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Furniture Design 1 - INT33A Instructor: IDR Raymond R. Fuentes, FPIID
Furniture is of major importance to any housing unit. It is a chief factor in physical comfort and in the design of a home. Furniture increases the usefulness of an area and expresses the personality of household members. It can make you feel at ease or uncomfortable in your surroundings.
Furniture is expensive and should be chosen with much care and thought. Price and quality of furniture is affected by the materials and methods used in construction; Materials and construction arc critical factors in the quality of furniture. Well-built pieces from appropriate materials will provide years of useful service, but if either is shortchanged, the results will be less than satisfactory.
plastics. . Construction techniques are mainly concerned with methods of fastening pieces together to form a sturdy assembly that will hold its shape for a long time. Wood. and fabrics comprise the primary materials used to make furniture. metals.
11-1. . This type of furniture called case goods. and desks.WOOD FURNITURE The most common material used in furniture is wood. dressers. headboards. includes chests. Wood may be the main material used in a piece of furniture. tables. Wood also may be used as a structural framework to be covered by other material as in upholstered furniture.
11-1 This dresser is an example of case goods. It is made from maple in a New England style. .
.Wood Types Various species of wood have different qualities that make them more suitable for some uses than others. Wood finishes also may vary with the type and quality of a piece. and processed woods may be used in furniture of different types and qualities. veneers. Solid woods.
2. and cedars. they are all nearly evergreens and grow in cooler regions. Woods may be classified as hardwoods or softwoods. Softwood (from gymsosperms) ± include the cone bearing trees such as pine. Hardwood (from anglosperms) ± mostly from flowering and fruit bearing trees they have broader leaves and usually have harder wood. 1. spruce. .
hardwoods are generally more expensive than softwoods. and more durability. so they hold nails and screws better and are less likely to dent.Hardwoods Hardwoods are generally preferred over softwoods for quality furniture because they have greater dimensional stability. However. . They are usually harder than softwoods. less pitch.
They are also used to make processed woods.Softwoods Softwoods generally develop checks and cracks with changing moisture conditions and have less strength than hardwoods. . Cost may outweigh other considerations depending on how the wood is used. Softwoods are sometimes used as back panels on case goods. but they are less expensive. since beauty and strength are not essential.
Veneers are thin slices of wood cut from a log in various ways.Wood Veneers Wood veneers permit the use of rare and expensive woods in furniture that would otherwise be too expensive or impractical. .
Five basic methods of cutting veneers are used: rotary cut. the log is mounted in a lathe and thin layers of wood (veneer) are pulled off as the log is turned producing a bold. Flat slicing. rippled figure pattern. . variegated. quarter slicing. Here. half-round slicing riff-cut Most softwood veneers are cut using the rotary cut method.
Flat slicing produces a variegated. Quarter slicing produces a series of stripes. . Here the growth rings are approximately at a right angle to the knife. wavy figure by slicing parallel to a line through the center of the log.
. Rift-cut veneer is used for oak and other woods which have ray cells radiating from the center of the log. This method emphasizes these cell patterns. Half-round slicing has characteristics of both rotary cut and pair sliced veneers. The cut is slightly across the annual growth rings of the log.
special match . The most common patterns are the: book match slip match. Veneer patterns may be obtained by matching piece' of veneer in various ways.
Slip matching results when adjacent sheets are joined side by side. In book matching. to repeat the same grain pattern. without turning. . This produces a matching joint design with a mirrored image look. Therefore. the back of one veneer sheet meet the front of the adjacent veneer. every other sheet is turned over like leaves of a book.
All of these patterns are used in furniture today. reverse diamond. "V". Special matching may be used to produce a variety of patterns² diamond. checkerboard. . and others. herring bone.
REVERSE DIAMOND FOUR-WAY CENTER AND BUTT .
Veneer figure patterns are greatly affected by the par of the tree used. Although most veneer is cut from the trunk of the tree. Burls produce veneers with a pattern of swirls. and stumps yield rippling patterns with sharp contrasts. burl. or stump 11-7. . some of the most interesting and valuable patterns are cut from the crotch. Veneers cut from a crotch have plume-like designs.
77-7 Wood grain cut from different parts of the tree produces different grain patterns. .
or seven layers are bonded together. Usually three. of wood to make plywood. The outer layer is of a better veneer. and less expensive veneers or pressed wood are used as inner layers. . Veneered furniture is made by gluing together layers. or plies. five.
and tables. The layers are placed so that the grain of one layer is at right angles to the grain of the layer next to it. or too heavy. have veneered wood for exterior construction. . especially cupboards. chests. Most fine case goods. like ebony. Veneers are practical when solid wood would be too expensive. like rosewood.
but the unexposed parts of the piece may be made from different wood. warp. Solid wood has a greater tendency to crack. . No veneer is used. It is also more expensive than veneer.Solid Wood. any exposed parts are made from the same wood. If a case good is made from solid wood. and swell than a wellconstructed veneered wood.
and back panels. For these reasons. solid woods are more often used for framework. cherry. pine. and birch are most commonly used for solid wood furniture. . top. front. and veneered wood is used for side. Maple.
various resins. For these reasons. New technology has made it possible to make wood boards from wood particles. Both are formed by combining wood particles.Composite Board. pressure. and heat. These processed woods are less expensive and often more durable than solid woods or veneered plywoods. composite board is becoming a common material in furniture. . The two main types of processed woods are hardboard and particle board.
Hardboard is exceptionally strong. then they are compressed under heat. it is resistant to splits. . abrasion. or it can be textured to imitate the look of wood grain. cracks. and moisture. The fibers are extracted from wood chips by steam or chemical processes. splinters. Its surface can be smooth. Hardboard is made from wood fibers into allwood panels.
Hardboard is considered an excellent material for furniture door and drawers parts. cabinets. so hardboard may not be suitable for some furniture uses. tabletops. and the backs of bookcases. surface designs cannot perfectly match the pattern of fine wood. However. and chests in less expensive furniture. .
Particle board is made from wood shavings that are pressed together with heat and adhesive. poplar. particle board is sturdy and versatile. several kinds of soft woods are used in the same piece of particle board. Like hardboard. Fur. and aspen are most commonly used. Usually. hemlock. pine. .
Particle board is often used as the core wood for cabinets and other furniture of low quality. The surface may be covered with laminated plastic or wood veneer. . Uncovered surfaces can be identified as particle board by an irregular crystallized pattern.
Added color should come from several layers of finishing materials which work with the natural grain of the wood. sanding. . Polishing.Wood Finishes Fine quality wood furniture should be properly treated and finished. and rubbing will produce a patina² a mellow glow with richness and depth of tone.
oils. glazes. or sealers may be used during the finishing process. and scratches. Good finishes will produce a smooth surface and protect wood from heat. . waxes. moisture. Stains.
Brush marks may be evident on the surface. Such finishes do not last as long as fine finishes. stained varnish or one coat of varnish that is dried quickly. The shine will be hard and glossy instead of mellow and rich. . Poor quality furniture is often finished with thick.
varnish 10. tinting color . finishing oil 11. paint 13. glazing putty 12. sanding sealer 8. lacquer flo 5. dead flat lacquer 3.List of Materials for Wood Finishes 1. wood bleach 6. wood stain 9. lacquer thinner 4. clear gloss lacquer 2. wood filler 7. paint thinner 14.
" Assembly or some finishing details are still performed by hand on quality furniture. . but no piece is entirely "machine-made.Wood Furniture Construction Most furniture today is made using modern-machinery. The techniques used to fasten the various pieces together are just as important as the materials used in the furniture.
Many different techniques and kinds of joints have been developed over the years to produce quality furniture. Several types of joining methods are listed here. Quality joining is expensive and time consuming and frequently hidden from view. A piece of furniture is no stronger than its joints. .
. 11-8. The butt joint is the most simple type of joint to construct. screws. The butt joint is a weak joint. The joint is generally held together with glue. It is made by butting the end or edge of one board against the end or edge of another. The surfaces being joined should fit closely and be square with each other. or nails.
Butt Joints Top: Flat Butt Bottom: Edge Butt 11-8 Butt joints are considered weak joints. .
The rabbet joint is stronger than the butt joint. The recess may be cut along an edge or on the end. A rabbet joint is formed by cutting a recess in one or both pieces to be joined. Glue and screws or nails may be used. . 11-9. cases. Rabbet joints are easy to make and are generally used on the corners of boxes. drawers. and back panels of case goods.
.Rabbet Joints 11-9 The cutting and fitting of a rabbet joint makes it stronger than a butt joint. but it is still relatively weak.
See 11-10. They form strong joints when properly glued and carefully fitted. These joints are used for installing shelves. The dado is cut to the width of the piece to be joined and that piece is fitted into the dado. A dado is a rectangular recess cut across the grain of the wood. . and partitions in cabinets. frames.
Dado Joints Top: Dado Bottom: Blind Dado 11-10 Dado joints are very strong when properly fitted and glued .
cross-lap. and middle-lap. They include: end-lap. Lap joints are made by cutting away an equal amount of wood from each piece so that when they are fitted together their surfaces are flush. . 11-11. Several types of lap joints may be used in furniture construction. half-lap.
. Glue and screws (when hidden) may be used to secure the joint for a strong connection. and they are often used to join exterior pieces of wood which cross each other. Lap joints may be used for corners of furniture frames.
Lap Joints Top: End lap Middle: Half Lap Bottom Left: Middle Lap Bottom Right: Cross Lap .
dado. Dowel joints may be used with several other types of joints such as the butt. or lap joints. . Glue is used to secure the dowels. Length and diameter depend on the size of the pieces being joined. rabbet. 11-12. Dowels are generally made of birch and range in size from 1/8 to 1 inch in increments of 1/8 inch. They are used when extra strength is desired.
.Dowel Joints 11-12 Dowels may be used with several types of joints to improve their strength.
. Three main forms are used: blind. Their construction is shown in 11-13. The mortise-and-tenon joint is a very strong type of joint. benches. and chairs. They may be used to join legs or rails to tables. open. haunched.
.Mortise and Tenon 11-13 Mortise-andtenon joints form very strong joints and are useful in attaching furniture legs and rails.
but usually it is not when used in panel construction. A tongue and groove joint is used along the common edge of two boards. 11-14. . More than one tongue and groove joint may be used on a thick piece of material. The joint may be glued. This joint forms a solid connection between the pieces. The tongue is cut on one board and the matching groove is formed on the edge of the other board.
Tongue and Groove 11-14 Tongue and groove joints are used along the common edge of two boards. .
See 11-15. the grain of the spline should be perpendicular to the groove. A spline joint is a simple butt joint with a thin piece of wood inserted in a groove to strengthen the joint. Spline joints may be used along the edges or at the corner of two pieces. For greater strength. .
Spline Joints Top: Edge Spline Bottom: Corner Spline 11-15 Spline joints are used to increase the strength of other joints. .
Several variations of the dovetail joint are possible such as the lap dovetail. Dovetail joints are used to fasten corner joints especially those on drawers. A high degree of precision is necessary to make a tight-fitting dovetail joint. however. but it provides maximum strength. in all variations. The principle technique is similar. A typical dovetail joint is shown in 11-16. through dovetail. . and half blind dovetail.
Dovetail Top: Half Blind Dovetail Bottom: Through Dovetail 7 7-76 Dovetail joints are used on high quality construction to provide maximum strength. .
Blocking may be used where it would not be unsightly and where more strength is required. . Blocks are usually glued and/or screwed in place. Blocking consists of small pieces of wood attached between the adjacent sides of two pieces for added strength. It is used at inside corners such as where a table leg is fastened to a rail and along the rail where it is attached to the table top. 11-17.
. but it should be located in areas which are not visible.Blocking 11-17 Blocking is used to enforce other joints.
. Modern glues develop tremendous strength and generally exceed the strength of the wood. All of the joints used in furniture construction may be glued.
This furniture must be examined carefully if the quality is to be accurately judged. because so much of the construction is hidden. 11-18.UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE Upholstered furniture incorporates some type of frame. and covering.chairs are frequently upholstered. cushioning material. Pieces such as sofas and . .
11-18 Upholstered furniture consists of a wooden frame and spring supports covered with padding and upholstery. The main construction of an upholstered piece is hidden from the view of the consumer. .
Abaca twine anad cotton twine 9. Piping cord 8. Non-sag spring and coil spring 4. 2. Rubber foam (urethane. Fabric. Rubber Strap 5. leatherette . leather. Plastic sack / jute burlap 6. Nail 11. uratex) 3. Sewing thread .Materials used for the construction of furniture upholstery 1. Shoe tacks and cut tacks 10. Muslim fabric or 'Katcha' 7.
durable. fabrics should be comfortable. How a piece of furniture is to be used will help determine what types of upholstery are most suitable. .Upholstery Fabrics Upholstery fabrics should be functional as well as at-tractive. attractive. and soil resistant. Overall. Consider fabrics that are fire retardant especially for commercial spaces.
Plain or twill weaves are recommended for furniture that is used frequently. . Pile weave fabrics such as velvet and corduroy show wear much more quickly. but the threads of these fabrics catch and snag easily. These fabrics may be more suitable for seldom used living room furniture. Brocades and tapestry fabrics are beautiful.
the addition of synthetic fibers such as rayon and nylon may increase a fabric's strength and stain resistance. Both natural and synthetic fibers are used in upholstered furniture. While natural fibers arc attractive. .
they are less expensive. but it is very expensive. . Vinyls may be made to resemble leathers. Non-woven fabrics such as leather and vinyl may be used for upholstery. They are sturdy and easily cleaned. Leather is durable and attractive.
Wood that is not properly dried will be more likely to split and buckle. The joints should be strengthened with dowels and glue blocks.Construction An upholstered piece will have a frame of some type. the frame should be made of kiln-dried hard-wood. Generally. .
. The manufacturer's tag or literature should provide useful information about the frame construction. Padding on the frame is desirable where it would come in contact with a wear surface. durability will be less than satisfactory. Remember that if the piece has a weak or poorly constructed frame.
Springs are linked together with tiny coiled springs called helicals. The part of a chair or sofa that serves as the platform for cushioning materials is called the seat base. . This flat spring is nailed. One type is the serpentine or S-type spring. screwed. or stapled to the frame at equidistant points from other flat springs. 11-19. This type of construction produces a minimum amount of bulk. Several types of springs are used in seat bases.
11-19 The S-type spring i's used on a seat base when a minimum of bulk is desired. .
An average size chair would generally have nine to twelve springs per seat. The springs are tied as frequently as eight times per spring in quality pieces. . Several coil springs are attached to webbing or steel bands. See 11-20. Another type of Seat base construction which is fre-quently used is the coil spring type.
11-20 Coil springs of heavy weight which are properly anchored provide a comfortable. . resilient seat base.
Polyurethane foam is used on most furniture today for cushioning. Several materials are used such as cellular foams. A thick layer of cushioning material should be applied directly over the springs and frame. feathers. . The most expensive furniture has feathers or down while the least expensive probably has some type of fiberfill. and down. fiberfill.
Welting or cording sewn into the seams adds strength. 11-21. The outer covering is the most visible part of an upholstered piece. . Buttons and zippers should be secure. The seams should be straight and tight with no loose threads.
. 11-21 The welting on this couch is attractive. but it also adds strength to the seams.
and gauge (thickness of wire). They contain a series of springs covered with padding. placement. The springs vary in number. size.Bedding Innerspring mattresses are similar in construction to upholstered furniture. Sec 11-22. .
They should be firmly anchored and covered with a tightly woven fabric. .FOAM CUSHIONING 11-22 A good mattress consists of heavy gauge coils that are individually pocketed.
Coils may or may not be individually pocketed or covered with padding. . A good quality mattress should have at least 300 heavy coils that are firmly anchored. good padding and insula-tion placed over the between coils. and a tightly woven cover with a non-sag border.
Foam mattresses are made of latex or polyurethane foam. They are lightweight and less expensive than innerspring mattresses. A good foam mattress is about 6 inches thick. . Foam mattresses are often used by people with allergies. It has holes or cores in it which make the mattress more comfortable.
Mattresses are usually supported by springs. The support may be box springs, coil springs, or flat springs, 11-23. Box springs are the most expensive, but they provide the most support. They consist of a series of coils attached to a base and covered with padding.
71 -23 Box springs are coil springs that are padded and covered. Coil springs are anchored to a frame, but have no padded covering. Flat springs are attached to a frame and may have metal support strips banded across them.
Coil springs have the same construction as box springs, but they are not covered or padded. They are of medium expense and quality. Flat springs are the least expensive and provide the least support, but they are lightweight and become uncomfortable with time.
Steel.METAL FURNITURE There are many types and styles of metal furniture available today. and iron account for the majority of structural metals used. . aluminum. Several metal coatings or platings are also popular.
They may be assembled with mechanical fasteners. Aluminum tubing is used frequently for lawn furniture. These pieces are strong. It is lighter in weight and less expensive than steel. Many modern furniture pieces are made from steel tubing. it is not as strong and lends to bend and dent. and fairly inexpensive. lightweight. or they may be welded. However. 11-24. .
steel. Since casting is more easily adapted to mass production. Cast iron is heavy and brittle. Wrought iron is used to make decorative and outdoor furniture. and aluminum are more popular. Iron is usually coated or plated to protect it from rust. but cast iron. cast furniture is less expensive. Cast metal is also used for furniture hardware. . The cast metals use forms in the shape of wrought iron. 11-25.
11-26. . Plating -may be used for added protection or attractiveness. copper. a less expensive metal is plated with an attractive metal. Often. Some metal furniture is plated. Sometimes. using a solid metal such as copper would produce a weak or heavy piece of furniture. so plating with the metal is more practical. Chrome. brass. and zinc are common plating materials. nickel.
They have a tendency to tarnish and must be polished frequently. Brass and copper plating are costly. but they are valued for their appearance. Some manufacturers place a protective coating of clear lacquer or enamel over these metals to help prevent tarnishing. .
doors. 11-27. Baked enamel coatings have expanded the popularity of metal furniture. Kitchen cabinets. . A wide variety of colors are available in finishes that can be washed and are weather resistant. outdoor furniture. and bathroom cabinets are examples of pieces made of enameled metal.
Plastic furniture is lightweight.PLASTIC FURNITURE Plastics possess an almost infinite variety of characteristics. or they may display a unique character of their own. They may be made to imitate almost any other material. durable. 11-28. . and easily cleaned. inex-pensive.
and acrylics. nylons. Some of the broad families of plastics that have been used in furniture include vinyls. polyesters. styrenes. . The ability of plastics to be manufactured in solid shapes or produced as foam further enhances their desirability. cellulosics. Transparent and translucent plastics have special qualities which enhance some furniture designs. Plastics will probably replace many traditional materials used in furniture production. polyurethanes. polycarbonates.
It is helpful to know the names of furniture pieces and their proper definitions. personal taste should be a primary consideration. however. other information will help you make more satisfactory choices.FURNITURE SELECTION When selecting furniture. .
and maintenance requirements are important points to consider. Guidelines provided in this section will help you choose furniture that will provide satisfaction for several years. size. The glossary of furniture terms will help you to communicate properly when discussing furniture with a dealer. Quality and cost. . style.
. so care must be taken to get the best quality possible for the price paid. so it is important to buy from a dealer who stands by his or her products. Knowledge of furniture materials and construction will help you know what to examine when judging quality. Much of furniture construction is hidden.Quality and Cost Furniture is expensive. however.
These rules prohibit furniture manufacturers and dealers from providing false or misleading information about their furniture. information about materials and construction cannot be removed by the dealer. The Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) has instituted Trade Practice Rules for the Furniture Industry. . Any manufacturer's tags and labels with .
other platics. wood. These rules also require manufacturers to state what types of outer coverings and stuffings are used on upholstered furniture. Manufacturers must indicate if vinyl. or marble dust are used in an imitation of leather. . Leather and leather imitations must be marked as such. or marble.
any exposed parts must be made of that wood. . Labels must state that a veneered piece is veneered. Specific terms used to describe wood must conform to meanings determined by the DTI. Descriptions of wood furniture follow strict guidelines. If a label states that a piece is made of one wood.
Solid means that all exposed wood is of the same solid wood through the en-tire thickness of the piece. No veneers are used. Genuine means that the exposed parts are of the same wood, but that they are veneered. If veneered wood is made from plywood, the layers will be placed with the grain at right angles to each other. Laminated wood refers to plywood where all of the layers have their grain in the same direction.
Combination is a term used to describe furniture with more than one type of wood used in the exposed parts. If a piece is of all-wood construction, the wood exposed is the same throughout the entire thickness of the piece. Labels are helpful in evaluating furniture, but they don't tell you everything. Before any piece of furniture is taken home, it should be examined carefully by the buyer.
With case furniture, rub your hand over the surface. It should be smooth with no rough spots, splinters, or protruding nails. Check the back and inside surfaces as well. Stains should be even in color throughout the piece.
If you hear a dull thud. Construction should be solid. the construction is solid. Tap the panels of the furniture. Pieces that sound hollow are probably constructed from thin panels of wood attached to wooden frames. .
Doors should open and shut easily. All furniture should have a sturdy base. and they should fit squarely into their frame. Hinges should be properly aligned and should not squeak. Place firm pressure on the top or side of a piece to see if it wobbles. . Make sure all working parts work.
Drawers should roll smoothly when open and shut. Keep in mind what will be stored in the drawers. or slide without rollers. Avoid drawers that jar. catch. . Dresser drawers must be free of surface flaws which might catch on clothes.
and beds. . open and close all zippers to make sure they work smoothly. Also. sofas. Make sure that sitting down and standing up are not awkward or difficult tasks. look to see if upholstery fabric is underlined. When examining upholstered furniture. You should not be able to feel an individual spring through the cushioning material. Sit or lay on all chairs.
Intricate carvings. . 1130. Your dollars will be invested in solid construction. When pricing furniture. but they are not essen-tials. it is wise to choose pieces without these features. When looking for inexpensive but durable fur-niture. and curved construction all add to the beauty and price of a piece. deep patinas. heavy shaped moldings. solid construction should be a primary consideration.
but it will not be possible to buy matching pieces later. The price of furniture is also affected by the type of retailer that sells the furniture. service may be limited or sales may be final. Some bargains may be of quality comparable to more expensive pieces. Items that are being discontinued are often good buys. However. .
When a price is cut. . there are often disadvantages to buying. These may be in quality or service. Make sure you know what the disadvantages are and whether or not you can accept them.
but it is important for furniture to blend with a room's overall design and mood. paint chips. or other color samples with which furniture must be coordinated. .Style There are no set rules for choosing a furniture style. it is helpful to carry swatches of fabrics. When shopping for furniture. but they should blend with the other pieces in a room. 1131. Individual pieces do not have to match.
the tastes of all family members should be considered. Bedrooms and other private rooms allow for a more individualized style choice. since all family members will use the room. In common rooms such as a living room. . Items that are particularly displeasing to any one member should be avoided.
the furniture must fit into your house or apartment.Size Furniture size is important from two aspects. Doors. stairs. First. An item of the proper color and style is useless to you if you can't get it in the front door. . and halls may present problems. The size of these openings should be measured before choosing furniture.
your feet will not be able to rest on the floor comfortably. If it is lower. . sitting and standing will be difficult. Second. If a seat is higher. furniture should be of the appropriate scale for its use and location. The seat of a chair or couch should be slightly lower than the back of your knee² around 15 to 18 inches.
Chairs to be used at tables or desks should be streamlined to fit well and allow free movement. . A couch should be long enough to allow you to stretch out comfortably. but a longer couch would not be suitable for intimate conversation areas.
. or furniture that is too big. 11-32. Furniture should be in proportion to the dimensions of the room in which it will be placed. Putting too many pieces of furniture. into a room will detract from the overall plan and hinder the use of space. There should be ample room for circulation after all the furniture has been arranged in a room.
. Upholstered furniture may be vacuumed.Maintenance How much time and money must be spent in the upkeep of furniture is an important consideration. but occasional steam cleaning may be necessary. Stain removal may be difficult if upholstery fabric is not easily removed from the furniture. Fine wood furniture requires special cleaners and must be waxed regularly.
Treated fabrics resist stains. and vinyl furniture surfaces are resistant to stains and are easily cleaned. . Features that aid in cleanability include smooth surfaces with very little carving or grooving. metal. Removable slip covers can be washed by machine and are easily replaced when they wear out. Woods may be treated with special coatings to make them more resistant to stains and easier to clean. Plastic.
A family with no children may choose furniture with plush upholstery and fine wood case goods with intricate carving. For instance. . a working couple with young children should choose furniture with easily ³cleanable´ upholstery and smooth case goods with protective coatings. ³Cleanability´ and maintenance requirements should be compatible with your family's lifestyle.
. Proper names of furniture pieces should be mastered if one is to be able to communicate accurately when referring to furniture.
Bentwood Furniture pieces made from wood that has been steam bent into soft. usually of wood. . curved shapes. Armoire A large piece. contemporary chair design characterized by a stainless steel frame and upholstered leather back and seat. Barcelona Chair A classic. with doors and used in place of a closet for storing clothing or household linens.
Berge're An upholstered armchair with closed, upholstered sides and visible wood frame. Bombe Chest A Regency or Louis XV commode with bulg-ing sides, front, or both. Breakfront A wide, tall cabinet with wood doors and drawers on the bottom and glass doors on the top. This piece is similar to the modern china cabinet.
Camelback A chair or sofa that has a curved hump along the back. Campaign Furniture Furnishings with metal corners and handles patterned after military chests. Chesterfield An overstaffed sofa with upholstered ends.
Club Chair A comfortable, heavily upholstered chair with a cushioned seat. Coffee Table A long, low table, generally placed in front of the sofa, used to hold books, magazines, ashtrays, etc. Commode A low chest of drawers that is generally set against the wall.
. Console A versatile table that can be used in most any location. May be used in other rooms as well. about chair-rail height with doors and drawers. usually designed for the dining room. Credenza (Also called sideboard. Couch Synonymous with sofa.) A storage piece. It was originally a shelf attached to the wall. but originally referred to as a sofa with a low back and one raised end.
The divan is generally a living room piece. . Director's Chair A folding wooden frame chair with a canvas seat and back. Divan The divan bed has a concealed mattress which pulls out from the seat. It offers dual-purpose seating and sleeping. Davenport An upholstered sofa which may be made into a bed.
seat and back. Fauteuil A French open armchair with wooden arms and caned or upholstered. or bedroom. or closed depending on the design. Etagere Standing set of shelves with sides open. A very ver-satile piece that may be used singly or in multiples. Gateleg Table A space-saving table with hinged leaves and legs that swing out like a gate to support the leaves when raised. May be used to form modular wall units for living. . dining.
Lounge A type of couch with no back but one high end for reclining. . Hutch A chest or cabinet on legs with an open shelf above. Lounge Chair A comfortable. roomy chair available in several styles.
Loveseat A small sofa for two people. or ar-ranged in a variety of combinations. Usually three or four standard modules are used to form the system. used separately. ' . Modulars Uniform structural components that can be grouped together. Morris Chair A large armchair with loose cushions and a movable back.
Pedestal Table Any table that is supported by a single post rather than four legs. Parsons Table A classic square or rectangular table with apron and legs the same width. . Occasional Table A small table usually placed at the end of a sofa which may provide shelves or drawers for additional storage. May serve as a lamp table. but generally a little shorter than a lamp table.
Poster Bed A bed with four decorative posts. . Sawbuck Table Any large table with two X-shaped supports. Savonarola Chair An Italian Renaissance chair with a carved wood back and a frame composed of in-terlacing curved shapes.
They may be used in small bedrooms. dens. Settee A light double seat. upholstered piece with a back and sometimes arms. with seven drawers. narrow chest. . Semainier A tall. Sectional A piece of seating furniture made up of sec-tions that can be used separately or together. originally French. or guest rooms.
but made of wood. . Settles A Colonial piece similar to a settee. It has no regular mattress. Side Chair An armless dining chair. Sofa Bed A sofa with a back that folds back flat to form a bed area. Sofa A broad inclusive term that refers to a seat for two or more people. It requires less space than the divan.
Studio Couch A living room sleeper which has an upholstered mattress resting on an upholstered steel unit. Trundle Bed A low bed on casters that may be rolled under a full height bed. Wing Chair An overstuffed chair that has projecting sides on the high upholstered back. Bolsters are used to form the back. Studio Lounge A single sleeper of a slab construction with flat springs and foam rubber padding. .
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