Research & Development

( R & D Fabrication )

R & D Fabrication

Sampling Order Receiving from Merchandiser. Selection of Yarn. Knitting parameters setting. Finishing Parameters (Samples + Production). Samples inspection according to four point system. Testing of samples Checking parameters at every stage (Knitting, dyeing & finishing)

Process Flow of R & D

Sample Order

Decision of Parameter

Yarn demand Generation



Yarn Procurement


Quality & Testing


Sample Order (SO)
Sample order consist of following

GSM of fabric. Fabric Quality. Fabric Composition. Fabric Testing Standard. Customer Remarks related to finishing.

Selection of Yarn

Type of yarn Normal Yarn, Fancy yarn. Normal Yarn

cotton, polyester, acrylic and nylon are normal yarn.

Fancy yarn Slub yarn, Heather yarn, Mélange yarn and lycra yarn.


Number of hanks per pound is called Count. (1 hank is equal to 840 yards)

We say that if 1 pound cotton makes 1 hank, count will be 1. Or 1 pound cotton makes 2 hank, count will be 2. For Cotton: 1 Hank = 840 yards For Wool : 1 Hank =256 yards

Yarn Count Definitions

Denier ( Den) = Gram / 9000 m. Grex Tex = Gram / 10,000 m. = Gram / 1000 m.

English cotton count (Ne) = 840 yd / 1 lb or Ne = 768.1m / 453.59g Metric Count (Nm) = Meter / 1g

Count Conversion Formulae

From metric count (Nm) to others: Tex = 1000 / Nm NeB = 0.59 x Nm Den = 9000 / Nm

From denier (den) to others: Nm = 9000 / den NeB = 5315 / den Tex = 0.111 x den

Knitting Parameters
Count Stitch length



Dia Guage


Relation Between Count, GSM & SL


GSM, Count 20/1 22/1 GSM 200 181

It shows as “count increases, Gsm decreases”

Stitch length St.Length 0.32 0.34

GSM Gsm 200 188

Relation B/W Dia,Guage & Width
Dia & Gauge œ Width:

Dia 30 30 34

Gauge 20 24 20

# of Needles 1872 2268 2136

Width 58“ 70” 66”

Tightness Factor
Tightness factor is a ratio between yarn diameter and its loop length in the structure. It indicates tightness or looseness of a fabric. Tightness factor does not have any units and for practical purpose its value ranges between 1.29 and 1.8. Higher value indicates a tighter fabric & lower value indicate looser fabric. Mathematically tightness factor can be expressed as under, Tightness Factor = √Tex / Stitch length in mm

Where Tex = √ 590.5 / Count / S.L in mm (3.3) = √ 29.52 /S.L = 5.43 /S.L T.F will be = 1.64

Different methods to check GSM

By GSM cutter: GSM = gram per square meter (wt / area). GSM = Wt of cut fabric * 100

Area of cutter: Л(r²) Dia of cutter: 113mm or 11.3cm Area = 3.14 * ( 11.3 / 2 )² =100

In case of Non-availability of GSM Cutter

GSM = Wt / Area Suppose a fabric has length 10cm and width 8cm, then Area will be:

Area of fabric = 10 x 8 = 80 cm² or

0.008 m²

Suppose wt of fabric is 2g Then GSM = 2 / 0.008 = 250

GSM = Wt / Area
Area = 1/2(base × height)

Area = 1/2(10*8) = 40cm2 or 0.004m2 Suppose Wt of fabric is = 2g Then GSM will be: GSM = 2/.004 = 500

Consumption of yarn in a Knitted fabric
Calculation of yarn in 3-End-Fleece with yarn composition

Yarn Count 30/1

Stitch Length



0.38/30 = 0.0127

0.0127/0.0367*100=34.60% 20/1 0.28 0.28/20 = 0.014

0.014/0.0367*100=38.147% 16/1 0.16 0.16/16 = 0.01

0.01/0.0367*100=27.2479% Total yarn three loop(30/1,20/1,16/1) = 0.0367

“ Knitting is a process in which yarn is converted into loops with the help of needles ”

Types of Knitted Fabric

Single Knit Fabric Double Knit Fabric

Types of Single Knit Fabric
Single Jersey Single PQ Loqast Double PQ 2.Thread Fleece 3.Thread Fleece

Types of Double Knit Fabric
Thermal Waffle Rib Interlock Mesh

Box baby terry

Vertical feed stripe jersey

Single Jersey

Tilla Fleece

Single Jersey (Embroided)

Definition: “It is a process, To enhance the aesthetic properties of a fabric by treating with chemical and mechanical devices is called finishing”.

Types of Finishing

Chemical Finishing:

In chemical finishing, different finishes are applied on a fabric with the help of chemicals such as, Silicon finish, Stain Release, Anti-microbial finish, Resin finish etc.

Mechanical Finishing
In mechanical finishing, fabric is treated with mechanical devices to impart aesthetic look/properties to the fabric such as, Peaching, Raising, Heat setting and Compacting.

Finishing Route’s
To apply different finishes on a fabric, different route’s are followed in finishing .Some of them are as follow:

Stretch Dry, Compact. Slit,Heat set,Dye/white/wash,Slit,stretch dry, Compact. Slit,Stretch Dry,Peach,Re-stretch,Semi Dry, Tumble. Slit,Stretch dry, compact.

Quality Control


“Quality is a standard achieved by process to render a defect free product to the customer” To control the quality of a fabric, fabric is inspected according to Four point system. Four point system introduced by JC-penny for fabric inspection.

Faults Grading
Faults in Cm 0cm to 7.5cm 7.5cm to 15cm 15cm to 22.5cm Over 22.5cm Faults in Inches 1 inch to 3 inch 3 inches to 6 inches 6 inches to 9 inches More than “9”inches in Any direction. Points 1 2 3 4

Points Allowed

Knitting Quality=Maximum 20 points allowed/100 linear yards Finish Fabric: Maximum 40 points allowed/100 linear yard. 3 minor faults in one linear yard=1 major (Four points will be given)

How to change Kgs into Yards
For Tubular: Yards = Weight (Kgs)*43055.20 Gsm*Width*2

For Open Width: Yards= Weight(Kgs)*43055.20 Gsm*Width Points Allowed for Tubular=Total yards*0.2 or Total yards/5 Points Allowed for Open Width: =Total yards*0.4 or Total yards/2.5


After finishing, fabric is tested to ensure the quality of a fabric. Following tests are performed on a fabric according to the requirement of customer. Shrinkage test Torquing Colour Fastness to Light, Water, Washing & Perspiration. Bursting Strength Pilling Test Flammability

After ensure the quality & testing of a fabric, fabric is dispatched to Apparel Division.

Presented by:

Abdul Rouf Deputy Manager Research & Development

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