housing to the rotating armature throughcommutator & brushes arrangement. Asthe stator is stationary, power is applieddirectly to it.In Shunt DC motor, the field windings of the stator are connected in parallel with thearmature. The field windings of a ShuntDC motor are made of fine coil of wirewith large number of turns. As smallgauge wire cannot handle heavy currents,shunt windings of a shunt motor requirelarge number of turns to produce strongmagnetic field.As a Shunt DC Motor cannot carry highcurrents, it is unsuitable for applicationsrequiring a high starting torque. So, itrequires its shaft load to be small to startfunctioning.The resistance of the shunt windings in aShunt DC motor is very high. As a result,when electric voltage is supplied to theShunt DC motor, very low amount of current flows through the shunt coil.Armature draws enough current to producea strong magnetic field. Due to theinteraction of magnetic field aroundarmature and the field produced around theshunt field, the motor starts to rotate.When the armature starts turning, it produces a back EMF. The theory behindthe generation of back EMF is the simpleelectromagnetic principle, which statesthat when a conductor (armature in thiscase) rotates in a magnetic field, electricityis induced in it. The polarity of thisgenerated back EMF is such that itopposes the armature current. So, as themotor turns, armature current is controlled by the back EMF and is kept low.
Speed of Shunt DC Motors
In a series motor, speed is very muchdependent on the shaft load. If the load ishigh, armature will rotate at a low speed. If the load is less, armature speed willincrease. At no load condition, thearmature speed is virtually infinity anduncontrollable.Shunt motor has different speedcharacteristics from a series motor. Whena Shunt DC motor reaches its full speed,the armature current is directly related tothe motor load. Since load is very small ina shunt motor, armature current is alsovery low. Once the motor reaches its fullspeed, it remains constant.
Shunt DC Motors Speed Control
Speed of a Shunt DC motor can be easilycontrolled. Despite the load changes,Shunt DC motor can maintain constantspeed. When the load increases thearmature tends to slow down. This resultsin less back EMF. This accounts for lessopposition against the supplied voltage.So, the motor will draw more current. Thisincrease in current results in increase intorque to gain speed. Thus, even when theload increases, the net effect of load onspeed in a Shunt DC motor is almost nil.When the load decreases, armature gainsspeed and generates more back EMF. Asthe polarity of the back EMF is against thesupply voltage, load reduction results inless current and hence speed is maintainedconstant.Speed of a Shunt DC motor can becontrolled by two ways:1. By varying the amount of currentsupplied to the shunt (field) windings2. By varying the amount of currentsupplied to the armature.