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Histology Notes

Tissue: A group of similar cells that perform a special function. It is composed of cells and extracellular matrix such as blood or bone. Organs consist of 2 parts: Parenchyma: the cellular part of the organ preforming the main function. Stroma: provides support, made up of connective tissue. Types of tissues: Epithelial Tissue 2 types: Covering: covers all external surfaces and lines the body’s cavities Glandular: cells that specialise in secretion. Consists of uninterrupted layer of tightly packed cells. In glands where there are pores, these holes are an invagination of epithelium. There is always an attached surface (basal layer) and a free surface (apical layer) Intercellular spaces in epithelium are small and these narrow spaces between cells are sealed off from external environment by cell junctions. Principal function: • covering, lining and protecting surfaces (i.e. skin, gut) • secretion (glands) • absorption (intestine) • sensation (neuroepithelium) • contractibility (myoepithelial cells Connective tissue is always underlying epithelial tissue to support it.

short. proteoglycans) embedded in the amorphous matrix. hairlike projections. It allows some substances (selectively permeable) from connective tissue to supply epithelial tissue. glycoproteins. Composed of 2 layers: • The basal lamina (20-100 nm thick) and consists of protein filaments (laminin. appears like a brush border. collagen. It receives nutrients/oxygen/nerve impulses through the connective tissue that supports it through the basement membrane. It separates the epithelium from the underlying connective tissue. Specialisations of the cell surface: Microvilli. The free surface (apical) is exposed to the outside and the basal surface is connected to the underlying lateral surface of the connective tissue. cilia and flagella. Found on respiratory epithelium to help eliminate foreign particles. • The reticular lamina consists of reticular fibres embedded in ground substance synthesised by cells of the connective tissue underlying the epithelium.Between these 2 tissues is the basement membrane which bounds the lamina propria to the epithelium. Epithelium is avascular. Connective tissue serves a mechanical and metabolic function to epithelial tissue. Flagella: similar structure to cilia but longer and is limited to one per cell. meaty (thanks Kim). Basement Membrane It is formed by the secretion of both epithelial cells and connective tissue cells. It is produced by epithelial cells. . Allows for the increase in absorption hence found in G I tract. Microvilli: small. close together protrusions. Cilia: numerous. This respiratory epithelium also has goblet cells that produce mucus which will trap foreign particles and cilia will sweep them outside of the system. spermatozoa.

Bowman’s capsuleSecretion in (kidney) serous membranes.Summary of Tissue Features Tissue Simple Squamous epithelium Justification Consists of single layer of flattened. oesophagus.layer) and one alveoli of lungs and filtration. lining (easier to body diffuse across cavities (mesothelium). anus. contains protein keratin that strengthens tissue. Has rounded nucleus. Non-Keratinised: wet. called mucosa Keratinised: epidermis (upper part of skin) Nonkeratinised: Lining of oral cavity. Protect against mechanical abrasion. irregularly shaped cells. with cells appearing squamous (flattened) at apical surface and cells closer to basement membrane appearing cuboidal to columnar. Location Function Extra notes Lining of blood vessels Diffusion (endothelium). . with a flat centrally located nucleus. Consists of several layers of cells. dryer. Keratinised: protection and prevents water loss. cervix. centrally located. Stratified squamous epithelium 2 types: Keratinised: tougher. Displays a mosaic pattern. Nonkeratinised: Protection and secretion. and vagina.

Will also have goblet cells. Columnar shape of cell. bronchi. . from base to cell surface. appear columnar. If ciliated. Gastrointestinal tract.Simple columnar epithelium Consists of tall cells. Protection. Random placement of rounded nucleus. secretion and if ciliated. Small intestine Absorption Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Consists of one layer of cells appears to be more as cells are Maybe ciliated or at different nonciliated. movement of particles outside of airways. nasal cavity and sinuses. Will have microvilli (appears like brush border) on the luminal surface to help with absorptive properties. All cells majority are usually do rest on ciliated. Exclusively limited to respiratory area. Nuclei are elongated and may be located towards the base. will have goblet cells Respiratory system including trachea. basement membrane. though heights.

In a stretched state. Absorption and secretion Transitional epithelium So called as it transitions between stratified cuboidal and stratified squamous epithelia. appear more rounded on surface layer (with prominent strained central nuclei) and more cuboidal at basement layer. In a relaxed Lines urinary (contracted) bladder and state. Lining of uterine tubes. Rounded. will only appear 2 to 3 layers Permits distention. . Simple cuboidal epithelium Consists of one layer of cells. ducts of salivary glands and lines the kidney tubules. with cells being cubed shaped. centrally located nuclei. There may appear to be about 4 to 5 cell layers thick.(release mucus). cells ureters.

Surface cells may have a ‘scalloped ‘outline. support and elasticity. . Also around blood vessels. Provides strength. fibres and cells Loose connectiv e tissue (areolar) Consists of a large amount of ground substance with fibres randomly placed. of cell layers has remained constant) and the cells appear extremely flattened. Remember: All connective tissue has ground substance. Purple stained line is the elastic fibre and pink strained line is the collagen fibre.thick (though no. Round fibres are the fibroblasts (which produce collagen) Found in the deepest layer of the skin: the subcutaneou s layer.

Found in dermis of skin and around heart valves. Not much ground substance evident. Provides strength Dense regular tissue Densely Found in packed. tendons and regularly ligaments arranged. Cells go in one direction.Dense irregular connectiv e tissue Random placement of densely packed fibres that show both transverse and longitudinal aspects of collagen fibres. Not much ground substance evident. . collagen fibre (appear wavy) with scattered fibroblasts (stained as purple) present in between rows. Provides strong attachmen t between structures.

supports and protects. around heart and kidneys.Adipose tissue Lots of ground substance Fat storage between cells. Padding around joints. Serves as an energy reserve. Cytoplasm is around the rim of the cell periphery (cell membrane). Found in subcutaneou s layer. Cell (adipocyte) is roundish and stores a large droplet of triglycerides inside which displaces nucleus is to the side of the cell. cell. .

Cells within the perichondriu m are called chondrocytes.Hyaline Cartilage Roundish lacuna containing chondrocyte appears whitish embedded within ground substance. Nucleus within chondrocyte found offcentre. Found in the larynx. Creates a smooth surface for ease of movement at joints. Most common type of cartilage. nose and end of long bones. Flexibility and support .

protection and storage. Fine canaliculi radiate from each lacunae which are little cavities filled with osteocytes.Compact Bone Concentric Found in bony layers or long bones lamellae are located around the central haversian canal. . House blood forming tissue. Support.

posture. heat production and protection. Usually located to bones by tendons Involved in muscle contractio n– motion. (Connective tissue appears as blue scraggly lines under microscope). . Numerous nucleuses. positioned on periphery of cell.Skeletal Muscle Striated muscle fibres – light and dark (with NO intercalated discs). Presence of connective tissue between muscle fibres. Thick fibres are myosin and thin fibres are actin.

Internal structures such as blood vessels. No striations. Nuclei are centrally located and oval shaped. propulsion of food through gastro intestinal tract.Smooth muscle Spindle shaped fibres – thick in middle and tapered at ends. intestines. stomach. Constriction of blood vessels and airways. .

Branched cylindrical fibres with one centrally located nucleus. . Heart wall Pumps blood to all parts of the body.Cardiac muscle Striated muscle fibres with intercalated discs joining neighbouring fibres.