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GROUP MEMBER: MOHD SAIFUL ANUAR BIN YUSOFF UMMEE FATIHAH BT AZIH NASYRATUL FATHIAH BT MOHD FARID
JOHN B. WATSON
EDWARD L. THORNDIKE
Born, January 9, 1878 Died, 1958
Watson was inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov
Chronological of John B. Watson’s Experiment
Watson do research and experiment on child’s emotion A small child named “Albert’ was showed a white rat and Albert want to touch it. When Albert want to touch the rat again, then Watson made A loud sound behind Albert’s head by striking a hammer on a steel bar Albert feel shocked and started to cry After this situation was repeated to Albert, then he became fear on the rat, even just the appearance of the white Albert fear then extended to all objects in white colour
The examples of this theory on learning environment: Teachers’ who is bad tempered give negative effects on student’s emotion. During the first day in school (scared emotion)
Born, September 14, 1849 Died, February 27, 1936
Pioneer of the theory of “CLASSICAL CONDITIONING”
Pavlov “classical conditioning” experiment
Chronological of ‘Classical Conditioning’ experiment
The dog is given a food (unconditioned stimulus), then the dog elicits a salivation (unconditioned response) Pavlov ringing the bell (conditioned stimulus), no response by the dog Pavlov ringing the bell (conditioned stimulus) before he give the dog the food, unconditioned stimulus), then the dog elicits a salivation (unconditioned response) Pavlov ringing the bell (conditioned stimulus), Then the dog elicits a salivation (conditioned response)
Examples of this theory on learning environment: Teacher use a whistle to get student attention during P & P A bell ringing as a sign of recess time / end of school hour
Born 31 August 1874, died 1949
1905 - Formalized the Law of Effect.
1898 - Awarded his doctorate for his thesis, “ Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associate Processes I Animals”, concluded an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning
Work on the effect of rewards on behaviour. Developed Associationism – an explanation of learning as the formation of connections between stimuli and responses. Three primary laws:
Law of Effect Law of Readiness Law of Exercise
Cats and the Puzzle Box
To open the door, the cat had to perform an action. The door opened, the cat rewarded the food. The cat was put into the box again, and perform correct action.
and error learning – an explanation or learning that states when an individual is placed in problem-solving situation, the correct response will be learned through being reinforced. Law of Effect – responses that have a satisfying outcome, are likely to strengthen and be repeated. All learning involves the formation of connections, and connections were strengthened according to the law of effect. Intelligence is the ability to form connections. The connections between actions and new outcomes are strengthened the more often they are repeated. (Law of Exercise)
Teachers need to be aware of:
The effects of behaviour on learning, and the idea of learning as the establishment of connections between stimuli and responses The relationship between individuals’ behaviour in problem situations and subsequent learning, represented in the law of effect and law of exercise.
A teacher give question on problem-solving and ask the students to solve it. Once it done, the teacher should praise the student.
Dennis. (1986). Psychology and the teacher. (4th ed.). London : Cassell Educational Ltd. P. Driscol, Marcy. (1993). Psychology of learning for instuction. London : Allyn Bacon. Ormord, Jeanne Ellis. (2006). Educational psychology: Developing learners. (5th ed.). Ohio : Pearson Merill Prentice Hall Krause, Kerri-lee & Bochner, Sandra. (2003). Educational Psychology for teaching and learning. Australia : Thomson
http://medialab.umr.edu/rhall/educational_psychol ogy/2001/vl1b/behavior_new.html http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALi teracyProgram/BehavioristTheoriesOfLearning.ht m http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Tho rndike.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Thorndike http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/histor y/thorndike.htm http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/ethorndike.shtml