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SURFACE

CHEMISTRY
Contents
• Adsorption
• Absorption
• Differentiation!?#$
• Factors influencing adsorption of gases
• Types of adsorption
• Characteristics of physical adsorption
• Characteristics of chemical adsorption
Adsorption
• The process of accumulation of a
liquid or a gas molecule on a solid
surface is called adsorption.
• adsorption is a process in which a
substance takes another substance
on its surface , i.e. they remain on
the surface.

adsorption
Absorbed gas molecules

Solid adsorbent
Examples
• When methylene blue is treated with
activated charcoal, then the
charcoal adsorbs the methylene
blue molecules, as a result the
blue colour fades.
• When a gas like NH3 is treated with
charcoal powder in a closed
container, the charcoal adsorbs the
gas molecules. Thus the pressure of
the gas decreases.
Adsorbent and adsorbate
• The solid on the surface of which gas
or a liquid molecules accumulate is
called ‘adsorbent’.
• The substance (gas or liquid) whose
molecules accumulate on the solid
surface (adsorbent) is called
‘adsorbate’.

Example description
• When the molecules of NH3
accumulate on the surface of
charcoal,
 _________ is the adsorbate and
___________
 is the adsorbent.
Example description
• When the molecules of NH3
accumulate on the surface of
charcoal,
 ammonia is the adsorbate and
___________
 is the adsorbent.
Example description
• When the molecules of NH3 accumulate
on the surface of charcoal,
 ammonia is the adsorbate and
charcoal
 is the adsorbent.
NOTE :

1.Adsorbent is solid whereas adsorbate is gas


or liquid.
2.The release of the adsorbed molecules from
the surface of the adsorbent is called
Absorption
• Absorption is a process in which one
substance penetrates into another
substance, i.e. the molecules
penetrate into the body of the solid.
• A piece of cotton dipped in water
absorbs the water molecules.

Differentiation!?#$
adsorption Absorption

It involves the unequal


 It involves the uniform

distribution of molecules on the distribution of molecules on the


surface and in the bulk. surface and in the bulk.
 

The process is fast in the


 It happens at an uniform rate.

beginning and gradually 

becomes slower. 

 At the end, absorbed molecules


At the end, molecules of the penetrate into the body of the
adsorbate are found only on the solid.
surface.
Factors which influence
adsorption of gases by solids
1)Nature of the gas (adsorbate)
2)Nature of the solid (adsorbent)
3)Surface area of the solid
4)Pressure of the gas
5)Temperature
6)Nature of the surface of the
adsorbent

Types of adsorption
1 > Physical or Van der Waal’s adsorption

2 > Chemical adsorption or chemisorption.



Physical or Van der Waal’s adsorption

• The process by which the adsorbed


molecules are held on the solid by
weak Van der Waal’s forces is
called Physical or Van der Waal’s
adsorption.

• Example : Adsorption of Cl on the
surface of charcoal.
Chemical adsorption or chemisorption

• The process by which the adsorbed


molecules are held on the solid by
strong chemical bonds is called
Chemical adsorption or
chemisorption.

• Example : Adsorption of H2 on the
surface of Pt or Pd.

Characteristics of physical
adsorption
• Surface area of the adsorbent
• Nature of the gas
• Heat of Adsorption
• Effect of Pressure
• Reversible Nature
• Effect of temperature
• Thickness of the adsorbed layer
Surface area of the
adsorbent
• The extent of the adsorption of
gases on the surface is directly
proportional to the surface area of
the solid.


Nature of the gas
• Since the forces that bind the
molecule are Van der Waal’s forces,
is easily liquefiable gases like SO2
and NH3 are readily adsorbed .
• For example, 1 g of activated
charcoal can adsorb 380 cm3 of
SO2 gas(easily liquefiable ) whereas
it can adsord only 4.5 cm3 of H2 gas
(difficult to liquefy)
Heat of Adsorption
• The adsorption process is always
exothermic. Since the Van der
Waal’s forcesis weak, the heat of
adsorption is only 20 - 40 kJ / mol.

Effect of Pressure
• Pressure is directly proportional to
extent of adsorption.
Reversible Nature
• At high pressure adsorption takes
place whereas decrease in pressure
causes desorption .
Effect of temperature
• Van der Waal’s force of attraction is
weak at high temperature. Hence
physical adsorption is favored at
low temperatures.
Thickness of the adsorbed
layer
• At low pressure unimolecular thick
layer is formed on the surface.
However at high pressure the multi-
molecular thick layer is formed.
Characteristics of chemical
adsorption
• Surface area of the adsorbent
• Nature of the gas
• Heat of Adsorption
• Effect of Pressure
• Reversible Nature
• Effect of temperature
• Thickness of the adsorbed layer

Surface area of the
adsorbent
• The extent of the adsorption of
gases on the surface is directly
proportional to the surface area of
the solid.


Nature of the gas
• Chemical adsorption is highly specific
and is formed if only the adsorbed
molecules are capable of forming a
chemical bond with the surface.
• H2 can be adsorbed on Pt but not
CO2.
Heat of Adsorption
• Since the chemical bond is much
stronger, the heat of adsorption is
much higher.

Effect of Pressure
• Pressure is directly proportional to
extent of adsorption only until the
surface gets saturated.
• After the unimolecular thick layer is
formed pressure has no effect.
Reversible Nature
• Decrease in pressure does not cause
desorption as molecules are
strongly bound to the surface.

Effect of temperature
• As any chemical reaction is fast at
high temperature, chemisorption is
favored at high temperature.

Thickness of the adsorbed
layer
• In chemisorption , there is only a
unimolecular thick layer on the
surface.
Comparison
Physical adsorption Chemisorption
Caused by intermolecular van der
 Caused by chemical bonds

Waal’s forces.
2. Depends on the nature of the 2. Highly specific
gas
3. Heat of adsorption is small 3. Heat of adsorption is small
(20 - 40 kJ / mol.) (80 - 240 kJ / mol.)
4. Reversible Irreversible

5. Occurs readily at low 5. Occurs readily at high


temperature temperature
6. Increase in pressure increases 6. Pressure has no affect after a
adsorption unimolecular thick layer is formed

7. Multilayered 7. Unilayered
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Contd....... By ameya