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EDEMA

Dianne Karla L. Avila BSN 3A

Edema is a condition of abnormally large fluid volume in the circulatory system or in tissues between the body's cells (interstitial spaces).

Classification
Pitting and non pitting edema Generalized and Organ Specific Edema

Examples of Edema in Specific Organs


Cerebral edema Pulmonary edema Edema found in the cornea of the eye Periorbital edema Cutaneous edema Myxedema

Lymphedema Hydropsfetalis

Periorbital Edema

2 weeks post surgery because of compartment syndrome

Left and right ring fingers of the same individual.Thedistal phalanx of the finger on the right exhibits edema due to acute paronychia

Mechanism
Six factors can contribute to the formation of edema:
Increased hydrostatic pressure; Reduced oncotic pressure within blood

vessels; Increased tissue oncotic pressure;

Increased blood vessel wall permeability

e.g. inflammation
Obstruction of fluid clearance via

the lymphatic system;


Changes in the water retaining properties of

the tissues themselves. Raised hydrostatic pressure often reflects retention of water and sodium by the kidney.

Causes
Immobility Heat Medications Intake of salty foods Menstruation and pregnancy

Some medical conditions may also cause edema, including:

Heart failure Kidney disease Thyroid or liver disease Malnutrition

Some conditions that may cause swelling in just one leg include:

Blood clots Weakened veins Infection and inflammation Lymphedema Tumor

Signs and Symptoms:

Swollen limbs (possibly accompanied by pain,

redness, heat)
Facial puffiness
Abdominal bloating

Shortness of breath, extreme difficulty

breathing, coughing up blood


Sudden change in mental state or coma

Muscle aches and pains

Symptoms vary depending on the cause of edema

Diagnostic Exams
x-ray CT scan MRI urine test blood test
Assess for varicose veins, blood clots, wounds, or

infections

Pulmonary edema, which occurs when

fluid builds up in the lungs, can be caused by


other diseases such as cardiovascular disease

or by climbing at high altitudes

Edema is a sign of an underlying problem,

rather than a disease unto itself


A diagnostic explanation should be sought

Patient history and presenting symptoms, along with laboratory blood studies, if indicated, assist the health professional in

determining the cause of the edema

Treatment Options

Treatment may involve using compression

bandages and pressure sleeves tightened

over swollen limbs to help force the body to


reabsorb the fluid

Other options include:


salt reduction diet daily exercise resting with legs elevated above the heart

level wearing support hose taking a diuretic massage

The three "Ds"diuretics, digitalis, and diet-

are frequently prescribed for medical

conditions that result in excess fluid volume

Surgical Procedures

Surgery may be needed to remove fat and

fluid deposits associated with a type of edema called lipedema, or to repair damaged veins or lymphatic glands to reestablish lymph and blood flow.

Thank you!!!!