TEXTILE

‡Textile is a Latin word which refers to Woven Fabrics. ‡The term now has a broader meaning and covers materials which are produced by other means , including: ±the interlacing of yarns, such as knitting, lace making and netting; ±other needlework techniques worked through a woven base, such as embroidery and canvas work. ±Some examples of textiles
‡costume, uniforms;millinery;tapestries;ecclesiastical textiles;carpets and rugs;dolls & soft toys, parasols and fans;patchwork and applique;flags and banners;quilts;needlework;curtains, upholstery;ethnographic textiles;samplers;non-woven materials such as felt,etc.

Textile Process Flow
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Textile Fiber Selection Yarn (Spinning) Weaving or knitting Processing(Dyeing & Printing) Finishing

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE TEXTILE FIBERS TEXTILE FIBRES NATURAL MAN MADE VEGETABLE (Cellulosic) ANIMAL (Protein) MINERAL SEMI-SYNTHETIC (REGENERATED) SYNTHETIC COTTON LINEN JUTE HEMP & REMIE WOOL SILK METAL ( ZARI) VISCOSE RAYON MODAL LYOCELL NYLON TEYLENE ORLON .

Yarn .

‡ The process of making the yarn from a textile fiber is called Spinning .YARN ‡ Yarn is defined as a linear assemblage of the fibers twisted together.

YARN MANUFACTURING PROCESS (Cotton) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ BALE OPENER MIXING BLOW-ROOM CARDING DRAWING COMBING SIMPLEX (ROVING) SPINNING (RING FRAME) .

Bale opener .

BALE OPENING ‡ BALE OPENING or BREAKING: ‡ The cotton tufts are opened in this process. . ‡ As the cotton arrives in an extremely compressed condition the first operation is to loosen the matted fibers ‡ The cotton fiber is loosen by means of rotating spiked rollers of the bale opener.

Mixing .

‡ Mixing is done after the study of the essential properties of fiber like staple length. uniformity etc. .Mixing ‡ This is a process of mixing the same/different category of fibers to get desired properties and cost effectiveness. fineness.Tensile strength.

Blow room .

‡ The foreign materials like dust particles. . ‡ The cotton tufts are opened and cleaned in this process and the cotton lap is made out. seeds of cotton and other impurities are partially removed in this process.BLOW ROOM ‡ In this process the cleaning and opening of the cotton is done by beaters and openers.

Carding .

CARDING ‡ Carding is the heart of spinning in this process the minute impurities like small seed particles. ‡ The straightening and aligning of fibers are done in this process. are removed. .immature fibers etc. ‡ In carding the Blow room lap is attenuated to the card sliver.

Draw Frame .

Draw Frame ‡ Through drafting fibbers get paralleled ‡ Up to Eight Carded Slivers are fed into the Draw-Frame and they are stretched/Straightened and made into a single sliver. . ‡ Also fiber blending can be done at this stage.

Simplex .

. ‡ The End-Product from the Simplex is called as Roving. ‡ The Sliver from Draw-Frame is thicker and will be difficult to be fed into the Ring-frame as is. hence here the Slivers are stretched and were made thinner by Drafting and mild twisting (so as to strengthen the Roving).Simplex (Roving Frame) ‡ Further drafting is done here to get the fibers more aligned/paralleled.

Ring Frame .

Ring Frame (Spinning) ‡ The roving is fed into the Ring-frame and is made into yarn by further Drafting & Twisting. the drafting and twisting can be adjusted. . by inserting twist. ‡ Depending upon the yarn count required . ‡ Basic Functions of Ring Frame ‡ to draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved ‡ to impart strength to the fiber.

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