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SS Deterence and Diplomacy SEQ Notes

SS Deterence and Diplomacy SEQ Notes

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SS Deterence and Diplomacy SEQ Notes
SS Deterence and Diplomacy SEQ Notes

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Published by: Vernon on Feb 28, 2010
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SS Notes 2:Deterrence and DiplomacyDeterrenceFactors: Citizen armed force, Multi-agency coordination on security, Militarycooperation with other countries, 3
rd
gen. SAF, Defense industry, and TotalDefense.Format: xxx factor is an important factor of deterrence. xxxxxxxx. Thus, xxxfactor is an important factor of deterrence.CAF: The citizen armed force was created with the introduction of NationalService in 1967. This enlisted able-bodied men into the army. This has increasedSingapore’s defense capabilities, which is a form of deterrence. For example in1965 there were about 1000 soldiers in the military but in 2005 there were355,000. Thus, a citizen armed force is an important factor of deterrence.Multi-agency coordination: Multi-agency coordination on security increases theefficiency of Singapore’s security agencies as information and resources areshared among these agencies. Singapore’s national security is thereforeenhanced and strengthened. For example, the NSCS was set up to coordinatethe work of the various government agencies such as the Ministry of Defenseand the Ministry of Home Affairs. Thus, multi-agency coordination on security isan important factor of deterrence.Military cooperation: Singapore conducts training exercises in various countriesand has defense arrangements with multiple countries. These allianceagreements serve to deter would-be aggressors. For example, Singapore isinvolved in the Five Power Defense Arrangements. Thus, military cooperationwith other countries is an important factor of deterrence.3
rd
gen. SAF: The 3
rd
Gen. SAF is enhanced by state-of-the-art info-communications technologies. This maximizes its defensive capabilities andequips soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibly in peacetime. Forexample, the new SAR 21 gun has been introduced as replacement for the M16. The SAR 21 is much more effective than its predecessor. Thus, the 3
rd
gen. SAF isan important factor of deterrence.Defence industry: The defense industry was started in 1967 when CIS wasestablished to produce small arms ammunition. The DSTA was also formed in2000 to develop new weapon systems for the SAF’s use. The defense industryimproves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF. For example, the Bionixtank was manufactured in Singapore. Thus, the defense industry is an importantfactor of deterrence. Total defense: Total defense was introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in thedefense of the country. It has 5 aspects: Military, Civil, Economic, Social andPsychological Defense. Potential aggressors will think twice about attacking
 
Singapore if they know they face the entire nation and not just the armed forces.For example, civil defense efforts saved 17 lives when Hotel New World collapsedsuddenly on 15 March 1986. Thus, total defense is an important factor of deterrence.Basis of Comparison: Total defense>all other factors: Total defense addresses a wider range of problems than “name other factor”. While “name other factor” only addressesthe militaristic aspect of deterrence, total defense adopts a more holisticapproach and thus produces a more effective way of dealing with variousthreats. Thus, total defense is more important than “name other factor”. While“name other factor” defends against militaristic threats, total defensecounteracts all threats including attacks from transnational terrorists. Also, totaldefense is more flexible in combating threats.While “name other factor” defends against militaristic threats, total defensecounteracts all threats including attacks from transnational terrorists. Also, totaldefense is more flexible in combating threats.Factors can be grouped into 3 sub-groups: Technology (3
rd
gen and defenseindustry), People (CAF) and Intelligence (Co-op and Co-ord). Technology>People: “Factor” is more important than a citizen armed force whenwe look at efficiency. With the proper technology, fewer soldiers are required forcombat which reduces the strain on Singapore’s manpower. Even with a citizenarmed force, they are, by their nature, less trained than an invading professionalarmy. In addition, during wartime, a citizen armed force can never be fullyutilized due to manpower constraints. Therefore, “factor” is required to level theplaying field. Thus, “factor” is more important than a citizen armed force.Defense industry>3
rd
gen SAF: Defense industry is more important than 3
rd
genSAF as advances made on home soil will make other countries fear Singaporeeven more than simply acquiring weapons from foreign sources as othercountries will not know the extent of Singapore’s development. Also, the defenseindustry is able to develop technology that suits Singapore’s specific needs.Acquiring weapons overseas might not be able to suit our conditions particularlywell. Thus the defense industry is more important than the 3
rd
gen SAF. Technology>Intelligence: “Factor” is the primary reason for Singapore’s nationalsecurity. “Other factor”, while beneficial to national security, still hinges on thearmy’s ability to deal with threats. Also, no amount of training/intelligence willhelp if the armed forces are poorly equipped to fight, especially with warfarebecoming more dependent on technology. Singapore cannot solely depend onother countries to defend it. Thus, the 3
rd
gen SAF is more important thanmilitary cooperation with other countries.People>Intelligence: Even if multiple agencies were to combine to form anefficient intelligence network, the system still hinges on the armed forces abilityto deal with the threat. Without a properly equipped army, Singapore would still
 
not have the ability to defend itself and deter threats. Thus the citizen armedforce is more important than multi-agency coordination on security.Cooperation>Coordination: Military cooperation is more important than multi-agency coordination as in the event of a threat, other countries can help.Potential aggressors will reconsider if they are up against 5 countries instead of  just 1. Even if the country is able to pick up intelligence on potential aggressors,it might still not be able to defend against the threat or be able to deter theseaggressors. Military cooperation also reduces the risk of invasion from theparticipating countries. This effectively serves as a preemptive to deter threatsfrom these countries by fostering good relations rather than picking upintelligence only when they are about to attack. Thus, military cooperation ismore important than multi-agency coordinationDiplomacy:Factors: Bilateral relations, Regional relations and International relations.Format: xxx factor is an important factor of diplomacy.Bilateral relations: Singapore has been actively involved in expanding bilateralrelationships with many countries since its independence. This has benefittedSingapore in many ways. For example, countries like Japan and Germany haveestablished trading relationships with Singapore. These partnerships allowedSingapore to acquire advanced technological skills from these developedcountries. Thus, bilateral relations are an important factor of diplomacy.Regional relations: Countries also establish regional relations by forming anassociation of countries in a region. Singapore is a part of ASEAN, which consistsof ten member nations. This has allowed Singapore to achieve better relationswith its neighbors such as Malaysia and Indonesia. This has also allowedSingapore to achieve better economic growth. For example, the AFTA waslaunched in 1992 to remove all import taxes among SEA countries. Thus,regional relations are an important factor of diplomacy.International relations: International relations involve ties among many countriesand groupings throughout the world. Singapore is a part of the UN, aninternational organization. This has benefitted Singapore in many ways. Forexample when Singapore became a member an economic expert from the UN,Dr. Albert Winsemius was sent to help Singapore in its industrial planning fromits independence to the late 1970s. Singapore has also been involved in the UN’speacekeeping efforts since 1989. Thus, international relations are an importantfactor of diplomacy.Basis of comparison:Factors can be grouped into 2 sub-groups: Organizations (Regional andinternational relations) and Bilateral.

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