RAILWAY SIGNALLING

SIGNALLING
Signalling is a device by which the movement of the train is controlled

PURPOSE OF SIGNALLING 
   

Operating rail traffic, safely, speedily and economically. Increasing line capacity. Providing systems on safe principles. Preventing conflicting movements of trains. Ensuring adequate interval of space between following trains or those which can cross or approach each other·s path.

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS SIGNALS FUNCTION LOCATION PURPOSE OPERATION STOP WARNER DISC COLORED OUTER HOME STARTER ADVANCE ROUTING REPEATER CALL ON HAND FIXED DETONATING .

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS Controlling signals Which are mandatory to observe for train movement .

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS Indicating signals Correspond to the traffic signs of highways. . Also mandatory to observe.

. These only enhance the efficiency and provide a further safety caution.CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS Warning signals They provide a pre-hand warning to the driver about the controlling signals ahead.

Thus red light indicates danger and green light indicates clear. When the arm is in inclined position it indicates ´clear-proceedµ & is said in ´off-positionµ. the light of the lamp passing through the spectacles gives signals. In the horizontal position. .STOP SIGNAL ‡ The normal position of the signal is horizontal & it can be lowered at an angle of 45o to 60o with horizontal by pulling the wire from the signal cabin. the signal indicates the ´danger stopµ & it is said ´on positionµ. ‡ In the night.

67 m .STOP SIGNAL The length and width of arm vary from 120-167 cm and 23-35 cm respectively The outer end of the arm is about 2.45 cm Broader than that of the hinged end It is placed on the left hand side of the direction of movement of train The side of the arm facing the driver is painted red with white band near the end The other side is painted white with black bands 7.

STOP SIGNAL SEMAPHORE Operation Time Position Of Arm Horizontal Arm Position Of Signal ON Indication Given Stop Day Time Inclined At 60 or 45 o o OFF Proceed Red Light Night Time Green Light ON Stop OFF Proceed .

WARNER SIGNAL Signals placed ahead of the stop signals to warn the driver before entering the station These signals are similar to stop signals with the exception that at their free end V notch is cut to distinguish it from stop signals Warner signals are placed generally at about 540 m away from the stop signals SIGNAL INDICATIONS Inclined Position: Track is clear and driver can proceed with confidence Horizontal Position: Deriver can take his train upto Stop signal cautiously .

e.SEMAPHORE AND WARNER SIGNAL Semaphore and Warner Signals can be placed on same the pole. section upto station is clear but not beyond SEMAPHORE Both in Inclined Position: Track is clear and proceed with confidence WARNER . Semaphore is placed on top and the Warner at about 2 m below it SIGNAL INDICATIONS Both in Horizontal Position: section nor next block is clear Neither approaching When Semaphore is inclined and Warner Horizontal proceed with precaution i.

SEMAPHORE AND WARNER SIGNAL Operatio ime Color at ight Yello ight Positio Of ig al ON I i atio Stop iven Night ime (only arner) Green ight OFF Pro eed both ights Yello Night ime Semaphore Green ight & (semaphore+warner) arner ights Yello Both ights Green ON Stop Pro eed ith aution OFF Pro eed .

DISC SIGNAL These are shunting signals which are used for low speed movements during shunting operations. The consist of circular discs with red bands on white back round SIGNAL INDICATIONS When Red band is Horizontal: Stop When Red band is Inclined: Proceed .

The signals are provided with green. Proceed These signals are provided with special lenses & hoods to emit beam of light which can be visible from a long distance even during the day. Proceed with Caution Stop .COLORED LIGHT SIGNALS These are automatic signals & give indications by electric lights both during the day as well as in night. yellow and red light.

(Such as Flags.OPERATIONAL SIGNAL Fixed. Cabin Signals. (a) (b) Semaphore. Moveable. Colour light. hand lights) Detonators. (a) (b) (c) HAND SIGNALS. .

brake power of the locomotive etc. this distance has been found approximately equal to 540 m for broad gauge and 400 m for meter gauge lines . its weight. Thus the first signal is provided at this distance beyond the station limit. In Pakistan for the maximum allowable speed. that is why it is know as outer signal A certain distance is required to bring a moving train to halt. This distance depends upon the speed of the train.OUTER SIGNAL This is Warner signal for the driver which gives the indication of the position ahead whether the platform is clear or not.

SIGNALS ACCORDING TO LOCATION OHS OS HS SS ASS INTERLOCKING STANDARDS STANDARD-I STANDARD-II STANDARD-III Applicable for station for train speeds upto 50 kmph Applicable for station for train speeds upto 75 kmph Applicable for station for unrestrictedspeeds .

OS .OUTER SIGNAL In horizontal or stop position it indicates that the driver must bring his train to halt within 90 m before outer signal and than proceed to the home signal with caution In the inclined or proceed position it indicates that track and platform is clear and proceed normally without any danger.

OHS HS . The permission to enter the platform is given by the operation of this signal. it is intended to protect is specified as 180 m due to its location at the door of station. Its main function is to protect the stations. it is called home signal. The maximum unprotected distance between the signal and the point.HOME SIGNAL After the outer signal towards station is a stop signal and exactly placed at the station limit is called home or stop signal.

No train can leave the platform unless this signal is lowered. It gives permission to the train to leave the platform for next station. SS . that is why it is called starter signal. A separate signal is provided for each line.STARTER SIGNAL This signal is provided at the forward end of platform and controls the movement of the train as they leave the station.

It is always placed beyond the outer most set of the point connections.ADVANCE STARTER SIGNAL The limit of a station section lies between the home signal and the advance starter signal. OHS HS SS ASS station section . The signal which allows the train to enter in block section is called advance starter signal.

Generally signal for main line is kept higher than those for branch lines . it is very difficult to provide individual signal for each line at the divergent point. These signals are called routing signal.ROUTING SIGNAL When many branch lines diverge in different directions from the main line. In such situations various signals for main line and branch lines are fixed on the same vertical post.

some signals are used to repeat the information of the main signal.REPEATING SIGNAL When the view of the main signal is obstructed due to some structures or on curves etc. Such signal are know as repeating signal. .

but they are smaller in size and are fixed on the same post below the main signals. .CALLING ON SIGNAL These signal are similar to semaphore signal. These are helpful when repair works are going on. A calling on signal permits a train to proceed with caution after the train has been brought to a halt by the main signal.

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS SIGNALS FUNCTION LOCATION PURPOSE OPERATION STOP WARNER DISC COLORED OUTER HOME STARTER ADVANCE ROUTING REPEATER CALL ON HAND FIXED DETONATING .

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