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Impulse,momentum & impulse,mechanics revision notes from A-level Maths Tutor

Impulse,momentum & impulse,mechanics revision notes from A-level Maths Tutor

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Momentum is the product of mass and velocity,while impulse is simply the force multiplied by the time the force acts.Here you will be introduced to the units of momentum and impulse and how they are derived.Also worked examples for velocity and impulse in vectors notation.
Momentum is the product of mass and velocity,while impulse is simply the force multiplied by the time the force acts.Here you will be introduced to the units of momentum and impulse and how they are derived.Also worked examples for velocity and impulse in vectors notation.

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Published by: A-level Maths Tutor on Sep 10, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Momentum & Impulse
Mechanics
 
topic notes
 
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
Momentum & Impulse : Impulse
MomentumMomentum is by definition the product of mass and velocity. So strictly speakingmomentum is a vector quantity.momentum = mass(kg) x velocity(ms
-1
)Hence the unit of momentum is (kg.ms
-1
).Impulse of a forceThis is simply the force multiplied by the time the force acts.We can obtain an expression for this in terms of momentum from Newton's Second Lawequation F=
ma,
where the force F is constant.Remembering that velocity, force and therefore impulse are vector quantities.For a mass
m
being accelerated by a constant force
F
, where the impulse is
J
,
v
1
is initialvelocity and
v
2
is final velocity:
F
t =
m
(
v
2
-
v
1
)
J
=
F
t
J
=
m
(
v
2
-
v
1
)UnitsSince impulse is the product of force and time, the units of impulse are (Newtons) x(seconds), or N s .
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
 
Momentum & Impulse
Mechanics
 
topic notes
 
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
Vector problemsVector type questions on impulse are solved by first calculating the change in momentum.This gives a vector expression for the impulse. Using Pythagoras, the magnitude of theimpulse can then be found. The anglular direction is calculated from the coefficients of unitvectors
i
and
 j
.Example #1A particle of mass 0.5 kg moves with a constant velocity of (3
i
+ 5
 j
) m.s
-1
.After being given an impulse, the particle then moves off with a constant velocity of (2
i
-3
 j
) m.s
-1
.Calculate:i) the impulseii) the magnitude of the impulse( to 2 d.p.)iii) the direction of the impulse(
θ
degrees to the x-axis)i)
v
1
= (3
i
+ 5
 j
)
v
2
= (2
i
- 3
 j
)
m
= 0.5 kgusing
J
=
m
(
v
2
-
v
1
)
J
= 0.5(2
i
- 3
 j
) - 0.5(3
i
+ 5
 j
)
J
=
i
- 1.5
 j
- 1.5
i
- 2.5
 j
 
J
= (1 - 1.5)
i
+ (-1.5 - 2.5)
 j
 
J
= (0.5
i
- 4
 
 j
) N.sii)magnitude of impulse =
√ 
[( 0.5)
2
+ (-4)
2
] =
√ 
[16.23]= 4.03 N.siii) direction tan
-1
 
θ
= (4)/(0.5) = 8
θ
= 82.8749
o
= 82.87
o
(2 d.p.) clockwise to the x-axis
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 

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