BY: Mahdi Bordbar
IRISL Training Institute
Correction of Altitudes
The apparent altitude is obtained as explained Total correction for the Moon is given in theinside part of the back cover of the Nautical Almanac.
Sextant Altitude (Sex Alt)
ON: - OFF: +Observed Altitude (Obs Alt)(-) DIP (Related to Height of Eye)Apparent Altitude (App Alt)Main Correction (Main Corr)HP Correction (HP Corrn)True Altitude (T.Alt)
HP stands for Horizontal Parallax of the Moon. It is obtained from that day's page of theAlmanac, alongside the declination.2.
Both main and HP corrections are always positive.
For UL, 30
has to be subtracted from the total to get true altitude.
Back angle observations
Sometimes, the horizon under the celestial body may not be clearly visible owing to thepresence of land, haze, mist, rain, etc. In such cases, it may be possible to observe the altitudeof the body in the opposite direction i.e., if the azimuth (bearing of the celestial body) is 080°,the altitude is taken while facing 260°. Since the observer would then have his back to thecelestial body, such a measurement is called a 'Back angle' observation. For
Totalcorrection cannot be used here. The individual corrections
Dip, Refraction, Semi- diameter
have to be applied separately. Slogan for easy remembrance:
Semi Diameter: Lower Limb (LL): - Upper Limb (UL): + not as usual