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messenger-no6

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on Apr 07, 2009
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02/01/2013

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No. 6 -
S e p te m b e r1 9 7 6
M e c h a n ic a l A s s e m b ly o f 3 .6 m
T e le s c o p e C o m p le te d
T h e3 .6m
te le s c o p ee re c tio nisp ro c e e d in g w e il,in fo rm s D r. L a u s ts e nfro m
L a S illa . H isre p o rt w a s w r itte n o n th e
firs td a yo fA u g u s t:
B y th e e n do f J u ly ,th em e c h a n ic a le re c tio no f th e te le s c o p e w a s n e a rly c o m p le te d . T h re e w e e k s e a rlie r, th e
te a m
o fC re u s o t-L o ireh a d in s ta lle d th eu p p e r rin go n to th eS e rru rie rs tru tso f th e tu b e . T h e" m a c h in e " th e r e b y
re c u p e ra te d
it sp ro p e ra p p e a ra n c e -itlo o k sa g a in
lik ea re a l te le s c o p e .
T h re em o n th so f h a rdw o rk w e re s p e n t to re a c h th a t s ta g e .
M o re th a n
1 5 0 c ra te s w e re o p e n e d a n d p ie c e a fte r p ie c eo f
th e te le s c o p e w a s tra n s p o rte d th e
la s t 1 .5 k m
fro m
th eu n -
p a c k in g
a re a
u p
t o
a n d
th e n
in to
th e
te le s c o p e
b u ild in g .
C le a n in g
a n d
a s s e m b lyw o rkw a s n o r m a llyd o n e o n
th e
g ro u n dflo o rb e fo re th e 3 5 -to n c ra n eo f th e d o m eto o k o v e r
A e r ia l v ie wo f th e 3 .6 mdom e o n th es u m m ito f L a S illa ,J u ly 1 9 7 6 .
P h O IO
b yS . L a u s ts a n
a n d
R .O o n a rs k y .
a n d
lifte d
th e
p ie c e
u pth ro u g h
th e s h a ft to
th e
o b s e r v in g
flo o r. A fe w
p ie c e s ,o rs u b - a s s e m b lie s , w e ig h e d
m o re th a n
3 0
to n s .
T h e
h e a v ie s t
o n e ,
th e
a s s e m b le d

h o rs e s h o e , w e ig h e da b o u t40 tons and was,w ith great care, used as a te s t lo a d , b e fo re th e c ra n e w a s e n tru s te dw ithth e ta s kt o lift th e

p ie c e
in top la c e .
T h a n k st o
th e
fa c tth a t a p r e - a s s e m b ly w a s m a d e in E u \ue000
ro p e , th e
a s s e m b ly
w o rk
o n
L a
S illa
w entth ro u g h
p re tty
s m o o th ly .
P ro b le m s
w e re
m a in ly
e n c o u n te re d
in

a re a s w h e r e te s tsc o u ldn o tb ec o m p le te d in E u r o p e , a n d t h e n , a s o n e

c o u ld
e x p e c t,
in
th e
in fe rfa c e
b e tw e e n
b u ild in g
a n d
te le s c o p e .Som eo fth e
p ro b le m sg a v e
ris e
t o
a few
d a y s '
e x tra w o rk .N o th in gm oreim p o rta n twase n c o u n te re d so far.
D u rin g
th e
la s t d a y s
o fJ u ly , th e
te le s c o p e
w as
tu rn e d
a ro u n d
b o thp o la ra x is a n dd e c lin a tio n a x is b y m e a n so f a
s im p le
m o to rc o n tro lb o x .
T h ec o n tro ls y s te m

fo r th e te le s c o p e h a s b e e n in s ta lle din th eb u ild in g , a n d th e c a b lin g ,w h ic h is a h u g e jo b , is w e il a d \ue000 v a n c e d .A u g u s tisg o in gto b e a b u s ym o n th fo r th e E le c tr o \ue000 n ic s G r o u p ; a n d inS e p te m b e rw e e x p e c t to in s ta ll th e m a in

m irro ra n d
s ta rtw ith
th e
H a rtm a n n

te s ts . T h ea lu m in iz in g p la n t is t b e in g in s ta lle d th e s e d a y s .B uta b o u t th e s e a c tiv itie s w e

s h a llre p o rtla te r.
P R O F IL E
OF A
V IS IT O R 'S
P R O G R A M M E :
O H /IR
S o u rc e s
A s tro n o m e rstro m

th e M a xP la n c k In s titu teto r R a d io - a s tro n o m y( M P I ) in B o n n , F e d . R e p .o t G e r m a n y , h a v e re c e n tlys u c c e e d e din m e a s u r in gin tra re d (IR ) ra d ia - tio n

tro m
O H
ra d io
s o u rc e s
( e m is s io n
tro m
th e
h y -
d ro x y l
ra d ic a l).
D r.
W .
A .
S h e rw o o d
re p o rts
a b o u t
th e
s ig n itic a n tp ro g re s s
m ade
in
th is
e x c itin g
p ro -
g ra m m e :
In J u ly 1 9 6 8 W ils o n a n d B a r r e t! a t M IT d is c o v e r e dO H
ra \ue000
d ioe m is s io n fr o m

s o m e in fr a r e d (IR ) s ta rs . T h e ra teo f d e te c \ue000 tio n fo rp rim ec a n d id a te s w a sa b o u t 1 0% ,b u t la te r th e ra te fe ll to 5%

in a la r g e r s a m p ie . M y c o lle a g u e s a t M P I h a v e a ls o s e a rc h e dfo rO H inIR s ta rs s e le c te d to h a v e v e ry la te s p e c tr a l ty p e s , e x tr e m e re dc o lo u r sa n d la rg ea m p litu d e v a r ia tio n s in th e in fra re d fro m

1 II to 20~
la n d

h a v e h a d a v e ry h ig hs u c \ue000 c e s s ra te in a s m a ll s a m p ie . T h e r e a s o nfo r th e s m a ll s a m p ie is t th a t th e

c rite ria
a re
a lm o s tm u tu a lly

e x c lu s iv e :fo r th e s p e c tra l ty p e to b e k n o w n , th eo b je c tm ustb e v is ib le , im p ly \ue000 in g le s s th a n e x tr e m e r e d d e n in g .Ina d d itio nv e ry fe wo b je c ts h a v e

b e e n
s u ffic ie n tlyo b s e rv e d
fo rth e
c rite ria
t o
b e
m e t.
T h e re a rep r e d o m in a n tlytw o ty p e so fO H

r a d io e m is s io n a s s o c ia te dw ithIRs ta rs : o n eo f th e m a in lin e s (1 6 6 5o r 1 6 6 7 M H z)o rth e s a te llite lin e a t 1 6 1 2 M H zis th e s tr o n g e s t. T h e O H

e m is s io n a s s o c ia te dw ith
th e
la tte r ty p eshow s th e
fo l\ue000
lo w in g
c h a r a c te r is lic s :
1 .
T h e lin e p r o file is u s u a lly s p litin to tw oc o m p o n e n ts s e p a \ue000
ra te d
by 10 to 50k m /s -
1
\u2022
2 .
T h e re
is
n o
p o la r iz a tio n .
3 .
T h e re
is
n o
ra d io
c o n tin u u m
s o u rc e .
2
4 .
U ne
c o m p o n e n ts
a re
n a rro w
h a v in g
w id th sb e tw e e n
1
and 6k m /s -
1
.
5 .
M o s t s o u rc e s v a ry (O H
a n d
IR
a p p a re n tly in
p h a s e ).
E a rly in th e 1 9 7 0 sO H

m apping su rveys at 1612 M Hz were s ta rte d . W h a t w en o ww o n d e re dw a sw h e th e r a llO H s o u r c e s h a v in g th e s e c r ite r ia a ls o

h a d
IR
stars. U p to the
1 9 7 3
lA U
G e n e ra l A s s e m b ly in S y d n e y , s e a rc h e sfo rth e
IR
s ta rs h a d
la r g e ly b e e n
u n s u c c e s s fu lfo rtw ore a s o n s : th e u n c e rta in ty
in
th e
ra d io
c o o rd in a te sfo rth e
n e w
O H
s o u rc e s w a s
to o
la rg e a n d th e w a v e le n g tho f2 .2~
lu s e dfo r th eIR s e a rc h w a s
to o s h o rt. T h eh ig hb rig h tn e s s te m p e ra tu re in c o n tra s t to th e
lo w
te m p e ra tu re d e riv e d fro m
th e lin ew id th
im p lie d m a s e r
e x c ita tio n . T h e la c ko fa ra d ioc o n tin u u m
s o u rc es u g g e s te d
t o
u s th a t th e in fra re dp u m p in g m e c h a n is m

ra th e r th a n a n \ue000 o th e rm e c h a n is m , s u c h a s c o llis io n a l e x c ita tio n , w a s ap o s \ue000 s ib ility . T h e

pum pc o u ld
o p e ra te a t 2 .8~
l
,
3 5~
l
o ra tlo n g e r
w a v e le n g th s . S in c e th e
IR
s ta rs inw h ic h O H
e m is s io n
h a d
b e e n
d is c o v e re d w e reb rig h ta t 2 .2~
l
,
th e 2 .8~
lm e c h a n is m
w a s c o n s id e r e d to b e th e lik e ly o n e a n d s e a rc h e s w e re m a d e
a t t h e 2 .2~
la tm o s p h e ricw in d o w .O n th eo th e r h a n d , G e o rg
S c h u ltzn o tic e dth a tth eIR s o u rc e sw ithO H
h a d a la r g e rin \ue000
fra re d
excess at3 .5 1 1
th a n
a t 2 .2~
l
,
a n d

b e c a u s e , to o ,o u r e q u ip m e n tin itia llyw a s n 't v e ry s e n s itiv e .h e m a d e a s u c c e s s \ue000 fu lp ilo ts u rv e y

w ith o u tfilter to
d e te c ts o u rc e s
w h ic h
a re
b r ig h te r a t w a v e le n g th slo n g e rth a n 2 .2~
l
.
In
o rd e rt o
m ake
f i r m
id e n tific a tio n so fth e
O H

s o u rc e s w ithIRs ta rs . it w a s n e c e s s a ry to im p r o v e th e a c c u r a c yo f th e ra d ioc o o rd in a te sto\u00b1 10 -1 5 a r c s e c o n d s u s in g th e 1 0 0 m te \ue000 le s c o p e a t E ffe ls b e rg .Itw a s a ls o n e c e s s a r y to

im p r o v e th e m e th o do fd e te rm in in gth e o p tic a lc o o rd in a te so n th e E S O 1 m

te le s c o p eo n
L aS illa -in
th e
in fra re d o n e
re q u ire s a n
a s tro m e tric
p h o to m e tric
te le s c o p e , s in c e
th e
o b je c ts
c a n
o n ly b e fo u n d

b ys c a n n in go rs e ttin g o na c c u ra te ly -k n o w n p o s itio n s . T h ee ffo rt p a y so ff in in c r e a s e d e ffic ie n c y , m e a n \ue000 in gm oreo b s e r v in g tim e .O urd a y -tim e s u c c e s sis a r e s u lto f th ise ffo rt a n d w a s r e p o r te d b y W ille m

W a m s t e k e ro f E S O in
th eJ u n e1 9 7 6 is s u eo f th eM e s s e n g e r.
U s in g th e E S O
1 m
te le s c o p e a n d in fra re de q u ip m e n td e \ue000
v e lo p e d
b y
Ernst Kreysa, we
s c a n n e d
a t 3 .8~
l
3 0
s o u rc e s
fro m
th e lis to fA n d e rs W in n b e rg . B e fo reo u r ru n in J u ly 1 9 7 6
we had discovered 50%
o fth e e x p e c te dnum ber o fIRs o u r\ue000
c e s . T h e T a b leshow s th a t th ed e te c tio n ra te is c le a r ly afu n c \ue000
tio no f th e b r ig h tn e s so f th eO H

s o u rc e s .In J u lyw ith m o re s e n s itiv ee q u ip m e n tw e d e te c te d a fe w m o re s o u rc e sb u t th e 1 0 0%

level m ay require the useo fth e E S O 3 .6 m te le s c o p e .
F R E Q U E N C Y
O F
D E T E C T IN G
O H
S O U R C E S
S E A R C H E D
A T
3 .8~
l
N O .o l
W ith
O H
flu x
W ith
IR
%
w ith
W ilh o u tIR
O H
(1 6 1 2
M H z)
c o u n te r-
IR
c o u n te r-
c o u n te r-
s o u rc e s
x 1 0 -
2 6
w a tt
p a rt
p a rt
p a rt
s c a n n e d
rn -2H z
I
5
;:;1 6
L u .
4
8 0
1
1 0
=
1 2
L u .
8
8 0
2
1 5
;:; 10
L u .
g
6 0
6
1 5
<
10 Lu.
6
4 0
g
T o ta l3 0
1 5
5 0
1 5
Mu ltic o u lo rp h o to m e try fo r a fe wo b je c ts s u g g e s ts th a to u r
s a m p ie
o fO H /IR
o b je c ts
a re
re d d e r
th a n
th e

p r e v io u s ly know no n e s .Som eo f th es o u rc e s a reu p to 1 0 0 tim e s fa in te r a t2 .2 1 1th a n th e y a re a t3 .7 1 1 .In a t le a s ttw oo b je c ts th ein te n \ue000 s ity a p p e a rs to

b e
s till r is in g
e v e n
a t2 0 1 1 .W in n b e r g 's
O H
s u r v e y y ie ld e d
th e m o s t s o u rc e sw ith in
1 /2
o fth eg a la c tic
p la n e . T h e
IR

m a g n itu d e sa n dc o lo u r s p lu s th e lo c a l s ta n \ue000 d a rd -o f-re s tv e lo c itie sin d ic a te th a t th e n e wo b je c ts a re re d \ue000 d e n e dd is ta n to b je c ts , p e rh a p sm orelu m in o u s o n th e a v e r\ue000 a g e th a n

th eo b je c tsfirs tfo u n d
b y W ils o n
a n d
B a rre tt.
A t th is s ta g e w e
m a y d iv id eo u rre s e a rc h
in totw o
p a rts :
th es p e c ifica n d th e g e n e ra ls tu d yo f O H /IR
s o u rc e s . In th e
s p e c ific
s tu d y
w e
n o te
th a t th e
O H
s u rv e y
is t s ta tis tic a lly
c o m p le teb e tw e e n 1 8 "~
I~
5 0
w ithIb l=
1
0

a n d ino rd e r to a n a ly s e th e d a ta th eIRo b s e rv a tio n so u g h tto bea sc o m p le te a s

p o s s ib le :
1 0 0
%
o fa ll th e
IR
s o u rc e s ,e x te n d e d
w ave\ue000
le n g th
c o v e ra g e
(1
11
t o
3 5 1 1
fro m
th e e a rth ) a n d
in c r e a s e d
r e s o lu tio n inb o thw a v e le n g th a n d tim e . W e h a v e O H a n dIR
o b s e r v a tio n s a t6 -m o n th in te rv a lse x te n d in g o v e r 1 8m o n th s
a n d
k n o w
th a t th e
s o u rc e sv a ry . T h e
v a r ia tio n
(p h a s ea n d
a m p litu d e )
c o n ta in s
in fo rm a tio n
a b o u tth e
p u m p in g
m e\ue000
c h a n is m , m a s s lo s s a n d
th e
d e n s ityo fth e
d u s tc lo u d

s u r\ue000 ro u n d in gth e s ta r. W e h o p e to d e r iv e th e a b s o lu telu m in o s i\ue000 ty , d is ta n c e a n d

re d d e n in g
o fe a c h s y s te m .
In th e g e n e ra ls tu d yth e O H /IR

s o u rc e s a rep ro b e s in th e s tu d yo fth ed y n a m ic s o ftheM ilk y W ay. W e arew o rk in gw ith D u tc ha n d G e rm a na s tro n o m e rs inid e n tify in g th e

IR
c o u n \ue000
te rp a rtso f th o s eh ig h - v e lo c ity O H /IR s o u rc e sfo u n d n e a r th e
g a la c tic
c e n tre . T h is
p ro je c tis
c o m p lim e n ta r y
t o
th e
o n e
d e s c r ib e db yB la a u w
in th eJ u n e 1 9 7 6 is s u eo f th eM essen-
g e r.C o m b in in gIRd is ta n c e sw ithO H ra d ia l v e lo c itie s w ill a l\ue000
lo wa d e ta ile ds tu d yo f th e g r a v ita tio n a l p o te n tia l a n d m a s s
d is tr ib u tio n
o f
th e
c e n tra l
p a rt
o f
th e
G a la x y
w h ile
th e
M c C o rm ic kA re a sP ro g ra m m e
is a s tu d yo f th e" Io c a l"g a \ue000
la c tic e v o lu tio n .
S w is s A s tro n o m e rso n
L a S illa
L a s t y e a rs a w th ein s ta lla tio no fa S w is s te le s c o p eo n
L aS illaa n d th ea rriv a lo f th e fir s t o b s e rv e rs . H e re D r.
F .R u fe n e r,o f th e G e n e v a O b s e rv a to ry , te ilsa b o u t th e
te le s c o p e
a n d
som e
o fth e
o b s e rv in g
p ro g ra m m e s
w h ic h
a reb e in gc a rrie do u t:
T h e4 0e mC a s s e g ra in te le s e o p e0 1th eG eneva O b s e rv a to ryo nL a
S illa .T h e
p h o to e le e trie
p h o to m e te risa tth e C a s s e g ra in
lo e u s .
T h eG enevaO b s e rv a to ry s ta tio no n
L aS illa .

F o llo w in ga c o n v e n tio ne s ta b lis h e din 1 9 7 4 ,th e C o u n c ilo f E S O h a sa u th o riz e d th e G e n e v a O b s e rv a to ry to s e tu p ap ro \ue000 v is io n a l o b s e r v in g s ta tio no n L a S illa .It h a sa nA s h -d o m eo f 4 .6 0 m

d ia m e te rw h ic h
is linked to aw o rk in g -s ite

h u t. T h is hut w ass h ip p e dto L a S illaa s ac o n ta in e r a n d c o n s is tso f a s h e lte re d

o b s e rv a tio n
p o s t, aw o rk b e n c h
w ith

e m e rg e n c y re p a irse q u ip m e n t a n d a k itc h e n e tte . T h edom e p ro te c ts th e e q u a to ria l ta b leo nw hic h a C a s s e g r a in te le s c o p eo f 4 0 c m a p e rt u re

a n d
7 .2 0
m
fo c a lle n g th
h a s
b e e n

m o u n te d .T h e c o n tro lso fth e e q u a to ria l ta b lea llo w s a n a c c u ra te s e ttin g b y th e re a d in go fth ed ig ita l d is p la yo f th e c e le s tia lc o o rd in a te s (rig h ta s c e n s io n a n d d e c lin a tio n ) . A s p e c ia lc o n tro l p a n e l s i\ue000 tu a te d n e a r th es trip -c h a rtre c o rd e ro ffe rs th e o b s e rv e ro ff\ue000 s e ttin g

fa c ilitie s
( s m a ll- a n g le
d is p la c e m e n t
o f
th e
te le \ue000
s c o p e ).
T h eT e le s c o p e
T h e
te le s c o p e
is
e q u ip p e d
w ith
a
c la s s ic a l
p h o to e le c tric
p h o to m e te ro nw h ic hUBV B, B2
V ,G filte rso f th ep h o to m e \ue000
t r i cs y s te m
o fth e G e n e v a O b s e rv a to ry h a v e b e e n m o u n te d .
T h ea c q u is itio np ro c e d u reis v e ry s im p le ; m e a s u r e s ind ire c t
3

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