´ ³Up on Cripple Creek.The Band    On The Ed Sullivan Show (1969).no/band_pictures/band_68-76. Hits included: ³The Weight. SOURCES: Shirley. Originally The Hawks. and one American. guitarist Robbie Robertson.   The Band was made up of 4 Canadians.hiof. Played behind Bob Dylan on his 1966 tour.´ and ³The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down. and The Basement Tapes. drummer Levon Helm.html 86 . Before the Flood. 107-108. Music from the Big Pink (1968) and The Band (1969) had some of the era¶s finest singles. http://theband. organist Garth Hudson. Other notable albums included: Rock of Ages. pianist Richard Manuel. they were the backup band for rockabilly singer Ronnie Hawkins.

Rock and Roll History VIII Bring on the Noise 87 .

´ ³heavy metal. musicians playing ³hard rock. spectacle and sheer volume of late 1960s rock and roll. 109. 88 .´ SOURCE: Shirley.´ and ³glam rock´ were becoming popular to fans who missed the ³energy. Carole King and Neil Young.Different Directions  While the majority of Americans were listening to folk and soft rock artists like James Taylor.´ ³art rock.

wikipedia.Led Zeppelin     Clockwise from left (Robert Plant. Led Zeppelin IV (1971) aka Zoso. SOURCES: Shirley.org/wiki/Led_Zeppelin 89 . and Metallica. 109-110. and John Paul Jones).´ Released the ³more sophisticated and ³challenging´ House of the Holy in 1973.  Fronted by ³squealing tenor´ Robert Plant and guitarist Jimmy Page. John Bonham. part heavy metal anthem´ ³Stairway to Heaven. http://en. The music was so loud it hardly mattered. AC/DC. featured ³[p]art acoustic ballad. Jimmy Page. Not very conscientious about crediting their ³borrowed´ lyrics and tunes from old blues songs. Guns¶n¶ Roses. Blue Öyster Cult. Influenced Black Sabbath. Aerosmith. By 1970 had released three very successful albums.

and Emerson. Jethro Tull. From the late 60s bands such as Yes. Lake and Palmer represented what some have called ³art rock.´ One of the most influential art rock bands was Pink Floyd. King Crimson. 110. Rock and Roll began to attract artists with backgrounds in classical and jazz music.³Art Rock´    SOURCE: Shirley. Genesis. 90 .

In 1967 released Piper at the Gates of Dawn which featured the ³wild.´ It became the third best-selling album of all time. and hit #1 in the U. http://en.¶´ 1973¶s Dark Side of the Moon was the ³first album to introduce electronic experimental music to a mass audience.wikipedia. 112-113. chart.S. In 1979 they released The Wall with the hit ³Another Brick in the Wall. Top 20 single (³Money´). after Michael Jackson¶s Thriller and The Eagles¶ Greatest Hits. drug-inspired instrumental µInterstellar Overdrive. Led by the ³unpredictable´ Syd Barrett from 1965-1968.´ It featured a U.Pink Floyd    Pink Floyd in the early 70s. SOURCES: Shirley.  Originally a cover band that played offbeat versions of blues tunes.org/wiki/Pink_Floyd 91 . worldwide.S. Name borrowed from obscure Georgia blues artists Pink Anderson and Floyd Council.

King Crimson     Formed in 1969 by the brilliant guitarist Robert Fripp (1946. SOURCES: Shirley. During the early 70s they featured some of England¶s most talented musicians.). On the band¶s 5 albums Fripp never played with the same musicians twice. In the Court of the Crimson King (1969).wikipedia. Their restrained performing style kept them from gaining a mass audience. 113-114.org/wiki/King_Crimson 92 . http://en.

114. Glitter or glam rock artists were easily recognized by their brightly colored clothes.Glam Rock    British artists in the early 70s were ³pushing the wild. SOURCE: Shirley. 93 . platform shoes and makeup. theatrical side´ of rock and roll. It portrayed a world where the misfit became the hero.

but his only hit single in the US was ³Rock and Roll (Part 2).8m. 114-115.garyglitter.)    Born Paul Francis Gadd.´ SOURCES: Shirley.Gary Glitter (1944. Sang with enthusiasm and intensity becoming one of glam rock¶s most popular performers.com/glitter.htm 94 . http://www. Enjoyed many hits in Britain.

Formed the band Tyrannosaurus Rex with percussionist Steve Peregrine Took.Marc Bolan (1947-1977)      Born Mark Feld in London.org/wiki/Marc_Bolan 95 .wikipedia. Rex. http://en. SOURCES: Shirley.´ Died in an automobile accident in 1977. Took left the group in 1970 and Bolan shortened the band¶s name to T. England. 115. Hits included: ³Bang a Gong´ and ³Hot Love.

org/wiki/David_Bowie roll and inspired performances by 96 Bowie and guitarist Mick Ronson.  David Bowie as Ziggy Stardust.) Born David Robert Jones in London. aggressive rock and featured http://en.´ ³Oh! You Pretty Things.´ and ³Kooks. The album told the story of a gifted but misunderstood rock star from outer space.´  In 1971 released Hunky Dory which included ³Queen Bitch. more theatrical style. In a tribute to Jimi Hendrix it SOURCES: Shirley.´  In 1972 the release of The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars made him an international star. . England. but soon shifted to a ³louder.wikipedia.David Bowie (1947. hard.  Began as a folk singer. 115-117.

117-118. Roxy Music had a darker sound that was the same ³uneasy mix of melody and experimentation´ as the best work of the Beatles and Pink Floyd. SOURCE: Shirley. 97 . They released Stranded with its hit ³Mother of Pearl´ in 1973. It is considered one of glam rock¶s finest musical statements. Their recording of Bowie¶s ³All the Young Dudes´ became the anthem for the glam rock movement.Glam Bands   Mott the Hoople blended glam rock with Bob Dylanstyle folk rock.

´ Their later releases John Barleycorn Must Die (1970) and The Low Spark of High-heeled Boys (1971) contained a ³spacious. Carlos Santana. Influence of JazzSupreme. Steve Winwood and Traffic had a ³tense. Blood. and John McLaughlin. Fantasy. Sadly when band leader Al Kooper left their remaining albums lacked the tension and energy of the first one. In 1967 Van Morrison released Astral Weeks and works such as Moondance (1970) and Wavelength (1978) continued to have a strong jazz element. jazzy feel´ to their best recordings such as ³Feelin¶ All Right´ and ³Dear Mr. Jerry Garcia. deteriorated into a ³bland and predictable´ pop group. Sweat and Tear¶s 1967 classic The Child Is Father to the Man was perhaps the most successful fusion of rock and roll and jazz. an influence In 1964 saxophonist John Coltrane released A Love on Jimi Hendrix. 118-119. The ³loud. guitar-driven jazz-rock´ sound of their first two albums. 98 . Chicago Transit Authority (1969) and Chicago (1970). jazz-oriented approach´ to rock performance. A similar thing happened to Chicago.     SOURCE: Shirley.

Rock Goes Underground Rock and Roll History IX 99 .

and the New York Dolls represented glam rock American style. SOURCE: Shirley. Iggy and the Stooges.American Misfit Rock & Roll   Kiss. The unofficial leader of this movement was Lou Reed. but with a harsher. Alice Cooper. 100 . grittier image. 120.

´ Cale left in 1968.The Velvet Underground   Velvet Underground and Nico in 1966. Songs included: ³Heroin.´ ³The Gift.wikipedia.´ and ³Stephanie Says. SOURCES: Shirley. and Metal Machine Music (1975).´ ³Pale Blue Eyes. 120-121. http://en. The band broke up in 1970. The latter had no melodies. Their mix of melody and feedback was similar to Syd Barrett. His main collaborator was John Cale. They were managed by pop artist Andy Warhol.org/wiki/Velvet_Underground 101 . Rock µn¶ Roll Animal (1974).). Reed later released Transformer (1972). rhythms or instruments.    Formed in the mid 60s by Lou Reed (1942.´ ³I¶m Waiting for the Man. but never found a wide audience.

org/wiki/Alice_Cooper 102 . Alice Cooper SOURCES: Shirley. Delighted and terrified fans with his ghoulish makeup and costumes. http://en.Alice Cooper   Born Vincent Furnier (1948. aggressive anthems´ like ³I¶m 18´ and ³School¶s Out´ celebrated teen life and defiance of authority. ³Hard.). 121-122.wikipedia.

Kiss  Gene Simmons and Paul Stanley ³used simpler.org/wiki/KISS_%28band%29 103 .wikipedia. and Paul Stanley. http://en. SOURCES: Shirley. Peter Criss. more formulaic rock tunes and a more cartoonish. less-threatening stage presence´ to become one of the nation¶s most popular bands during the mid 1970s. 122. Original Lineup (from left): Gene Simmons. Ace Frehley.

SOURCES: Shirley. Cry-Baby. on April 21. Hardware. The Crow: City of Angels. MI. http://www. Snow Day. Pop has also been in fifteen movies. http://en. Jr. and Dead Man. Is considered by many to be one of the innovators of punk rock. including Sid and Nancy. 122.iggypop.Iggy Pop and the Stooges     Born James Newell Osterberg.asp. The Rugrats Movie.com/photos. The Color of Money. Coffee and Cigarettes²Somewhere in California.wikipedia. 1947 in Muskegon. Was known for his wild.org/wiki/Iggy_Pop 104 . spastic onstage movements.

but none knew how to play their instruments. http://en. Influenced the Sex Pistols. whose manager.wikipedia. Albums included: New York Dolls (1973) and Too Much Too Soon (1974). New York Dolls. 1973. was briefly involved with them.org/wiki/New_York_Dolls 105 . SOURCES: Shirley. 123-124.´ Looked the part of glam rockers. Malcolm McLaren.The New York Dolls    ³«how horrible they sounded.

The music coming from Motown seemed too cheerful and optimistic for many young blacks. Isaac Hayes. SOURCE: Shirley.Beginnings of Funk   At about the same time that glam rock was popular. James Brown. Sly Stone. and George Clinton were developing their own musical vision of African-American urban life. 106 . 124. Curtis Mayfield.

Nigger). http://en.org/wiki/Sylvester_%22Sly_Stone%22_Stewart .´ Sly and the Family Stone Anthology.). controversial´ There¶s A Riot Goin¶ On (1971) with ³bitter. 1981.Sly and the Family Stone    Formed in the late 60s by DJ Sylvester Stewart (1944.´ ³Stand. 107 SOURCES: Shirley. 124. he released the ³dark. Early hits included ³Everyday People.´ After losing his sense of optimism in the early 70s. Whitey (Don¶t Call Me Whitey.´ and ³Everybody Is a Star.wikipedia. cynical´ songs like: ³A Family Affair´ and ³Don¶t Call Me Nigger.

124-125. SOURCES: Shirley. Singles like ³Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine´ and ³Say It Loud´ captured perfectly the mood of black urban life in the early 1970s. louder. in 1970. This helped establish funk as the dominant force in African-American music during the 1970s.James Brown (1933-2006)    The inimitable James Brown Fired his legendary rhythm and blues band. funkier band that included the remarkable bassist Bootsy Collins. http://en. the Famous Flames. and replaced it with a lighter.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Brown_%28musician%29 108 .

125-126. George Clinton at the VH1 Fashion Awards.George Clinton (1941.´ Influenced by James Brown and Jimi Hendrix. Biggest hit was ³Testify.wikipedia.´ His stage shows became bigger and more elaborate rivaling Bowie. he ³developed his own style of theatrical.org/wiki/Funkadelic 109 . Elton John. http://en.´ Clinton formed Funkadelic in 1970. SOURCES: Shirley. Alice Cooper and The Stooges. Their best singles included: ³Maggot Brain´ and ³Tear the Roof Off the Sucker. guitar-driven funk.)     Formed R&B group Parliament in the mid 1950s. Kiss. and Pink Floyd.

In 1974 artists like the Hues Corporation. Latin rhythms. 110 . Disco brought young white and black music fans together on the same dance floor. KC and the Sunshine Band began releasing light dance tunes with simple lyrics. Reached its peak in 1977 with the release of Saturday Night Fever. 126.Development of Disco     By the mid-1970s most young Americans simply wanted music to which they could dance. Van McCoy. swirling synthesizers and a funkstyle beat. SOURCE: Shirley.

³Stayin¶ Alive´ and ³How Deep Is Your Love´ stayed near the top of the charts for most of the year. 126-127.wikipedia. http://en.The Bee Gees   The Saturday Night Fever soundtrack became one of the best selling albums of all time.org/wiki/Bee_Gees 111 . SOURCES: Shirley.

127.´ The Village People with Cher. SOURCES: Shirley. http://www.The Village People   Began in the late 70s as an openly gay novelty band.officialvillagepeople.com/ 112 . 2004. Hits included: ³In the Navy.´ and ³YMCA.´ ³Macho Man.

Donna Summer (1948. SOURCE: Shirley. 127. http://www.com/pics/s-1.)   Was disco¶s most important contribution to pop music.donna-tribute. Summer evolved from the whispered moaning of ³Love to Love You Baby´ (1975) to the powerful rhythm and blues vocalist of ³Bad Girls´ (1979).jpg 113 .

Rock and Roll History X Rock and Roll¶s Last Stand 114 .

128. Source: Shirley. in the UK elements of what would become ³punk rock´ were being heard in the music of Jonathan Richman. Pere Ubu. and Richard Hell and the Voidoids. Patti Smith. 115 .Beginnings of Punk   While Disco was popular in the US. Punk began to attract attention when Malcolm McLaren brought together the Sex Pistols in 1976.

Bassist Glen Matlock was replaced by John Simon Ritchie (Sid Vicious). Glen Matlock. Sources: Shirley. Of Lydon (who later went by Johnny Rotten). Public Image. and John Lydon started playing in clubs in late 1975.wikipedia. Vicious died of a heroin overdose awaiting trial for the murder of his girlfriend. his Kings Road boutique and wanted to give the movement its own unique sound. http://en.org/wiki/Sex_Pistols 116 . ³We knew he couldn¶t sing«´ Their debut album was Never Mind the Bollocks (1977). McLaren would say.Sex Pistols      McLaren made the ³ragged. makeshift wardrobes´ for the punk movement in the back of Sex. they could barely play their instruments. 129-131. Paul Cook. When Steve Jones. Lydon formed his own group. Ltd. US tour in 1978 was a disaster.

Give µEm Enough Rope (1978).The Clash    Were one of the ³finest rock and roll bands ever to commandeer a stage.´ The Clash. http://en. 131-132. The Clash (1977). Their first three albums.org/wiki/Clash 117 . Influenced strongly by reggae (Bob Marley) and rockabilly.´ Led by guitarists Joe Strummer and Mick Jones who became the Lennon-McCartney of the punk movement. and London Calling (1979) are some of the ³finest to emerge from the punk era. 1977. Sources: Shirley.wikipedia.

´ Hits included: ³Sheena Is a Punk Rocker´ and ³I Wanna Be Sedated. 1976. catchy melody sung over a simple three-chord progression played as loud and as fast as humanly possible. ³«people loved their wild energetic music. Beatles-style bangs.´ Sources: Shirley.org/wiki/Ramones 118 . http://en.The Ramones    Debut album cover. and self-deprecating humor.´ Songwriting formula was a ³sweet.wikipedia. black leather jackets. 133.

1976. Source: Shirley.´ Their album.Blondie    Debut album cover.org/wiki/Blondie_%28band%29119 . was probably the closest punk would get to mainstream acceptability. ³Combined Warhol-style glam rock indifference. 133. Parallel Lines. Led by singer Deborah Harry. and a tight punk rhythm section. breathy girl-group vocals. http://en.wikipedia.

133-134. 120 Sources: Shirley. Back in England a ³new wave´ of punk bands gained attention.Talking Heads    Led by singer-composer David Byrne who sang in ³clipped.org/wiki/Talking_Heads . http://en.wikipedia.´ Their fourth album and masterpiece was Remain in the Light (1980). It was produced by Brian Eno and combined punk with the rhythmic complexity of funk. high-pitched whine.

wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Police 121 . Sting. During the 1980s he would become one of the most popular singers in the UK and US. Andy Summers. Sources: Shirley. The phenomenal success of The Police would launch the solo career of its lead singer Sting. http://en. 134.The Police   Stewart Copeland.

´ and ³The Angels Want to Wear My Red Shoes.org/wiki/Elvis_Costello 122 . 134. http://en.´ Unlike other punk music the instrumentals on Costello¶s recordings were clean and crisp and brought forward the angry vocals.Elvis Costello     Born Declan McManus he resembled a ³punk Buddy Holly.´ Expanded punk¶s audience. Sources: Shirley.´ ³Watching the Detectives.wikipedia. Between 1977-1980 he released a body of songs putting him the forefront of rock composers: ³Allison.

Rock and Roll History XI It¶s All in the Image 123 .

A new wave of bands like the Cars. The assassination of John Lennon on December 8. 135-136.The 1980s     The 80s were a ³disappointing period´ for rock and roll.´ ± Music critic Greil Marcus. 124 . 1980 shocked many people and caused John Lydon to say that ³rock and roll is dead. more accessible version of punk. U2. ³Rock µn¶ roll which used to be about breaking rules.´ Source: Shirley.M. R. and the Cure were becoming successful with a lighter.. now seems to be about learning them.E.

Husker Dü¶s Zen Arcade. 125 . and the Minutemen¶s Double Nickels on a Dime. aggressive rhythms and pure.³Alternative´ bands   ³At their best combined hard. irresistible melodies as successfully as Little Richard. they simply made noise. Source: Shirley. Jimi Hendrix and the Clash. Sonic Youth¶s Daydream Nation. 136. At their worst.´ Among the best were: the Replacements¶ Let It Be.

known more for their good looks than their good music. 126 .Music videos and MTV     In 1980 the advent of 24-hour music video programming by MTV would change the face of rock and roll. 137-138. Groups like Duran Duran and Aha. The way musicians looked and acted on their videos began to be more important than how they sounded on their records. Source: Shirley. MTV would be instrumental in launching the careers of Madonna and Michael Jackson. rose to the top of the pop charts.

Born Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone (1958. Yahoo! Images. 127 . In 1983 her debut album.). Sources: Shirley. 139-140. of MI School of Music to pursue a career as a dancer in NYC. was released with its single. Began performing at clubs in a style that combined disco¶s light grooves and punk¶s attitude.´ MTV agreed to screen videos of ³Borderline´ and ³Lucky Star.Madonna      Cover of Like a Virgin (1984). Dropped out of U. Madonna.´ Her next 15 singles would reach the top ten.´ Madonna also appeared in Desperately Seeking Susan to rave reviews. In 1984 Like a Virgin rose to the top of the charts with hits like the title cut and ³Material Girl. ³Holiday.

Yahoo! Images. 128 . 140-141. Truth or Dare. her sexually explicit 1990 video ³Justify My Love´ and her 1991 documentary. Like a Prayer.Like A Prayer (1989)    Album cover. e. Sources: Shirley. Even after she became commercially successful she still tried to shock her audience. The video of the title cut of Like a Prayer offended many religious groups. Starred in disastrous film Shanghai Surprise (1986) with then husband Sean Penn..g.

Their first three singles were hits: ³I Want You Back. Yahoo! Images. 141-142. .´ During the 70s Michael split his time between tours and recordings with his brothers and his own projects (³Ben´ and The Wiz.Michael Jackson     The Jackson Five. First gained recognition with his brothers in the Jackson Five appearing on Ed Sullivan in 1969.´ ³ABC.´ and ³I¶ll Be There.´ 129 Sources: Shirley.) In 1979 released his first solo album Off the Wall with hits ³Rock with You´ and ³Don¶t Stop Till You Get Enough.

1987 saw the release of Bad.org/wiki/Michael_Jackson 130 .´ The videos featured his considerable dancing talent.  Produced by Quincy Jones.´ He is currently working to release a single in November 2005. Yahoo! Images. In 1991 he released Dangerous with songs containing a ³coldness and bitterness that far fewer listeners could relate to. ³Beat It. Sources: Shirley. another ³impressive recording of slickly produced ballads and dance tunes´ which sold almost 20 million copies. http://en. 143-144.Thriller (1982)     Most successful recording of all time. ³From the Bottom of My Heart. Thriller featured a duet with Paul McCartney (³The Girl Is Mine´).wikipedia.´ and ³Billie Jean.´ to benefit the victims of Hurricane Katrina.

he combined Jackson¶s skills as a singer with the wild.wikipedia. big-guitar showmanship of George Clinton¶s funk ensembles. http://en.org/wiki/Prince_%28artist%29 131 .Prince   Born Prince Rogers Nelson in 1958 in Minneapolis. Prince (1983). On Purple Rain (1984). Sources: Shirley. 144. MN.

and the Fine Young Cannibals successfully combined the best elements of rock and roll and Jamaican music on their recordings. 144-145.Continued Importance of Reggae  In the 1980s ³biracial English bands like General Public. English Beat.´ Source: Shirley. 132 .

Emergence of Rap      During the late 80s rap was ³inspired by the near spoken cadences of reggae and the muted rage of 1970s urban street poetry. and Gang Star¶s Guru began to mix elements of jazz. Dawn. and an innovative style of sampling the recordings of other artists.´ rap began to gain a following with young white rock and roll fans. and Ice Cube¶s The Predator. Public Enemy¶s It Takes a Nation of Millions. rhymed.´ ³It combined hard. repetitive rhythms.M. harshly spoken verses. Source: Shirley. R&B and pop into their music. P. Soon a new wave of rap musicians like the Digable Planets.´ Following Run-DMC¶s duet with Aerosmith on ³Walk this Way. ³Rap was responsible for some of the most powerful and innovative musical performances of the late 80s and early 90s. 145.´ Examples include: KRS-One¶s By Any Means Necessary. 133 .

African. Middle Eastern. Source: Shirley. or Indian music. Graceland) released ³world music´ recordings. Peter Gabriel and Paul Simon (e.. Ladysmith Black Mambazo. Black Uhuru. Afro-Cuban. Caetano Veloso.World Music    ³World music´ resulted from the combining of rock styles with elements of Brazilian.g. 134 . Youssou N¶Dour. Established artists such as David Byrne. Other world music artists include: Milton Nascimento. and King Sunny Ade. 146.

Beyond Nirvana Rock and Roll History Epilogue 135 .

´ Sources: Shirley.Nirvana      Became famous with the 1991 release of Nevermind and its hit single ³Smells Like Teen Spirit.´ In Utero (1993) contained a ³dark. 147-148.´ Kobain committed suicide in 1994 allowing Pearl Jam to become the unofficial leader of the ³grunge movement. thrashing combination of punk and alternative styles came to be known as ³grunge. http://en.wikipedia. unrelentingly pessimistic batch of songs´ with ³few instrumental hooks or friendly melodies.´ Guitarist and lead singer Kurt Cobain¶s voice could be ³raspingly hoarse or plaintively sweet.´ Their noisy.org/wiki/Nirvana_%28band%29 136 .´ Other songs included: ³Lithium´ and ³Drain You.

Other standouts included: Björk. 149-150. Liz Phair. Belly. Source: Shirley. Hole. Throwing Muses. Beck and Fugazi. The Breeders. 137 . was one of the best. and Bikini Kill began to rival the success of alternative mainstays like Pavement.J.Female Bands and Performers    In the early 1990s. and P. widow of Kurt Cobain. Harvey. formed by Courtney Love.

Former lead singer of the Sugarcubes. http://en. Sources: Shirley.wikipedia. Debut and Post.org/wiki/Bjork 138 . 150. Used her jazz-inspired ³squeal´ to produce two of the most inspired albums of that period.Björk    Born in Iceland in 1965.

http://en.org/wiki/Liz_Phair 139 . Exile in Guyville (1993) was a stunning 14-song response to the Stones¶ classic Exile on Main Street.wikipedia.Liz Phair    Born in New Haven. 150. Sources: Shirley. CT in 1967. It gained attention for it catchy melodies and the singer¶s fondness for profanity.

´ Sources: Shirley.wikipedia. England. To Send You My Love (1995) was a hard. http://en. throaty vocals. 150-151._Harvey 140 .org/wiki/P.´ it was the most ³riveting performance since Nevermind. J. organ-driven masterpiece. With her ³rough.P. Harvey    Polly Jo Harvey was born in 1969 in Yeovil._J. bluesy.

They also did a 3 week tour in 2003. 151. Alanis Morisette released Jagged Little Pill in 1995 and sold six million copies. After 18 years John Lydon planned a reunion tour of the Sex Pistols for the summer of 1996. 141 Sources: Shirley.Conclusion      The recording industry sought to profit from these trends and more accessible artists in both grunge and women¶s alternative rock were signed. After 25 years the remaining members of The Beatles staged a brief reunion and released a double album with rare outtakes and new versions of two previously unreleased songs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_Pistols . Hootie and the Blowfish¶s debut album Cracked Rear View sold more than 12 million copies with their cheerful. watered-down version of Pearl Jam¶s arena rock.

Rock & Roll: an Unruly History (NY: Harmony.com/pages/best_timeline-r1. What was music called that was made by and for black Americans? SOURCES: Robert Palmer. The words appear in 1922 on record for the first time in Trixie Smith's ³My Baby Rocks Me With One Steady Roll. 1995): 8. http://www. The term eventually was used for guitar-based music with a ³black´ beat.Answer:    ³Rock and Roll´ was actually black slang for having sex. but not necessarily by black musicians or for a black audience.html 142 .jeffosretromusic.´ Disc jockey Alan Freed used it as a marketing ploy for music that was black in style.html Graphic: http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/history3. primarily played by and for whites.

Also http://www.com/history/rb. Chicago guitarist. ³Rock and Roll´ had such ³white´ connotations that the new styles in black pop music were referred to as ³Soul.  ³Rhythm and Blues. In 1949 the Billboard chart for "race" records was renamed "rhythm and blues". In the 60s.html 143 .´ That term was coined by future Atlantic Records producer Jerry Wexler while writing for Billboard in the late 1940s.´ What is ³Pop´ music? SOURCES: Ibid.´ and later ³Funk.Answer:    Muddy Waters.scaruffi.

Answer:   Any music that happens to be ³popular.com. 9.singnet. The Carpenters SOURCES: Ibid.htm 144 . Graphic: http://web.´ Some people also refer to ³soft rock´ as ³pop´ music.sg/~tonytay/carp.

Topics of Discussion   Ike Turner and ³Rocket 88´ Bill Haley and the Comets 145 .

Claim of 1st Rock and Roll song is perhaps overstated. Praises the joys of the Oldsmobile 88. the owner of Sun Records. Record credited to Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats.html 146 . to be the 1st Rock and Roll song.com/2005_01_01_rockfever_archive. but it was the #2 R&B single of 1951.org/wiki/Rocket_88 Graphic: http://rockfever. Features one of the first examples of the use of distorted or ³fuzz´ guitar.wikipedia.blogspot. Covered by Bill Haley and the Saddlemen (1952). SOURCES: http://en.Ike Turner and ³Rocket 88´ (1951)       Ike Turner ³Rocket 88´ was claimed by Sam Phillips.

htm http://www.´ ³Rock Around the Clock (1954). I know that song will pull us through. The Blackboard Jungle.html 147 . Rattle and Roll.art. American Graffitti.nationmaster.digitaldreamdoor. and the TV Series Happy Days.´ ³Crazy. ³No matter how bad a show might be going some night. Man. Crazy. In 1974 it returned to the American charts when used as the theme for the film.com/encyclopedia/Rock-Around-the-Clock Graphics: http://www.´ and ³Shake.com/asp/sp-asp/_/pd--10101563/Bill_Haley. SOURCES: http://www.Bill Haley and the Comets    Bill Haley  ³Rock the Joint. It¶s my little piece of gold.´ ³Rock Around the Clock´ became a hit in 1955 when used under the credits of the film.´ ± Bill Haley.com/pages/best_timeline-r1.

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