You are on page 1of 149

History of the Philippines

Why Philippines is considered a unique nation?

There are four reasons: Religion - Filipinos are predominantly Christians Political History a. Philippines is the first Republic in Asia, being the first to achieve independence by revolution and establish a Republic led by General Emilio Aguinaldo in 1898 1901.

b. The first Southeast Asian Nation to

secure independence by voluntary decolonization of a colonial power after the second World War in 1946. c. It led the world in waging a People Power Revolution to oust a dictator by peaceful and prayerful means in 1986.

Cultural Heritage We are assimilated of four heritages, to wit: a. Indigenous Asia b. The European c. Latin d. American heritage Geographically, Philippines especially Filipinos are by race and culture a harmonious blend of the East and the West. Natural Resources Philippines is one of the richest counties of the world.

Why Philippines is considered as the Melting Pot of People and Culture?

Our country occupies a good geographical position It is the crossroads of the worlds culture and races. It is the meeting place of all aviation, shipping, and trade routes in the orient.

Importance of Philippine Location: Philippines serve as a bridge between the culture of the East and the West. It lies as a crossroads of international air and sea routes It looms as a bastion of democracy in an area where dictators and communism hold sway over Asian nation. It is the citadel of Christianity between the largely Christian West and largely NonChristian East.

Land area of the Philippines:

Philippines is an archipelago of 7,100 islands with a total land area of 115,707 sq. m. or 299,681 In terms of the land area, Philippines is almost as large as Italy, larger than New Zealand, twice as big as Greece and very much larger than Britain.

Land area of the Philippines:

Luzon Philippines largest island with a total land area of 40, 814 sq. m., which is bigger than Hungary and Portugal. Mindanao Second largest island, with total area of 38,906 sq. m., which is bigger than Austria. Visayas 3rd largest island with a total land area of 36, 087 sq. m.

Physical Features:
Highest mountain Mt. Apo (9,600 ft. High in Mindanao) Lowest Spot Philippine Deep, situated off the Pacific coast of the archipelago with 37, 782 ft. deep, lower than the Marianas Deep with only 35,640 ft. Deep. San Juanico Strait the narrowest strait in the world between Samar and Leyte. Manila Bay one of the finest harbors in the Asian World, with the historic Corregidor Island standing guard as its entrance.

Physical Features: Cont.

Central Plain in Luzon largest plain in Central Luzon, famously known as the Rice granary of the Philippines. Cagayan Valley also in Luzon, is the Asias greatest tobacco producing region. Cagayan River longest river in the Philippines where tobacco is being drained. Laguna de Bay largest lake in the country.

Filipino Image:
As Filipino, during the Third Republican Era (1946-72), Philippines had the freest press in Asia, the best schools and colleges, and the most progressive business environment in the region. During the Commonwealth Period under President Manuel L. Quezon, the Filipino is not inferior to any man of any race; his physical, intellectual, and moral qualities are as excellent as those proudest stocks of mankind.

Filipino Image:
A Nation of many Languages:
Filipinos are known for their talent in languages. This is exemplified by Dr. Jose Rizal, who knew 22 languages. Philippines have 55 languages, and 147 dialects according to the findings of the Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of North Dakota, headed by Dr. Richard S. Pittman. From the previous study of Dr. H. Otley Beyer in the year 1916, he listed only 43 major languages and 87 dialects.

Filipino Image:
Filipinos are the only English and Spanish speaking nation in Asia. Filipinos are the most literate Nation in Southeast Asia. Women in the Philippines enjoy the greatest freedom and highest status among women in Asia; economically, politically, and socially considered equal with men.

Names given for Philippines:

Long before the coming of Magellan, Philippines was already known to the early Chinese traders and geographers. Various records and artifacts antedate Sino-Philippines contacts to 3rd Century A.D., they gave the names for Philippines as:

Ma-yi appears in Sung Dynasty sources in 982 A.D.

Names given for Philippines:

Chau-Ju-Kua, a Chinese trader Official gave a detailed account of his trip to various islands in the Philippines in the year 1225, wherein he called the country as Ma-i. Another Pre-Hispanic Sino Writer, Wang-TaYuan in 1349, who wrote his travels to Mai, Mintolang (Mindanao), Malilu (Manila); Sulu and Pishoye(Visayas). Ma-i = is generally accepted to refer to the island of Mindoro in Luzon, because of its gold and proximity to the mainland China.

Names given for Philippines:

The official name Filipinas was given to the archipelago in 1543 by the ill-starred Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in honor of Prince Felipe (Philip) of Asturias, who later became King Philip II, the greatest King of Spain.

Names given for Philippines:

The name first appeared in the rare map published at Venice in 1554 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, an Italian Geographer in the most popular collection of early travels and voyages at the time.

Names given for Philippines: Until it was later Anglicized to Philippine Islands during the American Colonial regime, and then to the name of Republic of the Philippines after the decolonization in 1946.

Other Names given for

a. Gems of the East

b. Treasure Islands of the Pacific c. Isles of Fear d. Isles of Hope e. Orphans of the Pacific f. Land of the Morning g. Pearl of the Orient

Origin of the Filipinos:

1. The

Friar Historians Ideas

The ancestors of the Filipinos sprang out of the soil like wild plants. They were created by the sun. They were produced from the base metals by the magic act of ancient alchemists (herbalists).

2. Myths and Legends

Origin of the Filipinos:

3. The Dawn Man and the Migration Theory
The cave-man, dawn-Man type who was similar to the Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian homo Sapiens of 250,000 years ago this is the theory of H. Otley Beyer. The aboriginal pygmy group, or the Negritos, who came between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago.

Origin of the Filipinos:

The Sea-faring tool-using Indonesian group, who came about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. The Sea-faring more civilized Malays who brought the Iron Age culture and introduced new industries like iron metal smiting, pottery-making, clothweaving by loom, and jewelry making.

4. Core Population Theory:

According to this theory, people of the prehistoric Southeast Asia belonged to the same racial unit.

Origin of the Philippines:

1. The idea of the theologians during the Spanish era, such as: Fr. Colin, Fr. Sta. Ines and Fr. Delgado advancing the Theological View that Philippines is part of Gods creation.
2. Legends and Myths

Origin of the Philippines:

3. Scientific Theories, that Philippines is: Part of the lost continent (lost pacific called as Lemuria or Mu) Volcanic Origin (Dr. Bailey Willis, a geologist who maintained the theory that Philippines is a volcanic origin). Land-bridge theory

History of the Philippines

The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. The first recorded visit from the West is the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on Homonhon Island, southeast of Samar on March 16, 1521.

Prior to Magellan's arrival, there were Negrito tribes who roamed the isles but they were later supplanted by Austronesians. These groups then stratified into: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior-societies, petty plutocracies and maritime oriented harbor principalities which eventually grew into kingdoms, rajahnates, principalities, confederations and sultanates. States such as the Indianized Rajahnate of Butuan and Cebu, the dynasty of Tondo, the august kingdoms of Maysapan and Maynila, the Confederation of Madyaas, the sinified Country of Mai, as well as the Muslim Sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao.

These small states flourished from as early as the 10th century AD, despite these kingdoms attaining complex political and social orders, as well as enjoying trade with areas now called China, India, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia, none encompassed the whole archipelago which was to become the unified Philippines of the twentieth century. The remainder of the settlements was independent Barangays allied with one of the larger nations.

Spanish colonization and settlement began with the arrival of Miguel Lpez de Legazpi's expedition in 1565 who established the first permanent settlement of San Miguel on the island of Cebu. The expedition continued northward reaching the bay of Manila on the island of Luzon in 1571, where they established a new town and thus began an era of Spanish colonization that lasted for more than three centuries.

Spanish rule achieved the political unification of almost the whole archipelago, that previously had been composed by independent kingdoms and communities, pushing back south the advancing Islamic forces and creating the first draft of the nation that was to be known as the Philippines. Spain also introduced Christianity, the code of law, the oldest Universities and the first public education system in Asia, the western European version of printing, the Gregorian calendar and invested heavily on all kinds of modern infrastructures, such as train networks and modern bridges.

The Philippine Revolution against Spain began in April 1896, but it was largely unsuccessful until it received support from the United States, culminating two years later with a proclamation of independence and the establishment of the First Philippine Republic. However, the Treaty of Paris, at the end of the SpanishAmerican War, transferred control of the Philippines to the United States. This agreement was not recognized by the Philippine Government which, on June 2, 1899, proclaimed a Declaration of War against the United States.

The Philippine-American War which ensued resulted in massive casualties. Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in 1901 and the U.S. government declared the conflict officially over in 1902. The Filipino leaders, for the most part, accepted that the Americans had won, but hostilities continued and only began to decline in 1913, leaving a total number of casualties on the Filipino side of more than one million dead, many of them civilians.

U.S. colonial rule of the Philippines started in 1905 with very limited local rule. Partial autonomy (commonwealth status) was granted in 1935, preparatory to a planned full independence from the United States in 1946. Preparation for a fully sovereign state was interrupted by the Japanese occupation of the islands during World War II.

With a promising economy in the 1950s and 1960s, the Philippines in the late 1960s and early 1970s saw a rise of student activism and civil unrest against the corrupt dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos who declared martial law in 1972.

Because of close ties between United States and President Marcos, the U.S. government continued to support Marcos even though his administration was well-known for massive corruption and extensive human rights abuse. The peaceful and bloodless People Power Revolution of 1986, however, brought about the ousting of Marcos and a return to democracy for the country. The period since then, however, has been marked by political instability and hampered economic productivity.

The earliest archeological evidence for man in the archipelago is the 40,000-year-old Tabon Man of Palawan and the Angono Petroglyphs in Rizal, both of whom appear to suggest the presence of human settlement prior to the arrival of the Negritos and Austronesian speaking people.

The Negritos were early settlers but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. and they were followed by speakers of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, a branch of the Austronesian languages, who began to arrive in successive waves beginning about 4000 B.C.E, displacing the earlier arrivals.

By 1000 B.C. the inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of peoples: tribal groups, such as the Aetas, Hanunoo, Ilongots and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-gathering and were concentrated in forests; warrior societies, such as the Isneg and Kalingas who practiced social ranking and ritualized warfare and roamed the plains; the petty plutocracy of the Ifugao Cordillera Highlanders, who occupied the mountain ranges of Luzon; and the harbor principalities of the estuarine civilizations that grew along rivers and seashores while participating in trans-island maritime trade.

Around 300700 C.E. the seafaring peoples of the islands traveling in balangays began to trade with the Indianized kingdoms in the Malay Archipelago and the nearby East Asian principalities, adopting influences from both Buddhism and Hinduism.

Spanish Settlement and Rule (15651898)

Early Spanish expeditions Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines In 1521. Parts of the Philippine Islands were known to Europeans before the 1521 Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese-born Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who was not the first Europeans in the Philippines. Magellan landed on the island called Homonhon, claiming the islands he saw for Spain, and naming them Islas de San Lzaro. He established friendly relations with some of the local leaders especially with Rajah Humabon and converted some of them to Roman Catholicism.

In the Philippines, they explored many islands including the island of Mactan. However, Magellan was killed in a battle he led there against the ruling datu Lapu-Lapu. Over the next several decades, other Spanish expeditions were dispatched to the islands. In 1543, Ruy Lpez de Villalobos led an expedition to the islands and gave the name Las Islas Filipinas (after Philip II of Spain) to the islands of Samar and Leyte. The name was extended to the entire archipelago in the twentieth century.

Spanish settlement

Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel Lpez de Legazpi, arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, the Spanish occupied the kingdoms of Maynila and Tondo and established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. Spanish power was further consolidated after Miguel Lpez de Legazpi's conquest of the Confederation of Madya-as, his subjugation of Rajah Tupas the King of Cebu and Juan de Salcedo's ransacking of the Chinese warlord Limahong's pirate kingdom in Pangasinan.

This grab for power eventually culminated with the mass murder and exile of the royal families of the Dynasty of Tondo and the Kingdom of Maynila when the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 failed in which a planned grand alliance with the Japanese admiral Gayo, Butuan's last rajah and Brunei's Sultan Bolkieh, would have restored the old aristocracy. Its failure resulted in the hanging of Agustn de Legazpi (great grandson of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the initiator of the plot) and the execution of Magat Salamat (the crown-prince of Tondo).

In the following years, the colony was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, centered in Mexico, from 1565 to 1821 and administered directly from Spain from 1821 to 1898. Subsequently, the Aztec and Mayan mercenaries Lpez de Legazpi brought with him eventually settled in Mexico, Pampanga where traces of Aztec and Mayan influence can still be proven by the many chico plantations in the area (chico is a fruit indigenous only to Mexico) and also by the name of the province itself.

The fragmented nature of the islands made it easy for Spanish colonization. The Spanish then attempted to bring political unification to the Philippine archipelago via the conquest of the various states but they were unable to subjugate the sultanates of Mindanao and the tribes and highland plutocracy of the Ifugao of Northern Luzon. The Spanish introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law, western printing and the Gregorian calendar alongside new food resources such as maize, pineapple and chocolate from Latin America.

From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed from Mexico City via the Royal Audiencia of Manila, before it was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican revolution. The Manila Galleons which linked Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges, especially from the British, Chinese pirates, Dutch, and Portuguese. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, universities, and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced education, establishing public schooling in Spanish.

In 1781, Governor-General Jos Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. The Philippines was administered from the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the grant of independence to Mexico in 1821 necessitated the direct rule from Spain of the Philippines from that year. Developments in and out of the country helped to bring new ideas to the Philippines including the ideals of the French and American Revolutions. In 1863, Queen Isabella of Spain decreed the establishment of a public school system in Spanish, leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. Both of these events prompted the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened class of Creoles and Indios, since many young Filipinos were able to study in Europe. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The country's population as of December 31, 1877 was recorded at 5,567,685 persons.

Enlightened by the Propaganda Movement to the injustices of the Spanish colonial government and the "frailocracy", the ilustrados originally clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. Jos Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical illustrado of the era, wrote the novels "Noli Me Tangere", and "El filibusterismo", which greatly inspired the movement for independence. The Katipunan, a secret society whose primary purpose was that of overthrowing Spanish rule in the Philippines, was founded by Andrs Bonifacio who became its Supremo (leader).

The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was wrongly accused of implication in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Katipunan in Cavite split into two groups, Magdiwang, led by Mariano lvarez (a relative of Bonifacio's by marriage), and Magdalo, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Leadership conflicts between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo culminated in the execution or assassination of the former by the latter's soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a truce with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong. Not all the revolutionary generals complied with the agreement. One, General Francisco Makabulos, established a Central Executive Committee to serve as the interim government until a more suitable one was created. Armed conflicts resumed, this time coming from almost every province in Spanish-governed Philippines.

In 1898, as conflicts continued in the Philippines, the USS Maine, having been sent to Cuba because of U.S. concerns for the safety of its citizens during an ongoing Cuban revolution, exploded and sank in Havana harbor. This event precipitated the SpanishAmerican War. After Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila, the U.S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines, which he did on May 19, 1898, in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. By the time U.S. land forces had arrived, the Filipinos had taken control of the entire island of Luzon, except for the walled city of Intramuros. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines in Kawit, Cavite, establishing the First Philippine Republic under Asia's first democratic constitution.

A German squadron arrived in Manila and

engaged in maneuvers which Dewey seeing this as obstruction of his blockade, offered war after which the Germans backed down. The German Emperor expected an American defeat, with Spain left in a sufficiently weak position for the revolutionaries to capture Manilaleaving the Philippines ripe for German picking.

In the Battle of Manila, the United States captured the city from the Spanish. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila, an action deeply resented by the Filipinos. Spain and the United States sent commissioners to Paris to draw up the terms of the Treaty of Paris which ended the SpanishAmerican War. The Filipino representative, Felipe Agoncillo, was excluded from sessions as the revolutionary government was not recognized by the family of nations. Although there was substantial domestic opposition, the United States decided to annex the Philippines.

In addition to Guam and Puerto Rico, Spain was forced in the negotiations to hand over the Philippines to the U.S. in exchange for US$20,000,000.00. U.S. President McKinley justified the annexation of the Philippines by saying that it was "... a gift from the gods" and that since "they were unfit for self-government, ... there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them", in spite of the Philippines having been already Christianized by the Spanish over the course of several centuries. The first Philippine Republic resisted the U.S. occupation, resulting in the Philippine-American War (18991913).

American period (18981946)

Filipinos initially saw their relationship with the United States as that of two nations joined in a common struggle against Spain. However, the United States later distanced itself from the interests of the Filipino insurgents. Aguinaldo was unhappy that the United States would not commit to paper a statement of support for Philippine independence. Relations deteriorated and tensions heightened as it became clear that the Americans were in the islands to stay.

Philippine-American War Hostilities broke out on February 4, 1899, after two American privates on patrol killed three Filipino soldiers in San Juan, a Manila suburb. This incident sparked the Philippine-American War, which would cost far more money and took far more lives than the SpanishAmerican War. Some 126,000 American soldiers would be committed to the conflict; 4,234 Americans died, as did 16,000 Filipino soldiers who were part of a nationwide guerrilla movement of indeterminate numbers. At least one million Filipinos lost their lives as a direct result of the war, with as many as 200,000 who died as a result of the cholera epidemic at the war's end. Atrocities were committed by both sides.

The poorly-equipped Filipino troops were easily overpowered by American troops in open combat, but they were formidable opponents in guerrilla warfare. Malolos, the revolutionary capital, was captured on March 31, 1899. Aguinaldo and his government escaped however, establishing a new capital at San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. On June 5, 1899, Antonio Luna, Aguinaldo's most capable military commander, was killed by Aguinaldo's guards in an apparent assassination while visiting Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija to meet with Aguinaldo. Gregorio del Pilar, another key general, was killed on December 2, 1899 in the Battle of Tirad Pass. With his best commanders dead and his troops suffering continued defeats as American forces pushed into northern Luzon, Aguinaldo dissolved the regular army in November 1899 and ordered the establishment of decentralized guerrilla commands in each of several military zones. The general population, caught between Americans and rebels, suffered significantly.

Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901 and was brought to Manila. Convinced of the futility of further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms, officially bringing an end to the war. However, sporadic insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines, especially in the Muslim south, until 1913.

In 1900, President McKinley sent the Taft Commission, to the Philippines, with a mandate to legislate laws and re-engineer the political system. On July 1, 1901, William Howard Taft, the head of the commission, was inaugurated as Civil Governor, with limited executive powers. The authority of the Military Governor was continued in those areas where the insurrection persisted. The Taft Commission passed laws to set up the fundamentals of the new government, including a judicial system, civil service, and local government. A Philippine Constabulary was organized to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assume the responsibilities of the United States Army.

Insular Government (1902-1935) Flag of the United States, 1896-1908. The Philippine Organic Act (1902) was a constitution for the Insular Government, so called because Philippine civil administration was under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs. This government saw its mission as one of tutelage, preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. On July 4, 1902 the office of Military Governor was abolished and full executive power passed from Adna Chaffee, the last military governor, to Taft, who became the first U.S. GovernorGeneral of the Philippines.

United States policies towards the Philippines shifted with changing administrations. During the early years of territorial administration, the Americans were reluctant to delegate authority to the Filipinos, but an elected Philippine Assembly was inaugurated in 1907, as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, with the appointive Philippine Commission becoming the upper house. When Woodrow Wilson became U.S. President in 1913, a new policy was adopted to put into motion a process that would gradually lead to Philippine independence. The Jones Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1916 to serve as the new organic law in the Philippines, promised eventual independence and instituted an elected Philippine senate.

In socio-economic terms, the Philippines made solid progress in this period. In 1895, foreign trade amounted to 62 million pesos, 13% of which was with the United States. By 1920, it had increased to 601 million pesos, 66% of which was with the United States. A health care system was established which, by 1930, reduced the mortality rate from all causes, including various tropical diseases, to a level similar to that of the United States itself.

Slavery, piracy and headhunting were all suppressed, but not extinguished. An educational system was established which, among other subjects, provided English as a lingua francaso that the islands' 170 linguistic groups could communicate with one another and the outside world. While prior to the coming of the Americans, Spanish was spoken by some segments of Philippine society, the language was unpopular. At the end of the Spanish era, less than ten percent of the Christianized population was fully literate in the language and those who spoke it were limited to the urban centers and the elite.

The 1920s saw alternating periods of cooperation and confrontation with American governors-general, depending on how intent the incumbent was on exercising his powers vis-vis the Philippine legislature. Members to the elected legislature lobbied for immediate and complete independence from the United States. Several independence missions were sent to Washington, D.C. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by Filipinos, who had effectively gained control by 1918.

Philippine politics during the American territorial era was dominated by the Nacionalista Party, which was founded in 1907. Although the party's platform called for "immediate independence", their policy toward the Americans was highly accommodating. Within the political establishment, the call for independence was spearheaded by Manuel L. Quezon, who served continuously as Senate president from 1916 until 1935.

Frank Murphy was the last GovernorGeneral of the Philippines (193335), and the first U.S. High Commissioner of the Philippines (193536). The change in form was more than symbolic: it was intended as a manifestation of the transition to independence.

The Great Depression in the early thirties hastened the progress of The Philippines towards independence. In the United States it was mainly the sugar industry and labour unions that had a stake in loosening the U.S. ties to The Philippines since they could not compete with the Philippine cheap sugar (and other commodities) which could freely enter the U.S. market. Therefore, they agitated in favor of granting independence to the Philippines so that its cheap products and labour could be shut out of the United States. In 1933, the United States Congress passed the HareHawes-Cutting Act as a Philippine Independence Act over President Herbert Hoover's veto.

Though the bill had been drafted with the aid of a commission from the Philippines, it was opposed by Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon, partially because of provisions leaving the United States in control of naval bases. Under his influence, the Philippine legislature rejected the bill. The following year, a revised act known as the Tydings-McDuffie Act was finally passed.

The act provided for the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with a ten-year period of peaceful transition to full independence. The commonwealth would have its own constitution and be self-governing, though foreign policy would be the responsibility of the United States, and certain legislation required approval of the United States president.

A constitution was framed and approved by Franklin D. Roosevelt in March 1935. On May 14, 1935, a Filipino government was formed on the basis of principles similar to the U.S. Constitution. The commonwealth was established in 1935, electing Manuel L. Quezon as the president and featuring a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly, and a Supreme Court composed entirely of Filipinos for the first time since 1901.

World War II and Japanese occupation

Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga, Philippines on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.

On January 2, 1942, General MacArthur declared the capital city, Manila, an open city to prevent its destruction. The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May of the same year. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. It is estimated that about 10,000 Filipinos and 1,200 Americans died before reaching their destination.

President Quezon and Osmea had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States, where they set up a government in exile. MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines.

The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission. They initially organized a Council of State, through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. The Japanese-sponsored republic headed by President Jos P. Laurel proved to be unpopular.

Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army, as well as remnants of the U.S. Army Forces Far East, continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and was considered an auxiliary unit of the United States Army.

Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap (Filipino: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon") ("People's Army Against the Japanese"), which armed some 30,000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon.

The occupation of the Philippines by Japan ended at the end of the war. The American army had been fighting the so-called Philippines Campaign since October 1944, when it started with MacArthur's Sixth United States Army landing on Leyte. Landings in other parts of the country had followed, and the Allies with the Philippine Commonwealth troops pushed toward Manila. However, fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on 2 September 1945.

The Philippines suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction by the time the war was over. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, a large portion during the final months of the war, and Manila was extensively damaged.

Independent Philippines and the Third Republic (19461972)

Administration of Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) Elections were held in April 1946, with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as scheduled. However, the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States markets more dependent, according to United States high commissioner Paul McNutt, than any single U.S. state was dependent on the rest of the country.

The Philippine Trade Act, passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries. A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country (the lease was later reduced to 25 years beginning 1967).

Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953)

The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948, and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency. He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating Jose P. Laurel and winning a four-year term.

World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas (known as "Huks"), who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression.

Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.

Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in 1953 on a populist platform. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas.

Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities. Nevertheless, he was extremely popular with the common people, and his death in an airplane crash in March 1957 dealt a serious blow to national morale.

Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (19571961) Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy.

Garcia successfully negotiated for the United States' relinquishment of large military land reservations. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.

Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965)

Diosdado Macapagal was elected president in the 1961 election, defeating Garcia's re-election bid. Macapagal's foreign policy sought closer relations with neighboring Asian nations, particularly Malaya (later Malaysia) and Indonesia. Negotiations with the United States over base rights led to anti-American sentiment. Notably, the celebration of Independence Day was changed from July 4 to June 12, to honor the day that Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain in 1898.

Marcos era and martial law (19651986) Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects and intensified tax collection which brought the country economic prosperity throughout the 1970s.

His administration built more roads (including a substantial portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration. Marcos was reelected president in 1969, becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to achieve a second term.

The Philippine Legislature was corrupt and impotent. Opponents of Marcos blocked the necessary legislation to implement his ambitious plans. Because of this, optimism faded early in his second term and economic growth slowed. Crime and civil disobedience increased. The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army.

The Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. An explosion during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21, 1971 prompted Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, which he restored on January 11, 1972 after public protests.

Martial law
Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics senators Benigno Aquino, Jr., Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno.

The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. Many political opponents were forced to go into exile. A constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution, continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973.

Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political values. The economy during the 1970s was robust, with budgetary and trade surpluses. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. Tourism rose, contributing to the economy's growth. However, Marcos, his cronies and his wife, Imelda RomualdezMarcos, wilfully engaged in rampant corruption.

Fourth Republic

Appeasing the Roman Catholic Church, Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose health declined due to lupus.

The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister by the Batasang Pambansa.

In 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election in February 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino.

The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (Comelec), declared Marcos the winner of the election. However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel, an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by Corazon Aquino and her supporters.

International observers, including a U.S. delegation, denounced the official results. Gen. Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their support for Marcos. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, now popularly called the People Power Revolution, forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25, 1986.

Fifth Republic (1986present)

Administration of Corazon C. Aquino (19861992) Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional "Freedom Constitution". A new permanent constitution was ratified and enacted in February 1987.

The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress.

Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.

Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters, including the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo that left 700 dead and 200,000 homeless. During the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts, the most serious occurring in December 1989.

In 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.S. military bases in the country. The United States turned over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992, ending almost a century of U.S. military presence in the Philippines.

Administration of Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998)

In the 1992 elections, Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos, endorsed by Aquino, won the presidency with just 23.6% of the vote in a field of seven candidates. Early in his administration, Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years.

He legalized the Communist Party and laid

the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents, Muslim separatists, and military rebels, attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government. In June 1994, Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups, and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents.

In October 1995, the government

signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao, was signed in 1996, ending the 24-year old struggle.

However, an MNLF splinter group, the

Moro Islamic Liberation Front continued the armed struggle for an Islamic state. Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests, leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election.

Administration of Joseph Estrada (1998-2001) Joseph Estrada, a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president, was elected president by a landslide victory in 1998. His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector

He enjoyed widespread popularity, particularly among the poor. Estrada assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis. The economy did, however, recover from a low -0.6% growth in 1998 to a moderate growth of 3.4% by 1999. Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution. The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development.

Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines. However it was not successful in amending the constitution.

In March 21, 2000 President Estrada declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) after the worsening secessionist movement in Midanao The government later captured 46 MILF camps including the MILF's headquarters', Camp Abubakar. In October 2000, however, Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses.

He was impeached by the House of Representatives, but his impeachment trial in the Senate broke down when the senate voted to block examination of the president's bank records. In response, massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation. Faced with street protests, cabinet resignations, and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces, Estrada was forced from office on January 20, 2001.

Administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010)

Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal) was sworn in as Estrada's successor on the day of his departure. Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later, when her coalition won an overwhelming victory.

Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July 2003 that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion. Arroyo had declared in December 2002 that she would not run in the May 2004 presidential election, but she reversed herself in October 2003 and decided to join the race.

She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30, 2004. In 2005, a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained. The tape sparked protests calling for Arroyo's resignation.

Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to an election official, but denied allegations of fraud and refused to step down. Attempts to impeach the president failed later that year. Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted a controversial plan for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government.

1899 (Malolos Constitution Emilio Aguinaldo)

The President of the Council, Apolinario Mabini. Preamble
We, the Representatives of the Filipino people, lawfully covened, in order to establish justice, provide for common defense, promote the general welfare, and insure the benefits of liberty, imploring the aid of the Sovereign Legislator of the Universe for the attainment of these ends, have voted, decreed, and sanctioned the following.

1935 (Commonwealth Period)

The 1935 Constitution was ratified on May 14, 1935. Preamble
The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a government that shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation, promote the general welfare, and secure to themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a regime of justice, liberty, and democracy, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

1973 Martial Law

[The 1973 Constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973 in accordance with Presidential Proclamation No. 1102 issued by President Ferdinand E. Marcos]. This is known as the Martial Constitution..

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a government that shall embody our ideals, promote the general welfare, conserve and develop the patrimony of our Nation, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of democracy under a regime of justice, peace, liberty, and equality, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

THE 1987 CONSTITUTION Freedom Constitution

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

Propaganda Movement
The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino migrs who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of, the needs of its colony, the Philippines and to propagate a closer relationship between the colony and Spain.

Its prominent members included Jos Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, Graciano Lpez Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary and Marcelo H. del Pilar.

Goals Specifically, the Propagandists aims were: Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament; Secularization of the clergy; Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;

Creation of a public school system independent of the friars; Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government); Guarantee of basic freedoms of speech and association; Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service.

Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain Secularization of Philippine parishes. Recognition of human rights

What are the factors that led to propaganda movement in the Philippines?
There are two major factors that led to propaganda movement in the Philippines during our early history from 1800 1889. Such as: To expose the defects and abuses of the Spanish Government; Aimed to seek reforms to remedy the defects and abuses of Colonial government.

Be it noted however, that the propaganda Movement was not a revolutionary or seditious affair; they merely asked for reforms, not independence until the Rise of the Katipunan movement in 1892 which aimed to gain Independence from Spain.

Reforms desired by the Propaganda Movement: Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the laws. Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain; Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes and equal treatment of Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines

Filipinization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the friars. Human rights of Filipinos, such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and the freedom to meet and petition for redress of grievances.

To further illustrate:
In February 17, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (Gomburza), these priests, were executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The charges against Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were their alleged complicity in the uprising of workers at the Cavite Naval Yard.

The death of Gomburza awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos. They questioned Spanish Authorities and demanded reforms. The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement, which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government.

The ilustrados led the Filipinos quest for reforms. Because of their education and newly acquired wealth, they felt more confident about voicing out popular grievances. However, since the ilustrados themselves were a result of the changes that the Spanish government had been slowly implementing, the group could not really push very hard for the reforms it wanted.

The ilustrados did not succeed in easing the sufferings of the Filipinos; but from this group another faction arises called the intelligentsia. The intelligentsia also wanted reforms; but they were more systematic and used a peaceful means called the Propaganda Movement.

The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, which aimed primarily to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrs Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer Jos Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. Initially, Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution.

The word "katipunan", literally means association, comes from the root word "tipon", an indigenous Tagalog word, meaning "society" or "gather together" Its official revolutionary name is Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mg Anak ng Bayan (English: High and Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y Venerable Asociacin de los Hijos del Pueblo). Katipunan is also known by its acronym, K.K.K..

Being a secret organization, its members are subjected to utmost secrecy and are expected to abide with the rules established by the society. Aspirant applicants were given standard initiation rites to become members of the society. At first, Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos; later, women were accepted in the society.

The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan (Liberty) that had its first and last print on March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Philippine literature were expanded by its some prominent members.

In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise of Rizal's liberty from detainment by rescuing him. On May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms.

Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patio confessed Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister, and finally to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned the existence of such secret society, on August 26, 1896, Bonifacio and his men tore their cedlas during the infamous Cry of Balintawak that started the Philippine Revolution.

Influence of the Propaganda Movement

A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: Jos Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce. The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively, successor organizations of La Liga Filipina, founded by Jos Rizal, as part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines. Katipunan founders Andrs Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, and Teodoro Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain.

Marcelo H. del Pilar, another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain, also influenced the formation of the Katipunan. Modern-day historians believe that he had a direct hand in its organization because of his role in the Propaganda Movement and his eminent position in Philippine Masonry; most of the Katipunan's founders were freemasons.

The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It also had an order of rank, similar to that of freemasonry. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaa and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, and the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end, even if each took a different road to it."

The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It also had an order of rank, similar to that of freemasonry. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaa and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, and the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end, even if each took a different road to it."

Founding of the Katipunan

Captured Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros), who were also members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution.

On the night of July 7, 1892, when Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, Andrs Bonifacio, a member of the La Liga Filipina, founded the Katipunan in a house in Tondo, Manila. Bonifacio did established the Katipunan when it was become apparent to antiSpanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities.

He was assisted by his two friends, Teodoro Plata (brother-in-law) and Ladislao Diwa, plus Valentn Daz and Deodato Arellano. The Katipunan was founded along Azcarraga St. (now Claro M. Recto Avenue) near Elcano St. in Tondo, Manila. Despite their reservations about the peaceable reformation that Rizal espoused, they named Rizal honorary president without his knowledge. The Katipunan, established as a secret brotherhood organization, went under the name Kataas-taasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mg Anak ng Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation)

The Katipunan had four aims, namely: to develop a strong alliance with each and every Katipuneros to unite Filipinos into one solid nation; to win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or revolution); to establish a republic after independence.

The rise of the Katipunan signalized the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign. The Propaganda Movement led by Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena and others had failed its mission; hence, Bonifacio started the militant movement for independence