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Õ Platform size depends on the facilities to be installed

on the top side. Eg. Oil rig, living quarters, helipad

Õ Classification of water depths

Õ <350M Ȃ shallow water
Õ <1500M(>1300 ft) Ȃ deep water
Õ >1500M (>5000 ft) Ȃ ultra deep water
Õ ixed structures that extend into the sea bed
Õ Steel jacket
Õ Concrete gravity structure
Õ Compliant tower

Õ Structures that float near the water surface Ȃ recent

Õ Tension leg platforms
Õ Semi submersible
Õ Spar
Õ Ship shaped vessel (PSO)
Õ Space framed structure
with tubular members
supported on pile
Õ Used for modular depths
up to 400M
Õ Jackets provide
protective layer around
the well conductors and
Õ Typical offshore structure will have a deck structure
containing a main deck, a cellar deck and a helideck
Õ The deck structure is supported by deck legs
connected to the top of the piles. The piles extend
from the mean low water through the seabed and into
the soil
Õ Under water the piles are contained inside the legs of a
jacket structure which serves as a bracing for the piles
against lateral loads
Õ The jacket also serves as a template for the initial
driving to the piles
Õ Provisions are also made for piles to be driven through
the skirt pile sleeve in addition to the main pile to
provide a stronger foundation where soil strength is
Õ 95% of offshore platforms around the world are jacket

Õ Top side: acilities are tailored to achieve weight and
space saving
Incorporates process and utility equipment
1. Drilling rid
2. Injection compressors
3. Gas compressors
4. Gas turbine generator
5. Piping
7. Instrumentation
Top side: Accommodation for operating personnel
Crane for equipment handling
Riser: Pipes used for production, drilling and
export of oil and natural gas from the sea bed
Riser system is a key component of offshore
drilling and floating production projects
Õ Offshore structure shall be designed for the following types
of loads
Õ Permanent (dead) loads
Õ Operating (live) load
Õ Environmental loads
Õ Wave loads

Õ Wind loads

Õ Earthquake loads

Õ Construction Ȃ installation loads

Õ Accidental loads
The design of offshore structures is dominated by
environmental loads especially wave loads
Õ Lloyd Rules
Õ DnV Rules
Õ AISC Code ( for top side)
Õ AWS Code (for welding)
Õ Det norske Veritas (DnV)
Õ Lloyds Register of Shipping
Õ American Bureau of Shipping
Õ Bureau Veritas (BV)
Õ Germainscher Lloyd (GL)

Õ Engineering and Design
Õ abrication and Installation of the production facility
Õ Drilling of production wells
Õ Providing the off-loading system (pipelines Ȃ tankers

Õ Tower like braced tubular structure generally perform

two functions
Õ The provide the substructure for the production facility
(topside) keeping it stable above the waves
Õ They support laterally and protect the 26-30 inch well
conductors and the pipeline riser

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Õ The jacket foundation is provided by open end tubular
steel pipes with diameters up to 2M.
Õ The piles are driven approx 40-80 M and in some cases
up to 120M into the sea bed
r Cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes
r Zinc/Aluminium bar cast about a steel tube and
welded to the structures
r Approx 3kN each
r 5% of jacket weight is applied as anodes

The steel work in the splash zones is usually protected

by a sacrificial wall thickness of 12mm to the members
Õ The major functions on the deck of an offshore
platform are
r Well control
r Support for well work over equipment
r Separation of oil, gas and non transportable
components in the raw product
r Support for pumps /compressors required to transport
r Power generation
r Accommodation for operating and maintenance staff
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Õ There are 4 structural concepts resulting from the
lifting capacity of the crane vessels and load out
capacity at the yards
Õ The single integrated deck
Õ The split deck in to two four leg units
Õ Integrated deck with living quarter module
Õ Modularized topside consisting of module support
frame carrying a series of modules

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