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A seminar on carbon nanaotubes



What is carbon nanotubes?

Carbon nanotubes are hexagonal shaped arrangements of carbon atoms that have been rolled into tubes.This tiny-straw like cylinders of pure carbon have useful electrical properties.


Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1 which is significantly larger than any other material. This cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that makes them potentially useful in many applications.


Single walled cnts

Most single walled nanotubes have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer with a tube length that can be many millions of times longer.


The way the graphene sheet is rolled out is represented by a pair of indices(n,m) called the chiral vector. The integers n and m indicate the number of unit vectors along the two directions in the honeycomb crystal lattice of graphene. If m=0, 3/8/12 the nanotubes are

Multi-walled cnts

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes consist of multiple rolled layers(concentri c tubes) of graphite.


A nanotorus is theoretically is described as carbon nanotubes bent to a doughnut shape. Nanotori are predicted to have many unique properties , such as magnetic moments 100 times larger than previously expected for certain specific radii. 3/8/12

Carbon nanobuds are newly created material combining two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. In this new material fullerene like 3/8/12


Carbon-carbon bonds are one of the strongest bond in nature Carbon nanotube is composed of perfect arrangement of these bonds Extremely high Youngs modulus.
Materials Steel SWNT Diamond Young's Modulus(GPa) 190-210 1000+ 1050-1200



Diamond is considered to be the hardest material, and it is well known that graphite transforms into diamond under high temperature and pressure. One study succeeded in the synthesis of a super- hard material by compressing SWNTs to above 24 GPa at room temperature.


Kinetic property

Multi-walled nanotubes, exhibit a striking telescoping property whereby an inner nanotube core may slide, almost without any friction, within its outside nanotube shell thus creating an atomically perfect linear or rotational bearing.


Thermal property

All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal conductors along the tube, exhibiting a well known property known as ballistic conduction, but good insulators laterally to the tube-axes. Measurements shows that a SWNT has a room-temperature thermal conductivity along its tube axis of about 3500W.m-1k1



Arc discharge method

Chemical vapor deposition

Laser ablation (vaporization)

Connect two graphite rods to Place substrate in oven, heat Blast graphite with intense a power supply, place them to 600 C, and slowly add a laser pulses; use the laser millimeters apart, and throw carbon-bearing gas such as pulses rather than electricity switch. At 100 amps, carbon methane. As gas decomposes to generate carbon gas from vaporizes in a hot plasma. it frees up carbon atoms, which the NTs form; try which recombine in the form various conditions until hit on of NTs one that produces prodigious amounts of SWNTs

Can produce SWNT and MWNTs with few structural defects

Easiest to scale to industrial Primarily SWNTs, with a large production; long length diameter range that can be controlled by varying the reaction temperature NTs are usually MWNTs and often riddled with defects By far the most costly, because requires expensive lasers

Tubes tend to be short with random sizes and directions



Microelectronics / semiconduct ors Conducting Composites Controlled Drug Delivery/rele ase


Molecular Quantum wires Hydrogen Storage Noble radioactive gas storage Solar storage Waste recycling Electromagnetic shielding Dialysis Filters

Thermal 3/8/12

Biological applications: AFM tips

Carbon nanotubes as AFM probe tips:
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Small diameter maximum resolution Excellent chemical and mechanical robustness.


Resolution of ~ 12nm is

DNA sequencing

Nanotube fits into the major grove of the DNA strand

Apply bias voltage across CNT, different DNA base-pairs give rise to different current 3/8/12

Top view and side view of the assembled CNT-DNA system

Advantages of cnts

Extremely small and lightweight, making them excellent replacements for metallic wires Resources required to produce them are plentiful, and many can be made with only a small amount of material Are resistant to temperature changes, meaning they function almostjust as well in extreme cold as they do in extreme heat been in the R&D phase for a long

Have 3/8/12

Disadvantages of cnts

Despite all the research, scientists still don't understand exactly how they work Extremely small, so are difficult to work with Currently, the process is relatively expensive to produce the nanotubes Would be expensive to implement this new technology in and replace the older technology in all the places that we could the rate our technology has been becoming obsolete, it may be a gamble

At 3/8/12

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Already in product: CNT tipped AFM

Future and challenges of cnts

Big hit: CNT field effect transistors based nano electronics. Futuristic: CNT based OLED, artificial muscles Challenges:Manufacture: Important parameters are hard to control. Large quantity fabrication process still missing.


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Thank you


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