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Knitting Assignment-types of Textiles

Knitting Assignment-types of Textiles

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Published by: Owaiste on Apr 22, 2010
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 INTRODUCTION
 A textile is
 
a cloth, which is either woven by hand or machine. "Textile" has traditionallymeant, "a woven fabric". The term comes from the Latin word
texere
, meaning
toweave
. A
textile
is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres oftenreferred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibres, linen,cotton,or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands. Textiles are formedby weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together Fibers are the raw materials for all fabrics. Some fibers occur innature as fine strands that can be twisted into yarns. Thesenatural fibers come from plants, animals, and minerals. For mostof history, people had only natural fibers to use in making cloth.But modern science has learned how to produce fibers bychemical and technical means. Today, these manufactured fibersaccount for more than two-thirds of the fibers processed by U.S.textile mills.
 
Plants provide more textile fibers than do animals or minerals.Cotton fibers produce soft, absorbent fabrics that are widely used for clothing,sheets, and towels. Fibers of the flax plant are made into linen. The strength and beautyof linen have made it a popular fabric for fine tablecloths, napkins, and handkerchiefs.The main animal fiber used for textiles is wool. Another animal fiber, silk, produces one of the most luxuriousfabrics. Sheep supply most of the wool, but members of thecamel family and some goats alsofurnish wool.Wool provides warm, comfortable fabrics for dresses, suits, and sweaters. Silk comes from cocoonsspun by silkworms. Workers unwind the cocoons to obtainlong, natural filaments. Fabrics made fromsilk fibers havegreat luster and softness and can be dyed brilliantcolors. Silk is especially popular for scarfs and neckties.
 
 
M
ost manufactured fibers are made from wood pulp, cottonlinters, or petrochemicals. Petrochemicals arechemicals made from crude oil and natural gas.The chief fibers manufactured from petrochemicalsinclude nylon, polyester, acrylic, andolefin. Nylon has exceptional strength,wears well, and is easy to launder. It ispopular for hosiery and other clothingand for carpeting and upholstery. Suchproducts as conveyor belts and firehoses are also made of nylon.
 
M
ost textiles are produced by twisting fibers into yarns andthen knitting or weaving the yarns into a fabric. This methodof making cloth has been used for thousands of years. Butthroughout most of that time, workers did the twisting,knitting, or weaving largely by hand. With today's modernmachinery, textile mills can manufacture as much fabric in a few seconds as it oncetook workers weeks to produce by hand.
 
Wov
en
fabr 
ics
are made of two sets of yarns - a lengthwise set called the warp and acrosswise set called the filling or weft. The warp yarns arethreaded into a loom through a series of frames calledharnesses. During the cloth-making process, the harnessesraise some warp yarns and lower others. This action createsa space, or shed, between the yarns. A device called ashuttle carries the filling through the shed and so forms thecrosswiseyarns of the fabric. The pattern in which theharnesses are raised and lowered for each pass of theshuttle determines the kind of weave.
 
Knitted
fabr 
ics
are made from a single yarn or a set of yarns. In making cloth, a knitting machine forms loops in theyarn and links them to one another by means of needles. The finished fabric consists of crosswiserows of loops, called courses, and lengthwise rows of loops,called wales. This looped structure makes knitted fabrics moreelastic than woven cloth. Garment manufacturers use knittedfabrics in producing comfortable, lightweight clothing thatresists wrinkling.Other fabrics include tufted fabrics, nets and laces, braids, andfelt. None of these fabrics is woven or knitted. However, thetextile industry produces another class of fabrics specificallycalled nonwoven fabrics.
 
TYPES OF TEXTILES ACCORDING TO SOURCES
Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four mainsources: animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made fromnatural fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century, thesewere supplemented by artificial fibres made frompetroleum.Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from thefinest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The relative thickness of fibres in cloth ismeasured in deniers.
M
icrofibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier.
A
nim
a
l
 
textiles
 
 Animal textiles are commonly made from hair or fur.Wool refers to the hair of the domestic goat or sheep, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightlycrimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with an oil known as lanolin, which iswaterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn which is spun from longer fibres whichhave been combed to be parallel. Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. Cashmere,the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair, the hair of the North Africanangoragoat, are types of wool known for their softness.Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuñawool, llama wool, and camel hair, generally used in the productionof coats, jackets, ponchos, blankets, and other warm coverings. Angora refers to thelong, thick, soft hair of the angora rabbit.Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly1000~1500CE.Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm.This is spun into a smooth, shiny fabric prized for its sleek texture.
P
l
a
nt
 
textiles
 
Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plantis used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant areutilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also infloormats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking.

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