Managing a multi-cultural society

Sri Lanka- A Country Divided
   Conflict lasted many years At its peak, a civil war broke out, causing loss of many innocent lives Factors o Language policies  When a language is officialised in a country, the administrative language could determine the job opportunities of the people  Whether or not they can gain jobs in the civil service or elsewhere depends on their language proficiency  Could impact survival of communities in the country  Official Language Act  Implemented in 1956  Sinhala was used as the language of administration  Many Tamils could not speak Sinhala was at a disadvantage o Could not find jobs or get promoted  Tamils working in the government service were given time to master the language in 3 years or sacked.  Tamils-unhappy with this act  Suffer economically  They would be unattractive to employers  The Tamils would not have access to civil service jobs in the future  Do not understand the Sinhala documents  The Tamils staged a peaceful protest- turned into riots o Tertiary Education  Could deter a person’s quality of life  One can increase his social mobility or increase wealth and resources  Otherwise, poverty- survival an issue  Discrimination in education  1970, the government tried to reduce the number of the Tamils who were eligible for university education by raising the entry marks for them o Tamils had difficulty in enrolling in University  Quota for the Sinhalese o The Sinhalese became more education and got better jobs  Tamils suffered economically

Done by Song Gil Seob

o o

Could not apply for high-paid jobs which would allow them to live a better life

o

Citizenship Issues  Granted Citizenship only to those who were either born in Sir Lanka or whose forefathers were born there (1948- Citizenship Act)  To tilt the political balance away from the Tamils Separatism  Sinhalese and the Tamils were separated in education- Relate to the jobs

Northern Ireland- Cultural Conflict
 Northern Ireland: Part of the United Kingdom and is ruled by the British Parliament in London o Mostly protestants with comparably less number of Catholics Protestants Unionists  Wanted to join forces with Britain- ties with Britain  Ulster Unionist Party- Led by David Trimble  Democratic Unionist PartyLed by Ian Paisley  Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Catholics Republicans  Wanted a separate state away from the Britishties with Republic of Ireland  Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP)- Led by John Hume  Sinn Fein- Led by Gerry Adams  Irish Republican Army (IRA)

o

o

History & Education & Divided Loyalties o The Protestants and Catholics were devoted to Britain and Republic of Ireland Respectively  The Protestants wanted to join U.K. and Catholics wanted to join with Ireland  The protestants were afraid of joining with Ireland as it would make them be in a disadvantaged position whereas Catholics struggled for Home Rule  Celebrations such as anniversary of Battle of Boyne further develop the hatred caused by different loyalties- Intolerance- Conflict o History was viewed differently & The history was painful  Focused on one aspect  Protestants have the British history and the success of the Protestants whereas Catholics have the history of English conquest that they resented and many Catholics were killed/massacred o Such Painful histories would bring up hatred in each other and cause conflict

Done by Song Gil Seob

Education  Protestants- Mostly public schools  Catholics- Mostly private schools  Taught to be either pro-British or Anti-British &Pro-Irish (History & Culture)  Not know each other very much  This segregation taught them distorted history and they became ignorant of each other Government’s Action o Government which was pro-protestant, gave more chances to the Protestant  Biasness against the Catholics  Catholics felt that it was unfair and conflict occurred due to rebellions o Areas of Biasness:  Voting Rights (Electoral Discrimination that ensured Protestant victory  Before 1968, one needed to be a taxpayer- Catholics were unemployedOutnumbered  After 1968, each household- 2 votes o Companies- up to 6 votes & depended on size- many were owned by richer protestants- more votes  Protestants had more voting powers & thus could always put the government that kept with these rules in power.  Gerrymandering  The redrawing of area/district and its voting- negative intent  Gerrymandering was done to make sure that in each area, Protestants were bigger in numbers- Catholics could never win in an area. They were separated, so in each district, their voting power was weakened. Conflict thus occurred as the Catholics were limited and they could not have much say in Politics  Housing  Public housing provided by the city councils (partly paid for by the government)  Councils comprise largely of protestants  Catholics often delayed in getting public housing  1945-1967: 82% of houses in Fermanagoh were allocated to Protestants despite Catholics being larger in number  1965: All 194 new houses were used to rehouse Protestants in Dungannon  Catholics were frustrated o Shortage of houses- live packed before waiting for years to get their own o Find the provision of housing unfair

o

Done by Song Gil Seob

 Leads to Conflict  Employment- Unequal opportunities  Companies prefer Protestants over Catholics o Catholics do not really have an equal chance in getting their jobs even if they are as qualified as the Protestants  1971: Catholic Males- 2.5 times more likely to be jobless than Protestant Males o Fewer senior positions for Catholics o No. of Catholic engineers & Civil servants- not in proportion to their population o Catholics do not have the chance and conflicts occur as they believe that they are being wronged Divided Politics & Foreign Intervention/Influence & IRA/UVF o Nationalist/Catholic  SDLP (Social Democratic and Labour Party)  Irish Unity but opposed to IRA’s violence- Peaceful  Sinn Fein & IRA  Backs the Violence of IRA  Supported by the working-class Catholics o Unionist/Protestant  UUP (Ulster Unionist Party)  Defends interests of Northern Protestants  DUP & UVF  Took working-class support away from UUP  Supports the destruction of IRA and uncompromising Such Politics further separated the two  Conflicts occur when their ideology clashes & Political Power is fought for o In order to bring in peace to the politics & stop violence, British troops were sent in (Foreign Intervention/Influence)  Catholics at first saw these troops as their defenders against Protestant violence  But they imposed curfews & internment and searched Catholic-dominated areas  Arrest without trial- anger Catholics  Convinced that the British Army was joining the Protestants and waging war against them- conflict o IRA/UVF (Irish Republican Army/Ulster Volunteer Force)  IRA fought against the Protestants & UVF fought against Catholics  Bloody Sunday  Unarmed Civilians shot in peaceful anti-internment demonstration  Cause conflict between IRA and UVF  Radical groups such as Sinn Fein entered politics

Done by Song Gil Seob

 

Their attacks still continued UVF also fought back and killed Catholics o Violent conflicts occurred as one killed one another  More and more battles tensed the situation

Switzerland- Direct Democracy
 People have the opportunity to launch initiatives and referendums and actively participate in politics. o Referendum- laws; Initiative- Constitution o 50,000 signatures within 100 days of the publication of a new law o 100,000 signatures within 18 months Would need to be active in participating People become a part of the check and balance system

 

Nigeria- Conflict
  Tensions due to foreign oil corporations Corruption o Usage of money from oil o Poverty for the people o Little democracy Attacks o Attack oil pipelines and kidnap foreign workers for ransom

United Kingdom- Multiculturalism
  Attempts to create peace among the different races o Have the British immigrants merge into the ideologies and the laws of British natives Backfired and created terrorism o Not the original immigrants but the generations after o They do not have such a fondness for U.K. as compared to their parents who made the choice Citizenship classes o English, Laws of Britain o Help the immigrants blend into the society Often brought in as foreign talent

Done by Song Gil Seob

Good Governance
Principles of Good Governance

Singapore’s Situation
   Unique Nation: This relates to our physical constraints - our size, lack of natural resources, and a multi-racial society Unique Environment: his relates to fundamental forces in our external environment that influence our existence Unique Government: This relates to the unique features of our political system, including the legacy of the PAP Government.

Leadership Is Key
There are four core characteristics of leadership:

Eschew corruption: This is the most basic requirement but is often taken for granted. If Singapore's leaders fail to meet this necessary standard of probity, it cannot be demanded of any other official throughout the system. Indeed, the foundation of the public's trust in the Government stems from their belief that decisions are made without fear or favour. The actions and decisions of the Government must be fair, consistent, and transparent to all.

Done by Song Gil Seob

Do what is right, not what is popular: Our public sector leaders must have the courage to do what is necessary for the nation, rather than what is popular. Eschewing popularity does not mean ignoring the interests or preferences of the people. It does mean having the courage to confront difficult issues and take tough decisions, where necessary. Besides doing what is right, public sector leaders must also be prepared to take calculated risks and even go against conventional thought. Increasingly, Singapore will also find itself having to invent its own solutions as it expands into more and more unchartered fields of endeavour.

Be pragmatic: Our multi-racial context and external environment imposes various constraints on public policy. If we were to build all considerations into our policies, they would be almost impossible to implement. We must therefore be prepared to do what is practical. Being pragmatic also means we must be prepared to re-examine what we are doing from time to time and question whether the assumptions remain valid. Our public sector leaders must be prepared to go back to first principles and discard what is no longer valid. We must be "ruthless" in our honesty to admit what does not work and be ready to replace bad policies with good ones.

Provide long term vision: It is not enough for leaders to set high standards for themselves and to lead by example. Today, the task of government has become far too complex for a few people to manage from the top. The Civil Service as a whole needs to exercise good leadership at all levels of the organisation. Our people need to cope with adaptive change (i.e., fundamental changes in attitudes, mindsets and values). This calls for public sector leaders who can provide a long-term vision for Singapore, tempered by a sense of reality. They must be able to communicate their policies, convince the people of their rationale and eventually, bring them on board the change effort. They must be proactive agents of change.

Reward For Work; Work For Reward
This principle consists of two sub-principles:

Self-reliance, not welfare: Our limited resources prevent us from providing comprehensive state-funded welfare. An ageing population and a higher dependency ratio make this option even less feasible. Most importantly, such a system would sap away the incentive to work. We believe that every Singaporean should earn his own keep and strive for his own betterment. They should rely on their own abilities rather than depend on the Government for all their needs. The Government should only step in to help the genuinely needy with targeted assistance. Promoting self-reliance does not mean the Government frees itself of the responsibility of looking after the needs of its citizens. The Government will continue to provide basic and affordable public services, healthcare, housing, education and transport. In particular, the Government invests a significant amount of resources in education and skills training as it provides the best means of social mobility and ensures Singaporeans maintain their

Done by Song Gil Seob

employability.

Meritocracy for best use of talent: We believe in the best person for the job - "best" being defined as one's own ability and performance, not one's race, religion, gender, wealth, social class, or connections. We believe in this for two reasons: First, the only way a small country like Singapore can do better than others is if it has the best people in leadership positions in politics, economy and society. Second, in our multi-racial society, any form of positive or negative discrimination against any race will ultimately create tension. We recognise that meritocracy is not a perfect solution to the inequalities that exist in our society, between individuals and racial groups. However, the solution is not to do away with meritocracy, but to find ways to level the playing field. The best ways are to invest in education, to create more opportunities in every field, and to enlarge the economic pie. These are all requisites for the concept to function smoothly in Singapore. That said, the concept of meritocracy itself has to be broadened to include non-academic achievements and embrace other "whole person" qualities.

A Stake For Everyone, Opportunities For All
The sub-principles in this case are:

Make Singapore a global city and choice home: Singaporeans will only make the sacrifices required of them if they have a stake in the country and are proud to be Singaporean. We have to ensure that Singapore continues to be a choice location to work and raise a family. This means maintaining our premium on security, stability and social cohesion. It also means ensuring that our living environment continues to be attractive and the public has easy access to good yet affordable public services and facilities. Besides catering to our citizens, Singapore's continued success depends on its openness to newcomers, who can contribute to Singapore's development. They should be given a stake, although the nature of this stake will naturally be different from our citizens. In order to be a great city, we cannot afford to be so narrow as to only focus on privileges for today's Singaporeans. Today's newcomers may become tomorrow's Singaporeans. Just as Singaporeans now look beyond their basic needs, so too will foreign investors and talent as they decide where they want to base themselves. The competition for talent has become global. This requires us to pay attention to the softer aspects of our infrastructure, such as lifestyle, the arts, and culture.

Promote collective responsibility: No society can progress without those who have benefited from the system putting something back into society. Self-reliance must therefore be balanced with collective responsibility. Collective responsibility can take different forms. For example, certain initiatives benefiting society as a whole need not be undertaken solely by the

Done by Song Gil Seob

Government but only through co-sponsorship. The underlying premise is that a robust society and economy should never have to depend only on the Government's support. The other example is the 'Many Helping Hands' approach, bringing into play family support, community support, and as a last line of defence, government support, for the needy.

Beyond physical stakes: As part of the nation-building effort, the Government has given everyone a tangible stake in the country through its home ownership scheme, and later, through its various asset enhancement schemes. With most Singaporeans now owning their own homes and becoming more affluent, home ownership and asset enhancement will not have the same impact as before. Our efforts must go beyond physical stakes. We need to find ways of rooting Singaporeans emotionally. One way is to create more opportunities for citizens to participate in the decisionmaking process and to provide feedback on various policies. Another is for the Government to support worthwhile causes that may yield high social, rather than economic spinoffs or in the way we assess what is "good" for our society e.g. in our conservation of historical places. Traditional cost-benefit analysis should perhaps give greater weightage to the "emotional value". A third way is for the Government to shift away from pure economic logic in the way it communicates some of its policies. Our focus should also encompass Singaporeans overseas. This group is likely to grow in size, as we become more globalised. We will need to find new ways of rooting them emotionally to Singapore (we are already organising overseas activities for them, maintaining links through overseas networks such as the Majulah Connection and allowing overseas voting).

Preserve core values and identity: Perhaps the most fundamental stake we can give Singaporeans is the idea of Singapore's uniqueness. Few city-states have thrived with such success as we have in today's world.

We should not forget that in 1965, independence was thrust upon us, because of our pursuit of a vision of a society based on equality, regardless of race, language or religion. This ideal must continue to be nurtured in the hearts of every Singaporeans and experienced in the reality of Singapore society. Ultimately, the strength of our will to safeguard our fundamental rights as a sovereign nation - our right to self-determination, our right to establish ties with anyone, and our right to live and work the way we do - depends on a shared destiny.

Anticipate Change, Stay Relevant
This principle encapsulates our basic approach to dealing with our dynamic external environment. While we cannot forecast change in an increasingly volatile environment, we can anticipate it by staying nimble and flexible, and at the same time, exploiting opportunities that come our way. We seek to:

Turn constraints into advantages: Singapore's constraints have compelled us to seek ingenious solutions to our problems. For example, we turned poor regional conditions into an advantage by offering First World conditions in a Third World region. We also turned our small size into an

Done by Song Gil Seob

advantage, by better utilising resources and minimising wastage. Our effort to make ourselves self-sufficient in our water supplies is a case in point. And what we lacked in quantity, we made up in quality while ensuring we remained competitive. In this way, we were able to develop, for example, PSA and SIA into world class companies, which could take on the more established players.

Be better organised than our competitors: We have always had to distinguish ourselves from the region. But today, the region is rapidly catching up and our competitors have become better organised than before. This is to be expected. However, we have several decades' head-start. We will have to be even better organised than our competitors in the following ways: o Closer coordination and integration - With the devolution of government functions and setting up of more statutory agencies with greater autonomy, government agencies will need to work even more closely in order to reconcile their competing priorities and identify a solution that best serves the national interest; Better teamwork & organisation - Besides the Government, our people need to develop group instincts to work as a team, even as individual initiative, creativity and enterprise are encouraged; Benchmark against the best - We should continue to benchmark ourselves against the best in government or industry, in order to maintain our edge. Where benchmarks are lacking, we should keep in close touch with shakers and movers in government and business to ensure that we are clued in to the latest developments. Strategic leverage on technology - The Singapore Government has been an early adopter of technology, especially IT, since the early 80s. Technology is a force multiplier that will help maintain Singapore's competitive edge across all fields. The Civil Service should continue to be an early adopter and leverage on technology to improve the overall responsiveness of our public agencies and better delivery of public services. This will ensure that the Singapore Civil Service maintains it edge over others.

o

o

o

Stay nimble and flexible: In a rapidly changing world, Singapore needs to continually find new ways of staying relevant. To achieve this, we must be able to exploit opportunities faster than our competitors. This will become more important as change becomes more frequent and discontinuous. Our society must be adaptable to change. The Government also has a crucial role to play - as catalyst and champion of change: o First, it has to be more receptive to new ideas. It needs to recognise that it has some blind spots, prejudices and historical baggage that need to be jettisoned. It should be bolder in supporting private initiatives, either by sanctioning them or co-initiating them. Second, instead of picking "winners" in any field in the New Economy, the Government should identify a broad range of capabilities that can be developed into future competitive strengths. This will maximise our options in the future. Flexibility does not mean we compromise on our beliefs and interests. Where our conduct of international relations is concerned, we should do so on the basis of mutual respect and benefit. Standing up for our rights preserves the international space that we have painstakingly built up for ourselves over the years and our freedom for manoeuvre.

o

Done by Song Gil Seob

Exploit opportunities even in adversity: Opportunities do not only present themselves when times are good. While we anticipate and plan for the worst-case scenario, we should also be continually on the lookout for opportunities in times of crisis and find ways to turn them to our advantage.

Applying principles of Governance (little more impt)

Summary o Uniqueness of Singapore o Good leadership, Meritocracy, sense of belonging, etc. Policies o NeWater  Despite lacking natural resources, Singapore must find a way out  Ensuring that Singapore can continue to run despite any potential disasters  Possibilities of embargo in water for Singapore  Singapore must manage to produce its own water o ERP  Stake for everyone, making sure that everyone has a part to play in building Singapore  Ensure that the traffic system is solid  Manage congestion o Singapore’s election system  Democratic approach, makes use of meritocracy  Ensuring that Singapore has good leaders, making sure that the correct people are selected and that they are incorruptible

Nationhood, citizenship & deterrence
Citizenship

Benefits: o Healthcare, political benefit, protection, diplomatic rights, territory, identity, housing, survival, jobs Obligations and duty o Need to fulfil duty to nation o Observe state regulation and laws o Taxes, NS, etc.

Done by Song Gil Seob

Deterrence

Done by Song Gil Seob

Done by Song Gil Seob

Done by Song Gil Seob

Civil Society/Active Citizenry
Factors of Effective Civil Society
 Active Citizenry o Process: Citizens taking part in shaping the development or well-being of society o For the better- mindset/intent: good o Actions  Fair, respect rights of others  Peaceful o With such a practice, society would gain:  Insightful perspectives/solutions  Beneficial voluntary contributions  Lead to Progress/Stability o Example: Jack Neo’s films  humours portrayal of the problems in Singapore’s society  Solutions to problems are talked about indirectly through his movies Inclusive Government o Disposition- open-minded o Receptive to feedback/proposals from citizens o Willing to change/ reshape policies o Listen o Create platforms for feedback o Insightful feedback is gained, people’s interest addressed widely- sense of belonging o Example: Chek Jawa  Environment protection vs. Port; the government listened to Joseph Lai; the place was conserved and is being used for ecotourism Technological advances in communication (e.g. new media) o Development in the IT arena- to give feedback easily and effectively to the govt. o People can communicate faster  govt. can listen faster o More and more people would be able to participate due to easy method and the govt. can also give faster responses o Example: Mr Brown’s blog  the technological advance provided a platform for him to conduct civil society; the information spreads very quickly International organisations (NGOs) o NGOs serve as part of the active citizenry available o The different NGOs would also be able to help the government realize certain things by advocating for projects – e.g. AWARE’s former projects: constitutional amendment to allow for the same citizen rights for children of Singaporean men and children of Singaporean women (2004) o There is also civil society internally- e.g. AWARE: the change in EXCO to completely new members who support gay rights- people looking to vote against it

Done by Song Gil Seob

Questions
1.) Do you agree that establishing a civil society is the right direction for Singapore? 2.) Active citizenry in Singapore is more constructive or destructive? 3.) Singapore has evolved into a successful model of civil society? 1. Do you agree that establishing a civil society is the right direction for Singapore?     Define the “right direction”- stability (positive nuance) Advantages of civil society/progress/move society forward Can civil society deliver this? Yes, it can o Alternative opinions and views are necessary and useful/community involvement (voluntarism)  Avoid over-dependence on the govt. o Reinforce substantive democracy, not procedural democracy; Build a communicative and transparent culture of decision-making; check & Balance o Acceptable to the international community (esp. developed countries) No, it cannot o More space/opportunities for disputes & Conflict o Hindrance to the state decision-making process o Transparency breeds inefficiency and ineffectiveness (esp. national security) o International community- sovereignty issues/rights

3. Evaluating Singapore’s society based on processes, outcomes & achievements (of civil society)  Yes, it has o Success stories of active citizenry and available processes for active citizenry  General Public (e.g. NGOs)  The Media  The professional community o An Inclusive government- actions & opportunities created for active citizenry/collective action o Respected by other nations which practices civil society No, it has not o Lack of “maturity” of Singaporeans  General Public  NGOs  The media  The professional community o Readiness of the govt.

Done by Song Gil Seob

Globalisation, Challenges and Change
 Globalization: A process by which regional economies, societies and cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation and trade o Economic globalization: integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, FDI, capital flows, migration and spread of technology History: Uber long Effects of Globalisation- briefing o Political  Creation of political institutions to regulate relationships between govts.  Guarantee rights of countries and people o Economic- Trade  Facilitate world trade  Nations driven by economic growth and job creation  Absolute and comparative advantage  Trade growth & income increase o Economic- Industrial  Worldwide production markets  FDI (foreign direct investments), transnational corporations and talents, movement of capital within national boundaries o Economic- Financial  Mass trading of national currencies  Support the expanded levels of trade and investment o Economic- Competition  Survival  Calls for more productivity and increased competition o Health policy  A commodity globally, technological advances, spread of diseases o Information  Flows between geographically remote locations, Improvement in technology o Language  More opportunities for communication o Cultural  Cultural diffusion, world culture, tourism o Social: Development of NGOs o Legal/Ethical: international criminal court o Religious: Spread of religion globally o Environmental  Regulations to keep a nation green  International cooperation

 

Done by Song Gil Seob

Impact of globalisation
Factors Economic Positive Improvement in standard of living Trading and open to foreign investment due to expansion of markets, increase of exports leads to profits and job creation, increase in imports give consumers choice and reduces cost of consumption Tourism Revenue for the host countries (services/consumer goods), small/medium enterprises (SME) improve, improve infrastructure Talent gained Usage of foreign talent, foreign ideas as well as skill comes into nation, help improve the nation’s ability Negative Increased competition Local industries suffer (developing countries), comparative advantage  developing countries are restricted to the development of primary industries and agrarian economy (resources) Issue of Dumping  the act of a manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at a price which is either below the price it charges in its home market or is below its cost s of production Tourism Increase the cost of living for the locals, spread of diseases, security (political terrorist) Talent loss Mobility of work, people with skills are in demand, situation of people moving to another nation for better opportunities, locals have trouble competing for jobs Widen income gap between rich and poor Developed countries- rapid income growth as they own most of manufacturing activities Developing countries- trade restrictions from other countries, not capable of producing better quality goods, end up with low-skilled works, less income Loss of sovereignty For less influential countries, they need to work within international charters or agreements; sometimes decided by stronger nations

Political

Diplomacy Through the creation of international institutions, led to a common consensus on world peace; conduct of diplomacy was facilitated and reinforced over the decades; young nation states are being groomed

Done by Song Gil Seob

Financial Matters

Integration Financial markets becoming integrated, foreign portfolio investments have become transnational, currencies are traded, open policy on borrowing from foreign banks, increase capital funding for business, currency speculation- multiplication of reserves (e.g. national banks, State-owned institutions) Multiculturalism Acceptance of religious & ethnic differences, language barriers broken down, consumerism Awareness of foreign culture Increased awareness of foreign culture, learn about history and culture without having to travel Environmental management Awareness of environment management, sustainable development for further growth, sustained supply of power, alternative energy sources being utilised

Social/Cultural

Volatility Detrimental to businesses as stock prices fluctuate, investors and bankers lose faith in enterprises, loan recalls, currency trading- destabilize the economy (excessive supply/demand for currency) E.g. Asian currency crisis, crisis in Thailand, excessive borrowing/moral hazards, china’s economic liberalization, rise of U.S. dollars, mismanagement of monetary policies Conflicts Cultural consolidation, conflict between civilizations, consumerism Loss of local culture The local community may be overwhelmed by the influx of foreign culture as it settles in Deforestation and other related problems Rainforests cut down for development of industries, agriculture, housing and transportation; revenue for country (e.g. Brazil, Indonesia); cause soil erosion, extinction of flora & fauna, flooding, haze- losses in tourism Global warming

Environmental

Done by Song Gil Seob

Venice as a city state
 Rise of Venice o Early Venetians- fled from the Germanic invaders to the swamp o Started off as a group of small fishing villages o Settled in as invasions became more frequent, used wooden piles to create land o Division of Venice into six districts o Trading of Salt and fish for grain – profitable business o Shipbuilding, powerful commerce- control in the Adriatic sea o Government- pyramid structure, general assembly  Capable leaders, reforms in the government, checks on power o Trade developments & expansion  Favourable trading terms- lower tax rates than competitors  Highly-prized spices from the East  Enterprising spirit  Maritime technology- ship properly and defend against pirates  Trade monopoly- defeat Genoa, take the sea o Industrial development  Trade-related industry  Manufacturing industries (e.g. glassware, craftsmanship)

Done by Song Gil Seob

Challenges faced by Venice & their solutions o Foreign threats  Involvement in the mainland  Control nearby mainland territories- supply Venice with essential resources (food & water); security of resources  Take advantage of the rivalry in mainland o Offer to help one fight against the other (France & Spain)  Strong army in case the high risk does not work out- recruit mercenaries  Ottoman Empire expanding influence  Give up some of the less important territories to avoid further losses  Fought hard to maintain control of Adriatic Sea; trade disrupted; giving up certain parts, European neighbours develop hostility  Eventually end up fighting on their own against the Ottomans- lost Negroponte (important trading outpost)  League of Cambrai  A military alliance against Venice- major powers in Europe; Venetians having to negotiate for peace- give territories and League  lack reso. o Maritime Competition  Discovery of new sea routes  New trade route by going around Cape of Good Hope  destroyed Venice’s trading monopoly  Venice’s route: shorter, but time-consuming; nevertheless continued  New trade Rivals  Dutch East India Company: bypassed Venice to get supplies, betterdesigned ships, Venice also modified design, but lack skills to operate  Protectionist policy: higher duties on foreign traders  did not attract traders as it was too costly, eventually lost some trading partners o Political challenges  Incapable Leadership: shrinking number of nobility; rotation of dutiescompetent ones had to leave after one term; incapable ones selected  Corruption in the govt.  suspension of salaries of civil servants; division in the nobility class based on income; selected to fill posts; sale of positions for funds  Over-dependence on mercenaries: costly, will leave on better salaries; French mercenaries plot within Venice  foiled, but showed that they could no longer trust the mercencary o Social Challenges: less involved in important matters such as administration and development of state, seek pleasure as they become richer Fall of Venice o Napoleon sweeps through Italy & Venice

Done by Song Gil Seob

Lessons for Singapore
 Challenges of Singapore o 1965-1970s  Political: Independence- Young nation; Unrest & Internal Insecurity; External Instability- region plagued by communism; Dependent on British Military; Cold War era  Social: Social Cohesion lacking; No national Identity; Housing Issues, jobs, health  Economic: Lacked resources/no primary industries; Dependent on entrepot economy/lack diversification; No common market/Import-Substitute, Industrialization not feasible; Short of local Industries; Overpopulation leading to unemployment; Poorly skilled labour force; Education reforms/training institutions lacking; Limited infrastructural development o 1980s  Economic  Low skilled Economy; High wages as a result of economic growth/increase in demand for workers; Singapore became unattractive to MNCs; Developing economies around Singapore also competed with Singapore for MNCs; Over-dependent on electronic products o 1990s-2000s  Economic  1997 Asian Currency Crisis; 2001 Dot.com ; 2008 Credit Crunch/Financial Crisis Lessons to be learnt o Importance of national unity o Crucial role of good governance o The fate of nation is ultimately dependent upon the quality of its people and its leaders o The value of freedom of navigation, on the sea, and by extension, in the air and on the Internet o Imperative for Singapore to maintain its pre-eminence as an international trading and financial centre

Done by Song Gil Seob

Economic Strategies o MNCs/TNCs/Foreign Direct Investment  Bring in the Foreign Investment  Support the local industries as well as bring in foreign industries; The foreign investments would be able to provide the capital and the needed support for the local industries to start up  Create competition for local industries  Develop local industries, create better products overall; Allow strong ones to get stronger, weak ones may die out  Create more jobs locally as a result of more industries being brought in and local industries becoming bigger o State-Owned Enterprises/Service Industry  Provides a back-up option  In case of economic meltdown in the nation, there is a back-up to keep the economy up with a constant revenue  Provide more jobs for the locals  (E.g. Singapore Airlines) o Continued Entrepot Economy  Continuous usage of the ports, making sure that profit is gained from the imports and exports  continue Singapore’s tradition as a port city o Discipline Labour force  Labour force needs discipline in order to attract MNCs  MNCs want to be sure that their investment is safe before investing largely  Prevent unnecessary protest or demonstration which will delay the production  Efficiency in workforce is necessary to make the MNCs trust Singapore o Reformed Education/emphasis on skill training  Skill training is much more useful in terms of income  Compared to pure labour, skill training would provide better incomes  MNCs want to know that if they invest, they are looking at workers who are skilful and knowledgeable, knowing how to do their jobs  Better education o Raised Productivity  Consequence of above two points; improve efficiency in how workers work; MNCs preference  A working society which is efficient and effective o Export orientated industrialization  Exporting the product that was developed locally; The need to reach out to a wider target  Local would limit the potential of a company; Instead of simply relying on MNCs and their funds, there is a need for Singaporean industries to become that MNCs for other smaller companies o Build Infrastructure  Infrastructure for better transport abilities for efficiency; better infrastructure in the company to ensure maximised working conditions and better products

Done by Song Gil Seob

Political Strategies o Merger with Malaya (initial benefits)  Creates a common market- local goods sold w/o tariffs to Malayan consumers, flow of Malayan resources into Singapore  Can contribute shipping facilities to Malayan economy Social Strategies o Establishment of HDB/CPF Housing Scheme  Resettle squatters within a decade, affordable public housing: 54,430 units between 1960‐1965  Currently 80% of Singaporeans live in HDB flats, 95% of whom own their flats Centralize trade union, revise education  Provide organization and training for workers; esp. through intensive public education + English‐medium schools  Ensure that NTUC is constructive rather than disruptive  Overall: increase productivity, meet needs of MNCs

o

Case study of NIKE
How they grew       Started off as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger Made most sales from the back of an automobile Makes more money, opens retail store, launches own line Begins to sign professional athletes, designs own products Targets athletic shoe market, 1980: reaches 50% market share in US athletic shoe market Runs television commercials and print ads (before: “word-of-foot”)

Done by Song Gil Seob

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times