y Platform size depends on the facilities to be installed

on the top side. Eg. Oil rig, living quarters, helipad
y Classification of water depths y <350M shallow water y <1500M(>1300 ft) deep water y >1500M (>5000 ft) ultra deep water

Offshore Platforms

Offshore platforms can be broadly classified into two categories
y Fixed structures that extend into the sea bed y Steel jacket y Concrete gravity structure y Compliant tower y Structures that float near the water surface development y Tension leg platforms y Semi submersible y Spar y Ship shaped vessel (FPSO)



Jacketed Platform y Space framed structure with tubular members supported on pile foundations y Used for modular depths up to 400M y Jackets provide protective layer around the well conductors and pipes .

Jacketed Platforms (Contd) y Typical offshore structure will have a deck structure containing a main deck. a cellar deck and a helideck y The deck structure is supported by deck legs connected to the top of the piles. The piles extend from the mean low water through the seabed and into the soil y Under water the piles are contained inside the legs of a jacket structure which serves as a bracing for the piles against lateral loads y The jacket also serves as a template for the initial driving to the piles .

Jacketed Platforms (Contd) y Provisions are also made for piles to be driven through the skirt pile sleeve in addition to the main pile to provide a stronger foundation where soil strength is less y 95% of offshore platforms around the world are jacket supported .

Instrumentation . HVAC 7. Drilling rid 2. Gas turbine generator 5. Gas compressors 4.Platform Parts y Top side: Facilities are tailored to achieve weight and space saving Incorporates process and utility equipment 1. Injection compressors 3. Piping 6.

drilling and export of oil and natural gas from the sea bed Riser system is a key component of offshore drilling and floating production projects .Top Side (Contd) Top side: Accommodation for operating personnel Crane for equipment handling Helipad Riser: Pipes used for production.

Structural loads y Offshore structure shall be designed for the following types of loads y y y y y Permanent (dead) loads Operating (live) load Environmental loads y Wave loads y Wind loads y Earthquake loads Construction installation loads Accidental loads The design of offshore structures is dominated by environmental loads especially wave loads .

Offshore Structural Codes y API y y y y RP2A Lloyd Rules DnV Rules AISC Code ( for top side) AWS Code (for welding) .

Certification and Warranty y Det norske Veritas (DnV) y Lloyds Register of Shipping y American Bureau of Shipping y Bureau Veritas (BV) y Germainscher Lloyd (GL) .

Technical Activities Prior to Production y Engineering and Design y Fabrication and Installation of the production facility y Drilling of production wells y Providing the off-loading system (pipelines tankers etc) .

Jacket y Tower like braced tubular structure generally perform two functions y y The provide the substructure for the production facility (topside) keeping it stable above the waves They support laterally and protect the 26-30 inch well conductors and the pipeline riser .

Pre Fabrication of Main Legs .

Erection of Main Leg on Supports .

Erection of Truss Bracing .

Erection of Skirt Pile Guides .

Erection of Conductor Guide Frame .

Construction of Mudmat .

Mudmat Fabrication .

Mudmat Roll Up & Erection .

Side Panel Roll Up .

Erection of Truss Bracing .

Erection of Skirt Pile .

Erection Of Barge Bumper Boat landing .

Insertion of Well Conductors .

Load Out .

Joints .

Joint Classification .

Pile & Pile Foundation y The jacket foundation is provided by open end tubular steel pipes with diameters up to 2M. y The piles are driven approx 40-80 M and in some cases up to 120M into the sea bed .


Corrosion Protection ‡ Cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes ‡ Zinc/Aluminium bar cast about a steel tube and welded to the structures ‡ Approx 3kN each ‡ 5% of jacket weight is applied as anodes The steel work in the splash zones is usually protected by a sacrificial wall thickness of 12mm to the members .

gas and non transportable components in the raw product ‡ Support for pumps /compressors required to transport ashore ‡ Power generation ‡ Accommodation for operating and maintenance staff .Top side y The major functions on the deck of an offshore platform are ‡ Well control ‡ Support for well work over equipment ‡ Separation of oil.

Jacket based Top Sides y There are 4 structural concepts resulting from the lifting capacity of the crane vessels and load out capacity at the yards y The single integrated deck y The split deck in to two four leg units y Integrated deck with living quarter module y Modularized topside consisting of module support frame carrying a series of modules .

Process Gas Compressor Module .

Gas Turbo Generator Module .

Living Quarter Module .

Offshore Bridge .

Basic Structural Grid of Deck .