# Learning Objectives

Sample Size Determination

the homogeneity in the population
.Learning Objectives
Two Basic Approach to the problem of Sample Size is
The ad hoc or practical approach Practical Method : According to this method a small sample of less than 100 is not chosen .interviewer are appointed.according to this approach .the problem of sample size involves several aspects such as the type of sample design . trained and asked to conduct field investigations and all will cost to the company The statistical approach Which is scientific in nature .This because when the field survey is undertaken .

preparing a questionnaire (if required) .Learning Objectives
Methods of Determining Sample Size
Unaided Judgment : In which the Client of the market research projects tells the sample size of 50 or 100 or 200 All-you-can-afford: In this method. a budget for the project is set by some process and .after the estimated fixed costs of designing the project .purposive and quota sampling
.stratified random .the remainder of the budget is allocated to sampling . analyzing the data and preparing the report are deducted .Dividing this remaining amount by the estimated cost per sampling unit gives the sample size Average size of samples for similar Studies Required size per cell: This method of determining sample size can be used on simple random .

An estimate of the variance in the population from which the sample is to be drawn 2.This difference is known as the expected net gain from sampling (ENGS) .it incorporates three common variables 1.The sample size with the largest positive is chosen
. The error from sampling that the researcher will allow 3. The desired level of confidence that the actual sampling error will be within the allowable limits Use of Bayesian Statistical Model : Involves finding the difference between the expected value of the information to be provided by the sample and the cost of taking the sample for each potential sample size .Use of a traditional Statistical Model : In this method you have to have basic knowledge of traditional statistical formulas for determining the size of probability samples The formula varies depending on the type of sample to be taken .

. the confidence intervals need to be decided.Determining Sample Size for Probability Samples
Learning Objectives The financial and statistical issues in the determination of sample size. Before trying to determine the size of the sample. Larger samples cost more.
Financial. the smaller the sampling error. Statistical. however the sampling error decreases at a rate equal to the square root of the relative increase in sample size. and Managerial Issues As a general rule: The larger the sample.

Past experience .Desired sampling error .A gut feeling
.
Budget Available Sample Size²a project is often determined by the available budget Alternative Data Collection Approaches²budget constraints force the researcher to explore and consider the value of information in relation to its cost Rules of Thumb .Similar Studies .Methods for Determining Sample Size
Learning Objectives The financial and statistical issues in the determination of sample size.

Traditional Statistical Methods An estimate of the population standard deviation. The acceptable level of sampling error.
Number of Subgroups To Be Analyzed The sample should contain at least 100 respondents in each major subgroup.
. The desired level of confidence that the sample will fall within a certain range of the true population values.Learning Objectives
Methods for Determining Sample Size
To discover the methods for determining sample size.

General Properties for the Normal Distribution Crucial to Classical Statistical Inference Reasons For Its Importance Many variables have probability distributions that are close to the normal distribution Central Limit Theorem²distribution of a large number of sample means or sample proportions will approximate a normal distribution.Learning Objectives
The Normal Distribution
To gain an appreciation of a normal distribution. regardless of the distribution of the population from which they were drawn
.

The total area is equal to one. 2. 4.Learning Objectives
The Normal Distribution
To gain an appreciation of a normal distribution. Symmetrical about the mean 3. The normal distribution is bell-shaped and has only one mode.
Important Characteristics of the Normal Distribution
1. Uniquely defined by its mean and standard deviation.
.

Learning Objectives
The Normal Distribution
To gain an appreciation of a normal distribution.
The Standard Normal Distribution The same features as any normal distribution. The mean is equal to zero The standard deviation is equal to one.
.

Learning Objectives
The Normal Distribution
To gain an appreciation of a normal distribution.
value of the variable .mean of the variable
Z=
standard deviation of the variable
Z =
where
X-Q W
X = value of the variable Q = mean of the variable W = standard deviation of the variable
.

Sample Distribution A frequency distribution of all the elements of an individual sample. and sampling distributions.
Population Distribution A frequency distribution of all the elements of a population. sample. Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean A frequency distribution of the means of many sample means from a given population
.Learning Objectives
Sampling Distributions Of The Mean
To understand population.

Standard error computed as:
Sp
=
¥ P (1-P) n
.
A relative frequency distribution of the sample proportions of a large number of random samples of a given size drawn from a particular population. 3. 1. Approximates a normal distribution 2.Learning Objectives
Sampling Distribution of the Proportion
To recognize problems involving sampling means and proportions. The mean proportion is equal to the population proportion.

Learning Objectives
Sampling Distribution of the Proportion
To recognize problems involving sampling means and proportions.
Sp
=
¥ P (1-P) n
where: Sp = standard error of sampling distribution proportion P = estimate of population proportion n = sample size
.

Problems Involving Means The formula for calculating the required sample size for problems that involve the estimation of a mean:
n
=
Z2 W2
E2
where: Z = level of confidence expressed in standard errors
W = population standard deviation
E = acceptable amount of sampling error
.Learning Objectives
Determining Sample Size
To recognize problems involving sampling means and proportions.

Learning Objectives
Determining Sample Size
To recognize problems involving sampling means and proportions.
Problems Involving Proportions
n
=
Z2 [P1-P)]
E2
.

Finite Population Correction (FPC) An adjustment in cases where the sample is expected to be equal to 5 percent or more of the total population.Learning Objectives
Determining Sample Size
To recognize problems involving sampling means and proportions.
Population Size and Sample Size Make an adjustment in the sample size if the sample size is more than 5 percent of the size of the total population. (N-n) / (N-1)
.

Learning Objectives
Determining Sample Size
To recognize problems involving sampling means and proportions.
Reducing the required sample size using the Finite Population Correction
n' =
nN N + n -1
where: n' = revised sample size n = original sample size N = population size
.

Learning Objectives
The End
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