NOISE THEORY
Communication
• Main purpose of communication is to transfer information from a
source to a recipient via a channel or medium.
Recipient
Brief Description
• Source: analog or digital
• Transmitter: transducer, amplifier, modulator, oscillator, power amp.,
antenna
• Channel: e.g. cable, optical fibre, free space
• Receiver: antenna, amplifier, demodulator, oscillator, power amplifier,
transducer
• Recipient: e.g. person, (loud) speaker, computer
• Types of information
Voice, data, video, music, email etc.
• Information Source
– Discrete output values e.g. Keyboard
– Analog signal source e.g. output of a microphone
• Character
– Member of an alphanumeric/symbol (A to Z, 0 to 9)
– Characters can be mapped into a sequence of binary digits using
one of the standardized codes such as
• ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange
• EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
Digital Signal Nomenclature
• Digital Message
– Messages constructed from a finite number of symbols; e.g., printed language
consists of 26 letters, 10 numbers, “space” and several punctuation marks.
Hence a text is a digital message constructed from about 50 symbols
– Morsecoded telegraph message is a digital message constructed from two
symbols “Mark” and “Space”
• M  ary
– A digital message constructed with M symbols
• Digital Waveform
– Current or voltage waveform that represents a digital symbol
• Bit Rate
– Actual rate at which information is transmitted per second
Digital Signal Nomenclature
• Baud Rate
– Refers to the rate at which the signaling elements are
transmitted, i.e. number of signaling elements per second.
t denotes time
T0 is the period of x(t).
3. Analog and Discrete Signals
• x(t) is classified as an energy signal if, and only if, it has nonzero but
finite energy (0 < Ex < ∞) for all time, where:
T/2
lim
2
Ex = x (t) dt = x 2 (t) dt (1.7)
T T / 2
• A signal is defined as a power signal if, and only if, it has finite but
nonzero power (0 < Px < ∞) for all time, where
T/2
1
2
Px = lim
T T T / 2
x (t) dt (1.8)
(t) dt = 1
(1.9)
x(t ) (tt 0 )dt = x(t 0 ) (1.12)
1.3 Spectral Density
• The energy spectral density (ESD) or the power spectral density (PSD)
is used in the evaluation.
1. Energy Spectral Density (ESD)
• Energy spectral density describes the signal energy per unit bandwidth
measured in joules/hertz.
• Represented as ψx(f), the squared magnitude spectrum
x( f ) X ( f )
2
(1.14)
• According to Parseval’s theorem, the energy of x(t):
x 2 (t) dt = (1.13)
2
Ex = X(f) df
• Therefore: 

Ex =

x (f) df (1.15)
• The Energy spectral density is symmetrical in frequency about origin
and total energy of the signal x(t) can be expressed as:
E x = 2 x (f) df (1.16)
0
2. Power Spectral Density (PSD)
• The power spectral density (PSD) function Gx(f ) of the periodic signal
x(t) is a real, even, and nonnegative function of frequency that gives
the distribution of the power of x(t) in the frequency domain.
• PSD is represented as:
(1.18)
•
G x (f ) = C  ( f nf )
2
n 0
Whereas the average power of a periodic signal x(t) is represented as:
n=
T0 /2
(1.17)
1
• Using PSD, the average P
represented as:
x
normalized
T0 T0 / 2
x 2
power (t)of
dta
realvalued
n=
C n 2
signal is
(1.19)
Px G
x (f) df 2 G x (f) df
0
1.4 Autocorrelation
1. Autocorrelation of an Energy Signal
• Correlation is a matching process; autocorrelation refers to the
matching of a signal with a delayed version of itself.
• Autocorrelation function of a realvalued energy signal x(t) is defined
as:
R x ( ) =
x(t) x (t + ) dt for  < < (1.21)
1
T /2 (1.22)
R x ( ) lim
T T T / 2
x(t) x (t + ) dt for  < <
• When the power signal x(t) is periodic with period T0, the
autocorrelation function can be expressed as
T0 / 2
1 (1.23)
R x ( )
T0
T0 / 2
x(t) x (t + ) dt for  < <
2. Autocorrelation of a Power Signal
• The autocorrelation function of a realvalued periodic signal has the
following properties similar to those of an energy signal:
dFX ( x)
PX ( x)
dx
1.1 Ensemble Averages
• The first moment of a probability
m X E{ X } xp
X ( x)dx distribution of a random variable
X is called mean value mX, or
expected value of a random
variable X
E{ X 2 } x 2 p X ( x)dx • The second moment of a
probability distribution is the
meansquare value of X
• Central moments are the
var( X ) E{( X m X ) 2 } moments of the difference
between X and mX and the
second central moment is the
variance of X
( x m X ) 2
p X ( x)dx
• Variance is equal to the
difference between the mean
square value and the square of
var( X ) E{ X 2 } E{ X }2 the mean
2. Random Processes
• The term noise refers to unwanted electrical signals that are always
present in electrical systems; e.g sparkplug ignition noise, switching
transients, and other radiating electromagnetic signals.
(1.40)
1 1 n
2
p ( n) exp
2 2
Noise in Communication Systems
• The normalized or standardized Gaussian density function of a zero
mean process is obtained by assuming unit variance.
1.5.5.1 White Noise
N0
Rn ( ) {Gn
1
( f )}
(1.43) ( )
2
• The average power Pn of white noise is infinite
N0
p ( n)
2
df
(1.44)
• The effect on the detection process of a channel with additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN) is that the noise affects each transmitted
symbol independently.
(1.47a)
y (t ) x( )h(t )d
0
1.6.2. Frequency Transfer Function
(1.53)
GY ( f ) GX ( f ) H ( f )
2
1.6.3. Distortionless Transmission
What is the required behavior of an ideal transmission line?
• The output signal from an ideal transmission line may have some time
delay and different amplitude than the input
• It must have no distortion—it must have the same shape as the input.
• For ideal distortionless transmission:
j 2 ft0
H ( f ) Ke
(1.56)
System Transfer Function
What is the required behavior of an ideal transmission line?
• The overall system response must have a constant magnitude response
• The phase shift must be linear with frequency
• All of the signal’s frequency components must also arrive with identical
time delay in order to add up correctly
• Time delay t0 is related to the phase shift and the radian frequency
= 2f by:
t0 (seconds) = (radians) / 2f (radians/seconds ) (1.57a)
1 d ( f )
( f )
2 df
1.6.3.1. Ideal Filters
• For the ideal lowpass filter transfer function with bandwidth Wf = fu
hertz can be written as:
H ( f ) H ( f ) e j ( f )
(1.58)
Where
1 for  f  fu
H( f )
0 for  f  fu
(1.59)
j ( f ) j 2 ft0
e e
(1.60)
Figure1.11 (b) Ideal lowpass filter
Ideal Filters
• The impulse response of the ideal lowpass filter:
h(t ) 1{H ( f )}
H ( f )e j 2 ft df
fu
fu
e j 2 ft0 e j 2 ft df
fu
fu
e j 2 f (t t0 ) df
sin 2 fu (t t0 )
2 fu
2 f u (t t0 )
2 fu sin nc 2 fu (t t0 )
Ideal Filters
• For the ideal bandpass filter For the ideal highpass filter
transfer function transfer function
Figure1.11 (a) Ideal bandpass filter Figure1.11 (c) Ideal highpass filter
1.6.3.2. Realizable Filters
• The simplest example of a realizable lowpass filter; an RC filter
1 1
H( f ) e j ( f ) 1.63)
1 j 2 f 1 (2 f ) 2
Figure 1.13
Realizable Filters
Phase characteristic of RC filter
Figure 1.13
Realizable Filters
• There are several useful approximations to the ideal lowpass filter
characteristic and one of these is the Butterworth filter
1
Hn ( f ) n 1
1 ( f / fu ) 2n
(1.65)
• Theorems of
communication and
information theory are
based on the assumption
of strictly bandlimited
channels
• The mathematical
description of a real signal
does not permit the signal
to be strictly duration
limited and strictly
bandlimited.
1.7.2 Bandwidth Dilemma
2
sin ( f f c )T (1.73)
Gx ( f ) T
( f f c )T
Different Bandwidth Criteria
where K 4 KTB
2 is Boltzmann's constant, T is the absolute
it and B is the postdetection bandwidth.
temperature
R
• Electrons within any resistor never
remain stationary and this constitutes a
randomly varying current known as
thermal current.
• Motion due to their thermal energy.
4 KTB
I Thermal I
The noise current produced by these random motions of charged
R
carriers is called “Thermal noise current” . It is given by
SHOT NOISE
• Discrete nature of electrons causes a signal
disturbance called shot noise.
• Deviation of the actual number of electrons
from the average number is known as shot
noise.
• Present for BOTH current: Signal and dark
current.
Shot Noise due to Dark Current
i 2eBI d
2
d
i 2eBI p
2
s
Overall Receiver Noise
Figure 6.1 shows a block schematic of the front
end of an optical receiver and the various noise
sources associated with it.
The majority of the noise sources shown apply to
both main types of optical detector (pin and
avalanche photodiode).
The avalanche photodiode receiver is the most
complex case as it includes noise resulting from
the random nature of the internal gain
mechanism (dotted in Fig. 6.1).
Figure 6.1
pn and pin Photodiode Receiver
i 2eBI p I d
2
TS
The thermal noise due to the load
resistance RL is given by:
4 KTB
i2
TH
RL
The signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the pn or
pin photodiode receiver may be obtained by
summing all the noise contributions.
It is given by:
S I p2
N 2eBI I 4 KTB i 2
Pi
p d amp
RL
4 KTBF
i i
2 2
n
The expression for thet SNRamp
can now be written in the form:
RL
2
S I
p
N 2eBI I 4 KTBFn
p d
RL
Receiver Capacitance
1
B
2RL CT
Figure 7.4
Equalizer
compensates for
distortions
However, a thermal noise penalty is introduced when B is increased
by decreasing RL
i 2eBI I M
S
2
germanium or IIIV alloy.
p d
2 x
where x is between 0.3 and 0.5 for silicon and between 0.7 and 1.0 for
The total SNR for the avalanche photodiode may be obtained as
S M 2 I p2
N 2eBI I M 2 x 4 KTBFn
p d
RL
This can be rewritten:
S I p2
N 2eBI I M x 4 KTBFn M 2
p d
RL
It may be seen that the first term in the denominator increases with
increasing M whereas the second term decreases.
For low M the combined thermal and amplifier noise term dominates
and the total noise power is virtually unaffected when the signal level
is increased, giving an improved SNR.
However, when M is large, the thermal and amplifier noise term
becomes insignificant and the SNR decreases with increasing M at
the rate of Mx.
An optimum value of the multiplication factor Mop therefore exists which
maximizes the SNR.
It is given by:
2 x 4KTFn
M
L I p APD
I d is illustrated in
op
The variation in M, for both silicon xeR
and germanium
Fig. 7.5.
This shows a plot SNR versus M with Fn equal to unity and neglecting the
dark current.
Figure 7.5
Receiver Structures
There are 3 basic configurations for optical receivers:
Rb Ra
High Impedance Front End
High input impedance amplifier with large detector bias resistor to reduce
thermal noise.
Needs equalizer
Improvement in sensitivity over the low impedance front end design, but
creates a heavy demand for equalization and has problems of limited
dynamic range.
High Impedance Front End
7.5.3 Transimpedance Front End
The bandwidth was 10 MHz. The detected signal power was 2x1012 W, and
the thermalnoise power was 1.66x1013 W at 300 K. Suppose the the
photodetector is followed by an amplifier giving the power gain 10 dB and
having the noise temperature 454 K. Compute the SNR.
Exercise 2:
A 1Mbps NRZ link uses a 100Ω load at 300 K. The wavelength is 0.82 µm,
and the desired error rate is 104. The PIN detector quantum efficiency is
unity. Compute the optic power incident on the photodetector.
Given that;