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Maglev IEEE Format

Maglev IEEE Format



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Published by: sandy198809 on Aug 16, 2010
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MAGLEVShashank KumarPoornima College of Engg, jaipurShashank.pce2011@gmail.com
ABSTRACT:Maglev as a practical concept was first proposedby the authors in 1966. The concept was based onusing lightweight, very high currentsuperconducting loops suitably positioned on astreamlined vehicle. As the vehicle moves along aguideway containing loops of ordinary aluminumwire at ambient temperature, the superconductingloops induce small electric currents in theguideway loops that are directly underneath them.The magnetic interaction of the permanentcurrents in the superconducting loops with theinduced currents in the guideway loopsautomatically levitates the vehicle. The levitationis inherently stable about its normal equilibriumsuspension point. If an external force (e.g. a windgust, curve, or change in grade) acts on thevehicle, a magnetic force automatically andimmediately develops to oppose the external force.The magnetic force pushes the vehicle back toward its normal equilibrium suspension point.Since Maglev vehicles do not contact theguideway, their speed is not constrained bymechanical stresses, friction, or wear. The speedis limited only by aerodynamic drag orstraightness of route. The authors describe howthe first generation of Maglev vehicles probablywill travel in air; however, as tunnelingtechnology develops and becomes cheaper, longdistance, ultra-speed Maglev vehicles that travelin low pressure tunnels will emerge as the secondgeneration. Maglev train was developed under theguidance of the Japanese Ministry of Transport.The Maglev train is an advanced train that canrun more than 500 km/h with a linearsynchronous motor (LSM) that has both asuperconducting magnet. On board and anarmature coil in the ground. (Propulsion of aconventional railway depends on adhesionbetween wheel and rail, and the maximum speedof a conventional railway is only 350 km/h.) TheMaglev train was tested on the Yamanashi Maglevtest line. Tests began in 1997, which exercisedvarious functions of performance (Fig. 1). Themain results of the tests were:
A world record of 552 km/h with a manned five-car train set in April 1999;
Arelative speed of 1,003 km/h between twotrains passing each other;
Substation cross-over tests which characterizedtheMaglev train;
Refuge and passing tests with two trains at thestation. We verified the high acceleration of theMaglev train by achieving the top speed of 552km/h in only 100 seconds within a distance of 8km. The committee established by the Ministry of Transport evaluated the results: “The technologyfor the commercial use as both super-high-speedand large quantity transport system areestablished.” We developed the train operationscontrol system as a ground-based system. Epoch-making technology changed the train controlsystem from conventional manual control Central.The construction work for the ground equipment,which included electric equipment, was started in1988 and was finished in December 1996. The testsfor general coordination were completed in March1997, and the running tests began the followingmonth. They have continued smoothly and muchdata has been acquired.
Running tests were carried out with a five-car train set(instead of athree-car train set) in March 1999 to confirm the stability of themiddle unit.
MAGLEV- MAGLEV stands for MagneticallyLevitation.
Maglev is a completely new mode of transport thatwill join the ship, the wheel, and the airplane as amainstay in moving people and goods throughout theworld. Maglev has unique advantages over theseearlier modes of transport and will radicallytransform society and the world economy in the 21stCentury. Compared to ships and wheeled vehicles— autos, trucks, and trains—it moves passengers andfreight at much higher speed and lower cost, usingless energy. Compared to airplanes, which travel atsimilar speeds, Maglev moves passengers and freightat much lower cost, and in much greater volume. Inaddition to its enormous impact on transport, Maglev
will allow millions of human beings to travel intospace, and can move vast amounts of water over longdistances to eliminate droughts.
In Maglev—which isshort for MAGnetic LEVitation—high speed vehiclesare lifted by magnetic repulsion, and propelled alongan elevated guideway by powerful magnets attachedto the vehicle. The vehicles do not physically contactthe guideway, do not need engines, and do not burnfuel. Instead, they are magnetically propelled byelectric power fed to coils located on the guideway.
 Artist’s illustration of StarTram, a magneticallylevitated low-pressure tube, which can guide spacecraft into the upper atmosphere
 Maglev is a much better way to move people andfreight than by existing modes. It is cheaper, faster,not congested, and has a much longer service life. AMaglev guideway can transport tens of thousands of  passengers per day along with thousands of  piggyback trucks and automobiles. Maglev operatingcosts will be only 3 cents per passenger mile and 7cents per ton mile, compared to 15 cents pe passenger mile for airplanes, and 30 cents per tonmile for intercity trucks. Maglev guideways will lastfor 50 years or more with minimal maintenance, because there is no mechanical contact and wear, and because the vehicle loads are uniformly distributed,rather than concentrated at wheels. Similarly, Maglevvehicles will have much longer lifetimes than autos,trucks, and airplanes.
The Maglev 2000 can operate in the open air,or in underground tunnnels. Using a low-pressuretunnel will make it possible to get from Los Angelesto New York in 1 hour.
Maglev is very energy efficient. Unlikeautos, trucks, and airplanes, Maglev does not burnoil, but instead consumes electricity, which can be produced by coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, fusion, wind,or solar power plants (the most efficient source now being nuclear). At 300 miles per hour in the openatmosphere, Maglev consumes only 0.4 megajoules per passenger mile, compared to 4 megajoules per  passenger mile of oil fuel for a 20-miles-per-gallonauto that carries 1.8 people (the national average) at60 miles per hour (mph). At 150 mph in theatmosphere, Maglev consumes only 0.1 of amegajoule per passenger mile, which is just 2 percentof the energy consumption of a typical 60-mph auto.In low-pressure tunnels or tubes, like those proposedfor Switzerland’s Metro system, energy consumption per passenger mile will shrink to the equivalent of 10,000 miles per gallon.
Maglev vehicles emit no pollution. When theyconsume electricity, no carbon dioxide is emitted.Even if they use electricity from coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants, the resulting CO
emission ismuch less than that from autos, trucks, and airplanes, because of Maglev’s very high energy efficiency.Maglev has further environmental benefits. Maglevvehicles are much quieter than autos, trucks, andairplanes, which is particularly important for urbanand suburban areas. Moreover, because Maglev usesunobtrusive narrow-beam elevated guideways, itsfootprint on the land is much smaller than that of highways, airports, and railroad tracks.
Maglev has major safety advantages over highway vehicles, trains, and airplanes. The distance between Maglev vehicles on a guideway, and thespeed of the vehicles, are automatically controlledand maintained by the frequency of the electric power fed to the guideway. There is no possibility of collisions between vehicles on the guideway.Moreover, since the guideways are elevated, there isno possibility of collisions with autos or trucks atgrade crossings.
In this Maglev system,which is similar to the one in Japan, the vehicle hassuperconductor loops (approximately 600 kiloampturns). The guideway has aluminum loops at normaltemperature; their loop currents are generated bymagnetic induction as vehicle loops move past them.The induced currents in “figure-8” guideway loopslevitate and vertically stabilize the vehicle.
The leftand right dipole guideway loops are electricallyconnected to form a circuit. Net flux and current inthe circuit is zero when the vehicle is centered in theguideway. If the vehicle moves left from the center,the magnet force develops to push it back to thecenter.
Maglev has been a dream since the early1900s. Emile Bachelet proposed to magneticallylevitate trains using attached alternating current (AC)loops above conducting metal sheets, such asaluminum, on the ground. Other ideas followed, based on conventional electromagnets and permanentmagnets. However, all these proposals wereimpractical. Either power consumption was too great,or the suspension was unstable, or the weight thatcould be levitated was too small.
The first practicalMaglev system was proposed and published by us in1966.
It was based on Maglev vehicles carryinglightweight superconducting magnets that inducedcurrents in a sequence of ordinary aluminum loopsmounted along a guideway. These induced currentsinteracted with the superconducting magnets on thevehicle, levitating it above the guideway. Thelevitated vehicle is inherently and passively stableagainst all external forces, including cross-winds, andthe centrifugal forces on curves, whether horizontalor vertical. If a cross-wind tries to push the vehiclesideways, an opposing magnetic force isautomatically generated that holds the vehicle on theguideway. If the vehicle is pushed down towards theguideway, the levitation force automaticallyincreases, preventing contact. If an external force liftsthe vehicle away from the guideway, the levitationforce decreases, and the vehicle drops back towardsits equilibrium suspension height.
After our 1966 publication,
A maglev train floats about 10mm above the guidwayon a magnetic field. It is propelled by the guidwayitself rather than an onboard engine by changingmagnetic fields (see right). Once the train is pulledinto the next section the magnetism switches so thatthe train is pulled on again. The Electro-magnets runthe length of the guideway.
The wide gray line is the 300-mile proposed Tokyo-Osaka line in central Japan. The thin line is the present railway line. The location of the existingYamanashi Maglev line is shown (near Kofu).However, major development programs continued inJapan and Germany. Japan focussed onsuperconducting Maglev, and now has acommercially ready passenger Maglev system basedon our original inventions. Japan Railways operatesMaglev vehicles at speeds up to 350 mph on their 20-kilometer guideway in Yamanashi Prefecture. JapanRailways vehicles operate in the open atmosphereand in deep mountain tunnels, both as individualunits, and as linked sets of up to five units. A JapanRailways vehicle on the Yamanashi guideway isshown here.The basic features of superconducting Maglev areillustrated in Figure 1 for a U-shaped guidewaysimilar to the one in Japan. The set of passive, null-flux aluminum loops on the sidewalls of theguideway levitates and laterally stabilizes the movingvehicle. The vehicle is magnetically propelled alongthe guideway by a second set of aluminum loops on

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