Unit 3

Study Guide Part 1 2011
Microevolution and Speciation
Microevolution
· Learn the terms in the glossary.
· Questions 1- 26
Learn the Terms
· Learn the terms from the glossary,
Microevolution.
Question 1
· 1. ____?____ is genetic change in a line
of descent through successive generations
nswer 1
1. EvoIution is genetic change in a line of
descent through successive generations.
Question 2
· 2. _______ _______ practices yield
evidence that heritable changes do occur.
nswer 2
2. SeIective breeding practices yield
evidence that heritable changes do occur.
Q - 3
3. Results of artificial selection show that
extremes in _____ and _____ are
universally attainable in a relatively short
time period.
nswer 3
· 3. Results of artificial selection show that
extremes in 8ize and form are universally
attainable in a relatively short time period.
Question 4
· 4. The selective breeding of dogs began
about ****** years ago.
nswer 4
· 4. The domestication of dogs began about
years ago.
Question 5
· 5. Which Greek philosopher developed the
concept, the "great chain of being"?
nswer 5
· 5. Which Greek philosopher developed the
concept, the "great chain of being¨?
· Ari8totIe
Question 6
· 6. The notion that "all aspects of nature
can be traced to their underlying causes¨
is attributed to ******* ?
nswer 6
· 6. The notion that "all aspects of nature
can be traced to their underlying causes¨
is attributed to Hippocrate8 ?
Question 7
· 7. Cite two types of 'confounding
evidence" that the great chain of being
does not explain.
nswer 7
· 7. Cite two types of 'confounding evidence"
that the great chain of being does not explain.
· Biogeography
· Comparative anatomy
· GeoIogic di8coverie8
Question 8
· 8. _________ is the study of the
geographical patterns of plant and animal
species.
nswer 8
· Biogeography is the study of the
geographical patterns of plant and animal
species.
Question 9
· 9. Name two biorealms and state where
they are located.
nswer 9
· 9. Name two biorealms and state where they are
located.
· Palaeartic .. Europe - Siberia
· Nearctic ... North merica
· Neotropical .. Central and South merica
· frotropical ... frica
· Ìndomalayan .. S.E. sia
· Oceanian ..... Pacific oceanic islands
· ustralian ..... ustralia
· ntarctic ...... ntarctica
Question10
· 10. Cite a 'puzzling problem" from
comparative anatomy.
nswer 10
· 10. Cite a 'puzzling problem" from
comparative anatomy.
÷ AnimaI8 a8 different a8 whaIe8 and bat8
have 8imiIar bone8 in foreIimb8
or
÷ Some part8 8eem to have no function
Question 11
· 11. Why is the Grand Canyon an excellent
laboratory for geologic studies?
nswer 11
· 11. Why is the Grand Canyon an excellent
laboratory for geologic studies?
· The miIe deep canyon provide8 acce88
to many Iayer8 of rock repre8enting
about a biIIion year8 of earth hi8tory.
Question 12
· 12. ______ (shallow/deeper) layers
contain _______(simpler/more complex)
fossils than shallow layers.
nswer 12
12. Deeper layers contain 8impIer fossils
than shallow layers.
Question 13
· 13. Some fossils seem to be related to
known ________.
nswer 13
· 13. Some fossils seem to be related to
known 8pecie8.
Question 14
· 14. Georges Cuvier posited the idea of
________ ________ to explain multiple
extinction events (such as the Flood).
nswer 14
· 14. Georges Cuvier posited the idea of
________ ________ to explain multiple
extinction events (such as the Flood).
· Georges Cuvier - multiple catastrophes
Question 15
· 15. Lamarck was responsible for the
concept of the "______ of _______
characteristics¨.
nswer 15
· 15. Lamarck was responsible for the
concept of the "inheritance of acquired
characteristics¨.
Question 16
· 16. The English geologist,______, posited
the theory of Uniformity.
nswer 16
· 16. The English geologist,LyeII, posited
the theory of Uniformity.
Question 17
17. What was the name of the ship on which
Darwin sailed? (On a recent Georgia State
÷ wide test, this was the only question
concerning Darwin!!!).
nswer 17
17. What was the name of the ship on which
Darwin sailed? (On a recent Georgia State
÷ wide test, this was the only question
concerning Darwin!!!).
HMS Beagle
Question 18
18. What group of organisms most
influenced Darwin's shaping of his theory
of natural selection? Why?
nswer 18
18. What group of organisms most influenced
Darwin's shaping of his theory of natural
selection? Why?
Galapagos finches
They were well isolated from the mainland and
seemed to be related through a line of common
descent.
Question 19
· 19. What is the "Malthusian catastrophe¨?
Question 15
· 15. Lamarck was responsible for the
concept of the "______ of _______
characteristics¨.
nswer 19
· 19. what is the "Malthusian catastrophe¨?
This occurs when a population exceeds its
available resources.
Question 20
20. Of the following which is an inference?
Potential exponential increase in populations
(8uperfecundity)
Heritability of much of the individual variation
Differential survival and reproduction i.e. natural
selection
nswer 20
20. Of the following which is an inference?
Potential exponential increase in populations
(8uperfecundity)
Heritability of much of the individual variation
Differential survival and reproduction i.e. natural
selection
Question 21
· 21. Biological evolution does not change
individuals/populations.
Ìt changes individuals/ populations.
nswer 21
· 21. Biological evolution does not change
individuaI8/populations.
Ìt changes individuals/ popuIation8.
Question 22
· 22. Genetic resource that is shared (in
theory) by all members of population is the
______ _____.
nswer 22
· 22. Genetic resource that is shared (in
theory) by all members of population is the
gene pooI.
Question 23
· 23. What determines alleles in new
individual? (state three)
nswer 23
· 23. What determines alleles in new individual?
(state three)
· Mutation
· Crossing over at meiosis Ì
· Ìndependent assortment
· Fertilization
· Change in chromosome number or structure
Question 24
24. When is a population not evolving?
nswer 24
24. When is a population not evolving?
· When it i8 in genetic equiIibrium (that i8
the gene frequencie8 are con8tant not
changing).
Question 25
· 25. What is the mathematical model that
measures genetic equilibrium?
nswer 25
· 25. What is the mathematical model that measures
genetic equilibrium?
· Hardy-Weinburg RuIe
p
2
AA + 2pq Aa + q
2
aa =
requency of aIIeIe A = p
requency of aIIeIe a = q
p + q = 1
Question 26
26. What are two types of natural selection
models? (there are three).
nswer 26
· 26. What are two types of natural
selection models? (there are three).
· StabiIizing
· DirectionaI
· Di8ruptive
Speciation
· Learn the terms
· Questions 1 - 17
Terms
· Learn the terms found in the glossary,
Speciation.
Q -1
1. The process by which species are
formed is known as *******.
- 1
1. The process by which species are
formed is known as
__8peciation*******.
Q ÷ 2 and 3
· __________ is an accumulation of
differences in separated pools of alleles.
· The evolution of reproductive *******
__________ pave the way for genetic
divergence and speciation.
2 and 3
· Genetic divergence______ __________
is an accumulation of differences in
separated pools of alleles. The evolution
of reproductive ___i8oIating
mechani8m8******* __________ pave
the way for genetic divergence and
speciation.
Q 4
· Be abIe to briefIy define the major
categorie8 of prezygotic and
po8tzygotic i8oIating mechani8m8.
4
· Be abIe to briefIy define the major categorie8 of prezygotic and po8tzygotic i8oIating mechani8m8.
· Prezygotic mechanisms take effect before or during fertilization.
· a. Behavioral Isolation: pattern8 of court8hip may
be aItered to the extent that 8exuaI union i8 not achieved (for exampIe: aIbatro88 court8hip rituaI8).
· b. %emporal Isolation: different group8 may not
be reproductiveIy mature at the 8ame 8ea8on or month or year (for exampIe: periodicaI cicada8).
· c. echanical Isolation: two popuIation8 are
mechanicaIIy i8oIated when difference8 in reproductive organ8 prevent 8ucce88fuI interbreeding (for
exampIe: fIoraI arrangement8 in 8age pIant8 di8criminate between different bee poIIinator8).
· d. cological Isolation: potentiaI mate8 may be in
the 8ame generaI area by not in the 8ame habitat where they are IikeIy to meet (for exampIe: different
8pecie8 of manzanita 8hrub8 Iive at different aItitude8 and habitat8).
· e. ametic Mortality: incompatibiIitie8 between
egg and 8perm prevent fertiIization (for exampIe: 8ignaI8 to poIIen grain8 to begin growing toward the
egg).
· Po8tzygotic mechani8m8 take effect after fertiIization.
· a. Sometime8 fertiIization doe8 occur between
different 8pecie8 but the hybrid embryo i8 weak and die8.
· b. In 8ome in8tance8 the hybrid8 are vigorou8 but
8teriIe (exampIe: muIe produced by a maIe donkey and a femaIe hor8e).
Q 5, 6, 7, and 8
· *_____ speciation occurs when daughter species form
gradually by divergence in the absence of gene flow
between geographically separate populations.
· Ìn _______ speciation, daughter species arise,
sometimes rapidly, from a small proportion of
individuals within an existing population.
· There is evidence that polyploid animals are rare
because of a failed ________ compensation.
· When daughter species form from a small proportion
of individuals along a common border between two
populations, it is called ********* speciation
5, 6, 7, and 8
· ____AIIopatric*_____ speciation occurs when
daughter species form gradually by divergence in the
absence of gene flow between geographically
separate populations.
· Ìn ___8ympatric_______ speciation, daughter species
arise, sometimes rapidly, from a small proportion of
individuals within an existing population.
· There is evidence that polyploid animals are rare
because of a failed _*do8age________
compensation.
· When daughter species form from a small proportion
of individuals along a common border between two
populations, it is called _parapatric*********
speciation
Q 9
· ExpIain why 8ympatric 8peciation by
poIypIoidy i8 a rapid method of
8peciation.
·
9
· ExpIain why 8ympatric 8peciation by
poIypIoidy i8 a rapid method of 8peciation.
· PoIypIoidy i8 the
inheritance of three or more of each type of
chromo8ome due to improper 8eparation of
chromo8ome8 during meio8i8 or mito8i8.
· Speciation i8
in8tantaneou8 for pIant8 that are poIypIoidy
becau8e they can onIy pair up their
chromo8ome8 with other identicaI
poIypIoid8 (propha8e I).
Q 10, 11, 12, and 13
1. Ìn some cases of parapatric speciation, gene
exchange between two species is confined to a
_________ zone.
· Explain why branches on an evolutionary tree that
have slight angles indicate the ******** model of
speciation.
· Branches on an evolutionary tree that turn abruptly
with 90-degree turns are consistent with the *_______
model of speciation.
· n adaptive radiation is a burst of ******** from a
single lineage that give rise to many new species,
each adapted to an unoccupied or a new habitat or to
using a novel resource.
10, 11, 12, and 13
1. Ìn some cases of parapatric speciation, gene
exchange between two species is confined to a
_hybrid_________ zone.
· Explain why branches on an evolutionary tree that
have slight angles indicate the **graduaI********
model of speciation.
· Branches on an evolutionary tree that turn abruptly
with 90-degree turns are consistent with the
__punctuated*_______ model of speciation.
· n adaptive radiation is a burst of
__divergence8******** from a single lineage that
give rise to many new species, each adapted to an
unoccupied or a new habitat or to using a novel
resource.
Q 14
· Di8tingui8h cIadogene8i8 from
anagene8i8.
14
· Di8tingui8h cIadogene8i8 from
anagene8i8.
· ladogenesis appIie8
to popuIation8 that become i8oIated
from one another and 8ub8equentIy
diverge in different direction8.
· Anagenesis i8 a
pattern of de8cent in which 8pecie8
form within a 8ingIe unbranched Iine.
Q 15
· Be abIe to expIain the u8e of
evoIutionary tree diagram8 and the
8ymboIi8m u8ed.
·
15
· Be abIe to expIain the u8e of evoIutionary tree
diagram8 and the 8ymboIi8m u8ed.
· volutionary trees 8ummarize
information about the continuity of reIation8hip
among 8pecie8.
· The gradual model of
8peciation i8 repre8ented by tree diagram8 with
branche8 at 8Iight angIe8 to each other to 8how 8Iow
change over time.
· The punctuation model of
8peciation i8 drawn with 8hort horizontaI branche8
that repre8ent abrupt period8 of 8peciation foIIowed
by 8tabIe period8.
Q16
· Cite exampIe8 of adaptive zone8.
16
· Cite exampIe8 of adaptive zone8.
· An adaptive zone i8 a 8et of ecoIogicaI
niche8 that may be occupied by a
group of 8pecie8 that expIoit8 the 8ame
re8ource8 in a 8imiIar manner.
ExampIe8: The 8andy beach the brook
bottom etc
Q 17
The fossil record shows twenty or more
________ extinctions.
17
· The fossil record shows twenty or more
__ma88 ________ extinctions.

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