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Furniture Design 1 - INT33A Instructor: IDR Raymond R. Fuentes, FPIID
Furniture is of major importance to any housing unit. It is a chief factor in physical comfort and in the design of a home. Furniture increases the usefulness of an area and expresses the personality of household members. It can make you feel at ease or uncomfortable in your surroundings.
Furniture is expensive and should be chosen with much care and thought. Price and quality of furniture is affected by the materials and methods used in construction; Materials and construction arc critical factors in the quality of furniture. Well-built pieces from appropriate materials will provide years of useful service, but if either is shortchanged, the results will be less than satisfactory.
plastics. Wood. and fabrics comprise the primary materials used to make furniture. . metals. Construction techniques are mainly concerned with methods of fastening pieces together to form a sturdy assembly that will hold its shape for a long time.
and desks. includes chests. headboards. Wood may be the main material used in a piece of furniture. tables. dressers. 11-1. Wood also may be used as a structural framework to be covered by other material as in upholstered furniture. . This type of furniture called case goods.WOOD FURNITURE The most common material used in furniture is wood.
It is made from maple in a New England style. 11-1 This dresser is an example of case goods. .
Wood finishes also may vary with the type and quality of a piece. Solid woods. and processed woods may be used in furniture of different types and qualities.Wood Types Various species of wood have different qualities that make them more suitable for some uses than others. veneers. .
2. spruce. Hardwood (from anglosperms) ± mostly from flowering and fruit bearing trees they have broader leaves and usually have harder wood. Woods may be classified as hardwoods or softwoods. . and cedars. 1. Softwood (from gymsosperms) ± include the cone bearing trees such as pine. they are all nearly evergreens and grow in cooler regions.
and more durability. hardwoods are generally more expensive than softwoods. However. . less pitch. so they hold nails and screws better and are less likely to dent. They are usually harder than softwoods.Hardwoods Hardwoods are generally preferred over softwoods for quality furniture because they have greater dimensional stability.
.Softwoods Softwoods generally develop checks and cracks with changing moisture conditions and have less strength than hardwoods. Softwoods are sometimes used as back panels on case goods. They are also used to make processed woods. since beauty and strength are not essential. Cost may outweigh other considerations depending on how the wood is used. but they are less expensive.
Wood Veneers Wood veneers permit the use of rare and expensive woods in furniture that would otherwise be too expensive or impractical. . Veneers are thin slices of wood cut from a log in various ways.
quarter slicing. rippled figure pattern. Five basic methods of cutting veneers are used: rotary cut. Flat slicing. half-round slicing riff-cut Most softwood veneers are cut using the rotary cut method. the log is mounted in a lathe and thin layers of wood (veneer) are pulled off as the log is turned producing a bold. . Here. variegated.
Flat slicing produces a variegated. Quarter slicing produces a series of stripes. wavy figure by slicing parallel to a line through the center of the log. Here the growth rings are approximately at a right angle to the knife. .
Rift-cut veneer is used for oak and other woods which have ray cells radiating from the center of the log. The cut is slightly across the annual growth rings of the log. . Half-round slicing has characteristics of both rotary cut and pair sliced veneers. This method emphasizes these cell patterns.
Veneer patterns may be obtained by matching piece' of veneer in various ways. The most common patterns are the: book match slip match. special match .
. the back of one veneer sheet meet the front of the adjacent veneer. This produces a matching joint design with a mirrored image look. to repeat the same grain pattern. In book matching. Therefore. without turning. Slip matching results when adjacent sheets are joined side by side. every other sheet is turned over like leaves of a book.
All of these patterns are used in furniture today. Special matching may be used to produce a variety of patterns² diamond. . checkerboard. "V". reverse diamond. and others. herring bone.
REVERSE DIAMOND FOUR-WAY CENTER AND BUTT .
Veneers cut from a crotch have plume-like designs. . burl. Veneer figure patterns are greatly affected by the par of the tree used. some of the most interesting and valuable patterns are cut from the crotch. Burls produce veneers with a pattern of swirls. Although most veneer is cut from the trunk of the tree. or stump 11-7. and stumps yield rippling patterns with sharp contrasts.
. 77-7 Wood grain cut from different parts of the tree produces different grain patterns.
of wood to make plywood. . and less expensive veneers or pressed wood are used as inner layers. five. Usually three. The outer layer is of a better veneer. or seven layers are bonded together. Veneered furniture is made by gluing together layers. or plies.
The layers are placed so that the grain of one layer is at right angles to the grain of the layer next to it. Veneers are practical when solid wood would be too expensive. like ebony. have veneered wood for exterior construction. Most fine case goods. especially cupboards. like rosewood. chests. or too heavy. . and tables.
No veneer is used.Solid Wood. . warp. It is also more expensive than veneer. If a case good is made from solid wood. any exposed parts are made from the same wood. but the unexposed parts of the piece may be made from different wood. and swell than a wellconstructed veneered wood. Solid wood has a greater tendency to crack.
and back panels. For these reasons. top. front. . pine. and veneered wood is used for side. cherry. solid woods are more often used for framework. and birch are most commonly used for solid wood furniture. Maple.
For these reasons. New technology has made it possible to make wood boards from wood particles. These processed woods are less expensive and often more durable than solid woods or veneered plywoods. composite board is becoming a common material in furniture. pressure.Composite Board. various resins. . Both are formed by combining wood particles. The two main types of processed woods are hardboard and particle board. and heat.
Hardboard is made from wood fibers into allwood panels. it is resistant to splits. Its surface can be smooth. cracks. splinters. . The fibers are extracted from wood chips by steam or chemical processes. Hardboard is exceptionally strong. or it can be textured to imitate the look of wood grain. then they are compressed under heat. abrasion. and moisture.
tabletops. cabinets. . surface designs cannot perfectly match the pattern of fine wood. and the backs of bookcases. Hardboard is considered an excellent material for furniture door and drawers parts. However. and chests in less expensive furniture. so hardboard may not be suitable for some furniture uses.
Like hardboard. pine. Particle board is made from wood shavings that are pressed together with heat and adhesive. hemlock. particle board is sturdy and versatile. Fur. poplar. several kinds of soft woods are used in the same piece of particle board. and aspen are most commonly used. Usually. .
. Particle board is often used as the core wood for cabinets and other furniture of low quality. Uncovered surfaces can be identified as particle board by an irregular crystallized pattern. The surface may be covered with laminated plastic or wood veneer.
Added color should come from several layers of finishing materials which work with the natural grain of the wood. and rubbing will produce a patina² a mellow glow with richness and depth of tone. Polishing. .Wood Finishes Fine quality wood furniture should be properly treated and finished. sanding.
moisture. or sealers may be used during the finishing process. oils. . and scratches. Stains. glazes. Good finishes will produce a smooth surface and protect wood from heat. waxes.
. Poor quality furniture is often finished with thick. Such finishes do not last as long as fine finishes. stained varnish or one coat of varnish that is dried quickly. The shine will be hard and glossy instead of mellow and rich. Brush marks may be evident on the surface.
wood stain 9. tinting color . clear gloss lacquer 2. lacquer flo 5.List of Materials for Wood Finishes 1. lacquer thinner 4. finishing oil 11. glazing putty 12. varnish 10. dead flat lacquer 3. wood filler 7. sanding sealer 8. wood bleach 6. paint thinner 14. paint 13.
but no piece is entirely "machine-made. ." Assembly or some finishing details are still performed by hand on quality furniture. The techniques used to fasten the various pieces together are just as important as the materials used in the furniture.Wood Furniture Construction Most furniture today is made using modern-machinery.
. Many different techniques and kinds of joints have been developed over the years to produce quality furniture. Quality joining is expensive and time consuming and frequently hidden from view. A piece of furniture is no stronger than its joints. Several types of joining methods are listed here.
It is made by butting the end or edge of one board against the end or edge of another. The surfaces being joined should fit closely and be square with each other. 11-8. The butt joint is a weak joint. or nails. The butt joint is the most simple type of joint to construct. The joint is generally held together with glue. screws. .
.Butt Joints Top: Flat Butt Bottom: Edge Butt 11-8 Butt joints are considered weak joints.
drawers. cases. and back panels of case goods. A rabbet joint is formed by cutting a recess in one or both pieces to be joined. The rabbet joint is stronger than the butt joint. Rabbet joints are easy to make and are generally used on the corners of boxes. Glue and screws or nails may be used. . 11-9. The recess may be cut along an edge or on the end.
but it is still relatively weak. .Rabbet Joints 11-9 The cutting and fitting of a rabbet joint makes it stronger than a butt joint.
The dado is cut to the width of the piece to be joined and that piece is fitted into the dado. and partitions in cabinets. They form strong joints when properly glued and carefully fitted. . These joints are used for installing shelves. frames. See 11-10. A dado is a rectangular recess cut across the grain of the wood.
Dado Joints Top: Dado Bottom: Blind Dado 11-10 Dado joints are very strong when properly fitted and glued .
Several types of lap joints may be used in furniture construction. 11-11. . They include: end-lap. Lap joints are made by cutting away an equal amount of wood from each piece so that when they are fitted together their surfaces are flush. half-lap. cross-lap. and middle-lap.
Lap joints may be used for corners of furniture frames. Glue and screws (when hidden) may be used to secure the joint for a strong connection. and they are often used to join exterior pieces of wood which cross each other. .
Lap Joints Top: End lap Middle: Half Lap Bottom Left: Middle Lap Bottom Right: Cross Lap .
Dowel joints may be used with several other types of joints such as the butt. 11-12. . Dowels are generally made of birch and range in size from 1/8 to 1 inch in increments of 1/8 inch. Glue is used to secure the dowels. Length and diameter depend on the size of the pieces being joined. They are used when extra strength is desired. rabbet. or lap joints. dado.
.Dowel Joints 11-12 Dowels may be used with several types of joints to improve their strength.
Their construction is shown in 11-13. benches. The mortise-and-tenon joint is a very strong type of joint. haunched. They may be used to join legs or rails to tables. open. . Three main forms are used: blind. and chairs.
.Mortise and Tenon 11-13 Mortise-andtenon joints form very strong joints and are useful in attaching furniture legs and rails.
The joint may be glued. The tongue is cut on one board and the matching groove is formed on the edge of the other board. but usually it is not when used in panel construction. A tongue and groove joint is used along the common edge of two boards. This joint forms a solid connection between the pieces. 11-14. . More than one tongue and groove joint may be used on a thick piece of material.
.Tongue and Groove 11-14 Tongue and groove joints are used along the common edge of two boards.
A spline joint is a simple butt joint with a thin piece of wood inserted in a groove to strengthen the joint. Spline joints may be used along the edges or at the corner of two pieces. . For greater strength. the grain of the spline should be perpendicular to the groove. See 11-15.
.Spline Joints Top: Edge Spline Bottom: Corner Spline 11-15 Spline joints are used to increase the strength of other joints.
A high degree of precision is necessary to make a tight-fitting dovetail joint. however. The principle technique is similar. Dovetail joints are used to fasten corner joints especially those on drawers. . but it provides maximum strength. through dovetail. in all variations. and half blind dovetail. A typical dovetail joint is shown in 11-16. Several variations of the dovetail joint are possible such as the lap dovetail.
Dovetail Top: Half Blind Dovetail Bottom: Through Dovetail 7 7-76 Dovetail joints are used on high quality construction to provide maximum strength. .
Blocks are usually glued and/or screwed in place. . Blocking consists of small pieces of wood attached between the adjacent sides of two pieces for added strength. 11-17. Blocking may be used where it would not be unsightly and where more strength is required. It is used at inside corners such as where a table leg is fastened to a rail and along the rail where it is attached to the table top.
but it should be located in areas which are not visible. .Blocking 11-17 Blocking is used to enforce other joints.
. All of the joints used in furniture construction may be glued. Modern glues develop tremendous strength and generally exceed the strength of the wood.
11-18.UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE Upholstered furniture incorporates some type of frame. and covering. because so much of the construction is hidden. This furniture must be examined carefully if the quality is to be accurately judged. Pieces such as sofas and . . cushioning material.chairs are frequently upholstered.
11-18 Upholstered furniture consists of a wooden frame and spring supports covered with padding and upholstery. The main construction of an upholstered piece is hidden from the view of the consumer. .
Non-sag spring and coil spring 4. Plastic sack / jute burlap 6. Muslim fabric or 'Katcha' 7. leather. Abaca twine anad cotton twine 9. Piping cord 8.Materials used for the construction of furniture upholstery 1. Fabric. Rubber foam (urethane. uratex) 3. Sewing thread . leatherette . Shoe tacks and cut tacks 10. Nail 11. 2. Rubber Strap 5.
How a piece of furniture is to be used will help determine what types of upholstery are most suitable. durable. . and soil resistant. fabrics should be comfortable. Overall. attractive.Upholstery Fabrics Upholstery fabrics should be functional as well as at-tractive. Consider fabrics that are fire retardant especially for commercial spaces.
Pile weave fabrics such as velvet and corduroy show wear much more quickly. Brocades and tapestry fabrics are beautiful. These fabrics may be more suitable for seldom used living room furniture. Plain or twill weaves are recommended for furniture that is used frequently. but the threads of these fabrics catch and snag easily. .
the addition of synthetic fibers such as rayon and nylon may increase a fabric's strength and stain resistance. . While natural fibers arc attractive. Both natural and synthetic fibers are used in upholstered furniture.
. Non-woven fabrics such as leather and vinyl may be used for upholstery. they are less expensive. Vinyls may be made to resemble leathers. but it is very expensive. Leather is durable and attractive. They are sturdy and easily cleaned.
Wood that is not properly dried will be more likely to split and buckle. The joints should be strengthened with dowels and glue blocks. .Construction An upholstered piece will have a frame of some type. the frame should be made of kiln-dried hard-wood. Generally.
Padding on the frame is desirable where it would come in contact with a wear surface. The manufacturer's tag or literature should provide useful information about the frame construction. durability will be less than satisfactory. Remember that if the piece has a weak or poorly constructed frame. .
This flat spring is nailed. or stapled to the frame at equidistant points from other flat springs. screwed. Several types of springs are used in seat bases. The part of a chair or sofa that serves as the platform for cushioning materials is called the seat base. One type is the serpentine or S-type spring. 11-19. Springs are linked together with tiny coiled springs called helicals. This type of construction produces a minimum amount of bulk. .
. 11-19 The S-type spring i's used on a seat base when a minimum of bulk is desired.
See 11-20. . Another type of Seat base construction which is fre-quently used is the coil spring type. The springs are tied as frequently as eight times per spring in quality pieces. An average size chair would generally have nine to twelve springs per seat. Several coil springs are attached to webbing or steel bands.
11-20 Coil springs of heavy weight which are properly anchored provide a comfortable. resilient seat base. .
Several materials are used such as cellular foams. fiberfill. . Polyurethane foam is used on most furniture today for cushioning. The most expensive furniture has feathers or down while the least expensive probably has some type of fiberfill. feathers. A thick layer of cushioning material should be applied directly over the springs and frame. and down.
11-21. Buttons and zippers should be secure. Welting or cording sewn into the seams adds strength. The seams should be straight and tight with no loose threads. The outer covering is the most visible part of an upholstered piece. .
. 11-21 The welting on this couch is attractive. but it also adds strength to the seams.
and gauge (thickness of wire). placement. The springs vary in number. . They contain a series of springs covered with padding. Sec 11-22. size.Bedding Innerspring mattresses are similar in construction to upholstered furniture.
FOAM CUSHIONING 11-22 A good mattress consists of heavy gauge coils that are individually pocketed. . They should be firmly anchored and covered with a tightly woven fabric.
Coils may or may not be individually pocketed or covered with padding. and a tightly woven cover with a non-sag border. . A good quality mattress should have at least 300 heavy coils that are firmly anchored. good padding and insula-tion placed over the between coils.
A good foam mattress is about 6 inches thick. Foam mattresses are often used by people with allergies. Foam mattresses are made of latex or polyurethane foam. It has holes or cores in it which make the mattress more comfortable. . They are lightweight and less expensive than innerspring mattresses.
Mattresses are usually supported by springs. The support may be box springs, coil springs, or flat springs, 11-23. Box springs are the most expensive, but they provide the most support. They consist of a series of coils attached to a base and covered with padding.
71 -23 Box springs are coil springs that are padded and covered. Coil springs are anchored to a frame, but have no padded covering. Flat springs are attached to a frame and may have metal support strips banded across them.
Coil springs have the same construction as box springs, but they are not covered or padded. They are of medium expense and quality. Flat springs are the least expensive and provide the least support, but they are lightweight and become uncomfortable with time.
aluminum. Several metal coatings or platings are also popular. . Steel. and iron account for the majority of structural metals used.METAL FURNITURE There are many types and styles of metal furniture available today.
They may be assembled with mechanical fasteners. lightweight. . However. it is not as strong and lends to bend and dent. These pieces are strong. Aluminum tubing is used frequently for lawn furniture. and fairly inexpensive. Many modern furniture pieces are made from steel tubing. or they may be welded. 11-24. It is lighter in weight and less expensive than steel.
Wrought iron is used to make decorative and outdoor furniture. cast furniture is less expensive. but cast iron. and aluminum are more popular. Cast metal is also used for furniture hardware. Since casting is more easily adapted to mass production. Iron is usually coated or plated to protect it from rust. . The cast metals use forms in the shape of wrought iron. 11-25. steel. Cast iron is heavy and brittle.
so plating with the metal is more practical. using a solid metal such as copper would produce a weak or heavy piece of furniture. Some metal furniture is plated. Sometimes. Plating -may be used for added protection or attractiveness. Often. a less expensive metal is plated with an attractive metal. . copper. Chrome. and zinc are common plating materials. brass. 11-26. nickel.
but they are valued for their appearance. . Some manufacturers place a protective coating of clear lacquer or enamel over these metals to help prevent tarnishing. They have a tendency to tarnish and must be polished frequently. Brass and copper plating are costly.
outdoor furniture. Baked enamel coatings have expanded the popularity of metal furniture. and bathroom cabinets are examples of pieces made of enameled metal. . 11-27. A wide variety of colors are available in finishes that can be washed and are weather resistant. doors. Kitchen cabinets.
PLASTIC FURNITURE Plastics possess an almost infinite variety of characteristics. durable. 11-28. . or they may display a unique character of their own. They may be made to imitate almost any other material. and easily cleaned. inex-pensive. Plastic furniture is lightweight.
polyurethanes. . and acrylics. nylons. polyesters. Transparent and translucent plastics have special qualities which enhance some furniture designs. Plastics will probably replace many traditional materials used in furniture production. polycarbonates. styrenes. The ability of plastics to be manufactured in solid shapes or produced as foam further enhances their desirability. Some of the broad families of plastics that have been used in furniture include vinyls. cellulosics.
other information will help you make more satisfactory choices. .FURNITURE SELECTION When selecting furniture. however. personal taste should be a primary consideration. It is helpful to know the names of furniture pieces and their proper definitions.
. Quality and cost. Guidelines provided in this section will help you choose furniture that will provide satisfaction for several years. size. and maintenance requirements are important points to consider. The glossary of furniture terms will help you to communicate properly when discussing furniture with a dealer. style.
so care must be taken to get the best quality possible for the price paid.Quality and Cost Furniture is expensive. so it is important to buy from a dealer who stands by his or her products. however. Knowledge of furniture materials and construction will help you know what to examine when judging quality. . Much of furniture construction is hidden.
Any manufacturer's tags and labels with . These rules prohibit furniture manufacturers and dealers from providing false or misleading information about their furniture. . The Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) has instituted Trade Practice Rules for the Furniture Industry. information about materials and construction cannot be removed by the dealer.
or marble dust are used in an imitation of leather. Manufacturers must indicate if vinyl. wood. or marble. These rules also require manufacturers to state what types of outer coverings and stuffings are used on upholstered furniture. . other platics. Leather and leather imitations must be marked as such.
Descriptions of wood furniture follow strict guidelines. If a label states that a piece is made of one wood. Specific terms used to describe wood must conform to meanings determined by the DTI. . any exposed parts must be made of that wood. Labels must state that a veneered piece is veneered.
Solid means that all exposed wood is of the same solid wood through the en-tire thickness of the piece. No veneers are used. Genuine means that the exposed parts are of the same wood, but that they are veneered. If veneered wood is made from plywood, the layers will be placed with the grain at right angles to each other. Laminated wood refers to plywood where all of the layers have their grain in the same direction.
Combination is a term used to describe furniture with more than one type of wood used in the exposed parts. If a piece is of all-wood construction, the wood exposed is the same throughout the entire thickness of the piece. Labels are helpful in evaluating furniture, but they don't tell you everything. Before any piece of furniture is taken home, it should be examined carefully by the buyer.
With case furniture, rub your hand over the surface. It should be smooth with no rough spots, splinters, or protruding nails. Check the back and inside surfaces as well. Stains should be even in color throughout the piece.
. the construction is solid. Construction should be solid. If you hear a dull thud. Pieces that sound hollow are probably constructed from thin panels of wood attached to wooden frames. Tap the panels of the furniture.
. All furniture should have a sturdy base. Place firm pressure on the top or side of a piece to see if it wobbles. and they should fit squarely into their frame. Make sure all working parts work. Hinges should be properly aligned and should not squeak. Doors should open and shut easily.
Dresser drawers must be free of surface flaws which might catch on clothes. Avoid drawers that jar. . Keep in mind what will be stored in the drawers. or slide without rollers. catch. Drawers should roll smoothly when open and shut.
look to see if upholstery fabric is underlined. . open and close all zippers to make sure they work smoothly. When examining upholstered furniture. and beds. Make sure that sitting down and standing up are not awkward or difficult tasks. You should not be able to feel an individual spring through the cushioning material. Also. sofas. Sit or lay on all chairs.
Your dollars will be invested in solid construction. deep patinas. When looking for inexpensive but durable fur-niture. it is wise to choose pieces without these features. solid construction should be a primary consideration. but they are not essen-tials. When pricing furniture. Intricate carvings. 1130. and curved construction all add to the beauty and price of a piece. heavy shaped moldings. .
service may be limited or sales may be final. However. Some bargains may be of quality comparable to more expensive pieces. Items that are being discontinued are often good buys. but it will not be possible to buy matching pieces later. . The price of furniture is also affected by the type of retailer that sells the furniture.
When a price is cut. there are often disadvantages to buying. Make sure you know what the disadvantages are and whether or not you can accept them. . These may be in quality or service.
When shopping for furniture.Style There are no set rules for choosing a furniture style. . but it is important for furniture to blend with a room's overall design and mood. it is helpful to carry swatches of fabrics. or other color samples with which furniture must be coordinated. 1131. paint chips. Individual pieces do not have to match. but they should blend with the other pieces in a room.
the tastes of all family members should be considered. In common rooms such as a living room. since all family members will use the room. Items that are particularly displeasing to any one member should be avoided. Bedrooms and other private rooms allow for a more individualized style choice. .
the furniture must fit into your house or apartment. The size of these openings should be measured before choosing furniture. First. An item of the proper color and style is useless to you if you can't get it in the front door. . stairs. Doors.Size Furniture size is important from two aspects. and halls may present problems.
The seat of a chair or couch should be slightly lower than the back of your knee² around 15 to 18 inches. your feet will not be able to rest on the floor comfortably. . Second. If it is lower. furniture should be of the appropriate scale for its use and location. sitting and standing will be difficult. If a seat is higher.
. but a longer couch would not be suitable for intimate conversation areas. A couch should be long enough to allow you to stretch out comfortably. Chairs to be used at tables or desks should be streamlined to fit well and allow free movement.
11-32. or furniture that is too big. into a room will detract from the overall plan and hinder the use of space. There should be ample room for circulation after all the furniture has been arranged in a room. Furniture should be in proportion to the dimensions of the room in which it will be placed. Putting too many pieces of furniture. .
but occasional steam cleaning may be necessary.Maintenance How much time and money must be spent in the upkeep of furniture is an important consideration. Stain removal may be difficult if upholstery fabric is not easily removed from the furniture. . Fine wood furniture requires special cleaners and must be waxed regularly. Upholstered furniture may be vacuumed.
Removable slip covers can be washed by machine and are easily replaced when they wear out. Woods may be treated with special coatings to make them more resistant to stains and easier to clean. . Treated fabrics resist stains. and vinyl furniture surfaces are resistant to stains and are easily cleaned. Plastic. Features that aid in cleanability include smooth surfaces with very little carving or grooving. metal.
a working couple with young children should choose furniture with easily ³cleanable´ upholstery and smooth case goods with protective coatings. ³Cleanability´ and maintenance requirements should be compatible with your family's lifestyle. For instance. A family with no children may choose furniture with plush upholstery and fine wood case goods with intricate carving. .
Proper names of furniture pieces should be mastered if one is to be able to communicate accurately when referring to furniture. .
. Bentwood Furniture pieces made from wood that has been steam bent into soft. contemporary chair design characterized by a stainless steel frame and upholstered leather back and seat. with doors and used in place of a closet for storing clothing or household linens. Barcelona Chair A classic. curved shapes. Armoire A large piece. usually of wood.
Berge're An upholstered armchair with closed, upholstered sides and visible wood frame. Bombe Chest A Regency or Louis XV commode with bulg-ing sides, front, or both. Breakfront A wide, tall cabinet with wood doors and drawers on the bottom and glass doors on the top. This piece is similar to the modern china cabinet.
Camelback A chair or sofa that has a curved hump along the back. Campaign Furniture Furnishings with metal corners and handles patterned after military chests. Chesterfield An overstaffed sofa with upholstered ends.
Club Chair A comfortable, heavily upholstered chair with a cushioned seat. Coffee Table A long, low table, generally placed in front of the sofa, used to hold books, magazines, ashtrays, etc. Commode A low chest of drawers that is generally set against the wall.
May be used in other rooms as well. . Couch Synonymous with sofa. Credenza (Also called sideboard. Console A versatile table that can be used in most any location.) A storage piece. but originally referred to as a sofa with a low back and one raised end. usually designed for the dining room. It was originally a shelf attached to the wall. about chair-rail height with doors and drawers.
The divan is generally a living room piece. . Divan The divan bed has a concealed mattress which pulls out from the seat. Director's Chair A folding wooden frame chair with a canvas seat and back. Davenport An upholstered sofa which may be made into a bed. It offers dual-purpose seating and sleeping.
seat and back. Fauteuil A French open armchair with wooden arms and caned or upholstered. or closed depending on the design. May be used to form modular wall units for living. Etagere Standing set of shelves with sides open. A very ver-satile piece that may be used singly or in multiples. dining. Gateleg Table A space-saving table with hinged leaves and legs that swing out like a gate to support the leaves when raised. or bedroom. .
Lounge Chair A comfortable. Hutch A chest or cabinet on legs with an open shelf above. Lounge A type of couch with no back but one high end for reclining. roomy chair available in several styles. .
Usually three or four standard modules are used to form the system. or ar-ranged in a variety of combinations. Morris Chair A large armchair with loose cushions and a movable back. Loveseat A small sofa for two people. Modulars Uniform structural components that can be grouped together. ' . used separately.
May serve as a lamp table. Occasional Table A small table usually placed at the end of a sofa which may provide shelves or drawers for additional storage. Pedestal Table Any table that is supported by a single post rather than four legs. Parsons Table A classic square or rectangular table with apron and legs the same width. but generally a little shorter than a lamp table. .
Savonarola Chair An Italian Renaissance chair with a carved wood back and a frame composed of in-terlacing curved shapes. . Sawbuck Table Any large table with two X-shaped supports. Poster Bed A bed with four decorative posts.
. Semainier A tall. or guest rooms. with seven drawers. upholstered piece with a back and sometimes arms. Sectional A piece of seating furniture made up of sec-tions that can be used separately or together. Settee A light double seat. originally French. narrow chest. They may be used in small bedrooms. dens.
Side Chair An armless dining chair. It has no regular mattress. but made of wood. It requires less space than the divan. Settles A Colonial piece similar to a settee. Sofa Bed A sofa with a back that folds back flat to form a bed area. Sofa A broad inclusive term that refers to a seat for two or more people. .
Studio Couch A living room sleeper which has an upholstered mattress resting on an upholstered steel unit. . Trundle Bed A low bed on casters that may be rolled under a full height bed. Bolsters are used to form the back. Wing Chair An overstuffed chair that has projecting sides on the high upholstered back. Studio Lounge A single sleeper of a slab construction with flat springs and foam rubber padding.