Maris Stella High School Name: ___________________ GCE O Level Science Biology Class (Index No.): Sec 4__ ( )09 Term 3 GEP LESSON 3 Date: ________________
Osmosis & diffusion, enzymes
1. Molecules in a liquid, aqueous solution or a gas would have
and wouldbe moving in random directions.2. If there are more of a specific type of molecule in one region and less in anotherregion, you will find that the distribution of these molecules will
after sometime.3. This
(overall) movement of molecules from the more concentrated region to theless concentrated region is known as
.4. The stage where the molecules are evenly distributed is known as
. (DYNAMIC: Molecules are still moving in random directions,EQUILIBRIUM: Molecules are evenly distributed)5. This movement occurs spontaneously and does not require energy:
6. A similar kind of movement occurs when water molecules are involved. When thisoccurs across a partially permeable membrane, we call this process
.7. Both osmosis and diffusion occur
a water potential/concentration
.8. Water always enters and leaves the cells and bloodstream through osmosis.9. For other solutes, eg. glucose, cells usually cannot just rely on diffusion to take inglucose (as it only enables cells to take up glucose until equilibrium is reached). Henceusually cells will sometimes pump in solutes using energy:
(Notin your syllabus)10. Main factors affecting diffusion/osmosis:
: Increasing temp makes the molecules gain KE. More KE, fastermovement, faster rate of diffusion.
Surface area of membrane across which transport of molecules occurs:
Increasing surface area means more molecules can cross the membrane at anyone time, this increases rate of diffusion.
The steeper the gradient (ie, the greater the difference in conc betweenthe 2 regions), the faster the rate of diffusion.