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meaning city equivalent to a sovereign state It is the basic knowledge & understanding of the state & the principles & ideas which underlie its organization & activities It is primarily concerned with the association of human beings in a body politic or a political community
y History ascribes to Aristotle the beginnings of the
formal study of state & government y Political science is a social science considering that it focuses on men as they interact with the government and its various institutions y It deals with the basic knowledge & understanding of the state as well as the principles & ideologies underlying its organization & activities
y Fields of political science:
7. Public Policy 1. Political Theory 8. Political Dynamics 2. Public Law 9. Government & Business 10. Legislature 3. Government 11. Geopolitics 4. Comparative Government 5. International Relations 6. Public Administration
y Values & Uses of Political Science: y 1. Awareness of the importance & impact of
government on people s lives y 2. Education for citizenship y 3. Development of civic values y 4. Preparation for various careers & professions
the ability to exercise authority over others y Authority is the feature of a leader or an institution that compels others to grant it obedience usually because of some ascribed legitimacy . rule. y It is the art & science of governance y Power refers to the ability or the right to do something.Politics y Politics is the owning & exercising of power. authority & influence for whatever reasons.
com y Rule is the regulation or by-law governing procedure in a public or private body y Influence refers to the act or process or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command & often without deliberate effort or intent ..flickr.mike velarde slaps hisBy reverenmikev.. on Flickr Politics www.
Politics y Images of politics in the Philippines: y Boardroom politics y Bureaucratic politics y Congress politics y Chief executive politics y Courtroom politics y Newborn multi-media y politics .
The Concept of Governance y Transparency of government y Simplicity of procedures y Responsibility y Fight against corruption y Individual freedom & collective expression y An independent judicial system .
Government 4. Territory 3. People 2. permanently occupying a definite portion of territory .Concepts of State & Government y State is a community of persons more or less y y y y y numerous . having a government of their own to which a great body of inhabitants render obedience & enjoying freedom from external control Elements of the State: 1. Sovereignty .
Paternalistic theory y 4. Historical or Evolutionary Theory .Origin of States y 1. Instinctive Theory y 8. Hobbes Social Contract Theory y 6. Locke s Social Contract Theory y 7. Economic Theory y 9. Divine right theory y 2. Necessity or force theory y 3. Rousseau s Social Contract Theory y 5.
A single state may consist of one or more nations or peoples . A state is a political concept. a single nation maybe made up of several states . A state is not subject to external control while a nation may or may not be independent from external control y 3. while a nation an ethnic concept y 2.State Distinguished from Nation y 1.
State Distinguished from Government y They are usually regarded as identical. y The government is only the agency through which the state expresses its will y A state cannot exist without a government y It is possible to have a government without a state .
Purpose & Necessity of Government y Advancement of the public welfare: government exists for the welfare of the people y Consequence of absence: without an organized structure of government anarchy & disorder & a general feeling of fear & insecurity will prevail in society .
the state is able to achieve y y y y y the following purposes: Establishment of domestic order Provision for the common defense of the state Securing for the people the blessings of liberty & justice Promotion of the general welfare Promotion of public morality .Purpose & Necessity of Government y Through the government.
Rule adjudication y 3. Maintenance of authority . Rule making y 2. Rule execution y According to Burns the following are the two functions of government: y 1.Functions of Government y Three basic functions of government: y 1. Administration y 2.
Right to self-preservation y 3. Right of legation . Right of jurisdiction y 5. Right to property & domain y 4. Right of existence y 2.Inherent Rights of the State y Inherent rights of the state: y 1.
Power of taxation . Police power y 3.Fundamental Powers of the State y 1. Power of eminent Domain y 2.
Constitutional 2. Indirect . Absolute b. As to the number of persons exercising sovereign y y y y y y y powers: 1. Direct b. Aristocracy :exercised by a few privileged class 3. Monarchy a.Forms of Government y A. Democracy: exercised by a majority of the people a. Limited c.
Equality of opportunity 4. Respect for the individual 3. Personal liberty 2. Freedom of expression 4. democracy needs a well defined process most important of which are: y 1. Free & fair elections 3. Popular Consent To be successful. Majority rule y 2. freedom to assemble & y protest y y y y y y .Forms of Government Democracy seeks to promote the following values: 1.
Presidential 2. Federal : powers of government divided: one for national. Unitary government: control of national & local affairs exercised by the national or central government 2. Parliamentary .Forms of Government y B. As to the extent of powers exercised by the central or y y y y y national powers: 1. the other for local affairs As to relationship between the executive & legislative branches of government: 1.
Forms of Government y 1. The Chief Executive cannot dissolve the legislature at any point in time . The Chief Executive could be remived through impeachment even before the expiration of his term y d. Powers of government distributed among the three branches: executive. Presidential Form: y a. The chief Executive is who is the Head of the state as well as members of the legislature elected by the people y c. legislative & judicial y b.
There is fusion between the Executive & legislative branches b. The Chief Executive stays in power as long as he enjoys the support of the legislature & can be removed by members if they lose their confidence on him y e.Forms of Government 2. Members of the legislature are elected by the people c. The Chief Executive can dissolve the legislature y y y y y . Parliamentary Form: a. The Chief Executive is elected by members of legislature from the majority party y d.
Forms of Government y Governments based on legality or legitimacy: y 1. De Facto government y Governments based on the prevalent political system y y y y & ideology: 1. Facade democracy . Liberal democracy: a. De Jure government y 2. Transitional democracy c. Established democracy b.
One-Party system 3. Communist state 2.Forms of Government y 2. Military state 4. Authoritarianism is a political system that rests y y y y y more on the obedience of the citizens than upon their consent: 1. Dynastic or court regime 5. Theocratic State .
Social classes: a. Slaves 4. Barangay settlements or villages with more or less 100 families 2. Serfs d. Freeman c. Early laws: promulgated by the datus -Laws were generally fair . Nobility b. Datu chief of the Barangay. sultan or datu assisted by the council of Elders (Maginoos ) 3.The Government of the Philippines in Transition y I. Pre-Spanish Government: Unit of government : 1.also called rajah.
Government during the Spanish Period: y 1. then the Council of Ministers & the Ministry of Ultramar .The Government of the Philippines in Transition y II. Spanish colonial administration: y 1565 to 1821 Philippines directly governed by the King of Spain through Mexico y 1821 to 1898 directly ruled by Spain y Council of the Indies responsible for the administration.
As vice royal patron exercised certain religious powers . legislative & judicial powers. the representative of the Governor-General y Cities governed under special charters each with city councils or ayuntamiento 4. centralized in structure. national in scope y Barangays consolidated into towns (pueblos) headed by a gobernadorcillo y Towns consolidated into provinces headed be the governor.The Government of the Philippines in Transition 3. The governor-general/captain general or vice royal patron :exercise executive. Government was unitary.
y Courts of First Instance were also established y There were special courts like the military. 1898 y 4.Philippine Government in Transition 5. Dictatorial government. 23. ecclesiastical courts. Governments during the revolutionary era: y 1.proclamation of independence June 12. Katipunan y 2. Revolutionary government y 5. III.1899 to March 23. The Judiciary: The Royal Audiencia was the Supreme Court.1901 . Biak na Bato /01/1897 to 12/15/1897 y 3. naval. First Philippine Republic Jan.
Military Government y 2. 1901 headed by the GovernorGeneral with legislative powers y Lawmaking bodies during the American regime: y 1901-1907.Philippine Government in Transition IV. Commission headed by the governor y 1901-1916-Philippine commission as the Upper House. Civil government: July 14. y The Philippines was represented in the US House of Representatives by the two resident commissioners elected y Elected by the Philippine Legislature . Philippine Assembly as the Lower House y Spooner Law in 1916 gave way to Philippine legislature. Government during the American regime: y 1.Phil.
Filipinos had complete control. Quezon & Sergio Osmena as Vice President It was republican in form. the Americans on foreign affairs .under the presidential type Legislative power vested initially in a unicameral legislature: the National Assembly later a bicameral congress. 1935 with Manuel L.The Philippine Government in Transition y Commonwealth Government created pursuant to the y y y y Tydings=Mcduffie Law on March 24.1934 Transition period of ten years prior to granting of independence Inaugurated November 15.
The Philippine Government in Transition y The commonwealth government functioned in exile during World War II V. Laurel as President . October 14. 1942 y Philippine Executive Commission the civil government headed by Jorge Vargas composed of Filipinos It exercised both executive & legislative powers y The Japanese sponsored Republic. Governments during the Japanese Occupation: y Japanese military administration established in Manila January 3.1943 with Jose P.
January 23.1899 under the Malolos constitution y Second October 14.1946 y Fourth Proclaimed by President Marcos y under the 1973 Constitution .1943 under the Japanese sponsored Constitution y Third July 14.1946 with Manuel Roxas as first President & Elpidio Quirino as Vice President y Philippine republics established: y First.The Philippine Government in Transition y Previous Philippine Republics: y Republic of the Philippines was formally inaugurated on July 04.
de jure/de facto y 3. Democratic y It derived its powers from the people to whom it was accountable y A Provisional constitution was promulgated to replace the 1973 Constitution .The Philippine Government in Transition Provisional Government of 1986: y The government established under the President Aquino was: y 1. revolutionary y 2. constitutional & transitory y 4.
limited and defined and by which these powers are distributed among the several departments or branches for their safe & useful exercise for the benefit of the people.Concept of Constitution y It refers to the body of rules & principles in accordance with which the powers of sovereignty are regularly exercised y Constitution of the Philippines is a written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established. .
their nature.Nature & Purpose or Function of the Constitution y 1. Serves as the fundamental or supreme law y 2. amendment & interpretation . Establishes basic framework & underlying principles of government y Constitutional Law Branch of public law which treats of constitutions. formation.
Establishment of the basic framework of the government y 2.Nature & Purpose or Function of the Constitution y Functions of the Constitution: y 1. Regulation of the rights & freedoms enjoyed by the individual y 3. Protection of the people from government abuses .
Kinds of Constitution y 1. Flexible or elastic . As to manner of amending them: y a. Rigid or inclusive y b. Cumulative or evolved y 2. Conventional or enacted y b. As to origin & history: y a. As to their form: y a. Unwritten y 3. Written y b.
Requisites of a good Constitution y As to form: y 1. Definite y As to contents: y 1. constitution of sovereignty . Broad y 3. constitution of liberty y 3. Brief y 2. constitution of government y 2.
constitution is legislation from the people. statute from the people s representatives y 2. a constitution is the supreme or fundamental law to which all statutes must conform . a statute to meet existing conditions y 4. a constitution states the general framework of the law. a constitution is intended to govern the future. a statute provides the details of the subject it treats y 3.Constitution Distinguished from Statute y 1.
Approval on march 23. Ratification on May 14. Legislature of a bill calling a constitutional convention y c.Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines I. Approval on February 8. Approval on May 5. Framing & ratification: y a. The 1935 Constitution 1. Approval on March 24. 1934 by President Franklin Roosevelt of the Tydings McDuffie Law known as Philippine Independence Act y b. 1934 by the Phil.1935 by President Roosevelt of the constitution y e.1935 by the convention of the Constitution y d. 1935 of the constitution by the Filipino electorate .
1916 y The constitution was intended for the Commonwealth & the Republic y However it ceased to operate during the Japanese Occupation :1942-1944 . & three organic laws as: Instruction of President Mckinley to the 2nd Phil.Phil. & Jones Law of August 26. Commission. the 1898 Malolos constitution. Bill of 1902.Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines y The TydingsMcDuffie Law empowered the Filipinos to frame their constitution but it imposed certain limitations like: the constitution being republican in form. should contain bill of rights & define the relationships between the US & the Philippines y Sources: constitution of the US.
Creation of the Commission on elections y 4. Reeligibility of the President & Vice President for a second four-year term y 3. Right of suffrage granted to women .The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines y Amendments to the 1935 Constitution: y 1. Parity amendments y 5. Establishment of a bicameral legislature y 2.
Framing of the Constitution: y a. 10.1971 & was signed Nov.Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines y The 1973 constitution: y 1.1969 authorized the holding of a constitutional convention in 1971 y b. Congress on June 17.1970 as election day for the 320 delegates to the convention y c. Republic Act no. Rewriting of the Constitution by the convention started June 01. 30. 6132 set Nov.1972 y The 1935 Constitution was made the basis y The constitution was approved by the Citizen Assemblies .
making of the President as the regular President & prime Minister y 2. providing land reforms & urban housing programs . permitting natural born citizens who have lost their citizenship to be transferees of private lands y 5. allowing the grants of lands of public domain to qualified citizens y 6. establishing of a modified parliamentary form of government y 4. granting of legislative powers to the President y 3.Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines y Amendments to the 1973 Constitution: y 1.
1986 at the Batasang Pambansa. nationalism & patriotism y It convened June 02. Under Article 5 of Presidential Proclamation on March 25. Quezon city y .Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines y The 1987 constitution: y Framing & ratification: y 1. the 1987Constitution was drafted by the Constitutional Commission (CONCOM ) composed of 50 Filipino citizens of recognized probity known for their independence.1986.
1986 & was submitted to the President for approval. Malolos Constitution of 1898 2.Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines y Three important drafts used by the Commission in y y y y drafting the 1987 Constitution: 1. 1935 Constitution 3. 1986 . The constitution was ratified by the people on February 02. 1973 Constitution The CONCOM approved the draft on October 12.
Features of the 1987 Constitution y The Constitution of 1987 is y pro-life y pro-people y pro-poor y pro Filipino y anti-dictatorship .
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