What is Motivation?

‡Is motivation a personal trait that some posses and others don¶t? ‡All employees who are not motivated are lazy. ‡A person may be highly motivated, but just not motivated in the direction as you and me, hence the question is not whether they are motivated or not, but what are they motivated by?

What is Motivation?
‡ Motivation is thus the interaction of the individual and the situation. ‡ Change in motivation is driven by the situation. ‡ Thus motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.

Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goals.Definition ‡ Motivation is defined as a process that accounts for an individuals intensity. . ‡ Direction ± high effort should be channeled towards the benefit of the organization ‡ Persistence ± is about how long a person can maintain effort. ‡ Intensity ± is concerned with how hard a person tries. direction and persistence of effort toward any goal (organizational goal).

‡ Self-actualization ± drive to become what one is capable of becoming. shelter etc ‡ Safety ± protection from physical and emotional harm. ‡ Physiological ± hunger. ‡ Esteem ± internal factors like self respect. External factors like status. .Hierarchy of Needs Theory ‡ Abraham Maslow hypothesized that within every individual their exists a hierarchy of five needs. thirst. acceptance and friendship. ‡ Social ± affection. autonomy and achievement. achieving one¶s potential and self-fulfillment. recognition. includes growth. belongingness. and attention.

a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. ‡ So to motivate someone one needs to understand what level of hierarchy the person is currently in and focus on satisfying the needs at or above that level.Hierarchy of Needs Theory ‡ As each need gets satisfied. ‡ Though no need is ever fully gratified. the next need becomes dominant. .

‡ Higher order needs are satisfied internally and lower order are satisfied externally. esteem and selfactualization. intuitive logic and ease of understanding. ‡ Limitation ± no empirical support. ‡ Advantages ± wide recognition among managers. . studies could not validate the theory.Hierarchy of Needs Theory ‡ Lower order needs ± physiological and safety ‡ Higher order needs ± social.

‡ Three groups of core needs ‡ Existence ± similar to Maslow¶s physiological and safety needs ‡ Relatedness ± similar to social and status needs.ERG Theory ‡ Alderfer reworked on Maslow¶s theory. ‡ Growth ± similar to esteem and selfactualization .

‡ All three needs can be focused on simultaneously by an individual. ‡ Frustration in satisfying a higher need can lead to regression to a lower need.ERG Theory ‡ ERG theory does not assume existence of a rigid hierarchy. . ‡ Growth needs can be active even though existence or relatedness needs are unsatisfied. in which a lower need must be gratified before moving on.

.Theory X and Theory Y ‡ Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings. and other positively labeled as Theory Y. ‡ Negatively labeled one is Theory X. ‡ Managers view of the nature of human beings is based on certain assumptions and their behavior is molded according to those assumptions.

the four assumptions held by managers are ± ‡ Employees inherently dislike work and. ‡ They must be coerced. ‡ Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display less ambition. whenever possible. ‡ They will avoid responsibility and seek formal direction. . will attempt to avoid it. controlled.Theory X and Theory Y ‡ Under Theory X. or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.

Theory X and Theory Y ‡ Under Theory Y. ‡ Average person can learn to accept and even seek responsibility ‡ Ability to make innovative decisions is dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. the four positive assumptions held by managers are: ‡ Employees can view work as being as natural as work or play. ‡ People will exercise self-direction and selfcontrol if they are committed to the objectives. .

‡ However there is no evidence that would validate either set of assumptions. theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and Theory Y assumes that higher order needs dominate the individuals. ‡ McGregor himself validated the assumptions of Theory Y than Theory X.Motivational Implications ‡ Based on Maslow¶s framework. . hence he proposed ideas as participative decision making. no empirical support. responsible and challenging jobs and good group relations as approaches that would maximize employee¶s job motivation.

responsibility and achievement were related to job satisfaction. ‡ He asked people to describe in detail. company policies and working conditions. ‡ Intrinsic factors as advancement. recognition. situations when they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. ‡ Respondents who felt good about their jobs tended to attribute these factors to themselves. ‡ Replies people gave when they felt good about their jobs was significantly different from the replies when they felt bad. ‡ Dissatisfied employees tended to attribute extrinsic factors such as supervision. ‡ Certain characteristics were related to job satisfaction and others to job dissatisfaction. pay. .Two-Factor Theory ‡ Also called motivation-hygiene theory was proposed by Fredrick Herzberg.

Removing dissatisfying elements from the job does not make it satisfying. . Managers who want to remove factors related to job dissatisfaction may bring about peace. and the opposite of Dissatisfaction is No Dissatisfaction. but not necessarily motivation. Thus the opposite of Satisfaction is No Satisfaction.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Two-Factor Theory Opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction.

opportunities for personal growth. neither will they be satisfied. job security were characterized as Hygiene factors. physical working condition. . ‡ When they're adequate people will not be dissatisfied. pay. ‡ Factors associated with the work itself or to its outcomes like promotional opportunities. relation with others. responsibility and achievement are intrinsically rewarding for the people and they are called as Motivators. recognition.Two-Factor Theory ‡ Conditions surrounding the job such as quality of supervision. company policies.

this theory focuses on three needs ‡ Need for achievement ± drive to excel.McClelland¶s Theory of Needs ‡ Developed by David McClelland. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. to drive to succeed. ‡ Need for affiliation ± desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. ‡ Need for power ± need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. .

.McClelland¶s Theory of Needs ‡ High acheivers differentiate themselves form others by their desire to do things better. ‡ They perform best when they perceive a 50-50 chance of success. ‡ They avoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks. ‡ They seek situations in which they can seek personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. they prefer tasks of intermediate difficulty.

McClelland¶s Theory of Needs ‡ Need for power is the desire to have an impact. prefer to be placed into competitive and status oriented situations and are more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance. to be influential and to control others. ‡ Individuals high in power enjoy being in charge. strive for influence over others. .

hence a high-nAch sales person does not necessarily make a good sales manager . ‡ High achievers are interested in how well they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. ‡ People with high achievement needs are successful in entrepreneurial activities.McClelland¶s Theory of Needs ‡ Individuals with a high affiliation motive strive for friendship. prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones and desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding. and managing a self-contained unit within a large organization.

McClelland¶s Theory of Needs ‡ Need for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success. ‡ Best managers are high in need for power and low in need for affiliation. ‡ Power need may occur as a result of one¶s level in hierarchy in organization. . ‡ Powerful positions would be a stimulus for high power motive. higher the individual rises. the greater will be his power motive.

Vroom¶s Expectancy Theory ‡ The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. . ‡ Employees will put high effort if they believe that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. and that good appraisal will lead to rewards.

‡ Motivation: E * I * V ‡ Person will be highly motivated if he/she perceives a strong link between these. .Vroom¶s Expectancy Theory ‡ Expectancy (E): Belief that effort will influence performance/outcome ‡ Instrumentality (I): belief that one will be rewarded for performance ‡ Valence (V): the perceived value of rewards expected.

Inputs ‡ Effort ‡ Experience ‡ Education ‡ Competence Outputs ‡ Salary ‡ Raises ‡ Recognition .Adams Equity Theory ‡ Output-input ratio for oneself and for the referent other based on perception and social comparison.

‡ Underreward inequity ± leads to resentment ‡ Overreward inequity ± Leads to guilt .Adams Equity Theory ‡ Equity gives rise to a sense of fairness.

‡ Change the referent ‡ Leave the field .Behavioral response to Inequity ‡ Change in inputs or outcomes ‡ Distort perception of self and referent others.

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