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Calculus III Final Review Notes

# Calculus III Final Review Notes

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A cumulative review for a Calculus III (differential calculus/vector analysis)
A cumulative review for a Calculus III (differential calculus/vector analysis)

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07/21/2013

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Chapter 13: Vectors and the Geometry of space
§
13.1: 3-dimensional coordinate systems. Points in 3-D coordinate sys-tem
A point
is represented by a triple (
a,b,c
), or
(
a,b,c
).
a,b,c
are the
x
-,
y
-, and
z
-coordinates of the point
.In the 3-dimensional coordinate system, we have
octants
.The
ﬁrst octant
has all coordinates (+). The other octants aren’t numbered.
Axes and Planes
In 3-D coordinate system the axes are:
The
x
-axis
is set of all points (
a,
0
,
0) (only the
x
-coordinate can be non-zero).
The
y
-axis
is the set of all points (0
,b,
0).
The
z
-axis
is the set of all points (0
,
0
,c
).Several important planes are:
The
xy
-plane
is the set of all points (
a,b,
0) (all points with
z
-coordinate0).
The
xz
-plane
is the set of all points (
a,
0
,c
).
The
yz
-plane
is the set of all points (0
,b,c
).
Distance from planes
The magnitude of the
x
-coordinate of
(
a,b,c
) is the distance of the point
fromthe
yz
-plane.
|
b
|
is the distance of
from the
xz
-plane, and
|
c
|
is the distance of
from the
xy
-plane.
Projections onto planes
For
(
a,b,c
), the
projection of
onto the
xy
-plane
is the point
Q
on the
xy
-planeand
closest
to
. This point is
Q
(
a,b,
0).The projection of
onto the
xz
-plane is
R
(
a,
0
,c
) and is the closest point on thatplane to
. The projection of
onto the
yz
-plane is
(0
,b,c
) and is the closestpoint on that plane to
.
1

2
Example 1.
Let
be the point
(2
,
3
,
5). Draw
, and ﬁnd the projection of
onto each of the
xy
-,
xz
-, and
yz
-planes. What is the distance of
from each of these planes?
Cartesian product
The Cartesian product
R
3
=
R
×
R
×
R
=
{
(
x,y,z
)
|
x,y,z
R
}
is the set of all triples of real numbers. This corresponds to the set of points in3-dimensional space.The ﬁrst octant corresponds to the set of triples of
positive
reals.
Curves vs Surfaces
In 2-D, the set of all points (
a,b
) satisfying an equation in
x
and
y
is a
curve
.In 3-D, the set of all points (
a,b,c
) satisfying an equation in 3 variables
x
,
y
, and
z
is a
surface
.We will often need to indicate whether this should be done in 2 or 3 dimensions.
Example 2.
The equation
x
2
+
y
2
= 25 gives rise to both a curve and a surface.What are they?
Distance
For points
1
(
x
1
,y
1
,z
1
) and
2
(
x
2
,y
2
,z
2
) the distance between
1
and
2
is
|
1
2
|
=

(
x
2
x
1
)
2
+ (
y
2
y
1
)
2
+ (
z
2
z
1
)
2
.
Example 3.
Find the distance between
(0
,
7
,
5) and
Q
(
2
,
2
,
1).
Spheres
A
sphere
is the set of all points
(
x,y,z
) which are a ﬁxed distance
r
(
)from a ﬁxed point
(
h,k,l
) (
the center
).A sphere is an example of a surface, the equation of which is(
x
h
)
2
+ (
y
k
)
2
+ (
z
l
)
2
=
r
2
.
Example 4.
What surface has the equation
x
2
+
y
2
+
z
2
4
x
+ 6
z
= 12?
Example 5.
What is the equation for a sphere which has a diameter with endpoints(1
,
4
,
1) and (3
,
0
,
1)?
Example 6.
What region is represented by the inequalities 4
(
x
1)
2
+ (
y
2)
2
+
z
2
9 and
z
0?
§
13.2: Vectors. Vectors
A
vector
is a quantity that has magnitude (size) anddirection.

3
They are represented by arrows (directed line segments). The length of the arrowshould be proportional to the magnitude of the vector, and the arrow should pointin the direction of the vector.Vectors are written several diﬀerent ways:
v
or
v
.
Displacement vectors
Vectors talk about movement. If an object starts at point
A
(
initial point
) and ends at
B
(
terminal point
), the
displacement vector
v
is thevector
v
=
AB
.A vector doesn’t contain information about starting or end position, only direc-tion and magnitude. Two displacement vectors can have the same magnitude anddirection.
Equal vectors
If
v
=
AB
and
u
=
CD
have the same magnitude and direction, then they areequivalent/equal, written
u
=
v
.The
zero vector
, denoted by
0
, is the vector of magnitude 0. It does not need adirection.
Combine vectors the same way you combine displacements of an object/particle.To add
AB
and
BC
we think about the total displacement of a particle movingfrom
A
to
B
, and then to
; so the vector
AC
.
AC
is the
sum
of
AB
and
BC
, or
AC
=
AB
+
BC
.
u
and
v
, reposition
v
so that its tail (start) meets the tip (end) of the vector
u
.
u
+
v
is the vector from the initial point of
u
to the terminal point of
v
, once theyare lined up correctly.Vector addition is commutative:
u
+
v
=
v
+
uScalar multiplication
We can also multiply a vector by a real number
c
, or a
scalar
.(1) If
c >
0 and
v
=
0
then
c
v
is
c
times as long and has the same direction as
v
.(2) If
c <
0 and
v
=
0
then
c
v
is
|
c
|
v
with the direction ﬂipped.(3) If
c
= 0 or
v
=
0
, then
c
v
=
0
.