volume of air inspired and expired per unit time is tightly controlled, both withrespect to frequency of breaths and totidal volume.
Breathing is regulated so the lungscan maintain the PaO2 and PaCO2within the normal range, even under widely varying conditions such asexercise.
four components :1. chemoreceptors for O2 or CO22. mechanoreceptors in the lungs and joints3. control centers for breathing in thebrain stem (medulla and pons)4. the respiratory muscles, whose activityis directed by the brain stemcenters