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RB4802B52

RB4802B52

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Published by shailesh singh

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Published by: shailesh singh on Sep 14, 2011
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09/14/2011

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SUB. BY:-
Satinder thakur RB4802B52Regd:-1812444
INTRODUCTION
A method of connecting field windings in parallel with the armature. The shunt DCmotor is commonly used because of itsexcellent speed regulation.
 
Shunt DCmotor works on direct current (DC).
 
Inelectrical terminology, a parallelconnection is termed shunt. In a Shunt DCmotor, the armature and field windings areconnected in parallel. This type of windingis called shunt winding and the motor Shunt DC motor.
 
The shunt motor isdifferent from the series motor in that thefield winding is connected in parallel withthe armature instead of in series. Youshould remember from basic electricaltheory that a parallel circuit is oftenreferred to as a shunt. Since the fieldwinding is placed in parallel with thearmature, it is called a shunt winding andthe motor is called a shunt motor. Figure 1a diagram of a shunt motor. Notice that thefield terminals are marked Fl and F2, andthe armature terminals are marked AlandA2. You should notice in this diagramthat the shunt field is represented withmultiple turns using a thin line.
FIGURE 1 Diagram of DC shunt motor. Notice the shunt coil is identified as a coil of fine wire with many turns that is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature.
The shunt winding is made of small-gaugewire with many turns on the coil. Since thewire is so small, the coil can havethousands of turns and still fit in the slots.The small-gauge wire cannot handle asmuch current as the heavy-gauge wire inthe series field, but since this coil hasmany more turns of wire, it can still produce a very strong magnetic field.Figure 2 shows a picture of a DC shuntmotor.FIGURE 2 Typical DC shunt motor. Thesemotors are available in a variety of sizes.This motor is a 1 hp.
Principle of operation of a ShuntDC Motor
Construction and principle of operation of a Shunt DC motor is same as any other DCmotor. It also has all the fundamentalcomponents-rotor (armature), stator (fieldwindings) and commutator - required for the operation of a motor. In a Shunt DCmotor, a rotational torque is produced as aresult of the interaction between themagnetic field produced around the currentcarrying armature and the magnetic fieldestablished around the stator windings.Current is supplied from the stationary
 
housing to the rotating armature throughcommutator & brushes arrangement. Asthe stator is stationary, power is applieddirectly to it.In Shunt DC motor, the field windings of the stator are connected in parallel with thearmature. The field windings of a ShuntDC motor are made of fine coil of wirewith large number of turns. As smallgauge wire cannot handle heavy currents,shunt windings of a shunt motor requirelarge number of turns to produce strongmagnetic field.As a Shunt DC Motor cannot carry highcurrents, it is unsuitable for applicationsrequiring a high starting torque. So, itrequires its shaft load to be small to startfunctioning.The resistance of the shunt windings in aShunt DC motor is very high. As a result,when electric voltage is supplied to theShunt DC motor, very low amount of current flows through the shunt coil.Armature draws enough current to producea strong magnetic field. Due to theinteraction of magnetic field aroundarmature and the field produced around theshunt field, the motor starts to rotate.When the armature starts turning, it produces a back EMF. The theory behindthe generation of back EMF is the simpleelectromagnetic principle, which statesthat when a conductor (armature in thiscase) rotates in a magnetic field, electricityis induced in it. The polarity of thisgenerated back EMF is such that itopposes the armature current. So, as themotor turns, armature current is controlled by the back EMF and is kept low.
Speed of Shunt DC Motors
In a series motor, speed is very muchdependent on the shaft load. If the load ishigh, armature will rotate at a low speed. If the load is less, armature speed willincrease. At no load condition, thearmature speed is virtually infinity anduncontrollable.Shunt motor has different speedcharacteristics from a series motor. Whena Shunt DC motor reaches its full speed,the armature current is directly related tothe motor load. Since load is very small ina shunt motor, armature current is alsovery low. Once the motor reaches its fullspeed, it remains constant.
Shunt DC Motors Speed Control
Speed of a Shunt DC motor can be easilycontrolled. Despite the load changes,Shunt DC motor can maintain constantspeed. When the load increases thearmature tends to slow down. This resultsin less back EMF. This accounts for lessopposition against the supplied voltage.So, the motor will draw more current. Thisincrease in current results in increase intorque to gain speed. Thus, even when theload increases, the net effect of load onspeed in a Shunt DC motor is almost nil.When the load decreases, armature gainsspeed and generates more back EMF. Asthe polarity of the back EMF is against thesupply voltage, load reduction results inless current and hence speed is maintainedconstant.Speed of a Shunt DC motor can becontrolled by two ways:1. By varying the amount of currentsupplied to the shunt (field) windings2. By varying the amount of currentsupplied to the armature.
 
While maintaining a constant voltagesupply to the armature, voltage supplied tothe shunt is varied by having a rheostat inseries with it or by having a SCR currentcontrol. Same technique is applied to varythe armature current. But as the armaturedraws more current, the current controlrheostats used with armature are usuallymuch larger than those used for shuntcurrent control.Generally, motors come with a specifiedrated voltage and rated speed in rpm(revolutions per minute). When a ShuntDC motor operates below its full voltage,its torque gets reduced.
Shunt Motor Operation
A shunt motor has slightly differentoperating characteristics than a seriesmotor. Since the shunt field coil is made of fine wire, it cannot produce the largecurrent for starting like the series field.This means that the shunt motor has verylow starting torque, which requires that theshaft load be rather small.When voltage is applied to the motor, thehigh resistance of the shunt coil keeps theoverall current flow low. The armature for the shunt motor is similar to the seriesmotor and it will draw current to produce amagnetic field strong enough to cause thearmature shaft and load to start turning.Like the series motor, when the armature begins to turn, it will produce back EMF.The back EMF will cause the current inthe armature to begin to diminish to a verysmall level. The amount of current thearmature will draw is directly related to thesize of the load when the motor reachesfull speed. Since the load is generallysmall, the armature current will be small.When the motor reaches full rpm , itsspeed will remain fairly constant.
Torque Characteristics
The armature's torque increases as themotor gains speed due to the fact that theshunt motor's torque is directly proportional to the armature current. Whenthe motor is starting and speed is very low,the motor has very little torque. After themotor reaches full rpm, its torque is at itsfullest potential. In fact, if the shunt fieldcurrent is reduced slightly when the motor is at full rpm, the rpm will increase slightlyand the motor's torque will also in-creaseslightly. This type of automatic controlmakes the shunt motor a good choice for applications where constant speed isrequired, even though the torque will varyslightly due to changes in the load. Figure3-4 shows the torque/speed curve for theshunt motor. From this diagram you cansee that the speed of the shunt motor staysfairly constant throughout its load rangeand drops slightly when it is drawing thelargest current. 
FIGURE 3
A curve that shows thearmature current versus thearmature speed for a shunt motor.Notice that the speed of a shuntmotor is nearly constant

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