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è Fundamental Aspects
è Additional Statistical Aspects
è Life and Reliability Testing Plans
è Availability and Maintainability

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r en you ave completed t is c apter you s ould
be able to:
è ‰now t e definition of reliability and t e
factors associated wit it.
è ‰now t e various tec niques to obtain reliability.
è Understand t e probability distributions, failure
curves, and reliability curves as a factor of time.

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r en you ave completed t is c apter you
s ould be able to:
è ?alculate t e failure rate under different
conditions.
è ?onstruct t e life istory curve and describe its
t ree p ases.
è ?alculate t e normal, exponential, and reibull
failure rate.

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r en you ave completed t is c apter you
s ould be able to:
è ?onstruct t e O? ?urve
è Determine life and reliability test curves
è ?alculate t e normal, exponential, and reibull failure rate
è Understand t e different types of test design
è Understand t e concepts of availability and maintainability

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è menerally defined as t e ability of a product to
perform as expected over time.
è Formally defined as t e probability t at a
product, piece of equipment, or system will
perform its intended function for a stated period
of time under specified operating conditions.

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è Means quality over t e long run.
è A product t at Ơworksơ for a long period
of time is a reliable one.
è Since all units of a product will fail at
different times, reliability is a
probability.

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T ere are four factors associated wit Reliability:
1. Numerical Value.
è T e numerical value is t e probability t at
t e product will function satisfactorily
during a particular time.

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T ere are four factors associated wit Reliability:
2. Intended Function.
è Product are designed for particular
applications and are expected to be able to
perform t ose applications.

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T ere are four factors associated wit Reliability:
3. Life.
è !ow long t e product is expected to last.
Product life is specified as a function of
usage, time, or bot .

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T ere are four factors associated wit Reliability:
4. Environmental ?onditions
è Indoors.
è Outdoors.
è Storage.
è Transportation.

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Emp asis:
1. T e ?onsumer Protection Act of 1972.
2. Products are more complicated.
3. Automation.

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è As products become more complex ( ave more
components), t e c ance t at t ey will not
function increases.
è T e met od of arranging t e components affects
t e reliability of t e entire system.
è ?omponents can be arranged in series, parallel,
or a combination.

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è For a series systems, t e reliability is t e
product of t e individual components.

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è As components are added to t e series, t e


system reliability decreases.

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è r en a component does not function, t e product


continues to function, using anot er component,
until all parallel components do not function.

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è ?onvert to equivalent series system

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è T e most important aspect of reliability is t e
design.
è It s ould be as simple as possible.
è T e fewer t e number of components, t e
greater t e reliability.
è Anot er way of ac ieving reliability is to ave a
backup or redundant component (parallel
component).

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è Reliability can be ac ieved by overdesign.
è T e use of large factors of safety can increase t e
reliability of a product.
è r en an unreliable product can lead to a fatality
or substantial financial loss, a fail-safe type of
device s ould be used.
è T e maintenance of t e system is an important
factor in reliability.

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è T e second most important aspect of
reliability is t e production process.
è Emp asis s ould be placed on t ose
components w ic are least reliable.
è Production personnel.

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è T e t ird most important aspect of reliability
is t e transportation.
è Packaging
è S ipment
è Performance of t e product by t e customer
is t e final evaluation.
è mood packaging tec niques and s ipment
evaluation are essential.

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Ä °Ä 
Distributions Applicable to Reliability:
è Exponential distribution.
è Normal distribution.
è reibull distribution.
Reliability ?urves:
è T e curves as a function of time.

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Reliability ?urves:
è T e reliability curves for t e exponential,
normal and reibull distributions as a
function of time are given in Figure 11-2(b) .

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Additional Statistical Aspects
Failure-Rate ?urve:
è It is important in describing t e life- istory
curve of a product.
è See Figure 11-2.

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è T e curve, sometimes referred to as t e
Ơbat tubơ curve, is a comparison of failure
rate wit time.
è It as t ree distinct p ases:
è T e debugging p ase.
è T e c ance failure p ase.
è T e wear-out p ase.

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Life !istory ?urve

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1. T e debugging p ase:
It is c aracterized by marginal and s ort-life
parts t at cause a rapid decrease in t e
failure rate.
It may be part of t e testing activity prior to
s ipment for some products.
T e reibull distribution ß<1 is used to
describe t e occurrence of failures.

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2. T e c ance failure p ase:
Failures occur in a random manner due to t e
constant failure rate. T e Exponential and t e
reibull distributions 4= 1 are best suited to
describe t is p ase.
3. T e wear-out p ase:
Is depicted by a s arp raise in failure rates. T e
Normal distribution and t e reibull distribution ß
>1 are used to describe t is p ase.

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è T e reibull distribution is usually uses.
è T e Normal distribution.

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R(t): Reliability at time t


P(t): Probability of failure or area of t e
normal curve to t e left of time t. Table A.

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Exponential distribution:

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r ere:
t: Time or cycles.
ƚ: Mean life.

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è ?an be used for t e debugging p ase (ß<1)
and t e c ance failure p ase (ß=1).
è By setting = 1, t e reibull equals t e
exponential.
è By setting ß=3.4, t e reibull approximates
t e Normal.

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Ô   

r ere ß is t e reibull slope.


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Steps:
1. Assume values for t e mean life ƚ.
2. T ese values are converted to t e failure
rate, l =1/ ƚ.
3. ?alculate t e expected average number of
failures nTl.
4. From Table ? of t e Appendix using nTl and
c value, get Pa.

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Type of Tests:
è Failure-Terminated: T ese life-test sample
plans are terminated w en a preassigned
number of failures occurs to t e sample.
è Time-Terminated: T is life-test sampling
plan is terminated w en t e sample obtains
a predetermined test time.

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Type of Tests contƞd.:
è Sequential: A t ird type of life-testing
plan is a sequential life-test sampling
plan w ereby neit er t e number of
failures nor t e time required to reac
a decision are fixed in advance.

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Tests are based on one or more of t e
following c aracteristics:
è Mean life: t e average life of t e product.
è Failure rate: t e percentage of failures per
unit time or number of cycles.

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Test are based on one or more of t e following
c aracteristics contƞd.:
è !azard rate: t e instantaneous failure rate
at a specified time.
è Reliable life: t e life beyond w ic some
specified portion of t e items in t e lot will
survive.

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è cuality ?ontrol Reliability !andbook !108 gives
sampling procedures and tables for life and
reliability testing.
è Sampling plans in t e andbook are based on
t e exponential distribution.
è Provides for t e t ree different types of test:
failure-terminated, time-terminated, and
sequential.

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è T e andbook is over 70 pages long.
è T e time-terminated plan:
1. Stipulated producerƞs risk, consumerƞs
risk, and sample size.
2. Stipulated producerƞs risk, rejection
number, and sample size.
3. Stipulated producerƞs risk, consumerƞs
risk, and test time.

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è Define customer performance requirements.
è Determine important economic factors and
relations ip wit reliability requirements.
è Define t e environment and conditions of
product use.

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è Select components, designs, and
vendors t at meet reliability and cost
criteria.
è Determine reliability requirements for
mac ines and equipments.
è Analyze field reliability for
improvement.

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Ä '  
For long-lasting products and services suc as
refrigerators, electric power lines, and front-line
services, t e time-related factors of availability,
reliability, and maintainability are interrelated.

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è It is a time-related factor t at measures
t e ability of a product or service to
perform its designated function.
è T e product or service is available w en it
is in t e operational state, w ic includes
active and standby use.

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[ [ [ 
r ere:
MTBM = mean time between
maintenance
MDT = mean down time
MTBF = mean time between failures
MTTR = mean time to repair
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Maintainability is t e probability t at a system
or product can be retained in, or one t at as
failed can be restored to, operating condition in
a specified amount of time.

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è Maintainability is t e totality of design
factors t at allows maintenance to be
accomplis ed easily.
è Preventive maintenance reduces t e risk of
failure.
è ?orrective maintenance is t e response to
failures.

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