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Furniture Design 1 - INT33A Instructor: IDR Raymond R. Fuentes, FPIID
Furniture is of major importance to any housing unit. It is a chief factor in physical comfort and in the design of a home. Furniture increases the usefulness of an area and expresses the personality of household members. It can make you feel at ease or uncomfortable in your surroundings.
Furniture is expensive and should be chosen with much care and thought. Price and quality of furniture is affected by the materials and methods used in construction; Materials and construction arc critical factors in the quality of furniture. Well-built pieces from appropriate materials will provide years of useful service, but if either is shortchanged, the results will be less than satisfactory.
and fabrics comprise the primary materials used to make furniture. Construction techniques are mainly concerned with methods of fastening pieces together to form a sturdy assembly that will hold its shape for a long time. . Wood. metals. plastics.
Wood also may be used as a structural framework to be covered by other material as in upholstered furniture. . headboards. includes chests. 11-1. Wood may be the main material used in a piece of furniture. dressers. This type of furniture called case goods. and desks. tables.WOOD FURNITURE The most common material used in furniture is wood.
. It is made from maple in a New England style. 11-1 This dresser is an example of case goods.
. Solid woods. Wood finishes also may vary with the type and quality of a piece. and processed woods may be used in furniture of different types and qualities.Wood Types Various species of wood have different qualities that make them more suitable for some uses than others. veneers.
Hardwood (from anglosperms) ± mostly from flowering and fruit bearing trees they have broader leaves and usually have harder wood. 2. . spruce. and cedars. Softwood (from gymsosperms) ± include the cone bearing trees such as pine. Woods may be classified as hardwoods or softwoods. they are all nearly evergreens and grow in cooler regions. 1.
They are usually harder than softwoods.Hardwoods Hardwoods are generally preferred over softwoods for quality furniture because they have greater dimensional stability. hardwoods are generally more expensive than softwoods. so they hold nails and screws better and are less likely to dent. and more durability. . However. less pitch.
since beauty and strength are not essential. Softwoods are sometimes used as back panels on case goods. Cost may outweigh other considerations depending on how the wood is used. but they are less expensive.Softwoods Softwoods generally develop checks and cracks with changing moisture conditions and have less strength than hardwoods. They are also used to make processed woods. .
. Veneers are thin slices of wood cut from a log in various ways.Wood Veneers Wood veneers permit the use of rare and expensive woods in furniture that would otherwise be too expensive or impractical.
Flat slicing. quarter slicing. Here. the log is mounted in a lathe and thin layers of wood (veneer) are pulled off as the log is turned producing a bold. . Five basic methods of cutting veneers are used: rotary cut. rippled figure pattern. half-round slicing riff-cut Most softwood veneers are cut using the rotary cut method. variegated.
Quarter slicing produces a series of stripes. wavy figure by slicing parallel to a line through the center of the log. Flat slicing produces a variegated. . Here the growth rings are approximately at a right angle to the knife.
. The cut is slightly across the annual growth rings of the log. Rift-cut veneer is used for oak and other woods which have ray cells radiating from the center of the log. This method emphasizes these cell patterns. Half-round slicing has characteristics of both rotary cut and pair sliced veneers.
Veneer patterns may be obtained by matching piece' of veneer in various ways. special match . The most common patterns are the: book match slip match.
the back of one veneer sheet meet the front of the adjacent veneer. . In book matching. every other sheet is turned over like leaves of a book. This produces a matching joint design with a mirrored image look. to repeat the same grain pattern. without turning. Slip matching results when adjacent sheets are joined side by side. Therefore.
and others. . herring bone. All of these patterns are used in furniture today. checkerboard. "V". reverse diamond. Special matching may be used to produce a variety of patterns² diamond.
REVERSE DIAMOND FOUR-WAY CENTER AND BUTT .
. Veneer figure patterns are greatly affected by the par of the tree used. Veneers cut from a crotch have plume-like designs. burl. or stump 11-7. some of the most interesting and valuable patterns are cut from the crotch. and stumps yield rippling patterns with sharp contrasts. Although most veneer is cut from the trunk of the tree. Burls produce veneers with a pattern of swirls.
77-7 Wood grain cut from different parts of the tree produces different grain patterns. .
Usually three. The outer layer is of a better veneer. Veneered furniture is made by gluing together layers. or seven layers are bonded together. of wood to make plywood. . five. or plies. and less expensive veneers or pressed wood are used as inner layers.
chests. like rosewood. Most fine case goods. have veneered wood for exterior construction. or too heavy. . Veneers are practical when solid wood would be too expensive. The layers are placed so that the grain of one layer is at right angles to the grain of the layer next to it. and tables. especially cupboards. like ebony.
If a case good is made from solid wood. but the unexposed parts of the piece may be made from different wood. any exposed parts are made from the same wood. Solid wood has a greater tendency to crack. No veneer is used. and swell than a wellconstructed veneered wood. It is also more expensive than veneer. warp. .Solid Wood.
solid woods are more often used for framework. Maple. For these reasons. top. front. and veneered wood is used for side. and birch are most commonly used for solid wood furniture. . and back panels. cherry. pine.
composite board is becoming a common material in furniture. For these reasons. . New technology has made it possible to make wood boards from wood particles. These processed woods are less expensive and often more durable than solid woods or veneered plywoods. pressure. various resins. Both are formed by combining wood particles.Composite Board. and heat. The two main types of processed woods are hardboard and particle board.
. Its surface can be smooth. splinters. Hardboard is made from wood fibers into allwood panels. abrasion. The fibers are extracted from wood chips by steam or chemical processes. Hardboard is exceptionally strong. then they are compressed under heat. cracks. it is resistant to splits. or it can be textured to imitate the look of wood grain. and moisture.
so hardboard may not be suitable for some furniture uses. cabinets. However. and the backs of bookcases. surface designs cannot perfectly match the pattern of fine wood. Hardboard is considered an excellent material for furniture door and drawers parts. and chests in less expensive furniture. . tabletops.
poplar. Fur. several kinds of soft woods are used in the same piece of particle board. Particle board is made from wood shavings that are pressed together with heat and adhesive. hemlock. and aspen are most commonly used. particle board is sturdy and versatile. Like hardboard. Usually. . pine.
The surface may be covered with laminated plastic or wood veneer. Particle board is often used as the core wood for cabinets and other furniture of low quality. . Uncovered surfaces can be identified as particle board by an irregular crystallized pattern.
Wood Finishes Fine quality wood furniture should be properly treated and finished. and rubbing will produce a patina² a mellow glow with richness and depth of tone. Added color should come from several layers of finishing materials which work with the natural grain of the wood. sanding. Polishing. .
and scratches. waxes. Stains. oils. moisture. glazes. or sealers may be used during the finishing process. . Good finishes will produce a smooth surface and protect wood from heat.
. The shine will be hard and glossy instead of mellow and rich. Poor quality furniture is often finished with thick. Brush marks may be evident on the surface. Such finishes do not last as long as fine finishes. stained varnish or one coat of varnish that is dried quickly.
wood filler 7. sanding sealer 8. wood bleach 6. wood stain 9. paint thinner 14. varnish 10.List of Materials for Wood Finishes 1. dead flat lacquer 3. paint 13. lacquer flo 5. glazing putty 12. clear gloss lacquer 2. finishing oil 11. lacquer thinner 4. tinting color .
The techniques used to fasten the various pieces together are just as important as the materials used in the furniture." Assembly or some finishing details are still performed by hand on quality furniture. .Wood Furniture Construction Most furniture today is made using modern-machinery. but no piece is entirely "machine-made.
. A piece of furniture is no stronger than its joints. Several types of joining methods are listed here. Many different techniques and kinds of joints have been developed over the years to produce quality furniture. Quality joining is expensive and time consuming and frequently hidden from view.
. The butt joint is a weak joint. The butt joint is the most simple type of joint to construct. The surfaces being joined should fit closely and be square with each other. It is made by butting the end or edge of one board against the end or edge of another. 11-8. screws. The joint is generally held together with glue. or nails.
Butt Joints Top: Flat Butt Bottom: Edge Butt 11-8 Butt joints are considered weak joints. .
11-9. drawers. Rabbet joints are easy to make and are generally used on the corners of boxes. . Glue and screws or nails may be used. The rabbet joint is stronger than the butt joint. cases. and back panels of case goods. The recess may be cut along an edge or on the end. A rabbet joint is formed by cutting a recess in one or both pieces to be joined.
. but it is still relatively weak.Rabbet Joints 11-9 The cutting and fitting of a rabbet joint makes it stronger than a butt joint.
See 11-10. The dado is cut to the width of the piece to be joined and that piece is fitted into the dado. and partitions in cabinets. They form strong joints when properly glued and carefully fitted. These joints are used for installing shelves. . frames. A dado is a rectangular recess cut across the grain of the wood.
Dado Joints Top: Dado Bottom: Blind Dado 11-10 Dado joints are very strong when properly fitted and glued .
half-lap. 11-11. Lap joints are made by cutting away an equal amount of wood from each piece so that when they are fitted together their surfaces are flush. . Several types of lap joints may be used in furniture construction. cross-lap. and middle-lap. They include: end-lap.
Lap joints may be used for corners of furniture frames. Glue and screws (when hidden) may be used to secure the joint for a strong connection. and they are often used to join exterior pieces of wood which cross each other. .
Lap Joints Top: End lap Middle: Half Lap Bottom Left: Middle Lap Bottom Right: Cross Lap .
or lap joints. rabbet. They are used when extra strength is desired. 11-12. dado. Glue is used to secure the dowels. Length and diameter depend on the size of the pieces being joined. . Dowel joints may be used with several other types of joints such as the butt. Dowels are generally made of birch and range in size from 1/8 to 1 inch in increments of 1/8 inch.
.Dowel Joints 11-12 Dowels may be used with several types of joints to improve their strength.
open. The mortise-and-tenon joint is a very strong type of joint. Their construction is shown in 11-13. . They may be used to join legs or rails to tables. and chairs. benches. haunched. Three main forms are used: blind.
.Mortise and Tenon 11-13 Mortise-andtenon joints form very strong joints and are useful in attaching furniture legs and rails.
This joint forms a solid connection between the pieces. More than one tongue and groove joint may be used on a thick piece of material. The joint may be glued. A tongue and groove joint is used along the common edge of two boards. but usually it is not when used in panel construction. The tongue is cut on one board and the matching groove is formed on the edge of the other board. 11-14. .
Tongue and Groove 11-14 Tongue and groove joints are used along the common edge of two boards. .
A spline joint is a simple butt joint with a thin piece of wood inserted in a groove to strengthen the joint. . See 11-15. For greater strength. the grain of the spline should be perpendicular to the groove. Spline joints may be used along the edges or at the corner of two pieces.
.Spline Joints Top: Edge Spline Bottom: Corner Spline 11-15 Spline joints are used to increase the strength of other joints.
A high degree of precision is necessary to make a tight-fitting dovetail joint. Several variations of the dovetail joint are possible such as the lap dovetail. A typical dovetail joint is shown in 11-16. The principle technique is similar. . Dovetail joints are used to fasten corner joints especially those on drawers. but it provides maximum strength. and half blind dovetail. through dovetail. in all variations. however.
Dovetail Top: Half Blind Dovetail Bottom: Through Dovetail 7 7-76 Dovetail joints are used on high quality construction to provide maximum strength. .
It is used at inside corners such as where a table leg is fastened to a rail and along the rail where it is attached to the table top. 11-17. Blocking may be used where it would not be unsightly and where more strength is required. . Blocking consists of small pieces of wood attached between the adjacent sides of two pieces for added strength. Blocks are usually glued and/or screwed in place.
Blocking 11-17 Blocking is used to enforce other joints. . but it should be located in areas which are not visible.
All of the joints used in furniture construction may be glued. . Modern glues develop tremendous strength and generally exceed the strength of the wood.
and covering. 11-18. This furniture must be examined carefully if the quality is to be accurately judged. .UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE Upholstered furniture incorporates some type of frame. cushioning material. because so much of the construction is hidden. Pieces such as sofas and .chairs are frequently upholstered.
The main construction of an upholstered piece is hidden from the view of the consumer. . 11-18 Upholstered furniture consists of a wooden frame and spring supports covered with padding and upholstery.
leatherette . Piping cord 8. Rubber Strap 5. Fabric. uratex) 3. Non-sag spring and coil spring 4. Rubber foam (urethane.Materials used for the construction of furniture upholstery 1. 2. leather. Abaca twine anad cotton twine 9. Muslim fabric or 'Katcha' 7. Nail 11. Shoe tacks and cut tacks 10. Plastic sack / jute burlap 6. Sewing thread .
Upholstery Fabrics Upholstery fabrics should be functional as well as at-tractive. . durable. How a piece of furniture is to be used will help determine what types of upholstery are most suitable. Consider fabrics that are fire retardant especially for commercial spaces. and soil resistant. Overall. attractive. fabrics should be comfortable.
but the threads of these fabrics catch and snag easily. Brocades and tapestry fabrics are beautiful. . Plain or twill weaves are recommended for furniture that is used frequently. These fabrics may be more suitable for seldom used living room furniture. Pile weave fabrics such as velvet and corduroy show wear much more quickly.
While natural fibers arc attractive. . Both natural and synthetic fibers are used in upholstered furniture. the addition of synthetic fibers such as rayon and nylon may increase a fabric's strength and stain resistance.
they are less expensive. Leather is durable and attractive. but it is very expensive. They are sturdy and easily cleaned. Vinyls may be made to resemble leathers. Non-woven fabrics such as leather and vinyl may be used for upholstery. .
Generally. .Construction An upholstered piece will have a frame of some type. Wood that is not properly dried will be more likely to split and buckle. the frame should be made of kiln-dried hard-wood. The joints should be strengthened with dowels and glue blocks.
Remember that if the piece has a weak or poorly constructed frame. Padding on the frame is desirable where it would come in contact with a wear surface. . The manufacturer's tag or literature should provide useful information about the frame construction. durability will be less than satisfactory.
11-19. screwed. This flat spring is nailed. Springs are linked together with tiny coiled springs called helicals. . The part of a chair or sofa that serves as the platform for cushioning materials is called the seat base. This type of construction produces a minimum amount of bulk. Several types of springs are used in seat bases. One type is the serpentine or S-type spring. or stapled to the frame at equidistant points from other flat springs.
. 11-19 The S-type spring i's used on a seat base when a minimum of bulk is desired.
. An average size chair would generally have nine to twelve springs per seat. See 11-20. Another type of Seat base construction which is fre-quently used is the coil spring type. The springs are tied as frequently as eight times per spring in quality pieces. Several coil springs are attached to webbing or steel bands.
11-20 Coil springs of heavy weight which are properly anchored provide a comfortable. . resilient seat base.
A thick layer of cushioning material should be applied directly over the springs and frame. Polyurethane foam is used on most furniture today for cushioning. fiberfill. Several materials are used such as cellular foams. The most expensive furniture has feathers or down while the least expensive probably has some type of fiberfill. feathers. . and down.
Welting or cording sewn into the seams adds strength. 11-21. Buttons and zippers should be secure. The outer covering is the most visible part of an upholstered piece. . The seams should be straight and tight with no loose threads.
11-21 The welting on this couch is attractive. . but it also adds strength to the seams.
Bedding Innerspring mattresses are similar in construction to upholstered furniture. They contain a series of springs covered with padding. The springs vary in number. placement. Sec 11-22. . and gauge (thickness of wire). size.
They should be firmly anchored and covered with a tightly woven fabric.FOAM CUSHIONING 11-22 A good mattress consists of heavy gauge coils that are individually pocketed. .
A good quality mattress should have at least 300 heavy coils that are firmly anchored. . good padding and insula-tion placed over the between coils. Coils may or may not be individually pocketed or covered with padding. and a tightly woven cover with a non-sag border.
They are lightweight and less expensive than innerspring mattresses. . Foam mattresses are often used by people with allergies. Foam mattresses are made of latex or polyurethane foam. A good foam mattress is about 6 inches thick. It has holes or cores in it which make the mattress more comfortable.
Mattresses are usually supported by springs. The support may be box springs, coil springs, or flat springs, 11-23. Box springs are the most expensive, but they provide the most support. They consist of a series of coils attached to a base and covered with padding.
71 -23 Box springs are coil springs that are padded and covered. Coil springs are anchored to a frame, but have no padded covering. Flat springs are attached to a frame and may have metal support strips banded across them.
Coil springs have the same construction as box springs, but they are not covered or padded. They are of medium expense and quality. Flat springs are the least expensive and provide the least support, but they are lightweight and become uncomfortable with time.
aluminum. . and iron account for the majority of structural metals used.METAL FURNITURE There are many types and styles of metal furniture available today. Steel. Several metal coatings or platings are also popular.
and fairly inexpensive. 11-24. Aluminum tubing is used frequently for lawn furniture. or they may be welded. However. . lightweight. They may be assembled with mechanical fasteners. Many modern furniture pieces are made from steel tubing. It is lighter in weight and less expensive than steel. it is not as strong and lends to bend and dent. These pieces are strong.
11-25. Iron is usually coated or plated to protect it from rust. The cast metals use forms in the shape of wrought iron. Wrought iron is used to make decorative and outdoor furniture. Cast metal is also used for furniture hardware. . steel. Since casting is more easily adapted to mass production. but cast iron. Cast iron is heavy and brittle. and aluminum are more popular. cast furniture is less expensive.
nickel. Sometimes. brass. and zinc are common plating materials. using a solid metal such as copper would produce a weak or heavy piece of furniture. so plating with the metal is more practical. 11-26. Chrome. copper. Often. a less expensive metal is plated with an attractive metal. Some metal furniture is plated. . Plating -may be used for added protection or attractiveness.
Brass and copper plating are costly. but they are valued for their appearance. They have a tendency to tarnish and must be polished frequently. . Some manufacturers place a protective coating of clear lacquer or enamel over these metals to help prevent tarnishing.
and bathroom cabinets are examples of pieces made of enameled metal. Kitchen cabinets. 11-27. doors. Baked enamel coatings have expanded the popularity of metal furniture. A wide variety of colors are available in finishes that can be washed and are weather resistant. outdoor furniture. .
or they may display a unique character of their own. They may be made to imitate almost any other material. durable. . and easily cleaned. Plastic furniture is lightweight. inex-pensive.PLASTIC FURNITURE Plastics possess an almost infinite variety of characteristics. 11-28.
. and acrylics. Transparent and translucent plastics have special qualities which enhance some furniture designs. cellulosics. polycarbonates. nylons. Some of the broad families of plastics that have been used in furniture include vinyls. polyurethanes. Plastics will probably replace many traditional materials used in furniture production. The ability of plastics to be manufactured in solid shapes or produced as foam further enhances their desirability. styrenes. polyesters.
. personal taste should be a primary consideration. It is helpful to know the names of furniture pieces and their proper definitions. however.FURNITURE SELECTION When selecting furniture. other information will help you make more satisfactory choices.
The glossary of furniture terms will help you to communicate properly when discussing furniture with a dealer. and maintenance requirements are important points to consider. size. style. Quality and cost. Guidelines provided in this section will help you choose furniture that will provide satisfaction for several years. .
Quality and Cost Furniture is expensive. Knowledge of furniture materials and construction will help you know what to examine when judging quality. however. so it is important to buy from a dealer who stands by his or her products. so care must be taken to get the best quality possible for the price paid. Much of furniture construction is hidden. .
. information about materials and construction cannot be removed by the dealer. These rules prohibit furniture manufacturers and dealers from providing false or misleading information about their furniture. The Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) has instituted Trade Practice Rules for the Furniture Industry. Any manufacturer's tags and labels with .
Manufacturers must indicate if vinyl. or marble. other platics. These rules also require manufacturers to state what types of outer coverings and stuffings are used on upholstered furniture. or marble dust are used in an imitation of leather. Leather and leather imitations must be marked as such. wood. .
Labels must state that a veneered piece is veneered. Specific terms used to describe wood must conform to meanings determined by the DTI. If a label states that a piece is made of one wood. any exposed parts must be made of that wood. Descriptions of wood furniture follow strict guidelines. .
Solid means that all exposed wood is of the same solid wood through the en-tire thickness of the piece. No veneers are used. Genuine means that the exposed parts are of the same wood, but that they are veneered. If veneered wood is made from plywood, the layers will be placed with the grain at right angles to each other. Laminated wood refers to plywood where all of the layers have their grain in the same direction.
Combination is a term used to describe furniture with more than one type of wood used in the exposed parts. If a piece is of all-wood construction, the wood exposed is the same throughout the entire thickness of the piece. Labels are helpful in evaluating furniture, but they don't tell you everything. Before any piece of furniture is taken home, it should be examined carefully by the buyer.
With case furniture, rub your hand over the surface. It should be smooth with no rough spots, splinters, or protruding nails. Check the back and inside surfaces as well. Stains should be even in color throughout the piece.
Tap the panels of the furniture. Pieces that sound hollow are probably constructed from thin panels of wood attached to wooden frames. the construction is solid. Construction should be solid. If you hear a dull thud. .
Make sure all working parts work. Doors should open and shut easily. . Place firm pressure on the top or side of a piece to see if it wobbles. Hinges should be properly aligned and should not squeak. and they should fit squarely into their frame. All furniture should have a sturdy base.
. or slide without rollers. Dresser drawers must be free of surface flaws which might catch on clothes. Keep in mind what will be stored in the drawers. Avoid drawers that jar. catch. Drawers should roll smoothly when open and shut.
sofas. look to see if upholstery fabric is underlined. When examining upholstered furniture. You should not be able to feel an individual spring through the cushioning material. Make sure that sitting down and standing up are not awkward or difficult tasks. . Also. and beds. Sit or lay on all chairs. open and close all zippers to make sure they work smoothly.
deep patinas. When pricing furniture. and curved construction all add to the beauty and price of a piece. Intricate carvings. it is wise to choose pieces without these features. . When looking for inexpensive but durable fur-niture. Your dollars will be invested in solid construction. heavy shaped moldings. solid construction should be a primary consideration. 1130. but they are not essen-tials.
However. Some bargains may be of quality comparable to more expensive pieces. service may be limited or sales may be final. Items that are being discontinued are often good buys. The price of furniture is also affected by the type of retailer that sells the furniture. . but it will not be possible to buy matching pieces later.
. Make sure you know what the disadvantages are and whether or not you can accept them. When a price is cut. there are often disadvantages to buying. These may be in quality or service.
but it is important for furniture to blend with a room's overall design and mood. . but they should blend with the other pieces in a room. paint chips. it is helpful to carry swatches of fabrics. Individual pieces do not have to match. When shopping for furniture.Style There are no set rules for choosing a furniture style. or other color samples with which furniture must be coordinated. 1131.
the tastes of all family members should be considered. . since all family members will use the room. In common rooms such as a living room. Bedrooms and other private rooms allow for a more individualized style choice. Items that are particularly displeasing to any one member should be avoided.
stairs. the furniture must fit into your house or apartment. Doors. An item of the proper color and style is useless to you if you can't get it in the front door. and halls may present problems. First. . The size of these openings should be measured before choosing furniture.Size Furniture size is important from two aspects.
If a seat is higher. . The seat of a chair or couch should be slightly lower than the back of your knee² around 15 to 18 inches. Second. your feet will not be able to rest on the floor comfortably. sitting and standing will be difficult. furniture should be of the appropriate scale for its use and location. If it is lower.
Chairs to be used at tables or desks should be streamlined to fit well and allow free movement. A couch should be long enough to allow you to stretch out comfortably. but a longer couch would not be suitable for intimate conversation areas. .
Furniture should be in proportion to the dimensions of the room in which it will be placed. or furniture that is too big. into a room will detract from the overall plan and hinder the use of space. . 11-32. Putting too many pieces of furniture. There should be ample room for circulation after all the furniture has been arranged in a room.
. Stain removal may be difficult if upholstery fabric is not easily removed from the furniture. Upholstered furniture may be vacuumed. but occasional steam cleaning may be necessary.Maintenance How much time and money must be spent in the upkeep of furniture is an important consideration. Fine wood furniture requires special cleaners and must be waxed regularly.
. Treated fabrics resist stains. Features that aid in cleanability include smooth surfaces with very little carving or grooving. and vinyl furniture surfaces are resistant to stains and are easily cleaned. Removable slip covers can be washed by machine and are easily replaced when they wear out. Woods may be treated with special coatings to make them more resistant to stains and easier to clean. Plastic. metal.
a working couple with young children should choose furniture with easily ³cleanable´ upholstery and smooth case goods with protective coatings. ³Cleanability´ and maintenance requirements should be compatible with your family's lifestyle. A family with no children may choose furniture with plush upholstery and fine wood case goods with intricate carving. For instance. .
Proper names of furniture pieces should be mastered if one is to be able to communicate accurately when referring to furniture. .
curved shapes. with doors and used in place of a closet for storing clothing or household linens. usually of wood. . Bentwood Furniture pieces made from wood that has been steam bent into soft. Barcelona Chair A classic. contemporary chair design characterized by a stainless steel frame and upholstered leather back and seat. Armoire A large piece.
Berge're An upholstered armchair with closed, upholstered sides and visible wood frame. Bombe Chest A Regency or Louis XV commode with bulg-ing sides, front, or both. Breakfront A wide, tall cabinet with wood doors and drawers on the bottom and glass doors on the top. This piece is similar to the modern china cabinet.
Camelback A chair or sofa that has a curved hump along the back. Campaign Furniture Furnishings with metal corners and handles patterned after military chests. Chesterfield An overstaffed sofa with upholstered ends.
Club Chair A comfortable, heavily upholstered chair with a cushioned seat. Coffee Table A long, low table, generally placed in front of the sofa, used to hold books, magazines, ashtrays, etc. Commode A low chest of drawers that is generally set against the wall.
Console A versatile table that can be used in most any location. usually designed for the dining room. . Credenza (Also called sideboard. It was originally a shelf attached to the wall. about chair-rail height with doors and drawers. Couch Synonymous with sofa. May be used in other rooms as well.) A storage piece. but originally referred to as a sofa with a low back and one raised end.
Davenport An upholstered sofa which may be made into a bed. Director's Chair A folding wooden frame chair with a canvas seat and back. . It offers dual-purpose seating and sleeping. The divan is generally a living room piece. Divan The divan bed has a concealed mattress which pulls out from the seat.
or bedroom. A very ver-satile piece that may be used singly or in multiples. dining. . Etagere Standing set of shelves with sides open. seat and back. May be used to form modular wall units for living. or closed depending on the design. Fauteuil A French open armchair with wooden arms and caned or upholstered. Gateleg Table A space-saving table with hinged leaves and legs that swing out like a gate to support the leaves when raised.
Lounge Chair A comfortable. Hutch A chest or cabinet on legs with an open shelf above. roomy chair available in several styles. . Lounge A type of couch with no back but one high end for reclining.
' . used separately. Modulars Uniform structural components that can be grouped together. or ar-ranged in a variety of combinations. Loveseat A small sofa for two people. Usually three or four standard modules are used to form the system. Morris Chair A large armchair with loose cushions and a movable back.
Occasional Table A small table usually placed at the end of a sofa which may provide shelves or drawers for additional storage. Pedestal Table Any table that is supported by a single post rather than four legs. Parsons Table A classic square or rectangular table with apron and legs the same width. . May serve as a lamp table. but generally a little shorter than a lamp table.
Poster Bed A bed with four decorative posts. Sawbuck Table Any large table with two X-shaped supports. . Savonarola Chair An Italian Renaissance chair with a carved wood back and a frame composed of in-terlacing curved shapes.
Sectional A piece of seating furniture made up of sec-tions that can be used separately or together. originally French. Semainier A tall. with seven drawers. narrow chest. . upholstered piece with a back and sometimes arms. dens. Settee A light double seat. or guest rooms. They may be used in small bedrooms.
Settles A Colonial piece similar to a settee. It requires less space than the divan. Side Chair An armless dining chair. Sofa Bed A sofa with a back that folds back flat to form a bed area. It has no regular mattress. Sofa A broad inclusive term that refers to a seat for two or more people. but made of wood. .
Studio Couch A living room sleeper which has an upholstered mattress resting on an upholstered steel unit. Trundle Bed A low bed on casters that may be rolled under a full height bed. . Bolsters are used to form the back. Wing Chair An overstuffed chair that has projecting sides on the high upholstered back. Studio Lounge A single sleeper of a slab construction with flat springs and foam rubber padding.
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