2
Example 1.
Let
P
be the point
P
(2
,
−
3
,
5). Draw
P
, and ﬁnd the projection of
P
onto each of the
xy
,
xz
, and
yz
planes. What is the distance of
P
from each of these planes?
Cartesian product
The Cartesian product
R
3
=
R
×
R
×
R
=
{
(
x,y,z
)

x,y,z
∈
R
}
is the set of all triples of real numbers. This corresponds to the set of points in3dimensional space.The ﬁrst octant corresponds to the set of triples of
positive
reals.
Curves vs Surfaces
In 2D, the set of all points (
a,b
) satisfying an equation in
x
and
y
is a
curve
.In 3D, the set of all points (
a,b,c
) satisfying an equation in 3 variables
x
,
y
, and
z
is a
surface
.We will often need to indicate whether this should be done in 2 or 3 dimensions.
Example 2.
The equation
x
2
+
y
2
= 25 gives rise to both a curve and a surface.What are they?
Distance
For points
P
1
(
x
1
,y
1
,z
1
) and
P
2
(
x
2
,y
2
,z
2
) the distance between
P
1
and
P
2
is

P
1
P
2

=
(
x
2
−
x
1
)
2
+ (
y
2
−
y
1
)
2
+ (
z
2
−
z
1
)
2
.
Example 3.
Find the distance between
P
(0
,
7
,
−
5) and
Q
(
−
2
,
−
2
,
1).
Spheres
A
sphere
is the set of all points
P
(
x,y,z
) which are a ﬁxed distance
r
(
the radius
)from a ﬁxed point
C
(
h,k,l
) (
the center
).A sphere is an example of a surface, the equation of which is(
x
−
h
)
2
+ (
y
−
k
)
2
+ (
z
−
l
)
2
=
r
2
.
Example 4.
What surface has the equation
x
2
+
y
2
+
z
2
−
4
x
+ 6
z
= 12?
Example 5.
What is the equation for a sphere which has a diameter with endpoints(1
,
4
,
1) and (3
,
0
,
−
1)?
Example 6.
What region is represented by the inequalities 4
≤
(
x
−
1)
2
+ (
y
−
2)
2
+
z
2
≤
9 and
z
≤
0?
§
13.2: Vectors. Vectors
A
vector
is a quantity that has magnitude (size) anddirection.