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Anatomy and Physiology CNS brain and spinal cord Chart completed AP biology

Anatomy and Physiology CNS brain and spinal cord Chart completed AP biology

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Published by Tiffany Gallina
Name: __________________________________________________

Central Nervous System – The Spinal Cord & Brain
Region Structures Description/Location Special areas or parts contained in this structure?
One layer (periosteal layer) attaches to skull; second layer (meningeal layer) covers brain and continues as dura mater of spinal cord Arachnoid villi – protrude through dura mater – absorbs CSF into venous blood protects

Function(s)

Protective structures of Spinal Cord & Brain

Dura mater

Outermos
Name: __________________________________________________

Central Nervous System – The Spinal Cord & Brain
Region Structures Description/Location Special areas or parts contained in this structure?
One layer (periosteal layer) attaches to skull; second layer (meningeal layer) covers brain and continues as dura mater of spinal cord Arachnoid villi – protrude through dura mater – absorbs CSF into venous blood protects

Function(s)

Protective structures of Spinal Cord & Brain

Dura mater

Outermos

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Published by: Tiffany Gallina on Mar 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/24/2013

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 Name: __________________________________________________ 
Central Nervous System – The Spinal Cord & Brain
RegionStructuresDescription/LocationSpecial areas o parts contained in this structure? Function(s) 
Protectivestructures ofSpinal Cord &Brain
Dura mater
Outermost covering; leatheryconnective tissue; surroundedby an epidural space in thespinal cordOne layer (periosteallayer) attaches toskull; second layer(meningeal layer)covers brain andcontinues as duramater of spinal cordprotects
Arachnoidmater
Middle meningeal layer; “cobwebby”Arachnoid villi –protrude through duramater – absorbs CSFinto venous bloodThreadlike extensions span subarachnoidspace (filled with CSF and bloodvessels)to attach it to the pia mater
Pia mater
Clings tightly to surface ofbrain and spinal cordprotects
Cerebrospinalfluid
Watery broth similar to bloodplasma – contains less proteinand more vitamin CFormed by blood of choroidplexus (made by ependymalcells)Forms and drains at aconstant rate so thatpressure and volumeare maintained;changes in pressure/vol= pathologyWatery cushion that protects
The Blood-BrainBarrier
Composed of least permeablecapillaries in bodyPasses only water, glucose, and essentialamino acids. Most wastes, toxins,proteins, and drugs are prevented frompassing. But fat soluble chemicals canpass (b/c membrane is fat) – alcohol,nicotine, and anesthetics can affect brain
 
 Name: __________________________________________________ 
RegionStructuresDescription/LocationSpecial areas o parts contained in this structure? Function(s) 
Spinal cord
Spinal nerves
Posterior(dorsal) rootganglion androot
Dorsal roots fuse with ventralroots to form spinal nerves onperiphery of spinal cord
Have cell bodies and sensory fibers that leadto dorsal horns; If damaged – loss ofsensation from a body area
Anterior(ventral) root
Same
Contain axons of motor neurons; If damaged –flaccid paralysis of muscle (atrophy)
Spinal cord –Gray matter
Posterior(dorsal) horns
Part of the “H” shape in middleof cord (unmyelinated fibertracts); two posteriorprojections of gray matterContains interneurons
Anterior(ventral) horns
Part of the “H” shape in middleof cord (unmyelinated fibertracts); two anteriorprojectionsContain cell bodies of motor neurons ofsomatic nervous system
Central canal
Oval opening in center of spinalcord surrounded by gray matterContains CSF
Spinal cord –White matter
Posterior(dorsal) column
White matter made ofmyelinated axonal fiber tractsHas ascending tractsCarries sensory input (touch, position,and pressure) to brain
Lateral column
White matter made ofmyelinated axonal fiber tractsHas ascending tractsand descending tractsCarries sensory input (pain andtemperature) to brain;Maintains muscle tone and skilledmovements (esp. hands)
Anterior(ventral) column
White matter made ofmyelinated axonal fiber tractsHas ascending tractsand descending tractsCarries sensory input (body position) tobrain;Maintains tone & trunk muscle movement
 
 Name: __________________________________________________ 
RegionStructuresDescription/LocationSpecial areas o parts contained in this structure? Function(s) 
Brain -Cerebralhemispheres(cerebrum)
Cerebralcortex
Superficial layer (2-4 mm thick) ofcerebrum that is gray matter(unmyelinated fiber tracts); lots offoldsHas gyri – ridges; sulci –shallow grooves; andfissures – deep grooves(ie. central & longitudinal)Houses billions of neurons which are involvedin speech, memory, logic, emotion, movement
Frontal lobe(“higher orderbrain”)
Anterior to the central sulcusPremotor area andPrimary motor cortex;Prefrontal area; Broca’sarea (left side only)Plans movement and consciously controlsskeletal muscle (face, mouth, hands);regulates motivation and emotionalbehavior/mood; vocalizes words andinterprets word meaningsDamage to Broca’s area - inability to producemeaningful language
Parietal lobes
Paired lobes on both sides of thelongitudinal fissure; separated fromfrontal lobe by central sulcus;separated from each other bylongitudinal fissureSomatic sensory cortex,Gustatory area; SpeechareaInterprets sensory stimuli (pain, temperature,touch, taste); sound out words
Occipital lobe
Posterior part of brainVisual cortexReceives and interprets visual stimuli
Temporal lobe
Paired lobes under the temporalbones; below lateral fissureAuditory area; Olfactoryarea; Wernicke’s area(left side only), MemoryareaInterprets characteristics of sound like pitchand rhythm; determines if sound is speech,music, or noise; also, meaning of speech;receives impulses related to smellDamage to Wernicke’s area – inability tounderstand language

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