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P. 1
Toan Roi Rac

Toan Roi Rac

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Published by api-3700036

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Published by: api-3700036 on Oct 14, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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TO\u00c1N R\u1edcI R\u1ea0C
H\u1eccC VI\u1ec6N C\u00d4NG NGH\u1ec6 B\u01afU CH\u00cdNH VI\u1ec4N TH\u00d4NG
-------\ue000 -------
S\u00c1CH H\u01af\u1edaNG D\u1eaaN H\u1eccC T\u1eacP
Bi\u00ean so\u1ea1n : Ths. NGUY\u1ec4N DUY PH\u01af\u01a0NG
L\u01b0u h\u00e0nh n\u1ed9i b\u1ed9
H\u00c0 N\u1ed8I - 2006
L\u1edcI GI\u1edaI THI\u1ec6U

To\u00e1n r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u v\u00e0 x\u1eed l\u00fd c\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ebfm c\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng, v\u00e0 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u m\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7 gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c t\u1eadp r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c. M\u1ed9t trong nh\u1eefng y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 l\u00e0m To\u00e1n r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c tr\u1edf n\u00ean quan tr\u1ecdng l\u00e0 vi\u1ec7c l\u01b0u tr\u1eef, x\u1eed l\u00fd th\u00f4ng tin trong c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh v\u1ec1 b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t l\u00e0 r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c. Ch\u00ednh v\u00ec l\u00fd do\u0111\u00f3, To\u00e1n h\u1ecdc r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t m\u00f4n h\u1ecdc b\u1eaft bu\u1ed9c mang t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t kinh\u0111i\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ng\u00e0nh C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 th\u00f4ng tin v\u00e0\u0110i\u1ec7n t\u1eed Vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng. T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn m\u00f4n h\u1ecdc To\u00e1n h\u1ecdc r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c

\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng cho h\u1ec7 \u0111\u00e0o t\u1ea1o t\u1eeb xa H\u1ecdc vi\u1ec7n C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7B\u01b0u ch\u00ednh Vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng
d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf kinh nghi\u1ec7m gi\u1ea3ng d\u1ea1y m\u00f4n h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 k\u1ebf th\u1eeba t\u1eeb gi\u00e1o tr\u00ecnh \u201cTo\u00e1n h\u1ecdc r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c\u1ee9ng
d\u1ee5ng trong tin h\u1ecdc\u201d c\u1ee7a Kenneth Rossen. T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y th\u00e0nh hai ph\u1ea7n:
Ph\u1ea7n I tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p th\u00f4ng qua vi\u1ec7c gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft b\u1ed1n
b\u00e0i to\u00e1n c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0: B\u00e0i to\u00e1n\u0111\u1ebfm, B\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i, B\u00e0i to\u00e1n li\u1ec7t k\u00ea v\u00e0 B\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed1i\u01b0u.

Ph\u1ea7n II tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 L\u00fd thuy\u1ebft\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb: kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m,\u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a, c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n tr\u00ean\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb,\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb Euler,\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb Hamilton. M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n c\u00f3\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n quan tr\u1ecdng kh\u00e1c c\u1ee7a l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb c\u0169ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u00fa tr\u1ecdng gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 B\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u00f4 m\u00e0u\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb, B\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u00ecm\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng\u0111i ng\u1eafn nh\u1ea5t v\u00e0 B\u00e0i to\u00e1n lu\u1ed3ng c\u1ef1c\u0111\u1ea1i trong m\u1ea1ng.

Trong m\u1ed7i ph\u1ea7n c\u1ee7a t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u, ch\u00fang t\u00f4i c\u1ed1 g\u1eafng tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y ng\u1eafn g\u1ecdn tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp v\u00e0o b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1,\u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi c\u00e0i\u0111\u1eb7t h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n b\u1eb1ng ng\u00f4n ng\u1eef l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh C nh\u1eb1m\u0111\u1ea1t\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c hai m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau ch\u00ednh cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi h\u1ecdc: N\u00e2ng cao t\u01b0 duy to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc trong ph\u00e2n t\u00edch, thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n v\u00e0 r\u00e8n luy\u1ec7n k\u1ef9 n\u0103ng l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p. M\u1eb7c d\u00f9\u0111\u00e3 r\u1ea5t c\u1ea9n tr\u1ecdng trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh bi\u00ean so\u1ea1n, tuy nhi\u00ean t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u kh\u00f4ng tr\u00e1nh kh\u1ecfi nh\u1eefng thi\u1ebfu s\u00f3t v\u00e0 h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf. Ch\u00fang t\u00f4i r\u1ea5t mong

\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ef1 g\u00f3p \u00fd qu\u00ed b\u00e1u c\u1ee7a t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ecdc gi\u1ea3 v\u00e0 c\u00e1c b\u1ea1n \u0111\u1ed3ng nghi\u1ec7p. M\u1ecdi g\u00f3p \u00fd xin g\u1eedi v\u1ec1: Khoa
C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 Th\u00f4ng tin - H\u1ecdc vi\u1ec7n C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 B\u01b0u ch\u00ednh Vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng.
H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i, th\u00e1ng 05 n\u0103m 2006
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1: Nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n
PH\u1ea6N I: L\u00dd THUY\u1ebeT T\u1ed4 H\u1ee2P
CH\u01af\u01a0NG I: NH\u1eeeNG KI\u1ebeN TH\u1ee8C C\u01a0 B\u1ea2N
N\u1ed9i dung ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y\u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp\u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 logic m\u1ec7nh\u0111\u1ec1 v\u00e0 l\u00fd
thuy\u1ebft t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p. Bao g\u1ed3m:

\ue000 Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u t\u1ed5ng quan v\u1ec1 l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p.
\ue000 Nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 logic.
\ue000 Nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p.
\ue000 M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng c\u1ee7a logic v\u00e0 l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p trong tin h\u1ecdc.

B\u1ea1n\u0111\u1ecdc c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y nh\u1eefng ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c s\u00e2u h\u01a1n v\u00e0 chi ti\u1ebft h\u01a1n trong c\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u [1] v\u00e0 [2]
c\u1ee7a t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u tham kh\u1ea3o.
1.1. GI\u1edaI THI\u1ec6U CHUNG

T\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c quan tr\u1ecdng c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc r\u1eddi r\u1ea1c\u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp t\u1edbi nhi\u1ec1u v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 kh\u00e1c nhau c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc. L\u00fd thuy\u1ebft T\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n b\u1ed1 c\u00e1c ph\u1ea7n t\u1eed v\u00e0o c\u00e1c t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p. Th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00e1c ph\u1ea7n t\u1eed c\u1ee7a t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p l\u00e0 h\u1eefu h\u1ea1n v\u00e0 vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n b\u1ed1 ch\u00fang ph\u1ea3i tho\u1ea3 m\u00e3n nh\u1eefng\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n nh\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ecbnh n\u00e0o\u0111\u00f3 tu\u1ef3 theo y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a b\u00e0i to\u00e1n nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u. M\u1ed7i c\u00e1ch ph\u00e2n b\u1ed1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t

\u201cc\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p\u201d. Nguy\u00ean l\u00fd chung\u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean nh\u1eefng

nguy\u00ean l\u00fd c\u01a1 s\u1edf\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 nguy\u00ean l\u00fd c\u1ed9ng, nguy\u00ean l\u00fd nh\u00e2n v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 nguy\u00ean l\u00fd kh\u00e1c, nh\u01b0ng m\u1ed9t\u0111\u1eb7c th\u00f9 kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 t\u00e1ch r\u1eddi c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 vi\u1ec7c ch\u1ee9ng minh v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3m ch\u1ee9ng c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft b\u00e0i to\u00e1n kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 t\u00e1ch r\u1eddi m\u00e1y t\u00ednh.

Nh\u1eefng d\u1ea1ng b\u00e0i to\u00e1n quan tr\u1ecdng m\u00e0 l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p\u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n\u0111\u1ebfm, b\u00e0i to\u00e1n li\u1ec7t
k\u00ea, b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i v\u00e0 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed1i\u01b0u.
B\u00e0i to\u00e1n\u0111\u1ebfm: \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 d\u1ea1ng b\u00e0i to\u00e1n nh\u1eb1m tr\u1ea3l\u1eddi c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi \u201cc\u00f3 bao nhi\u00eau c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh tho\u1ea3m\u00e3 n
\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n \u0111\u00e3 n\u00eau?\u201d. B\u00e0i to\u00e1n \u0111\u1ebfm \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c mang t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t
\u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 nh\u01b0 x\u00e1c su\u1ea5tc\u1ee7am\u1ed9ts\u1ef1ki\u1ec7n, \u0111\u1ed9ph\u1ee9ct\u1ea1p thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n.
B\u00e0i to\u00e1n li\u1ec7t k\u00ea: b\u00e0i to\u00e1n li\u1ec7t k\u00ea quan t\u00e2m\u0111\u1ebfn t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c, v\u00ec v\u1eady l\u1eddi

gi\u1ea3i c\u1ee7a n\u00f3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n \u201cv\u00e9t c\u1ea1n\u201d t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh. B\u00e0i to\u00e1n li\u1ec7t k\u00ea th\u01b0\u1eddng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00e0m n\u1ec1n cho nhi\u1ec1u b\u00e0i to\u00e1n kh\u00e1c. Hi\u1ec7n nay, m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i, b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u1ed1i\u01b0u, b\u00e0i to\u00e1n\u0111\u1ebfm v\u1eabn ch\u01b0a c\u00f3 c\u00e1ch n\u00e0o gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft ngo\u00e0i ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p li\u1ec7t k\u00ea. Ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p li\u1ec7t k\u00ea c\u00e0ng tr\u1edf n\u00ean quan tr\u1ecdng h\u01a1n khi n\u00f3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 b\u1edfi c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh.


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