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TYS Unit 2.7

TYS Unit 2.7

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Published by prameeta

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Published by: prameeta on Sep 29, 2010
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09/29/2010

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1
(a)
 
No of heartbeats in 6 secs= 6Rate of heartbeat = 60/ 6 x 6 = 60 times per min(b) Effect 1:Person’s face appears flushed and feels warm.As body temp rises, arterioles beneath theskin dilate so that more blood flows through theskin capillaries to allow heat loss via conduction,convection and radiation.(b) Effect 2: Sweat droplets forms on the faceSweat glands are activated and produce sweatwhich evaporates and removes latent heat fromthe body;
 
(c) i) Blood pressure drops immediately after thehot bath;
 
As body temperature increases immediatelyafter the hot bath,
arterioles at the skinvasodilate to get rid of excess heat in body viaconduction, convection and radiation;
EXTRA
 
more blood can pass through the dilated arterioles;
 
with less exertion by the heart;
 
(c) ii) Immediately after the hot bath, the rate of heart beat increases; from 60 beats per min to 70beats per min;
 
As body temperature has increased, blood has tobe pumped faster to the skin to remove excessheat by vasodilation;
 
(d) 1. Shivering (involuntary muscle contractions)
2. Vasoconstriction of arterioles beneath the skin3. Body temperature may drop below 35 C.4. Frost bite
 
2
(a)(i) Axes correct and labelled, including units;X Axis: Avg body length (cm)Y Axis: Rate of heat production (KJ/kg/h)Appropriate scale and graph is spread across 75%;Curve drawn (smooth best fit curve);All plots correct with title;(a)(ii) As body length increases, the rate of heatproduction decreases;(a)(iii) Respiration;(b)(i) Loss in mass per hour = 74 x 1.4%= 1.036 kgTotal average body mass lost in 6 hours = 1.036 x 6= 6.216 kg= 6.22 kg;(b)(ii) Water is lost as sweat from the sweat glands;Evaporation of sweat removes latent heat from thebody/skin;This enables body to maintain a temperature around37
0
C, which means enzyme activity is not affected;
(a)Thick gloves, shoes and socks insufficient toinsulate body at extreme cold temperatures;Heat loss at extremities is easier due to distancefrom body core;In order to maintain a certain core temperature for survival, heat loss is minimized via homeostasis;Hence vasoconstriction of arterioles at the skinsurface occur to reduce blood flow and heat loss viaconvection, radiation and conduction;However reduced blood flow for long periods of time deprives cells of oxygen and nutrients,eventually resulting in cell death.
(b)
Hypothalamus detects lower blood temperatureand activates shivering reflex;Increased
muscular contractions
requires higher rate of 
respiration
, which generates more heat;Increased heat help maintain core body temperature;

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