Perhaps soon to be obsolete?

A carburetor is basically a device for mixing air and fuel in the correct amounts for efficient combustion. The carburetor bolts to the engine intake manifold. The air cleaner fits over the top of the carburetor to trap dust and dirt.

The process of formation of a combustible fuel-air mixture by mixing the proper amount of fuel with air before it is admitted into the engine cylinder.
Comes from the words “car” and “burette” because the carburetor “meters” the appropriate quantity of liquid fuel (like a burette) and mixed it with air before sending the mixture into the engine cylinder.

Carburetor size is stated in CFM (cubic feet of air per minute). This is the amount of air that can flow through the carburetor at wide, open throttle. CFM is an indication of the maximum air flow capacity. Usually, small CFM carburetors are more fuel-efficient than larger carburetors. Air velocity, fuel mixing, and atomization are better with small throttle bores. A larger CFM rating is desirable for high engine power output

1-Carburetor body 2-Air horn 3-Throttle valve 4-Ventur i 5-Main discharge tube 6-Fuel bowl


•A device that mixes air and fuel in correct proportion for efficient combustion.

•Stoichiometric Ratio 14.7 : 1 (Air : Fuel) •CFM of air flow:Cubic feet of air per minute

This disc-shaped valve controls air flow through the air horn. When closed, it restricts the flow of air and fuel into the engine, and when opened, air flow, fuel flow, and engine power increase.

The venturi produces sufficient suction to pull fuel out of the main discharge tube


•Venturi works on high-low pressure. •As the air speeds up when passing through the air horn(venturi), it creates vacuum, causing suction to pull fuel from the discharge tube.

The main discharge tube is also called the main fuel nozzle

 It is a passage that connects the fuel bowl to the center of the venturi.

The fuel bowl holds a supply of fuel that is NOT under fuel pump pressure



“Engine induction and fuel system must prepare a fuel-air mixture that satisfies the requirements of the engine over its entire operating regime.” Optimum air-fuel ratio for an SI engine is that which gives Required power output Lowers fuel consumption, and Consistent with smooth and reliable operation

The constraints of emissions may dictate a different air-fuel ratio and also require recycling some exhaust gas. (EGR) Relative proportions of fuel and air that give the above requirements depend on engine speed and load. Mixture strength is given in terms of air-fuel or fuel-air ratio or equivalence ratio.

Mixture requirements are different for full load (wide-open throttle or WOT) and for part-load operation. At full load, complete utilization of inducted air to obtain maximum power for a given displaced volume is the critical issue. At part-load at a given speed, efficient utilization of fuel is the critical issue.

At part-load (or part-throttle) it is advantageous to dilute the fuel-air mixture with excess air or with recycled exhaust gas. This dilution improves fuel conversion efficiency for three reasons: 1. The expansion stroke work is increased for a given expansion ratio due to the change in thermodynamic properties,


For a given mean effective pressure, the intake pressure increases with increasing dilution, so pumping work decreases,
Heat losses to the walls are reduced because the burned gas temperatures are lower.

In the absence of strict NOx emission control, excess air is the obvious diluent at part load and the engine runs lean

Fuel Metering Force



 Air bled into the main metering system decreases the fuel density and destroys surface tension.

 This results in better vaporization and control of fuel discharge, especially at lower engine speeds.

Air Bleed

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Float system Idle system Off idle system Acceleration system High-speed system Full-power system

The float system (fig. 4-20) maintains a steady working supply of gasoline at a constant level in the carburetor. This action is critical to the proper operation of the carburetor. Since the carburetor uses differences in pressure to force fuel into the air horn, The float system keeps the fuel pump from forcing too much gasoline into the carburetor bowl

An excessively high float level will cause fuel to flow too freely from the discharge tube, causing an overly rich mixture whereas an excessively low float level will cause an overly lean mixture
The basic parts of the float system are the fuel bowl, the float, the needle valve, the needle seat, the bowl vent

Idle system •Feeds fuel into air horn when the throttle is closed (low engine speed).

•High vacuum below the throttle plate pulls fuel from the idle port.

•Idle mixture screw allows adjustment of fuel at idle.

•Air bleed helps premix air and fuel.

Off idle system feeds fuel to the engine when the throttle is opened slightly.

•It adds a little extra fuel to the extra air flowing around throttle valve

The off idle, also known as the part throttle, feeds more fuel into the air horn when the throttle plate is partially open. It is an extension of the idle system. It functions above approximately 800 rpm or 20 mph. Without the off idle system, the fuel mixture would become too lean slightly above idle. The idle system alone is not capable of supplying enough fuel to the air stream passing through the carburetor. The off idle system helps supply fuel during the change from idle to high speed.

The, high-speed system, also called the main metering system, supplies the engine air-fuel mixture at normal cruising speeds. This system begins to function when the throttle plate is opened wide enough for the venturi action. Air flow through the carburetor must be relatively high for venturi vacuum to draw fuel out of the main discharge tube. The high-speed system provides the leanest, most fuel efficient air-fuel ratio. It functions from about 20 to 55 mph or 2,000 to 3,000 rpm.

The carburetor acceleration system, like the off idle system, provides extra fuel when changing from the idle system to the high-speed system. The acceleration system squirts a stream of fuel into the air horn when the fuel pedal is pressed and the throttle plates swing open. Without the acceleration system, too much fuel would rush into the engine, as the throttle quickly opened. The mixture would become too lean for combustion and the engine would stall or hesitate. The acceleration system prevents a lean air-fuel mixture from upsetting a smooth increase in engine speed.

Acceleration System

•Accelerator pump squirts fuel into the air horn every time the throttle is opened.

•This adds fuel to the rush of air entering the engine and prevents a temporary lean mixture.
•Pump check ball allows fuel to only enter the pump reservoir. •Pump check weight prevents the fuel being drawn into the air horn by the venturi vacuum.

High speed system (cruising speed)

•The main jet controls the fuel flow and mixture. •At higher engine speeds, there is enough air flow through the venturi to produce vacuum. •This pulls fuel through the main discharge.

Choke System

•When the engine is cold the thermostatic spring closes the choke. •High vacuum below the choke pulls large amounts of fuel out of the main discharge. •When the engine warms the hot air opens the spring •Some chokes are electrically operated.

When the engine is cold, the fuel tends to condense into large drops in the manifold, rather than vaporizing. By supplying a richer mixture (8:1 to 9:1), there will be enough vapor to assure complete combustion. The carburetor is fitted with a choke system to provide this richer mixture. The choke system provides a very rich mixture to start the engine and to make the mixture less rich gradually, as the engine reaches operating temperature. The two types of choke systems are the manual and automatic

The full-power system provides a means of enriching the fuel mixture for high-speed, high-power conditions. This system operates, for example, when the driver presses the fuel pedal to pass another vehicle or to climb a steep hill. The full-power system is an addition to the high-speed system. Either a metering rod or a power valve (jet) can be used to provide variable, high-speed air-fuel ratio.

The evolution of gasoline-engine fuel delivery systems has been dictated by the need to improve transient and cold engine performance and emissions.

With each evolutionary change in the fuel delivery system, air-fuel mixture preparedness, within the cylinder, had to be engineered and restored to the traditionally acceptable homogeneous state.




Port Fuel Injection System

Direct (In-Cylinder) Fuel-Injection

Advanced MultiPort-Fuel-Injection Multi-Port-Fuel-Injection 1980 Single-Point, Throttle-Body Fuel Injection 1980 Carburetor






Fuel System

Transient Emissions & Control

Cold Emissions & Control

Mixture Preparation Quality

Cost & Complexity

Carburetor Single-Point, Throttle-Body Fuel Injection Multi-PortFuel-Injection

* **

* **

***** *****

* **





Advanced Multi-PortFuel-Injection





Will direct-fuel-injection replace electronic port-fuel-injection at a similar rate?

Preliminary goal for a Direct-Fuel-Injection system is therefore to be able to achieve the traditionally acceptable homogeneous air-fuel mixture state at the time of ignition, by: Promoting maximum air-fuel mixing Using a finely atomized spray Prevent wall wetting Injecting early during intake stroke Intake-port design Injector location

However, because of the big increase in cost and complexity of a DFI system, would like to get more benefits to offset system costs than just improved cold and transient engine performance and emissions.

Are there any additional benefits of a DFI system?

But, this increase in thermal efficiency is currently possible only if the mixture-preparation state, within the cylinder, is stratified and not the traditionally acceptable homogeneous state.

Yes. Increased Fuel Economy !!

 Increased volumetric efficiency
  

increased compression ratio Decreased throttling losses Lean combustion Decreased heat losses

In trying to work the above levers, DFI is an enabler with high potential. Note that advanced MPFI systems are also enablers, but with lesser potential than DFI.

Airflow Characterisitics



Airflow (g/s)



Engine Speed = 2000 rev/min, Wide-open-throttle, Air-Fuel ratio=15:1


7 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

End-of-Injection (°bTDC Firing)

Direct-Fuel-Injection can result in an increase (up to 8% has been reported) in airflow due to spray-cooling of the intake air, when injection occurs during the intake stroke. The resulting increased performance can be converted to 1-2% increase in fuel economy.

70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30

Effect of Compression Ratio on Otto-Cycle Thermal Efficiency
Typical Compression Ratio for Port-Fuel-Injection engine

Otto Cycle Efficiency, E (%)

Typical Compression Ratio for Direct-Fuel-Injection engine












Compression Ratio (r)

Note: Otto-Cycle efficiency is used as a gross approximation for

Knock-Limited Spark Advance

Spark Advance (°bTDC)

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 80 120 160 200 240
Engine Speed = 2000 rev/min, Wide-open-throttle, Air-Fuel ratio=15:1

Direct-Fuel-Injection Port-Fuel-Injection







End-of-Injection (°bTDC Firing)

Direct-Fuel-Injection permits an increase in compression ratio from 10.5 to about 12.0, resulting in about 2% increased efficiency. The increase in compression ratio results from a higher knock-tolerance (I.e., higher knock-limited spark advance) due to: 1. Spray cooling of the intake air when injection occurs during the intake stroke 2. Reduced end-gas temperature when injection occurs during compression stroke

Throttling losses are reduced by diluting the mixture with EGR or with excess air. But in a conventional homogeneous-charge system, the extent of dilution is limited due to flame initiation and propagation limits.

By stratifying the fuel-air mixture within the combustion chamber, the engine can be operated with extended dilution, at air-fuel ratios of 50:1 or greater.

Ideal Throttling Loss Effects on Net Ideal Throttling Loss Effects on Net Thermal Efficiency (%) Thermal Efficiency (%)
40 35 30
Net Thermal Efficiency 2000 RPM IMEP

340 320 300 280


20 15 10 5



Net Thermal Efficiency Increase


0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70


"Throttling Loss" or PMEP (kPa)

Mean Effective Pressure (kPa)


Diluting the Air-Fuel Mixture Reduces Pumping (or Throttling) Losses
Undiluted Combustion Partially Diluted Combustion (Partially Unthrottled) Fully Diluted Combustion (Fully Unthrottled)

Ln Volume



Reduced Pumping Loss Due to Dilution

80 75

Effect of Specific-Heat Ratio on Otto-Cycle Thermal Efficiency
Specific-Heat Ratio for a Stoichiometric mixture of Fuel and Air

Otto Cycle Efficiency, E (%)

70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

Specific-Heat Ratio for Pure Air

Compression Ratio = 12:1







Specific-Heat Ratio

Note: Otto-Cycle efficiency is used as a gross approximation for

When the working fluid has a higher specificheat ratio like that of lean air-fuel mixtures, less fuel energy is wasted in raising the internal energy of the charge, so more is available for useful work. By stratifying the fuel-air mixture within the combustion chamber, the engine can be operated at very lean (up to 50:1) air fuel ratios.

By stratifying the fuel-air mixture in the center of the combustion chamber and keeping the hot burnt products away from the walls, heat losses can be decreased.


In an indirect injection (abbreviated IDI) diesel engine, fuel is injected into a small prechamber, which is connected to the cylinder by a narrow opening. The initial combustion takes place in this prechamber. This has the effect of slowing the rate of combustion, which tends to reduce noise.

FIGURE 4-3 An indirect injection diesel engine uses a prechamber and a glow plug.

FIGURE 4-4 A direct injection diesel engine injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber. Many designs do not use a glow plug.

High –pressure circuit comprises:  High – pressure pump with pressure – control valve  The high – pressure accumulator (Rail )with the rail – pressure sensor  Injectors, and  The respective high – pressure connection lines.


is the changing of a liquid to a vapor. *The rate of evaporation is dependent on the following


The rate of movement of the molecules increase with temperature. Because of this, the amount of molecules leaving the liquid for a given time will increase, as the temperature increases.

As atmospheric pressure increases, the amount of air molecules present over the liquid also increases. The increased presence of air molecules will slow the rate of evaporation. This is because the molecules of liquid will have more air molecules to collide with. In many cases, they will fall back into the liquid after the collision

The term volatility refers to how fast a liquid vaporizes. Some liquid vaporizes easily at room temperature. Alcohol, for instance, vaporizes more easily than water. A highly volatile liquid is one that is considered to evaporate easily.

Atomization is the process of breaking up a liquid into tiny particles or droplets. When a liquid is atomized, the droplets are all exposed individually to the air. For this reason, atomization greatly increases evaporation by increasing the exposed surface area of the liquid.

•Carburetor Flooding: Occurs when fuel pours out the top of the carburetor. Check float level (might be too high). •Float level too low: Will cause lean AFR. Will cause miss at high speed and around cornering. •Clogged idle air bleed: Will effect at Idle, because it can enrich the mixture. •Engine Surge: Caused by extremely lean Air Fuel mixture. •Choke system: will make the engine perform poorly when the engine is cold.





Engine speed. In a 4-stroke engine running at 3000 rev/min, the intake will take about 10 ms during which the fuel has to evaporate, mix with air and be inducted into the engine. Vaporization characteristics of the fuel. Will require a volatile fuel for quick evaporation and mixing with air. The temperature of the in coming air. Must be high enough to be able to evaporate the fuel and yet not too high as to reduce mass of fresh charge. Design of the carburetor. This will help in proper introduction of fuel into the air stream and provide proper distribution of the mixture to the various cylinders.

In Eq. 26, the terms A1, A2, ρa, and ρf are all constant for a given carburetor, fuel, and ambient conditions. Also, for very low flows, Δpa » ρfgz. However, the discharge coefficients Cd,a and Cd,f and Φ, all vary with flow rate. Hence, the equivalence ratio delivered by an elementary carburetor is not constant. Figure shows the performance of an elementary carburetor. The top graph shows the variation of Cd,a and Cd,f and Φ with the venturi pressure drop. For Δpa ≤ ρfgz, there is no fuel flow. Once fuel starts to flow, the fuel flow rate increases more rapidly than the air flow rate. The carburetor delivers a mixture of increasing equivalence ratio as the flow rate increases.

Suppose the venturi and fuel orifice (jet) are sized to give a stoichiometric mixture at an air flow rate corresponding to 1 kN/m2 venturi pressure drop (middle graph of Fig). At higher flow rates, the carburetor will deliver a fuel-rich mixture. At very high flow rates the carburetor will deliver an essentially constant equivalence ratio. At lower air flow rates, the mixture delivered leans out rapidly. Thus, the elementary carburetor cannot provide the variation in mixture ratio which the engine requires over the complete load range at any given speed.






At low loads, the mixture becomes leaner; the engine requires the mixture to be enriched at low loads. The mixture is richest at idle. At intermediate loads, the equivalence ratio increases slightly as the air flow rate increases; the engine requires an almost constant equivalence ratio. As the air flow approaches the maximum (WOT) value, the equivalence ratio remains essentially constant; the engine requires an equivalence ratio of about 1.1 at maximum engine power. The elementary carburetor cannot compensate for transient phenomena in the intake manifold. It also cannot provide a rich mixture during engine starting and warm-up. It cannot adjust to changes in ambient air density due to changes in altitude.

The changes required in the elementary carburetor so that it provides the equivalence ratio required at various air flow rates are as follows. 1. The main metering system must be compensated to provide a constant lean or stoichiometric mixture over 20 to 80% of the air flow range. 2. An idle system must be added to meter the fuel flow at idle and light loads to provide a rich mixture. 3. An enrichment system must be provided so that the engine can get a rich mixture as WOT conditions is approached and maximum power can be obtained. 4. An accelerator pump must be provided so that additional fuel can be introduced into the engine only when the throttle is suddenly opened. 5. A choke must be added to enrich the mixture during cold starting and warm-up to ensure that a combustible mixture is provided to each cylinder at the time of ignition. 6. Altitude compensation is necessary to adjust the fuel flow which makes the mixture rich when air density is lowered. 7. Increase in the magnitude of the pressure drop available for controlling the fuel flow is provided by introducing boost venturis (Venturis in series) or Multiple-barrel carburetors (Venturis in parallel).

Carburetor Icing And Heat Use
 Carburetor ice means ice at any location in the induction system.

 Impact ice  Fuel ice  Throttle ice

Impact ice
 Formed by the impingement of moisture-laded air at temperatures below freezing onto the elements of the induction system which are at temperatures below freezing.  Air scoop, heat valve, carburetor air screen, throttle valve and metering elements.

Fuel Ice
 Forms when any air or fuel entrained moisture reaches a freezing temperature as a result of cooling of the mixture by fuel vaporization.

 Cooler air holds less water vapor and the excess water is precipitated in the form of condensation.

 Condensate freezes.
 Can occur at ambient temperatures well above freezing.

Throttle ice
 Formed at or near a partly closed throttle when water vapor in the induction air condenses and freezes due to the expansion cooling and lower pressure at the throttle.  Temperature drop normally does not exceed 5° F.

How is carburetor ice formation prevented?

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