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Photon Detection- UV-Vis-IR E

Photon Detection- UV-Vis-IR E

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Photon Detection
Photon Detection

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water molecules. Despite the power of SFG in surface investigations, applicationsare still limited by the shortage of powerful tunable mid-infrared lasers and by theexperimental expense.
4.9UV±Vis±IR Ellipsometry (ELL)
Bernd Gruska and Arthur Ræseler 
4.9.1
Principles
Ellipsometry 
is a method of measuring the film thickness, refractive index, and ex-tinction coefficient of single films, layer stacks, and substrate materials with veryhigh sensitivity. Rough surfaces, interfaces, material gradients and mixtures of dif-ferent materials can be analyzed.Film thicknesses between 0.1 nm and 100
m
m can be measured, depending on thespectral range used for the analysis and the homogeneity of the thicker films.Thick-nesses <1
m
m can be determined with a sensitivity better than 0.01 nm. Thicknessesin the micron-range can be analyzed with sensitivity typically better than 1 nm.Therefractiveindexofafilmorasubstratematerialcanbemeasuredwithasensitiv-ity better than 5
6
10
±4
, the best available for non-invasive optical measurementmethods, especially for thin films. The extinction coefficient can be measured withalmost the same sensitivity, which corresponds to a lower limit of 10±100 cm
±1
forthe absorption coefficient of the material.Thenumberofmeasurablelayersofastackislimitedonlybytheopticalcontrastbe-tween the different layers. In practice stacks of ten layers and more can be analyzedby ellipsometry. Further advantages of ellipsometry compared with other metrologi-cal methods are the non-invasive and non-destructive character of the opticalmethod, the low energy entry into the sample, the direct measurement of the dielec-tric function of materials, and the possibility of making the measurement in anykind of optical transparent environment.The principal of measurement is shown schematically in Fig. 4.61. Linear polarizedlight is reflected from a sample surface which must be flat and sufficiently reflecting.The state of polarization of the incident light is changed, by reflection, into ellipti-
265
4.9 UV±Vis±IR Ellipsometry (ELL)
Fig. 4.61.
Principle of measurement in ellipso-metry.
Surface and Thin Film Analysis: Principles, Instrumentation, Applications 
Edited by H. Bubert and H. JenettCopyright
#
2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbHISBNs: 3-527-30458-4 (Hardback); 3-527-60016-7 (Electronic)
 
cally polarized light. The properties measured by ellipsometry are tan
 _
, the ampli-tude ratio of the resolved components of the electric field vector of the reflected lightparallel to and perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and cos
 _
, the phase differ-ence between the two components. Unambiguous determination of the phase angle,
D
, over the whole data range between 0
8
and 360
8
is possible using a retarder to di-rect circular polarized light as incident light in a second measurement ± tan
C
andsin
D
are determined.Information about the properties of the sample are contained in the complex ratio,
r
, of the Fresnel coefficients of reflection of the parallel (
P
) and perpendicular (
S
)incident plane polarized electrical field vectors.
r
P
S
(4.31)The fundamental equation of ellipsometry [4.311]:
r
tan
C
e
i
D
(4.32)describes the connection between the measured quantities
C
and
D
and the sampleproperties contained in the coefficients of reflection, and hence in
r
. In principalthis complex equation can be solved analytically for pure substrates only. Each othermore complex structure requires optical modeling of the sample and fitting of thecalculated ratio,
r
, to the measured quantities
C
and
D
.
C
and
D
are always correctquantities assuming the ellipsometer is working correctly. Film thickness, refractiveindex, extinction coefficient and other properties are calculated quantities based on amodel. The choice of the correct optical model for the sample is a fundamental as-sumption for correct values of all the properties calculated.The thickness of a film influences the interference of light waves reflected from thefront and back of the film, and hence the reflectance. The thickness of an absorbingfilm can, therefore, be measured only as long as there is still a contribution of fromthe back of the film to the reflectance of the sample. Typical measurable thicknessesof metallic layers are <50 nm.Ellipsometricmeasurementsdependsontheincidentangle,
f
,becauseoftheangu-lar dependence of the coefficients of reflection
S
and
P
. Large differences betweenboth quantities are found for angles >50
8
, where
P
has a local minimum at the so-called Brewster angle. This angle is between 50 and 60
8
for transparent materialsand >70
8
for almost all absorbing materials. Ellipsometric measurements close tothe Brewster angle of the substrate are especially sensitive for very thin layers on topof the substrate. Multiple angle measurements are suitable for confirming opticalmodels of sample structure.Two measured ellipsometric angles
C
and
D
at a fixed wavelength and a fixed angleof incidence enable calculation of a maximum of two other properties, e.g. the filmthickness and refractive index of a transparent layer. Multiple angle measurementsincrease the number of measured quantities and hence the number of propertieswhich can be determined for a specific sample, although even under these condi-
266
4 Photon Detection
 
tions the number of measurable properties will typically be no larger than 4±5.Wavelength-dependent ellipsometric measurements (spectroscopic ellipsometry)further increase the number of measurable properties, and hence the complexity of the analyzable sample structure. Spectroscopic ellipsometry enables measurementof the dispersion of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of materials,and the analysis of more complex sample structures (e.g. multilayer stacks, inter-faces, material gradients, material compositions) on the basis of parameterized di-electric functions which drastically reduce the number of unknown properties com-pared with the number of measured ellipsometric angles.
Spectroscopicellipsometry 
issensitivetothedielectricfunctionsofthedifferentmateri-als used in a layer stack. But it is not a compositional analytical technique. Combina-tion with one of the compositional techniques, e.g. AES or XPS and with XTEM, tofurnish information about the vertical structure, can provide valuable additional in-formation enabling creation of a suitable optical model for an unknown complexsample structure.
4.9.2
Instrumentation
The basic configuration of each ellipsometer is very simple: light source, polarizer,sample, polarizer, detector. Advanced configurations use a phase shift device (retar-der) before or after the sample. There is a large number of possibilities in which aspecific ellipsometer can be realized. The main differences consist in the way thelight is polarized and the way the state of polarization of the reflected light is de-tected. The light source can be monochromatic (lasers), white light (xenon arc lamp,deuterium lamp, halogen lamp) with a monochromator, or silicon carbide rods
 glowbars 
º ± used mainly for infrared ellipsometry).Photomultiplier tubes (vacuum UV), silicon photodiodes (UV±Vis), Ge- or InGaAsphotodiodes (near IR), MCT (HgCdTe), or DTGS detectors (mid-MIR) are used asbroadband detectors. They must be operated with a monochromator if a white lightsource is used. Fast spectroscopic ellipsometers use photometers and diode arrays asdetectors. This enables simultaneous detection of multiple wavelengths, rather thansequential detection. State-of-the-art ellipsometry in the infrared spectral range (ap-proximately 0.8±100
m
m wavelength) uses modulated white light from an FTIR in-strument and broadband detectors to measure the reflected light. Intensity spectraare generated by Fourier transformation of the detected signal. Ellipsometric mea-surements are performed at a fixed angle of incidence. Each ellipsometer configura-tion can be operated in a discrete wavelength or spectroscopic (i.e. variable angle of incidence) manner.Null ellipsometers are among the oldest configurations. In these a revolving polari-zer and a revolving compensator are used to change the state of polarization of theincident light and a revolving polarizer (analyzer) is used to analyze the reflectedlight. The angular position of the optical elements is changed until the intensity of the light on the detector is zero. This configuration is one of the most accurate butalso the slowest, even if automated.
267
4.9 UV±Vis±IR Ellipsometry (ELL)

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