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MATERIALS
Third Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Stress and Strain
– Axial Loading
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Contents
Stress & Strain: Axial Loading
Normal Strain
StressStrain Test
StressStrain Diagram: Ductile Materials
StressStrain Diagram: Brittle Materials
Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity
Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior
Fatigue
Deformations Under Axial Loading
Example 2.01
Sample Problem 2.1
Static Indeterminacy
Example 2.04
Thermal Stresses
Poisson’s Ratio
Generalized Hooke’s Law
Dilatation: Bulk Modulus
Shearing Strain
Example 2.10
Relation Among E, ν , α ν δ Γ
Sample Problem 2.5
Composite Materials
SaintVenant’s Principle
Stress Concentration: Hole
Stress Concentration: Fillet
Example 2.12
Elastoplastic Materials
Plastic Deformations
Residual Stresses
Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
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Stress & Strain: Axial Loading
•
Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in
the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics
analyses alone are not sufficient.
•
Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member
forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate.
•
Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires
consideration of deformations in the member.
•
Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under
axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending
loads.
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Normal Strain
strain normal
stress
· ·
· ·
L
A
P
δ
ε
σ
L
A
P
A
P
δ
ε
σ
·
· ·
2
2
L L
A
P
δ δ
ε
σ
· ·
·
2
2
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StressStrain Test
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StressStrain Diagram: Ductile Materials
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StressStrain Diagram: Brittle Materials
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Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity
•
Below the yield stress
Elasticity of Modulus
or Modulus Youngs ·
·
E
Eε σ
•
Strength is affected by alloying,
heat treating, and manufacturing
process but stiffness (Modulus of
Elasticity) is not.
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Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior
•
If the strain disappears when the
stress is removed, the material is
said to behave elastically.
•
When the strain does not return
to zero after the stress is
removed, the material is said to
behave plastically.
•
The largest stress for which this
occurs is called the elastic limit.
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Fatigue
•
Fatigue properties are shown on
SN diagrams.
•
When the stress is reduced below
the endurance limit, fatigue
failures do not occur for any
number of cycles.
•
A member may fail due to fatigue
at stress levels significantly
below the ultimate strength if
subjected to many loading cycles.
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Deformations Under Axial Loading
AE
P
E
E · · ·
σ
ε ε σ
•
From Hooke’s Law:
•
From the definition of strain:
L
δ
ε ·
•
Equating and solving for the deformation,
AE
PL
· δ
•
With variations in loading, crosssection or
material properties,
∑
·
i i i
i i
E A
L P
δ
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Example 2.01
Determine the deformation of
the steel rod shown under the
given loads.
in. 618 . 0 in. 07 . 1
psi 10 29
6
· ·
× ·
−
d D
E
SOLUTION:
•
Divide the rod into components at
the load application points.
•
Apply a freebody analysis on
each component to determine the
internal force
•
Evaluate the total of the component
deflections.
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SOLUTION:
•
Divide the rod into three
components:
2
2 1
2 1
in 9 . 0
in. 12
· ·
· ·
A A
L L
2
3
3
in 3 . 0
in. 16
·
·
A
L
•
Apply freebody analysis to each
component to determine internal forces,
lb 10 30
lb 10 15
lb 10 60
3
3
3
2
3
1
× ·
× − ·
× ·
P
P
P
•
Evaluate total deflection,
( ) ( ) ( )
in. 10 9 . 75
3 . 0
16 10 30
9 . 0
12 10 15
9 . 0
12 10 60
10 29
1
1
3
3 3 3
6
3
3 3
2
2 2
1
1 1
−
× ·
]
]
]
]
×
+
× −
+
×
×
·
,
`
.

+ + ·
∑
·
A
L P
A
L P
A
L P
E E A
L P
i i i
i i
δ
in. 10 9 . 75
3 −
× · δ
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Sample Problem 2.1
The rigid bar BDE is supported by two
links AB and CD.
Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70
GPa) and has a crosssectional area of 500
mm
2
. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200
GPa) and has a crosssectional area of
(600 mm
2
).
For the 30kN force shown, determine the
deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.
SOLUTION:
•
Apply a freebody analysis to the bar
BDE to find the forces exerted by
links AB and DC.
•
Evaluate the deformation of links
AB and DC or the displacements of
B and D.
•
Work out the geometry to find the
deflection at E given the deflections
at B and D.
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Displacement of B:
( )( )
( )( )
m 10 514
Pa 10 70 m 10 500
m 3 . 0 N 10 60
6
9 2 6 
3
−
× − ·
× ×
× −
·
·
AE
PL
B
δ
↑ · mm 514 . 0
B
δ
Displacement of D:
( )( )
( )( )
m 10 300
Pa 10 200 m 10 600
m 4 . 0 N 10 90
6
9 2 6 
3
−
× ·
× ×
×
·
·
AE
PL
D
δ
↓ · mm 300 . 0
D
δ
Free body: Bar BDE
( )
( )
n compressio F
F
tension F
F
M
AB
AB
CD
CD
B
kN 60
m 2 . 0 m 4 . 0 kN 30 0
0 M
kN 90
m 2 . 0 m 6 . 0 kN 30 0
0
D
− ·
× − × − ·
·
+ ·
× + × − ·
·
∑
∑
SOLUTION:
Sample Problem 2.1
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Displacement of D:
( )
mm 7 . 73
mm 200
mm 0.300
mm 514 . 0
·
−
·
·
′
′
x
x
x
HD
BH
D D
B B
↓ · mm 928 . 1
E
δ
( )
mm 928 . 1
mm 7 . 73
mm 7 . 73 400
mm 300 . 0
·
+
·
·
′
′
E
E
HD
HE
D D
E E
δ
δ
Sample Problem 2.1
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Static Indeterminacy
•
Structures for which internal forces and reactions
cannot be determined from statics alone are said
to be statically indeterminate.
0 · + ·
R L
δ δ δ
•
Deformations due to actual loads and redundant
reactions are determined separately and then added
or superposed.
•
Redundant reactions are replaced with
unknown loads which along with the other
loads must produce compatible deformations.
•
A structure will be statically indeterminate
whenever it is held by more supports than are
required to maintain its equilibrium.
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Example 2.04
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at
both supports before the loads are applied.
•
Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads
and the reaction found at B.
•
Require that the displacements due to the loads
and due to the redundant reaction be
compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.
•
Solve for the displacement at B due to the
redundant reaction at B.
SOLUTION:
•
Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release
the bar from that support, and solve for the
displacement at B due to the applied loads.
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SOLUTION:
•
Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,
E E A
L P
L L L L
A A A A
P P P P
i i i
i i
9
L
4 3 2 1
2 6
4 3
2 6
2 1
3
4
3
3 2 1
10 125 . 1
m 150 . 0
m 10 250 m 10 400
N 10 900 N 10 600 0
×
·
∑
·
· · · ·
× · · × · ·
× · × · · ·
− −
δ
•
Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant
constraint,
( )
∑
×
− · ·
· ·
× · × ·
− · ·
− −
i
B
i i
i i
R
B
E
R
E A
L P
δ
L L
A A
R P P
3
2 1
2 6
2
2 6
1
2 1
10 95 . 1
m 300 . 0
m 10 250 m 10 400
Example 2.04
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•
Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
( )
kN 577 N 10 577
0
10 95 . 1 10 125 . 1
0
3
3 9
· × ·
·
×
−
×
·
· + ·
B
B
R L
R
E
R
E
δ
δ δ δ
•
Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B
kN 323
kN 577 kN 600 kN 300 0
·
∑ + − − · ·
A
A y
R
R F
kN 577
kN 323
·
·
B
A
R
R
Example 2.04
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Thermal Stresses
•
A temperature change results in a change in length or
thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the
thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by
the supports.
( )
coef. expansion thermal ·
· ∆ ·
α
δ α δ
AE
PL
L T
P T
•
Treat the additional support as redundant and apply
the principle of superposition.
( ) 0
0
· + ∆
· + ·
AE
PL
L T
P T
α
δ δ δ
•
The thermal deformation and the deformation from
the redundant support must be compatible.
( )
( ) T E
A
P
T AE P
P T
∆ − · ·
∆ − ·
· + ·
α σ
α
δ δ δ 0
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Poisson’s Ratio
•
For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:
0 · · ·
z y
x
x
E
σ σ
σ
ε
•
The elongation in the xdirection is
accompanied by a contraction in the other
directions. Assuming that the material is
isotropic (no directional dependence),
0 ≠ ·
z y
ε ε
•
Poisson’s ratio is defined as
x
z
x
y
ε
ε
ε
ε
ν − · − · ·
strain axial
strain lateral
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Generalized Hooke’s Law
•
For an element subjected to multiaxial loading,
the normal strain components resulting from the
stress components may be determined from the
principle of superposition. This requires:
1) strain is linearly related to stress
2) deformations are small
E E E
E E E
E E E
z
y
x
z
z
y
x
y
z
y
x
x
σ
ν σ
ν σ
ε
ν σ
σ
ν σ
ε
ν σ
ν σ
σ
ε
+ − − ·
− + − ·
− − + ·
•
With these restrictions:
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Dilatation: Bulk Modulus
•
Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is
( ) ( )( ) [ ] [ ]
( )
e) unit volum per in volume (change dilatation
2 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
·
+ +
−
·
+ + ·
+ + + − · + + + − ·
z y x
z y x
z y x z y x
E
e
σ σ σ
ν
ε ε ε
ε ε ε ε ε ε
•
For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure,
( )
( )
modulus bulk
2 1 3
2 1 3
·
−
·
− ·
−
− ·
ν
ν
E
k
k
p
E
p e
•
Subjected to uniform pressure, dilatation must be
negative, therefore
2
1
0 < <ν
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Shearing Strain
•
A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will
deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding shear
strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle
between the sides,
( )
xy xy
f γ τ ·
•
A plot of shear stress vs. shear strain is similar the
previous plots of normal stress vs. normal strain
except that the strength values are approximately
half. For small strains,
zx zx yz yz xy xy
G G G γ τ γ τ γ τ · · ·
where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear
modulus.
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Example 2.10
A rectangular block of material with
modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is
bonded to two rigid horizontal plates.
The lower plate is fixed, while the
upper plate is subjected to a horizontal
force P. Knowing that the upper plate
moves through 0.04 in. under the action
of the force, determine a) the average
shearing strain in the material, and b)
the force P exerted on the plate.
SOLUTION:
•
Determine the average angular
deformation or shearing strain of
the block.
•
Use the definition of shearing stress to
find the force P.
•
Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress
and strain to find the corresponding
shearing stress.
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•
Determine the average angular deformation
or shearing strain of the block.
rad 020 . 0
in. 2
in. 04 . 0
tan · · ≈
xy xy xy
γ γ γ
•
Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and
strain to find the corresponding shearing
stress.
( )( ) psi 1800 rad 020 . 0 psi 10 90
3
· × · ·
xy xy
Gγ τ
•
Use the definition of shearing stress to
find the force P.
( )( ) ( ) lb 10 36 in. 5 . 2 in. 8 psi 1800
3
× · · · A P
xy
τ
kips 0 . 36 · P
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Relation Among E, ν , and G
•
An axially loaded slender bar will
elongate in the axial direction and
contract in the transverse directions.
( ) ν + · 1
2G
E
•
Components of normal and shear strain are
related,
•
If the cubic element is oriented as in the
bottom figure, it will deform into a
rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear
strain.
•
An initially cubic element oriented as in
top figure will deform into a rectangular
parallelepiped. The axial load produces a
normal strain.
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Sample Problem 2.5
A circle of diameter d = 9 in. is scribed on an
unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4
in. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later
cause normal stresses σ
x
= 12 ksi and σ
z
=
20 ksi.
For E = 10x10
6
psi and ν = 1/3, determine
the change in:
a) the length of diameter AB,
b) the length of diameter CD,
c) the thickness of the plate, and
d) the volume of the plate.
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SOLUTION:
•
Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law
to find the three components of
normal strain.
( ) ( )
in./in. 10 600 . 1
in./in. 10 067 . 1
in./in. 10 533 . 0
ksi 20
3
1
0 ksi 12
psi 10 10
1
3
3
3
6
−
−
−
× + ·
+ − − ·
× − ·
− + − ·
× + ·
]
]
]
− −
×
·
− − + ·
E E E
E E E
E E E
z
y
x
z
z
y
x
y
z
y
x
x
σ
ν σ
ν σ
ε
ν σ
σ
ν σ
ε
ν σ
ν σ
σ
ε
•
Evaluate the deformation components.
( )( ) in. 9 in./in. 10 533 . 0
3 −
× + · · d
x A B
ε δ
( )( ) in. 9 in./in. 10 600 . 1
3 −
× + · · d
z D C
ε δ
( )( ) in. 75 . 0 in./in. 10 067 . 1
3 −
× − · · t
y t
ε δ
in. 10 8 . 4
3 −
× + ·
A B
δ
in. 10 4 . 14
3 −
× + ·
D C
δ
in. 10 800 . 0
3 −
× − ·
t
δ
•
Find the change in volume
( )
3 3
3 3 3
in 75 . 0 15 15 10 067 . 1
/in in 10 067 . 1
× × × · · ∆
× · + + ·
−
−
eV V
e
z y x
ε ε ε
3
in 187 . 0 + · ∆V
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Composite Materials
•
Fiberreinforced composite materials are formed
from lamina of fibers of graphite, glass, or
polymers embedded in a resin matrix.
z
z
z
y
y
y
x
x
x
E E E
ε
σ
ε
σ
ε
σ
· · ·
•
Normal stresses and strains are related by Hooke’s
Law but with directionally dependent moduli of
elasticity,
x
z
xz
x
y
xy
ε
ε
ν
ε
ε
ν − · − ·
•
Transverse contractions are related by directionally
dependent values of Poisson’s ratio, e.g.,
•
Materials with directionally dependent mechanical
properties are anisotropic.
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SaintVenant’s Principle
•
Loads transmitted through rigid
plates result in uniform distribution
of stress and strain.
•
SaintVenant’s Principle:
Stress distribution may be assumed
independent of the mode of load
application except in the immediate
vicinity of load application points.
•
Stress and strain distributions
become uniform at a relatively short
distance from the load application
points.
•
Concentrated loads result in large
stresses in the vicinity of the load
application point.
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Stress Concentration: Hole
Discontinuities of cross section may result in
high localized or concentrated stresses.
ave
max
σ
σ
· K
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Stress Concentration: Fillet
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Example 2.12
Determine the largest axial load P
that can be safely supported by a
flat steel bar consisting of two
portions, both 10 mm thick, and
respectively 40 and 60 mm wide,
connected by fillets of radius r = 8
mm. Assume an allowable normal
stress of 165 MPa.
SOLUTION:
•
Determine the geometric ratios and
find the stress concentration factor
from Fig. 2.64b.
•
Apply the definition of normal stress
to find the allowable load.
•
Find the allowable average normal
stress using the material allowable
normal stress and the stress
concentration factor.
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•
Determine the geometric ratios and
find the stress concentration factor
from Fig. 2.64b.
82 . 1
20 . 0
mm 40
mm 8
50 . 1
mm 40
mm 60
·
· · · ·
K
d
r
d
D
•
Find the allowable average normal
stress using the material allowable
normal stress and the stress
concentration factor.
MPa 7 . 90
82 . 1
MPa 165
max
ave
· · ·
K
σ
σ
•
Apply the definition of normal stress
to find the allowable load.
( )( )( )
N 10 3 . 36
MPa 7 . 90 mm 10 mm 40
3
× ·
· ·
ave
A P σ
kN 3 . 36 · P
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Elastoplastic Materials
•
Previous analyses based on assumption of
linear stressstrain relationship, i.e.,
stresses below the yield stress
•
Assumption is good for brittle material
which rupture without yielding
•
If the yield stress of ductile materials is
exceeded, then plastic deformations occur
•
Analysis of plastic deformations is
simplified by assuming an idealized
elastoplastic material
•
Deformations of an elastoplastic material
are divided into elastic and plastic ranges
•
Permanent deformations result from
loading beyond the yield stress
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Plastic Deformations
•
Elastic deformation while maximum
stress is less than yield stress K
A
A P
ave
max
σ
σ · ·
•
Maximum stress is equal to the yield
stress at the maximum elastic
loading
K
A
P
Y
Y
σ
·
•
At loadings above the maximum
elastic load, a region of plastic
deformations develop near the hole
•
As the loading increases, the plastic
region expands until the section is at
a uniform stress equal to the yield
stress
Y
Y U
P K
A P
·
· σ
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Residual Stresses
•
When a single structural element is loaded uniformly
beyond its yield stress and then unloaded, it is
permanently deformed but all stresses disappear. This is
not the general result.
•
Residual stresses also result from the uneven heating or
cooling of structures or structural elements
•
Residual stresses will remain in a structure after
loading and unloading if

only part of the structure undergoes plastic
deformation

different parts of the structure undergo different
plastic deformations
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
A cylindrical rod is placed inside a
tube of the same length. The ends of
the rod and tube are attached to a rigid
support on one side and a rigid plate on
the other. The load on the rodtube
assembly is increased from zero to 5.7
kips and decreased back to zero.
a) draw a loaddeflection diagram
for the rodtube assembly
b) determine the maximum
elongation
c) determine the permanent set
d) calculate the residual stresses in
the rod and tube.
ksi 36
psi 10 30
in. 075 . 0
,
6
2
·
× ·
·
r Y
r
r
σ
E
A
ksi 45
psi 10 15
in. 100 . 0
,
6
2
·
× ·
·
t Y
t
t
σ
E
A
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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a) draw a loaddeflection diagram for the rod
tube assembly
( ) ( )
in. 10 36 in. 30
psi 10 30
psi 10 36
kips 7 . 2 in 075 . 0 ksi 36
3 
6
3
,
,
,
2
, ,
× ·
×
×
· · ·
· · ·
L
E
L δ
A P
r Y
r Y
r Y Y,r
r r Y r Y
σ
ε
σ
( ) ( )
in. 10 0 9 in. 30
psi 10 15
psi 10 45
kips 5 . 4 in 100 . 0 ksi 45
3 
6
3
,
,
,
2
, ,
× ·
×
×
· · ·
· · ·
L
E
L δ
A P
t Y
t Y
t Y Y,t
t t Y t Y
σ
ε
σ
t r
t r
P P P
δ δ δ · ·
+ ·
Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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b,c) determine the maximum elongation and permanent set
•
at a load of P = 5.7 kips, the rod has reached the
plastic range while the tube is still in the elastic range
( )
in. 30
psi 10 15
psi 10 30
ksi 30
in 0.1
kips 0 . 3
kips 0 . 3 kips 7 . 2 7 . 5
kips 7 . 2
6
3
t
2
t
,
×
×
· · ·
· · ·
· − · − ·
· ·
L
E
L
A
P
P P P
P P
t
t
t
t
t
r t
r Y r
σ
ε δ
σ
in. 10 60
3
max
−
× · ·
t
δ δ
•
the rodtube assembly unloads along a line parallel
to 0Y
r
( ) in. 10 6 . 45 60
in. 10 6 . 45
in. kips 125
kips 7 . 5
slope in. kips 125
in. 10 36
kips 5 . 4
3
max p
3
max
3 
−
−
× − · ′ + ·
× − · − · − · ′
· ·
×
·
δ δ δ
δ
m
P
m
in. 10 4 . 14
3 −
× ·
p
δ
Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
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•
calculate the residual stresses in the rod and tube.
calculate the reverse stresses in the rod and tube
caused by unloading and add them to the maximum
stresses.
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ksi 2 . 7 ksi 8 . 22 30
ksi 6 9 ksi 6 . 45 36
ksi 8 . 22 psi 10 15 10 52 . 1
ksi 6 . 45 psi 10 30 10 52 . 1
in. in. 10 52 . 1
in. 30
in. 10 6 . 45
,
,
6 3
6 3
3
3
· − · ′ + ·
− · − · ′ + ·
− · × × − · ′ · ′
− · × × − · ′ · ′
× − ·
× −
·
′
· ′
−
−
−
−
t t t residual
r r r residual
t t
r r
.
E
E
L
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
ε σ
ε σ
δ
ε
Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Contents
Stress & Strain: Axial Loading Normal Strain StressStrain Test StressStrain Diagram: Ductile Materials StressStrain Diagram: Brittle Materials Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior Fatigue Deformations Under Axial Loading Example 2.01 Sample Problem 2.1 Static Indeterminacy
Example 2.04 Thermal Stresses Poisson’s Ratio
Third Edition
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
Generalized Hooke’s Law Dilatation: Bulk Modulus Shearing Strain Example 2.10 Relation Among E, ν , α ν δ Sample Problem 2.5 Composite Materials SaintVenant’s Principle Stress Concentration: Hole Stress Concentration: Fillet Example 2.12 Elastoplastic Materials Plastic Deformations Residual Stresses Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16
Γ
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
22
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stress & Strain: Axial Loading
Third Edition
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
• Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics analyses alone are not sufficient. • Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate. • Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires consideration of deformations in the member. • Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending loads.
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
23
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Normal Strain
Third Edition
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
P σ = = stress A δ ε = = normal strain L
2P P σ= = 2A A δ ε= L
P σ= A 2δ δ ε= = 2L L
24
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. Inc.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS StressStrain Test Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. 25 .
Inc. All rights reserved. 26 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS StressStrain Diagram: Ductile Materials Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.
Inc. All rights reserved.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS StressStrain Diagram: Brittle Materials Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. 27 .
© 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. and manufacturing process but stiffness (Modulus of Elasticity) is not.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Below the yield stress σ = Eε E = Youngs Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity • Strength is affected by alloying. heat treating. Inc. All rights reserved. 28 .
All rights reserved. Plastic Behavior Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • If the strain disappears when the stress is removed. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Elastic vs. the material is said to behave elastically. Inc. • When the strain does not return to zero after the stress is removed. the material is said to behave plastically. 29 . • The largest stress for which this occurs is called the elastic limit.
10 . Inc. All rights reserved. 2 . • When the stress is reduced below the endurance limit. • A member may fail due to fatigue at stress levels significantly below the ultimate strength if subjected to many loading cycles. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Fatigue Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Fatigue properties are shown on SN diagrams. fatigue failures do not occur for any number of cycles.
crosssection or material properties. All rights reserved. PL δ =∑ i i i Ai Ei © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. Inc. 2 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Deformations Under Axial Loading • From Hooke’s Law: Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf σ = Eε ε= σ P = E AE • From the definition of strain: δ ε= L • Equating and solving for the deformation.11 . PL δ = AE • With variations in loading.
07 in.12 . All rights reserved.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2.01 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf SOLUTION: • Divide the rod into components at the load application points.618 in. Determine the deformation of the steel rod shown under the given loads. d = 0. Inc. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. E = 29 ×10 −6 psi D = 1. 2 . • Apply a freebody analysis on each component to determine the internal force • Evaluate the total of the component deflections.
9 ×10−3 in. δ =∑ Pi Li 1 P L1 P2 L2 P3 L3 = 1 + + Ai Ei E A1 A2 A3 i 1 60 × 103 12 − 15 × 103 12 30 ×103 16 = + + 6 0.9 ×10−3 in.3 29 ×10 = 75. L1 = L2 = 12 in. Inc. 2 .9 in 2 L3 = 16 in. All rights reserved. • Evaluate total deflection.9 0. A3 = 0.3 in 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) δ = 75. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.9 0. A1 = A2 = 0.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS SOLUTION: • Divide the rod into three components: P = 60 ×103 lb 1 P2 = −15 × 103 lb P3 = 30 ×103 lb Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Apply freebody analysis to each component to determine internal forces.13 .
Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 GPa) and has a crosssectional area of (600 mm2). 2 . All rights reserved. • Apply a freebody analysis to the bar BDE to find the forces exerted by links AB and DC. determine the deflection a) of B.14 . mm2. b) of D. • Work out the geometry to find the Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70 deflection at E given the deflections GPa) and has a crosssectional area of 500 at B and D. Inc.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 2. • Evaluate the deformation of links AB and DC or the displacements of B and D. and c) of E. For the 30kN force shown.1 SOLUTION: Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf The rigid bar BDE is supported by two links AB and CD. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.
300 mm ↓ © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved.6 m ) + FCD × 0.2 m FAB = −60 kN compression (90 ×103 N )( 0. 2 .514 mm ↑ Displacement of D: δD = ∑ MD = 0 0 = −( 30 kN × 0.1 SOLUTION: Free body: Bar BDE Displacement of B: δB = PL AE Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf (− 60 ×103 N )( 0.2 m FCD = +90 kN tension δ B = 0.15 .4 m ) = (600 ×106 m2 )(200 ×109 Pa ) = 300 × 10− 6 m PL AE δ D = 0. Inc.4 m ) − FAB × 0.3 m ) = (500 ×106 m2 )(70 ×109 Pa ) = −514 × 10− 6 m ∑MB = 0 0 = −( 30 kN × 0.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 2.
All rights reserved.7 mm δ E = 1.7 mm EE ′ HE = DD′ HD Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf ( 400 + 73.300 mm x x = 73.928 mm ↓ © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.7 ) mm δE = 0. 2 .514 mm ( 200 mm ) − x = 0. Inc.928 mm δ E = 1.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 2.300 mm 73.1 Displacement of D: BB′ BH = DD′ HD 0.16 .
17 . • Deformations due to actual loads and redundant reactions are determined separately and then added or superposed. Inc. All rights reserved. δ = δL +δR = 0 © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Static Indeterminacy Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Structures for which internal forces and reactions cannot be determined from statics alone are said to be statically indeterminate. 2 . • A structure will be statically indeterminate whenever it is held by more supports than are required to maintain its equilibrium. • Redundant reactions are replaced with unknown loads which along with the other loads must produce compatible deformations.
release the bar from that support. Inc.04 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar and loading shown. assuming a close fit at both supports before the loads are applied.e. • Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant reaction at B. All rights reserved. • Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads and the reaction found at B.. i. 2 . SOLUTION: • Consider the reaction at B as redundant. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. require that their sum be zero. • Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to the redundant reaction be compatible.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2. and solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads.18 .
Inc.95 ×103 RB δR = ∑ =− Ai Ei E i © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. P = P2 = − RB 1 A1 = 400 ×10− 6 m 2 L1 = L2 = 0.19 ( ) . All rights reserved. 2 .125 ×109 δL = ∑ = Ai Ei E i P4 = 900 × 103 N A3 = A4 = 250 ×10− 6 m 2 L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = 0. P = 0 P2 = P3 = 600 × 103 N 1 A1 = A2 = 400 × 10 − 6 m 2 Pi Li 1.04 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf SOLUTION: • Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads with the redundant constraint released.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2.300 m A2 = 250 ×10− 6 m 2 Pi Li 1.150 m • Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant constraint.
δ = δL +δR = 0 1. Inc.125 × 109 1.20 .04 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to the redundant reaction be compatible.95 × 103 RB δ = − =0 E E RB = 577 ×103 N = 577 kN ( ) • Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B ∑ Fy = 0 = R A − 300 kN − 600 kN + 577 kN R A = 323 kN R A = 323 kN RB = 577 kN © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2. All rights reserved. 2 .
• Treat the additional support as redundant and apply the principle of superposition. 2 . Inc.21 . All rights reserved.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Thermal Stresses Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • A temperature change results in a change in length or thermal strain. • The thermal deformation and the deformation from the redundant support must be compatible. PL δ T = α ( ∆T ) L δP = AE α = thermal expansion coef. There is no stress associated with the thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by the supports. δ = δT + δ P = 0 δ = δT + δ P = 0 P = − AEα ( ∆T ) PL α ( ∆T ) L + =0 P σ = = − Eα ( ∆T ) AE A © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.
Inc. All rights reserved. Assuming that the material is isotropic (no directional dependence). 2 . εy = εz ≠ 0 • Poisson’s ratio is defined as εy ε lateral strain ν= =− =− z axial strain εx εx © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Poisson’s Ratio Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • For a slender bar subjected to axial loading: σ εx = x σ y =σ z = 0 E • The elongation in the xdirection is accompanied by a contraction in the other directions.22 .
Inc. 2 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Generalized Hooke’s Law Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • For an element subjected to multiaxial loading. All rights reserved. the normal strain components resulting from the stress components may be determined from the principle of superposition.23 . This requires: 1) strain is linearly related to stress 2) deformations are small • With these restrictions: σx ν σ ν σ y εx = + − − z E E E ν σ σy ν σ εy = − x + − z E E E ν σ ν σ σz y εz = − x − + E E E © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.
All rights reserved. the change in volume is e = 1 − (1 + ε x ) 1 + ε y (1 + ε z ) = 1 − 1 + ε x + ε y + ε z = εx +ε y +εz = 1 − 2ν σ x +σ y +σ z E [ ( ) ] [ ] ( ) = dilatation (change in volume per unit volume) • For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure. . e = −p k= 3(1 − 2ν ) p =− E k E = bulk modulus 3(1 − 2ν ) • Subjected to uniform pressure. Inc. dilatation must be negative.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Dilatation: Bulk Modulus Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Relative to the unstressed state. therefore 0 <ν < 1 2 © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.
τ xy = G γ xy τ yz = G γ yz τ zx = G γ zx where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus. 2 . shear strain is similar the previous plots of normal stress vs. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. normal strain except that the strength values are approximately half. Inc. All rights reserved.25 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shearing Strain Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will deform into a rhomboid. τ xy = f (γ xy ) • A plot of shear stress vs. The corresponding shear strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle between the sides. For small strains.
26 . • Use the definition of shearing stress to find the force P. and b) the force P exerted on the plate. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.04 in.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2. Inc. Knowing that the upper plate moves through 0. under the action of the force. The lower plate is fixed. 2 .10 SOLUTION: Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Determine the average angular deformation or shearing strain of the block. • Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and strain to find the corresponding shearing stress. All rights reserved. determine a) the average shearing strain in the material. A rectangular block of material with modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is bonded to two rigid horizontal plates. while the upper plate is subjected to a horizontal force P.
27 . P = τ xy A = (1800 psi )( 8 in. 2 in. γ xy = 0. Inc.5 in.0 kips © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. 2 . τ xy = Gγ xy = 90 ×103 psi ( 0. γ xy ≈ tan γ xy = 0.020 rad • Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and strain to find the corresponding shearing stress.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Determine the average angular deformation or shearing strain of the block.04 in. All rights reserved.) = 36 ×103 lb P = 36.)( 2.020 rad ) = 1800 psi ( ) • Use the definition of shearing stress to find the force P.
• Components of normal and shear strain are related. E = (1 + ν ) 2G © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. The axial load produces a normal strain. and G Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • An axially loaded slender bar will elongate in the axial direction and contract in the transverse directions. Inc. • An initially cubic element oriented as in top figure will deform into a rectangular parallelepiped. it will deform into a rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear strain. All rights reserved.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Relation Among E. • If the cubic element is oriented as in the bottom figure.28 . ν . 2 .
determine the change in: a) the length of diameter AB. Inc. is scribed on an unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4 in. For E = 10x106 psi and ν = 1/3.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 2.29 . and d) the volume of the plate. b) the length of diameter CD. 2 . All rights reserved.5 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf A circle of diameter d = 9 in. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. c) the thickness of the plate. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later cause normal stresses σ x = 12 ksi and σ z = 20 ksi.
) ( δB A = +4.30 . ( 0./in. ( δC D = +14. ) εy = − ν σ σy ν σ x + − z E E E ν σ ν σ σz y x − + E E E = −1.8 × 10−3 in.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to find the three components of normal strain.067 ×10−3 in. Inc.067 ×10−3 (15 ×15 × 0.75 in./in. δB A = ε x d = + 0. σ ν σ ν σ y εx = + x − − z E E E = (12 ksi ) − 0 − 1 ( 20 ksi ) 3 10 ×106 psi 1 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Evaluate the deformation components.533 × 10−3 in.600 ×10−3 in./in.4 × 10−3 in.) ( ) δC D = ε z d = + 1.067 ×10−3 in. All rights reserved./in.067 × 10−3 in 3/in 3 ∆V = eV = 1. ) = +0.533 ×10−3 in. • Find the change in volume e = ε x + ε y + ε z = 1. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. δ t = ε y t = − 1. ( 9 in. ( 9 in./in.187 in 3 εz = − = +1.800 × 10−3 in.600 ×10−3 in. 2 .) δ t = −0./in.75) in 3 ∆V = +0.
e. glass. • Normal stresses and strains are related by Hooke’s Law but with directionally dependent moduli of elasticity.g.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Composite Materials Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Fiberreinforced composite materials are formed from lamina of fibers of graphite. All rights reserved. Inc. σy σx σ Ex = Ey = Ez = z εx εy εz • Transverse contractions are related by directionally dependent values of Poisson’s ratio. ν xy = − εy εx ν xz = − εz εx • Materials with directionally dependent mechanical properties are anisotropic.. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.31 . or polymers embedded in a resin matrix. 2 .
2 . Inc. • Concentrated loads result in large stresses in the vicinity of the load application point. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. All rights reserved. • SaintVenant’s Principle: Stress distribution may be assumed independent of the mode of load application except in the immediate vicinity of load application points.32 . • Stress and strain distributions become uniform at a relatively short distance from the load application points.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS SaintVenant’s Principle Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Loads transmitted through rigid plates result in uniform distribution of stress and strain.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stress Concentration: Hole Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf Discontinuities of cross section may result in high localized or concentrated stresses.33 . σ K = max σ ave © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved. 2 .
34 . 2 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stress Concentration: Fillet Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.
Assume an allowable normal stress of 165 MPa. Inc. 2.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2. • Determine the geometric ratios and find the stress concentration factor from Fig.64b. 2 .12 SOLUTION: Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf Determine the largest axial load P that can be safely supported by a flat steel bar consisting of two portions. connected by fillets of radius r = 8 mm. All rights reserved. • Apply the definition of normal stress to find the allowable load. • Find the allowable average normal stress using the material allowable normal stress and the stress concentration factor.35 . and respectively 40 and 60 mm wide. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. both 10 mm thick.
82 • Apply the definition of normal stress to find the allowable load.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS D 60 mm = = 1. All rights reserved. 2 .3 kN © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.20 d 40 mm • Find the allowable average normal stress using the material allowable normal stress and the stress concentration factor. P = Aσ ave = ( 40 mm )(10 mm )( 90.3 × 103 N P = 36.50 d 40 mm K = 1. r 8 mm = = 0. σ ave = σ max 165 MPa = = 90.7 MPa ) = 36. Inc.36 .7 MPa K 1.82 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Determine the geometric ratios and find the stress concentration factor from Fig. 2.64b.
.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Elastoplastic Materials Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Previous analyses based on assumption of linear stressstrain relationship.37 . stresses below the yield stress • Assumption is good for brittle material which rupture without yielding • If the yield stress of ductile materials is exceeded. 2 . then plastic deformations occur • Analysis of plastic deformations is simplified by assuming an idealized elastoplastic material • Deformations of an elastoplastic material are divided into elastic and plastic ranges • Permanent deformations result from loading beyond the yield stress © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.e. Inc. i. All rights reserved.
a region of plastic deformations develop near the hole • As the loading increases. Inc. 2 .38 . the plastic P = σY A U region expands until the section is at =KP a uniform stress equal to the yield Y stress © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Plastic Deformations Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf σ A • Elastic deformation while maximum P = σ ave A = max stress is less than yield stress K σ A PY = Y K • Maximum stress is equal to the yield stress at the maximum elastic loading • At loadings above the maximum elastic load. All rights reserved.
only part of the structure undergoes plastic deformation . • Residual stresses will remain in a structure after loading and unloading if .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Residual Stresses Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • When a single structural element is loaded uniformly beyond its yield stress and then unloaded. All rights reserved. 2 . Inc. it is permanently deformed but all stresses disappear. This is not the general result.different parts of the structure undergo different plastic deformations • Residual stresses also result from the uneven heating or cooling of structures or structural elements © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.39 .
t = 4 ksi 5 © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.14.2 5 Er = 30 ×10 6 psi σY . 2. All rights reserved. The ends of the rod and tube are attached to a rigid support on one side and a rigid plate on the other. The load on the rodtube assembly is increased from zero to 5.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2.07 in.15.40 .16 A cylindrical rod is placed inside a tube of the same length. r = 36 ksi Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf At = 0 . a) draw a loaddeflection diagram for the rodtube assembly b) determine the maximum elongation c) determine the permanent set d) calculate the residual stresses in the rod and tube. Ar = 0 .2 Et = 15×10 6 psi σY . 2.7 kips and decreased back to zero. Inc.100 in. 2 .
= 36 ×103 in.t L = L= 30 in.r ( ) σ Y .5 kips Y δY.t ( ) σ Y .t At = ( 45 ksi ) 0.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2.100 in 2 = 4. Inc. = 90 × 103 in.41 . 2.16 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf a) draw a loaddeflection diagram for the rodtube assembly P .t = σ Y . r = σ Y .7 kips Y δY.15. EY .r 36 × 103 psi = εY .14. EY .075 in 2 = 2. 2 . All rights reserved.t 45 ×103 psi = ε Y . 2. r Ar = ( 36 ksi ) 0.t 15 × 106 psi P = Pr + Pt δ = δ r = δt © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies. r 30 ×106 psi P . r L = L= 30 in.
5 kips 3 36 ×10 in.7 kips =− = −45.14.6 ×10−3 in.6 ) × 10−3 in.16maximum elongation and permanent set • at a load of P = 5. 2 . All rights reserved. r = 2. 6 Et 15 ×10 psi δ max = δ t = 60 ×10−3 in. • the rodtube assembly unloads along a line parallel to 0Yr m= 4.4 ×10−3 in. © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.7 ) kips = 3.7 kips. = 125 kips in. 2.c) determine the Example 2.7 − 2.7 kips Y Pt = P − Pr = ( 5.42 . m 125 kips in.15. Inc.0 kips = = 30 ksi 2 At 0.1in σt = σt 30 × 103 psi δ t = εt L = L = 30 in. δ p = δ max + δ ′ = ( 60 − 45. the rod has reached the plastic range while the tube is still in the elastic range Pr = P . 2.0 kips Pt 3. δ p = 14.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf b. = slope δ′ = − Pmax 5.
6 ) ksi = −9. δ ′ − 45. 2.2 ksi © 2002 The McGrawHill Companies.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 2.8 ksi ′ σ residual . All rights reserved. in. calculate the reverse stresses in the rod and tube caused by unloading and add them to the maximum stresses.6 ksi ( σ residual .15. Inc. )( ) σ t′ = ε ′Et = ( − 1.6 ksi ′ σ r = ε ′Er = − 1. 2.43 .16 Third Edition Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • calculate the residual stresses in the rod and tube. r = σ r + σ r = ( 36 − 45.8) ksi = 7.52 ×10−3 30 ×106 psi = −45. ε′ = = = −1.14. L 30 in. 2 .t = σ t + σ t′ = ( 30 − 22.52 ×10−3 )(15 × 106 psi ) = −22.6 × 10−3 in.52 × 10−3 in.
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