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DRR Surveillance En

DRR Surveillance En

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Published by: Acción Contra el Hambre on Oct 29, 2013
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08/14/2014

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In West Arica, the sahelo-saharian context ischaracterized by its huge area and high spatio –temporal rainall variability. An important part o thepopulation lives rom extensive breeding systems thatare largely based on inter seasonal movements linkedto the availability o two natural resources: water andpasture. In these areas and because o the size o thepastoral spaces, the dicult access to the resourcesand a very low demographic density, ood securityand population vulnerability monitoring cannot bedone in the same way than in sedentary areas. Inthis environment, the use o Geographic InormationSystem (GIS) tools and Remote Sensing (RS) appearto be very appropriate in order to address those largeareas and allow an e cient monitoring o the pastoralresources.Action Contre la Faim (ACF) International and itspartners have progressively developed an innovativepastoral surveillance and early warning system atnational and regional levels. The aim o this systemis to prevent humanitarian, ood and nutrition crises
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Pastoral Surveillance and Early Warning SytemTo support resilience to climate change in the Sahel
ACFwww.accioncontraelhambre.org
The pastoral surveillance andearly warning system allowsa timely analysis of pastoralresource availability and informabout the plausible growingvulnerability of communities inpastoral and agro – pastoral areasin Sahel:
It gives a picture o relative availabilityo pastoral resources or a given year incomparison to the average value.It gives quantitative values o vegetationproduction to be integrated into a eedinventory.It gives insights o breeders’ spatial adaptationstrategies toward incoming chocks and stresses
Picture: A. Saleyin Sahelian pastoral areas through the provision otimely and reliable drought risk inormation to local,national and international stakeholders.
 
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Disaster Risk Reduction
The 3 components of the system
Pasture monitoring : Biogenerator.
In the north sahelian context, pasture growing periodnishes ew weeks ater the end o the rainy season.Since then, it’s possible to set up the pasture balanceo the area or the current year. A computer basedtool integrating satellite images has been developedby ACF: it’s called « Biogenerator ». This tool allowsthe calculation o the available vegetation materthroughout the whole studied territory at the end othe rainy season. The obtained result is the total drymatter production o the considered year, expressedin Kg o dry matter per hectare.The biomass anomaly map presents the relative de cit or excess o vegetation biomass production or onegiven year compared to the average value calculated or the period between 1998 and today. In red areshown the de cits and in green are shown the excesses. Map produced by F. Ham.
 
Objectives of the PastoralSurveillance and Early WarningSystemTo monitor drought risks andenhance preparedness in sahelianpastoral areas
1. Monitor drought risks through the assessment oavailable and accessible pastoral resources2. Target most vulnerable communities and avourpositive coping strategies to mitigate droughtimpacts.3. Advocate and alert at local, national and regionallevel to ensure proper level o preparednesstoward incoming crises.
Disaster Risk Reduction
 
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Disaster Risk Reduction
Surface water monitoring:Hydrogenerator.
In the north sahelian context, water is one undamentalresource or breeders and their livestock. Depending onthe area, wells, boreholes, water ponds or rivers canprovide the needed water to the animals and people.Water is not systematically available next to thegrazing places. In that case cattle have to moveto realize short cycle movements to get the neededwater. The Hydrogenerator, developed between2009 and 2010 by ACF, considers surace waterbodies and their evolution throughout the year. Thetool realizes a decadal sum o detected cells andrepresents a cumulative surace water detection mapor the period between 2000 and today. For onegiven year, the tool also produces a surace wateraccessibility map which helps to characterize thezones in relation to the water residence time andtheir infuence on a 30 km buer ring around thedetected cells.The surace water anomaly map shows the relative spatial and temporal decit or excess o surace waterpresence or one given year compared to the average value calculated or the period between 2000 andtoday. Blue areas present longer and/or larger surace water presence while reddish areas present shorterand/or smaller surace water presence. Map produced by F. HamField data collection in Gao region, Mali – 2008.Picture : F. Ham

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