an intensity of 7.1, killed 67 people, and toppled buildings and bridges. In Jan., 1994, anearthquake measuring 6.6 with its epicenter in N Los Angeles caused major damage tothe city's infrastructure and left thousands homeless.
See C. H. Scholz,
The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting
(1991); C. Lomnitz,
Fundamentals of Earthquake Prediction
(1994); D. S. Brumbaugh,
Earthquakes: Scienceand Society
(1998); B. A. Bolt,
(4th ed. 1999). See also bibliography under seismology.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright © 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press
) within the Earth, and caused by themovement of rocks on a fault plane releasing stored strain energy. The point on thesurface of the Earth above the focus is the
. Major earthquakes are associatedwith the edges of plates that make up the Earth's crust, and along mid-oceanic ridgeswhere new crust is forming. The greatest concentration of earthquakes is in a belt aroundthe Pacific Ocean (the ‘ring of fire’), and along a zone from the Mediterranean E to theHimalayas and China. The magnitude of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale.Major earthquakes, such as in San Francisco in 1906 and Japan in 1923, can cause muchdamage to property and loss of life. Further dangers arise from associated effects,especially tsunamis.
All magnitudes on the Richter Scale
IcaPeru20078·0500+Solomon SeaSolomon Is20078·139+