Section 11- Goal Setting Theory

‡ This is Goal Setting . then we could turn them loose and they would move in a common direction. David Packard (2005) ± We thought if we could get everyone to agree on what our objectives were and to understand what we were trying to so.Leaders are Readers ‡ The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Stephen R Covey (2004) ± #2 Begin with the End in Mind ‡ The HP Way.

Goal Setting ‡ Goal: What an individual is trying to accomplish through his or her behavior and actions. ‡ Goal Setting Theory: A theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and why goals have these effects. ‡ Goal setting can operate to enhance both intrinsic motivation (in the absence of any extrinsic rewards) and extrinsic motivation (when workers are given extrinsic rewards for achieving their goals). .

Solid Goal Characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ S M A R T Specific Measurable Achievable Result based Time specific .

Goal Setting (Continued) ‡ Major Dimensions of Goal Setting ‡ Research on the Impact of Goal Setting ± The Importance of Specific Goals ± The Importance of Difficult and Challenging Goals ± Goal Acceptance. Participation. and Commitment ± Self-Efficacy and Goals ± Objective and Timely Feedback .

Characteristics of Motivating Goals ‡ Specificity ± Often quantitative ‡ Difficulty ± Should be hard but not impossible for most workers to achieve ‡ Acceptability ± Especially important when managers set goals for subordinates ‡ Feedback ± So that workers know how well they are doing .

Specific. Difficult Goals Affect Motivation and Performance by: ‡ Directing workers attention and action toward goal-relevant activities ‡ Causing workers to exert higher levels of effort ‡ Causing workers to develop action plans to achieve their goals ‡ Causing workers to persist in the face of obstacles or difficulties .

Limits to Goal Setting Theory ‡ There are two circumstances under which setting specific. ‡ (never forget: performance = ability * motivation * support) ± When workers are given complicated and difficult tasks that require all of their attention and require a considerable amount of learning. . difficult goals will not lead to high motivation and performance: ± When workers lack the skills and abilities needed to perform at a high level.

Goal Setting (Continued) .

± A certain amount of trust and rapport must exist between managers and their supervisors.Management by Objectives (MBO) ‡ A goal-setting process in which a manager meets with his or her supervisor to set goals and evaluate the extent to which previously set goals have been achieved. ‡ Necessary characteristics for MBO success: ± Set goals should contribute to organizational effectiveness. ‡ Although less common. ± Goals should be specific and difficult. MBO can also be used as a motivational tool for nonmanagers. .

Goal Setting (Continued) .

by the worker. do not set goals until the workers gain some mastery over the task.Advice to Managers 1. and give subordinates regular feedback on the extent of goal attainment. When workers are performing difficult and complex tasks that involve learning. Be sure that a worker s goals are specific and difficult. whether set by you. or by both of you. . 2. Express confidence in your subordinates abilities to attain their goals. 3.

Avey PhD .Personal Goal Framing and Development 15-20 Minutes James B.

school. something that REALLY matters to you. avoidance (something to do. Can be personal. work.Develop Your Goal ‡ Take a moment and think about something you want to accomplish in the next 6 months. not something to avoid) ± Clearly measurable . whatever domain is salient.some chance of failure ± Approach vs. Make it YOUR goal. ‡ Write it down ‡ Frame it in the following ways: ± Reasonably difficult.

± Write down what you will do to overcome the obstacles . ‡ Take a moment and think about what will prevent you from accomplishing the goal.Develop Your Goal ‡ List 3-5 milestones or sub-goals that you will need to accomplish along the way. ± Write down 3-5 of these obstacles. Maybe draw it in a sequence if you wish. These are obstacles.

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