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Employee Motivation Project Report

Employee Motivation Project Report



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Published by kamdica
Employee Motivation mba Project Report
Employee Motivation mba Project Report

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Published by: kamdica on Oct 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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For more Notes, Presentations, Project Reports visita2zmba.blogspot.comhrmba.blogspot.commbafin.blogspot.com
Executive SummaryMotivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that causepeople to behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more qualityoriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker onereason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing.Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values,beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not manyorganizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about theways of motivating such diverse workforce.Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to bemotivated for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood asthe set or forces that cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivatedrewards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Timeshave changed People wants more. Motivated employees are always looking forbetter ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees lookfor better ways of doing their jobs.Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, ormotivation Managers who are successful in motivating employees are oftenproviding an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needssatisfaction. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and theresponsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers andsupervisors at all level. They have to create a work environment where people enjoywhat they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of theorganization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care aboutpeople. It takes true leadership.By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When youremployees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they aremotivated to work even harder so they won’t let the company down.Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company.Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of theorganization.
IntroductionIn the organizational setting the word “Motivation” is used to describe the drive thatimpels an individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who “wants” towork .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they canoften perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers wantto know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder.When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they arereally asking “Why” the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .Theconcept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow.When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its somethingsteaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin inthe Latin word “mover” which means “to move”. Thus the word motivation standsfor movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; withpeople one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only havea limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased orreinforced to secure further movement.If a manager truly understands his subordinate’s motivation, he can channel their“inner state” towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual andthe organization. It is a well known fact that human being have great potential butthey do not use it fully , when motivation is absent .Motivation factor are thosewhich make people give more than a fair day’s work and that is usually only aboutsixty-five percent of a person’s capacity .Obviously , every manager should bereleasing hundred percent of an individual’s to maximize performance for achievingorganizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop hispotential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest andconcern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability.At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employeeswas research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solelyby money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). TheHawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, wherebythe needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers(Bedeian, 1993).Motivation TheoriesUnderstanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was thefocus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results(Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory,Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement
theory.According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943):physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lowerlevel needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivateemployees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators andhygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors,such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsicfactors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction.Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performanceand performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be eitherpositive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee willbe highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely theemployee will be motivated.Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves andother workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputsis equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965).Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positiveoutcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not berepeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviorsthat lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employeebehavior that leads to negative outcomes.WHAT IS MOTIVATION?A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or herability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is:Performance =f (ability × motivation)Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task.However, ability alone is not enough. The person’s desire to accomplish the task isalso necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilitiesand desire to accomplish given task.Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that causepeople to behave in certain ways.6Reassess needs deficiencies5Receives either rewards or punishment4Performs3Engages in goal directed behavior2Searches for ways to satisfy needs

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