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Environmental Controls I/IG

Lecture 14
Mechanical System Space Requirements
Mechanical System Exchange Loops
HVAC Systems
Mechanical Room Sizing
Mechanical Room
Contains primary equipment (boiler,
chiller, etc.)

Usually adjacent to other service areas


(loading docks, electrical substation,
transformer vault, etc.)

Generally away from public


entry

Include space for


service/maintenance
S: p. 398, F.10.18
Mechanical
Room Sizing
Generally sized
based on total
floor area in
building served

S: p.391, T.10.3
Mechanical
Room Sizing
Size mechanical
room space

Application
Square Footage

S: p.391, T.10.3
Mechanical
Room Sizing
Sizing Example

150,000 SF
Department Store

Mechanical Room: 3,200 sf

S: p. 391, T.10.3
Fan Room Sizing
Fan Rooms
Contain secondary
equipment (air handlers,
heat exchanger, etc.)

Usually adjacent to or
within area served

Include space for


service/maintenance

S: p. 418, F.10.42
Fan Rooms
Require connection/
access to fresh air

Require means of
discharging return air/
exhaust air

Minimum 25’ distance of


fresh air inlet away from
contaminant source
University of Michigan Hospital,
Ann Arbor, MI
Fan Room
Sizing
Generally sized
based on total
floor area of the
thermal zone in
building served

S: p. 392, T.10.4
Fan Room
Sizing
Size fan room

Application
Square Footage

S: p. 392, T.10.4
Fan Room
Sizing
Sizing Example

150,000 SF
Department Store

Fan Room: 5,200 sf


Fresh Air Inlet: 550 sf
Exhaust Air Outlet: 450 sf

S: p. 392, T.10.4
Fresh Air Inlets
Avoid contamination sources (25’ minimum)
 Loading docks
 Smoking areas
 Cooling Towers
 Exhaust air outlets
 Plumbing vents
 Others…
Mechanical System
Exchange Loops
Mechanical System Exchange Loops

Heat is removed/
added via heat
exchange loops.

S: p. 394, F.10.15
Mechanical System Exchange Loops

Cooling Mode

S: p. 394, F.10.15
Mechanical System Exchange Loops

Heating Mode

S: p. 394, F.10.15
Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower
Divided into a series of
cells for redundancy/
serviceability
Significant structural load:
Rooftop vs At-grade
Potential air
contamination
Locate based on
prevailing wind direction S: p.407, F. 10.30
Cooling Tower
Service access needed for
water treatment/debris
removal

Biocides can cause etching


on glass and other
surfaces
Minimum 25’ distance
away fresh air inlet or
fenestration University of Michigan Hospital,
Ann Arbor, MI
Cooling Tower
Sizing
Sizing Example

150,000 SF
Department Store

Cooling Tower: 560 sf

S: p.391, T.10.3
HVAC Systems
System Types
All-Air
Air-Water
All-Water
Unitary Refrigerant System
Selection Criteria
 Control capability and
flexibility required
 Environmental requirements
 Cost of construction
 Energy consumption
 System effficiency
All-Air Systems
Heating/cooling media delivered via air only

Advantages:
 Humidification & Heat recovery
 Complex zoning
 Close humidity & temperature control (exc. VAV)
 Can use outside air for economizer cycle

Disadvantages:
 Special care for maintenance access
 Supplemental perimeter radiation may be needed
 Higher volume of space needed
All-Air Systems
Single zone
Terminal reheat
Multizone
Dual duct
Variable air volume (VAV)
Single Zone
One thermostat controls
several rooms in a single
thermal zone

Applications requiring air


filtration and humidity
control

Uneven comfort for


multiple rooms
Terminal Reheat
One thermostat
controls one room as
a single thermal zone
with a reheat coil
control discharge air
temperature

Poor energy efficiency


Multizone
One thermostat controls
discharge dampers to
adjust air temperature
to each room

Small buildings with


limited distances for
duct runs

Simultaneous heating
and cooling
Dual Duct
One thermostat controls
mixing box for each room

Applications requiring
precise control of
temperature and
humidity

Energy inefficient
High maintenance
Expensive to build
Variable Air Volume
One thermostat controls
VAV valve for each room
and reduces airflow under
lower load

Applications where loads


vary significantly (offices,
schools)

Poor humidity control


Subcooling
Distribution Paths
Air may be distributed from the ceiling or the floor
Distribution Paths—Ceiling
Conventional distribution
is from the ceiling

Air discharge: 55ºF


Velocity is 100-500 fpm

S: p.431 F.10.54
Distribution Paths—Floor
Also known as
displacement cooling

Air discharge: 60+ºF


Velocity is slower than
ceiling discharge

Higher ceilings
S: p. 425, F.10.48

S: p. 387, F.10.12
Air-Water Systems
Heating/cooling media delivered via air and water

Advantages:
 Flexible placement
 Centralized humidity and filtration S: p. 388, F.10.13
 Space heating

Disadvantages:
 Condensation
 Noise

Induction

Fan Coil Unit


All-Water Systems
Heating/cooling media delivered via water only

Advantages:
 Flexible placement
 Space heating

Disadvantages:
 Condensation
 Noise
Fan Coil Unit
Fan draws air from room across coils

Flexible
Less space
Low cost

Noise
Poor ventilation/humidity
Maintenance
Condensation control
Simultaneous heating and cooling S: p. 390, F.10.14
Unitary Refrigerant System
Heating/cooling media delivered via local equipment

Advantages:
 Individual room control
 Independent heating and cooling
 Single zone affected by malfunction
 Low initial cost
 Reliability

Disadvantages:
 Short life
 Noise
 Humidity control
 Air filtration
 Ventilation

Through the wall air-conditioning

Heat pumps