History of the Philippines

Why Philippines is considered a unique nation?
There are four reasons: • Religion - Filipinos are predominantly Christians • Political History a. Philippines is the first Republic in Asia, being the first to achieve independence by revolution and establish a Republic led by General Emilio Aguinaldo in 1898 – 1901.

b. The first Southeast Asian Nation to

secure independence by voluntary decolonization of a colonial power after the second World War in 1946. c. It led the world in waging a “People Power Revolution to oust a dictator by peaceful and prayerful means in 1986”.

Philippines especially Filipinos are by race and culture a harmonious blend of the East and the West. • Natural Resources – Philippines is one of the richest counties of the world. American heritage Geographically. .• Cultural Heritage We are assimilated of four heritages. to wit: a. Latin d. Indigenous Asia b. The European c.

shipping. .Why Philippines is considered as the Melting Pot of People and Culture? • Our country occupies a good geographical position • It is the crossroads of the world’s culture and races. and trade routes in the orient. • It is the meeting place of all aviation.

.• • • • Importance of Philippine Location: Philippines serve as a bridge between the culture of the East and the West. It lies as a crossroads of international air and sea routes It looms as a bastion of democracy in an area where dictators and communism hold sway over Asian nation. It is the citadel of Christianity between the largely Christian West and largely NonChristian East.

twice as big as Greece and very much larger than Britain. . m. or 299.707 sq.100 islands with a total land area of 115.Land area of the Philippines: • Philippines is an archipelago of 7. • In terms of the land area. Philippines is almost as large as Italy.km.681 sq. larger than New Zealand.

with total area of 38. which is bigger than Hungary and Portugal.906 sq. which is bigger than Austria. 087 sq.. m. 814 sq. m. m. • Visayas – 3rd largest island with a total land area of 36.Land area of the Philippines: • Luzon – Philippines largest island with a total land area of 40. • Mindanao – Second largest island. ..

600 ft. situated off the Pacific coast of the archipelago with 37. • San Juanico Strait – the narrowest strait in the world between Samar and Leyte. .640 ft. lower than the Marianas Deep with only 35. 782 ft. • Manila Bay – one of the finest harbors in the Asian World. Deep. with the historic Corregidor Island standing guard as its entrance.Physical Features: • Highest mountain – Mt. Apo (9. High in Mindanao) • Lowest Spot – Philippine Deep. deep.

Physical Features: Cont. famously known as the “Rice granary of the Philippines”. is the Asia’s greatest tobacco producing region. . • Cagayan Valley – also in Luzon. • Laguna de Bay – largest lake in the country. • Central Plain in Luzon – largest plain in Central Luzon. • Cagayan River – longest river in the Philippines where tobacco is being drained.

his physical. Philippines had the freest press in Asia. and moral qualities are as excellent as those proudest stocks of mankind. during the Third Republican Era (1946-72).Filipino Image: • As Filipino. . intellectual. the Filipino is not inferior to any man of any race. the best schools and colleges. • During the Commonwealth Period under President Manuel L. and the most progressive business environment in the region. Quezon.

Richard S. headed by Dr. . who knew 22 languages. This is exemplified by Dr. Otley Beyer in the year 1916. • From the previous study of Dr.Filipino Image: A Nation of many Languages: • Filipinos are known for their talent in languages. • Philippines have 55 languages. and 147 dialects according to the findings of the Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of North Dakota. Jose Rizal. he listed only 43 major languages and 87 dialects. Pittman. H.

politically. and socially – considered equal with men.Filipino Image: • Filipinos are the only English and Spanish speaking nation in Asia. • Women in the Philippines enjoy the greatest freedom and highest status among women in Asia. . • Filipinos are the most literate Nation in Southeast Asia. economically.

Philippines was already known to the early Chinese traders and geographers. .D.Names given for Philippines: Long before the coming of Magellan.D. Various records and artifacts antedate Sino-Philippines contacts to 3rd Century A.. they gave the names for Philippines as: • “Ma-yi” – appears in Sung Dynasty sources in 982 A.

“Malilu” (Manila). . wherein he called the country as – Ma-i. • Another Pre-Hispanic Sino Writer. who wrote his travels to “ Mai”.Names given for Philippines: • Chau-Ju-Kua. Wang-TaYuan in 1349. a Chinese trader Official gave a detailed account of his trip to various islands in the Philippines in the year 1225. “Mintolang” (Mindanao). because of its gold and proximity to the mainland China. “Sulu and Pishoye”(Visayas). Ma-i = is generally accepted to refer to the island of Mindoro in Luzon.

in honor of Prince Felipe (Philip) of Asturias. who later became King Philip II.Names given for Philippines: The official name “Filipinas” was given to the archipelago in 1543 by the ill-starred Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos. the greatest King of Spain. .

Names given for Philippines: The name first appeared in the rare map published at Venice in 1554 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. an Italian Geographer in the most popular collection of early travels and voyages at the time. .

and then to the name of “Republic of the Philippines” after the decolonization in 1946. • .Names given for Philippines: Until it was later Anglicized to “Philippine Islands” during the American Colonial regime.

Gems of the East b. Pearl of the Orient . Isles of Fear d. Land of the Morning g.Other Names given for Philippines: a. Isles of Hope e. Orphans of the Pacific f. Treasure Islands of the Pacific c.

2. The Friar – Historians Ideas • The ancestors of the Filipinos sprang out of the soil like wild plants. Myths and Legends . • They were created by the sun. • They were produced from the base metals by the magic act of ancient alchemists (herbalists).Origin of the Filipinos: 1.

who came between 25.000 and 30. Otley Beyer. “dawn-Man” type who was similar to the Java Man.000 years ago – this is the theory of H. The “Dawn Man” and the “Migration Theory” • The cave-man. • The aboriginal pygmy group.000 years ago.Origin of the Filipinos: 3. or the Negritos. Peking Man. and other Asian homo Sapiens of 250. .

4. . who came about 5. people of the prehistoric Southeast Asia belonged to the same racial unit. clothweaving by loom. Core Population Theory: • According to this theory.Origin of the Filipinos: • The Sea-faring tool-using Indonesian group.000 to 6. and jewelry making. pottery-making.000 years ago. • The Sea-faring more civilized Malays who brought the Iron Age culture and introduced new industries like iron metal smiting.

2. Colin. such as: • Fr. Legends and Myths . Sta. The idea of the theologians during the Spanish era. Delgado – advancing the Theological View that Philippines is part of God’s creation.Origin of the Philippines: 1. Ines and Fr. Fr.

• Land-bridge theory . a geologist – who maintained the theory that Philippines is a volcanic origin). Bailey Willis. Scientific Theories.Origin of the Philippines: 3. that Philippines is: • Part of the lost continent (lost pacific called as Lemuria or Mu) • Volcanic Origin (Dr.

1521.000 years ago. southeast of Samar on March 16. The first recorded visit from the West is the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on Homonhon Island.History of the Philippines • The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30. .

Prior to Magellan's arrival. confederations and sultanates. the Confederation of Madyaas. the august kingdoms of Maysapan and Maynila. principalities. petty plutocracies and maritime oriented harbor principalities which eventually grew into kingdoms. the sinified Country of Mai. These groups then stratified into: hunter-gatherer tribes. States such as the Indianized Rajahnate of Butuan and Cebu. there were Negrito tribes who roamed the isles but they were later supplanted by Austronesians. as well as the Muslim Sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao. rajahnates. warrior-societies. the dynasty of Tondo. .

Japan. . as well as enjoying trade with areas now called China. despite these kingdoms attaining complex political and social orders. India.These small states flourished from as early as the 10th century AD. Thailand. The remainder of the settlements was independent Barangays allied with one of the larger nations. Vietnam. and Indonesia. none encompassed the whole archipelago which was to become the unified Philippines of the twentieth century.

* Spanish colonization and settlement began with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi's expedition in 1565 who established the first permanent settlement of San Miguel on the island of Cebu. The expedition continued northward reaching the bay of Manila on the island of Luzon in 1571. where they established a new town and thus began an era of Spanish colonization that lasted for more than three centuries. .

Spanish rule achieved the political unification of almost the whole archipelago. the western European version of printing. . the oldest Universities and the first public education system in Asia. Spain also introduced Christianity. the Gregorian calendar and invested heavily on all kinds of modern infrastructures. pushing back south the advancing Islamic forces and creating the first draft of the nation that was to be known as the Philippines. such as train networks and modern bridges. the code of law. that previously had been composed by independent kingdoms and communities.

transferred control of the Philippines to the United States. However. 1899. . This agreement was not recognized by the Philippine Government which. the Treaty of Paris. at the end of the Spanish–American War. on June 2. but it was largely unsuccessful until it received support from the United States. culminating two years later with a proclamation of independence and the establishment of the First Philippine Republic.• The Philippine Revolution against Spain began in April 1896. proclaimed a Declaration of War against the United States.

government declared the conflict officially over in 1902. for the most part.• The Philippine-American War which ensued resulted in massive casualties. but hostilities continued and only began to decline in 1913. Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in 1901 and the U. accepted that the Americans had won. many of them civilians. The Filipino leaders.S. . leaving a total number of casualties on the Filipino side of more than one million dead.

• U.S. colonial rule of the Philippines started in 1905 with very limited local rule. Partial autonomy (commonwealth status) was granted in 1935, preparatory to a planned full independence from the United States in 1946. Preparation for a fully sovereign state was interrupted by the Japanese occupation of the islands during World War II.

With a promising economy in the 1950s and 1960s, the Philippines in the late 1960s and early 1970s saw a rise of student activism and civil unrest against the corrupt dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos who declared martial law in 1972.

Because of close ties between United States and President Marcos, the U.S. government continued to support Marcos even though his administration was well-known for massive corruption and extensive human rights abuse. The peaceful and bloodless People Power Revolution of 1986, however, brought about the ousting of Marcos and a return to democracy for the country. The period since then, however, has been marked by political instability and hampered economic productivity.

both of whom appear to suggest the presence of human settlement prior to the arrival of the Negritos and Austronesian speaking people. .Prehistory • The earliest archeological evidence for man in the archipelago is the 40.000-year-old Tabon Man of Palawan and the Angono Petroglyphs in Rizal.

Prehistory • The Negritos were early settlers but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.E. . and they were followed by speakers of the Malayo-Polynesian languages.C. a branch of the Austronesian languages. who began to arrive in successive waves beginning about 4000 B. displacing the earlier arrivals.

who occupied the mountain ranges of Luzon. . the petty plutocracy of the Ifugao Cordillera Highlanders. Ilongots and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-gathering and were concentrated in forests. the inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of peoples: tribal groups. Hanunoo. warrior societies. such as the Aetas. and the harbor principalities of the estuarine civilizations that grew along rivers and seashores while participating in trans-island maritime trade. such as the Isneg and Kalingas who practiced social ranking and ritualized warfare and roamed the plains.• By 1000 B.C.

adopting influences from both Buddhism and Hinduism. the seafaring peoples of the islands traveling in balangays began to trade with the Indianized kingdoms in the Malay Archipelago and the nearby East Asian principalities. .E.• Around 300–700 C.

He established friendly relations with some of the local leaders especially with Rajah Humabon and converted some of them to Roman Catholicism. Magellan landed on the island called Homonhon. . who was not the first Europeans in the Philippines. claiming the islands he saw for Spain.Spanish Settlement and Rule (15651898) • Early Spanish expeditions • Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines In 1521. and naming them Islas de San Lázaro. Parts of the Philippine Islands were known to Europeans before the 1521 Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese-born Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan.

they explored many islands including the island of Mactan. Ruy López de Villalobos led an expedition to the islands and gave the name Las Islas Filipinas (after Philip II of Spain) to the islands of Samar and Leyte. However. In 1543.• In the Philippines. Magellan was killed in a battle he led there against the ruling datu Lapu-Lapu. The name was extended to the entire archipelago in the twentieth century. . • Over the next several decades. other Spanish expeditions were dispatched to the islands.

Spanish settlement Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi. Spanish power was further consolidated after Miguel López de Legazpi's conquest of the Confederation of Madya-as. . arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571. the Spanish occupied the kingdoms of Maynila and Tondo and established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. his subjugation of Rajah Tupas the King of Cebu and Juan de Salcedo's ransacking of the Chinese warlord Limahong's pirate kingdom in Pangasinan.

Butuan's last rajah and Brunei's Sultan Bolkieh. would have restored the old aristocracy.This grab for power eventually culminated with the mass murder and exile of the royal families of the Dynasty of Tondo and the Kingdom of Maynila when the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 failed in which a planned grand alliance with the Japanese admiral Gayo. . Its failure resulted in the hanging of Agustín de Legazpi (great grandson of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the initiator of the plot) and the execution of Magat Salamat (the crown-prince of Tondo).

from 1565 to 1821 and administered directly from Spain from 1821 to 1898. . the Aztec and Mayan mercenaries López de Legazpi brought with him eventually settled in Mexico. centered in Mexico.In the following years. Pampanga where traces of Aztec and Mayan influence can still be proven by the many chico plantations in the area (chico is a fruit indigenous only to Mexico) and also by the name of the province itself. Subsequently. the colony was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

The fragmented nature of the islands made it easy for Spanish colonization. . The Spanish introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law. pineapple and chocolate from Latin America. The Spanish then attempted to bring political unification to the Philippine archipelago via the conquest of the various states but they were unable to subjugate the sultanates of Mindanao and the tribes and highland plutocracy of the Ifugao of Northern Luzon. western printing and the Gregorian calendar alongside new food resources such as maize.

Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools. Chinese pirates. before it was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican revolution. . establishing public schooling in Spanish. universities. the Philippines was governed from Mexico City via the Royal Audiencia of Manila. and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced education. especially from the British. and Portuguese.From 1565 to 1821. Dutch. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges. The Manila Galleons which linked Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries.

an enlightened class of Creoles and Indios.685 persons. The country's population as of December 31. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. Queen Isabella of Spain decreed the establishment of a public school system in Spanish. since many young Filipinos were able to study in Europe. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos. The Philippines was administered from the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the grant of independence to Mexico in 1821 necessitated the direct rule from Spain of the Philippines from that year. .567. 1877 was recorded at 5. Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. Both of these events prompted the rise of the ilustrados.In 1781. Developments in and out of the country helped to bring new ideas to the Philippines including the ideals of the French and American Revolutions. In 1863.

Enlightened by the Propaganda Movement to the injustices of the Spanish colonial government and the "frailocracy", the ilustrados originally clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. José Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical illustrado of the era, wrote the novels "Noli Me Tangere", and "El filibusterismo", which greatly inspired the movement for independence. The Katipunan, a secret society whose primary purpose was that of overthrowing Spanish rule in the Philippines, was founded by Andrés Bonifacio who became its Supremo (leader).

The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was wrongly accused of implication in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Katipunan in Cavite split into two groups, Magdiwang, led by Mariano Álvarez (a relative of Bonifacio's by marriage), and Magdalo, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Leadership conflicts between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo culminated in the execution or assassination of the former by the latter's soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a truce with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong. Not all the revolutionary generals complied with the agreement. One, General Francisco Makabulos, established a Central Executive Committee to serve as the interim government until a more suitable one was created. Armed conflicts resumed, this time coming from almost every province in Spanish-governed Philippines.

• In 1898, as conflicts continued in the Philippines, the USS Maine, having been sent to Cuba because of U.S. concerns for the safety of its citizens during an ongoing Cuban revolution, exploded and sank in Havana harbor. This event precipitated the Spanish–American War. After Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila, the U.S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines, which he did on May 19, 1898, in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. By the time U.S. land forces had arrived, the Filipinos had taken control of the entire island of Luzon, except for the walled city of Intramuros. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines in Kawit, Cavite, establishing the First Philippine Republic under Asia's first democratic constitution.

The German Emperor expected an American defeat. . with Spain left in a sufficiently weak position for the revolutionaries to capture Manila—leaving the Philippines ripe for German picking. offered war — after which the Germans backed down.• A German squadron arrived in Manila and engaged in maneuvers which Dewey seeing this as obstruction of his blockade.

the United States captured the city from the Spanish. was excluded from sessions as the revolutionary government was not recognized by the family of nations. Felipe Agoncillo. an action deeply resented by the Filipinos. . the United States decided to annex the Philippines.• In the Battle of Manila. The Filipino representative. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration. Although there was substantial domestic opposition. as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila. Spain and the United States sent commissioners to Paris to draw up the terms of the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish–American War.

.00. occupation.000. • The first Philippine Republic resisted the U. Spain was forced in the negotiations to hand over the Philippines to the U.S. resulting in the Philippine-American War (1899–1913). President McKinley justified the annexation of the Philippines by saying that it was ". in spite of the Philippines having been already Christianized by the Spanish over the course of several centuries. there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all.000. ..S. U. in exchange for US$20.• In addition to Guam and Puerto Rico..S. a gift from the gods" and that since "they were unfit for self-government.. and uplift and civilize and Christianize them". and to educate the Filipinos..

• American period (1898–1946)
Filipinos initially saw their relationship with the United States as that of two nations joined in a common struggle against Spain. However, the United States later distanced itself from the interests of the Filipino insurgents. Aguinaldo was unhappy that the United States would not commit to paper a statement of support for Philippine independence. Relations deteriorated and tensions heightened as it became clear that the Americans were in the islands to stay.

• Philippine-American War Hostilities broke out on February 4, 1899, after two American privates on patrol killed three Filipino soldiers in San Juan, a Manila suburb. This incident sparked the Philippine-American War, which would cost far more money and took far more lives than the Spanish–American War. Some 126,000 American soldiers would be committed to the conflict; 4,234 Americans died, as did 16,000 Filipino soldiers who were part of a nationwide guerrilla movement of indeterminate numbers. • At least one million Filipinos lost their lives as a direct result of the war, with as many as 200,000 who died as a result of the cholera epidemic at the war's end. Atrocities were committed by both sides.

• The poorly-equipped Filipino troops were easily overpowered by American troops in open combat, but they were formidable opponents in guerrilla warfare. Malolos, the revolutionary capital, was captured on March 31, 1899. Aguinaldo and his government escaped however, establishing a new capital at San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. On June 5, 1899, Antonio Luna, Aguinaldo's most capable military commander, was killed by Aguinaldo's guards in an apparent assassination while visiting Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija to meet with Aguinaldo. Gregorio del Pilar, another key general, was killed on December 2, 1899 in the Battle of Tirad Pass. With his best commanders dead and his troops suffering continued defeats as American forces pushed into northern Luzon, Aguinaldo dissolved the regular army in November 1899 and ordered the establishment of decentralized guerrilla commands in each of several military zones. The general population, caught between Americans and rebels, suffered significantly.

1901 and was brought to Manila.• Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan. sporadic insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines. . he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms. However. officially bringing an end to the war. especially in the Muslim south. Isabela on March 23. Convinced of the futility of further resistance. until 1913.

the head of the commission. A Philippine Constabulary was organized to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assume the responsibilities of the United States Army. with a mandate to legislate laws and re-engineer the political system. to the Philippines. William Howard Taft. with limited executive powers. civil service. The Taft Commission passed laws to set up the fundamentals of the new government. President McKinley sent the Taft Commission. 1901. was inaugurated as Civil Governor. On July 1. and local government. The authority of the Military Governor was continued in those areas where the insurrection persisted. including a judicial system.• In 1900. .

1902 the office of Military Governor was abolished and full executive power passed from Adna Chaffee. who became the first U. 1896-1908. This government saw its mission as one of tutelage. GovernorGeneral of the Philippines. Bureau of Insular Affairs.S. to Taft. The Philippine Organic Act (1902) was a constitution for the Insular Government.S. On July 4. . preparing the Philippines for eventual independence.• Insular Government (1902-1935) • Flag of the United States. so called because Philippine civil administration was under the authority of the U. the last military governor.

but an elected Philippine Assembly was inaugurated in 1907. President in 1913. The Jones Act.S. During the early years of territorial administration. promised eventual independence and instituted an elected Philippine senate.• United States policies towards the Philippines shifted with changing administrations. passed by the U. with the appointive Philippine Commission becoming the upper house. When Woodrow Wilson became U. . the Americans were reluctant to delegate authority to the Filipinos. as the lower house of a bicameral legislature.S. a new policy was adopted to put into motion a process that would gradually lead to Philippine independence. Congress in 1916 to serve as the new organic law in the Philippines.

. by 1930. it had increased to 601 million pesos. foreign trade amounted to 62 million pesos. the Philippines made solid progress in this period.• In socio-economic terms. In 1895. By 1920. including various tropical diseases. reduced the mortality rate from all causes. 13% of which was with the United States. A health care system was established which. 66% of which was with the United States. to a level similar to that of the United States itself.

piracy and headhunting were all suppressed. provided English as a lingua francaso that the islands' 170 linguistic groups could communicate with one another and the outside world. less than ten percent of the Christianized population was fully literate in the language and those who spoke it were limited to the urban centers and the elite. While prior to the coming of the Americans. At the end of the Spanish era. the language was unpopular. but not extinguished. An educational system was established which. .• Slavery. Spanish was spoken by some segments of Philippine society. among other subjects.

. Several independence missions were sent to Washington. D. Members to the elected legislature lobbied for immediate and complete independence from the United States.• The 1920s saw alternating periods of cooperation and confrontation with American governors-general. depending on how intent the incumbent was on exercising his powers vis-àvis the Philippine legislature.C. who had effectively gained control by 1918. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by Filipinos.

• Philippine politics during the American territorial era was dominated by the Nacionalista Party. Although the party's platform called for "immediate independence". their policy toward the Americans was highly accommodating. who served continuously as Senate president from 1916 until 1935. the call for independence was spearheaded by Manuel L. . Within the political establishment. Quezon. which was founded in 1907.

The change in form was more than symbolic: it was intended as a manifestation of the transition to independence. High Commissioner of the Philippines (1935–36).S. and the first U. .• Frank Murphy was the last GovernorGeneral of the Philippines (1933–35).

ties to The Philippines since they could not compete with the Philippine cheap sugar (and other commodities) which could freely enter the U.S. . market.S. they agitated in favor of granting independence to the Philippines so that its cheap products and labour could be shut out of the United States. In the United States it was mainly the sugar industry and labour unions that had a stake in loosening the U. the United States Congress passed the HareHawes-Cutting Act as a Philippine Independence Act over President Herbert Hoover's veto.Commonwealth • The Great Depression in the early thirties hastened the progress of The Philippines towards independence. Therefore. In 1933.

The following year. Under his influence.• Though the bill had been drafted with the aid of a commission from the Philippines. Quezon. partially because of provisions leaving the United States in control of naval bases. it was opposed by Philippine Senate President Manuel L. the Philippine legislature rejected the bill. . a revised act known as the Tydings-McDuffie Act was finally passed.

and certain legislation required approval of the United States president. The commonwealth would have its own constitution and be self-governing.• The act provided for the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with a ten-year period of peaceful transition to full independence. though foreign policy would be the responsibility of the United States. .

a Filipino government was formed on the basis of principles similar to the U.S. 1935. electing Manuel L. On May 14. and a Supreme Court composed entirely of Filipinos for the first time since 1901.• A constitution was framed and approved by Franklin D. a unicameral National Assembly. Roosevelt in March 1935. . Quezon as the president and featuring a very strong executive. Constitution. The commonwealth was established in 1935.

Under the pressure of superior numbers. . Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon.World War II and Japanese occupation • Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga. 1941. the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay. just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Philippines on December 8.

It is estimated that about 10. Manila. 1942. General MacArthur declared the capital city.000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. an open city to prevent its destruction. Most of the 80. The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May of the same year. .000 Filipinos and 1.• On January 2.200 Americans died before reaching their destination.

• President Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States. . where they set up a government in exile. where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines. MacArthur was ordered to Australia.

when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. The Japanese-sponsored republic headed by President José P. Laurel proved to be unpopular. . They initially organized a Council of State. through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943.The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission.

.S. continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and was considered an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Army Forces Far East. as well as remnants of the U. The Philippine Army.Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity.

. which armed some 30.000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon. Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war. One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap (Filipino: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon") ("People's Army Against the Japanese").

fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on 2 September 1945. and the Allies with the Philippine Commonwealth troops pushed toward Manila. Landings in other parts of the country had followed. when it started with MacArthur's Sixth United States Army landing on Leyte. . However.The occupation of the Philippines by Japan ended at the end of the war. The American army had been fighting the so-called Philippines Campaign since October 1944.

.The Philippines suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction by the time the war was over. and Manila was extensively damaged. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed. a large portion during the final months of the war.

as scheduled. . with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.S. according to United States high commissioner Paul McNutt. the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States markets– more dependent.Independent Philippines and the Third Republic (1946–1972) • Administration of Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) Elections were held in April 1946. The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4. state was dependent on the rest of the country. 1946. However. than any single U.

. A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country (the lease was later reduced to 25 years beginning 1967). passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States. exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries.The Philippine Trade Act.

Elpidio Quirino. .• Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953) The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II. He ran for president in his own right in 1949. except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948. defeating Jose P. was elevated to the presidency. Laurel and winning a four-year term. and the vice president.

The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas (known as "Huks"). Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression. . who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government.World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged.

finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. . The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s.

and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. He promised sweeping economic reform.• Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) Supported by the United States. Magsaysay was elected president in 1953 on a populist platform. .

• Though this relieved population pressure in the north. he was extremely popular with the common people. . and his death in an airplane crash in March 1957 dealt a serious blow to national morale. Nevertheless. it heightened religious hostilities.

His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first". arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy.• Administration of Carlos P. . Garcia (19571961) Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death. and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year.

.• Garcia successfully negotiated for the United States' relinquishment of large military land reservations. However. his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.

Notably. Macapagal's foreign policy sought closer relations with neighboring Asian nations. . defeating Garcia's re-election bid. to honor the day that Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain in 1898.• Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965) Diosdado Macapagal was elected president in the 1961 election. Negotiations with the United States over base rights led to anti-American sentiment. the celebration of Independence Day was changed from July 4 to June 12. particularly Malaya (later Malaysia) and Indonesia.

Senate President Ferdinand Marcos.• Marcos era and martial law (1965–1986) Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965. but was defeated by his former party-mate. who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects and intensified tax collection which brought the country economic prosperity throughout the 1970s. Early in his presidency. .

• His administration built more roads (including a substantial portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his predecessors combined. Marcos was reelected president in 1969. . becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to achieve a second term. and more schools than any previous administration.

The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army. Because of this. . Opponents of Marcos blocked the necessary legislation to implement his ambitious plans. Crime and civil disobedience increased.The Philippine Legislature was corrupt and impotent. optimism faded early in his second term and economic growth slowed.

The Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. which he restored on January 11. . 1972 after public protests. An explosion during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21. 1971 prompted Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus.

curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties. Marcos. ruling by decree. 1081. . Marcos declared martial law on September 21..• Martial law Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency. Jr. closed down Congress and media establishments. and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists. Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. 1972 by virtue of Proclamation No. including his staunchest critics senators Benigno Aquino.

. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973. Many political opponents were forced to go into exile. continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973. given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. • A constitutional convention. which had been called for in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution.• The declaration of martial law was initially well received.

Tourism rose. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. Imelda RomualdezMarcos. contributing to the economy's growth. wilfully engaged in rampant corruption. However. Marcos. The economy during the 1970s was robust.Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political values. with budgetary and trade surpluses. . his cronies and his wife.

1981. . However.• Fourth Republic Appeasing the Roman Catholic Church. Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos. he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. whose health declined due to lupus.

• The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections. which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos. . which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister by the Batasang Pambansa.

was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. . Jr. that culminated in a snap presidential election in February 1986. Corazon Aquino. The opposition united under Aquino's widow. including pressure from the United States. opposition leader Benigno Aquino.• In 1983. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events.

declared Marcos the winner of the election. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by Corazon Aquino and her supporters. However. there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel.• The official election canvasser. an accredited poll watcher. . the Commission on Elections (Comelec).

Gen. now popularly called the People Power Revolution. 1986. forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25. A peaceful civilian-military uprising. including a U.• International observers. .S. denounced the official results. Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their support for Marcos. delegation.

Fifth Republic (1986–present) • Administration of Corazon C. . A new permanent constitution was ratified and enacted in February 1987. Aquino (19861992) Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation. and provided for a transitional "Freedom Constitution".

The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law. and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress. . proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao.

Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties. and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military. . but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious.

Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts.Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters. During the Aquino presidency. . including the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo that left 700 dead and 200. the most serious occurring in December 1989.000 homeless.

military presence in the Philippines. . ending almost a century of U.S.S. the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.In 1991. and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992. military bases in the country. The United States turned over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November.

won the presidency with just 23. Ramos. endorsed by Aquino. Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998) In the 1992 elections.• Administration of Fidel V.6% of the vote in a field of seven candidates. Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years. Early in his administration. .

and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents. . Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups. and military rebels. attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government. Muslim separatists. In June 1994.• He legalized the Communist Party and laid the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents.

a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao. was signed in 1996. ending the 24-year old struggle. . A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end.• In October 1995.

an MNLF splinter group. .• However. leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election. the Moro Islamic Liberation Front continued the armed struggle for an Islamic state. Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests.

a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president. was elected president by a landslide victory in 1998. His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector .• Administration of Joseph Estrada (1998-2001) • Joseph Estrada.

The economy did. Estrada assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis.4% by 1999. however. . The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development. recover from a low -0.• He enjoyed widespread popularity. particularly among the poor. Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution.6% growth in 1998 to a moderate growth of 3.

. would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines.• Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal. However it was not successful in amending the constitution. according to its proponents.

• In March 21. . 2000 President Estrada declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) after the worsening secessionist movement in Midanao The government later captured 46 MILF camps including the MILF's headquarters'. however. Camp Abubakar. In October 2000. Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses.

2001. In response. but his impeachment trial in the Senate broke down when the senate voted to block examination of the president's bank records. and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces. . cabinet resignations. Faced with street protests.• He was impeached by the House of Representatives. Estrada was forced from office on January 20. massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation.

. when her coalition won an overwhelming victory.• Administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal) was sworn in as Estrada's successor on the day of his departure. Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later.

• Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July 2003 that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion. • Arroyo had declared in December 2002 that she would not run in the May 2004 presidential election. . but she reversed herself in October 2003 and decided to join the race.

. a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained.• She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30. In 2005. The tape sparked protests calling for Arroyo's resignation. 2004.

• Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted a controversial plan for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government.• Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to an election official. . Attempts to impeach the president failed later that year. but denied allegations of fraud and refused to step down.

promote the general welfare. Apolinario Mabini. and insure the benefits of liberty. in order to establish justice. . provide for common defense. decreed.1899 (Malolos Constitution – Emilio Aguinaldo) • The President of the Council. lawfully covened. the Representatives of the Filipino people. and sanctioned the following. imploring the aid of the Sovereign Legislator of the Universe for the attainment of these ends. have voted. • Preamble We.

Preamble The Filipino people. imploring the aid of Divine Providence. . in order to establish a government that shall embody their ideals. promote the general welfare.1935 – (Commonwealth Period) • The 1935 Constitution was ratified on May 14. and secure to themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a regime of justice. do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. and democracy. conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation. 1935. liberty.

.. 1102 issued by President Ferdinand E. 1973 in accordance with Presidential Proclamation No. Marcos]. This is known as the Martial Constitution…….1973 – Martial Law • [The 1973 Constitution was ratified on January 17.

and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of democracy under a regime of justice. liberty. imploring the aid of Divine Providence. conserve and develop the patrimony of our Nation. peace. . in order to establish a government that shall embody our ideals. and equality. the sovereign Filipino people. do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. promote the general welfare.Preamble We.

conserve and develop our patrimony. justice. do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. . imploring the aid of Almighty God. and secure to ourselves and our posterity. the sovereign Filipino people. and peace. equality. in order to build a just and humane society. freedom. the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth.THE 1987 CONSTITUTION Freedom Constitution PREAMBLE We. and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations. promote the common good. love.

the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of. the needs of its colony. the Philippines and to propagate a closer relationship between the colony and Spain. . Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities.Propaganda Movement • The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe.

Graciano López Jaena. author of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. del Pilar. Mariano Ponce.• Its prominent members included José Rizal. publisher of La Solidaridad. the organization's secretary and Marcelo H. . the movement's principal organ.

. • Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality. the Propagandists aims were: • Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales.Goals • Specifically. the Spanish parliament. • Secularization of the clergy.

. • Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service. • Guarantee of basic freedoms of speech and association.• Creation of a public school system independent of the friars. • Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government).

• Recognition of human rights .• Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain • Secularization of Philippine parishes.

• What are the factors that led to propaganda movement in the Philippines? There are two major factors that led to propaganda movement in the Philippines during our early history from 1800 – 1889. . Such as: • To expose the defects and abuses of the Spanish Government. • Aimed to seek reforms to remedy the defects and abuses of Colonial government.

. they merely asked for reforms. that the propaganda Movement was not a revolutionary or seditious affair. not independence until the Rise of the Katipunan movement in 1892 which aimed to gain Independence from Spain.Be it noted however.

• Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes and equal treatment of Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines . • Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain.Reforms desired by the Propaganda Movement: • Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the laws.

.• Filipinization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the friars. and the freedom to meet and petition for redress of grievances. • Human rights of Filipinos. such as freedom of speech. freedom of the press.

were executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. these priests. The charges against Fathers Gomez. Burgos and Zamora were their alleged complicity in the uprising of workers at the Cavite Naval Yard. 1872. .To further illustrate: • In February 17. Fathers Mariano Gomez. Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (Gomburza).

They questioned Spanish Authorities and demanded reforms.The death of Gomburza awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos. which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government. . The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement.

The ilustrados led the Filipinos’ quest for reforms. they felt more confident about voicing out popular grievances. the group could not really push very hard for the reforms it wanted. However. Because of their education and newly acquired wealth. . since the ilustrados themselves were a result of the changes that the Spanish government had been slowly implementing.

but they were more systematic and used a peaceful means called the Propaganda Movement. .The ilustrados did not succeed in easing the sufferings of the Filipinos. The intelligentsia also wanted reforms. but from this group another faction arises called the intelligentsia.

and others on the night of July 7. Ladislao Diwa. Teodoro Plata. Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution. when Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. .Katipunan • The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio. Initially. which aimed primarily to gain independence from Spain through revolution.

comes from the root word "tipon". meaning "society" or "gather together" Its official revolutionary name is Kataas-taasan.K. literally means association.. K. Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan (English: High and Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation.The word "katipunan". an indigenous Tagalog word. Katipunan is also known by its acronym.K. Spanish: Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo). .

its members are subjected to utmost secrecy and are expected to abide with the rules established by the society. . later. At first. Aspirant applicants were given standard initiation rites to become members of the society. women were accepted in the society.Being a secret organization. Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos.

Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society. Kalayaan (Liberty) that had its first and last print on March 1896. .The Katipunan had its own publication. and Philippine literature were expanded by its some prominent members.

On May 1896.In planning the revolution. . Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise of Rizal's liberty from detainment by rescuing him. a delegation was sent to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms.

1896. Bonifacio and his men tore their cedúlas during the infamous Cry of Balintawak that started the Philippine Revolution. and finally to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned the existence of such secret society. on August 26.Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño confessed Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister. .

founded by José Rizal. successor organizations of La Liga Filipina. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce. Marcelo H. as part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines.Influence of the Propaganda Movement • A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: José Rizal. . and Teodoro Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain. Katipunan founders Andrés Bonifacio. effectively. • The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were. Ladislao Diwa.

also influenced the formation of the Katipunan. another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain. most of the Katipunan's founders were freemasons. Modern-day historians believe that he had a direct hand in its organization because of his role in the Propaganda Movement and his eminent position in Philippine Masonry.Marcelo H. del Pilar. .

It also had an order of rank.The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaña and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies." . similar to that of freemasonry. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. and the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end. even if each took a different road to it.

It also had an order of rank.The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. similar to that of freemasonry. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaña and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. and the Katipunan rises in its place. even if each took a different road to it." .

. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution. revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. who were also members of La Liga.Founding of the Katipunan • Captured Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros).

. Bonifacio did established the Katipunan when it was become apparent to antiSpanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities. Manila. Andrés Bonifacio. founded the Katipunan in a house in Tondo. a member of the La Liga Filipina. when Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao. 1892.On the night of July 7.

established as a secret brotherhood organization. plus Valentín Díaz and Deodato Arellano. they named Rizal honorary president without his knowledge. Manila. Recto Avenue) near Elcano St. Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation) . went under the name Kataas-taasang. (now Claro M. in Tondo. Teodoro Plata (brother-in-law) and Ladislao Diwa. Despite their reservations about the peaceable reformation that Rizal espoused. The Katipunan was founded along Azcarraga St.He was assisted by his two friends. The Katipunan.

• to win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or revolution). • to establish a republic after independence. .The Katipunan had four aims. namely: • to develop a strong alliance with each and every Katipuneros • to unite Filipinos into one solid nation.

Bonifacio started the militant movement for independence . hence. Jaena and others had failed its mission. The Propaganda Movement led by Rizal. del Pilar.The rise of the Katipunan signalized the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign.

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