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Lesson 7 Enzymes and DiffOsmo

Lesson 7 Enzymes and DiffOsmo

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Published by: prameeta on Aug 06, 2009
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07/12/2010

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Maris Stella High School Name: ___________________ GCE O Level Science Biology Class (Index No.): Sec 4__ ( )09 Term 3 GEP LESSON 3 Date: ________________ 
Osmosis & diffusion, enzymes
1. Molecules in a liquid, aqueous solution or a gas would have
kinetic energy
and wouldbe moving in random directions.2. If there are more of a specific type of molecule in one region and less in anotherregion, you will find that the distribution of these molecules will
even out
after sometime.3. This
NET
(overall) movement of molecules from the more concentrated region to theless concentrated region is known as
DIFFUSION
.4. The stage where the molecules are evenly distributed is known as
DYNAMICEQUILIBRIUM
. (DYNAMIC: Molecules are still moving in random directions,EQUILIBRIUM: Molecules are evenly distributed)5. This movement occurs spontaneously and does not require energy:
PASSIVETRANSPORT.
 6. A similar kind of movement occurs when water molecules are involved. When thisoccurs across a partially permeable membrane, we call this process
OSMOSIS
.7. Both osmosis and diffusion occur
DOWN
a water potential/concentration
GRADIENT
.8. Water always enters and leaves the cells and bloodstream through osmosis.9. For other solutes, eg. glucose, cells usually cannot just rely on diffusion to take inglucose (as it only enables cells to take up glucose until equilibrium is reached). Henceusually cells will sometimes pump in solutes using energy:
ACTIVE TRANSPORT.
(Notin your syllabus)10. Main factors affecting diffusion/osmosis:
 
Temperature
: Increasing temp makes the molecules gain KE. More KE, fastermovement, faster rate of diffusion.
 
Surface area of membrane across which transport of molecules occurs:
Increasing surface area means more molecules can cross the membrane at anyone time, this increases rate of diffusion.
 
Gradient:
The steeper the gradient (ie, the greater the difference in conc betweenthe 2 regions), the faster the rate of diffusion.
 
 
ENZYMES; Factors affecting rate of enzyme reactions:
1. Temperature2. pH3. Enzyme Concentration4. Substrate Concentration
How temperature affects rate of enzyme activity:
Rate of enzyme activity depends on
kinetic energy (K.E.) of molecules:
 1. Rise in temperature2. Rise in kinetic energy of molecules3. Rise in collisions between enzymes and substrate molecules4. Increase chance of formation of enzyme substrate complex5. Increase in rate of reaction
Denaturation
Occurs when 3D protein structure changes its shape
Results in the loss/changing of active sites
No longer acts as a catalyst
Caused by
acids, alkalis and extreme heat
(boiling)
Irreversible
 
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1.
 
Potato cylinders were cut into discs of even thickness. 10 pieces were weighed and then put intoa petri dish filled with 0.1 mol dm
-3
sucrose solution. After half an hour, the discs were removedand blotted dry and their final mass were measured. This experiment was repeated byimmersing equal number of potato discs at different concentrations of sucrose solution.The results were recorded in the following table:Concentration of sucrosesolution (mol dm
-3
)Initial mass (g) Percentage change in mass (%)0.1 1.58 +130.2 1.63 +50.3 1.49 -40.4 1.52 -120.5 1.66 -200.6 1.55 -28
 
(a)
 
Use the data in the first column and in the third column to plot a graph [3](b)
 
(i) What is the final mass of the potato discs immersed at the sucrose solution of 0.6 moldm
-3
? Show your calculation. [2]………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………(ii) Explain the results obtained. [2]…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………(iii) Draw a labeled diagram to show the appearance of a potato cell that had been immersedin the above sucrose solution. [3]

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