Local Currency Systems in the United States, 1991-Present Loren Gatch (lgatch@uco.

edu)

The following annotated list of American local currencies has been compiled from a variety of sources, but its point of departure was Ed Collum‟s 2005 article on local currencies (for his list, see : http://www.usm.maine.edu/~collom/cc.html). Most internet searches for these various systems produced recycled lists of currency experiments, often based on the same Wikipedia entry on local currencies. Some links provided in Collum‟s work have since become stale, or changed their content (for example, Olybarter Network is now a porn site!). Careful searching reveals that there is surprisingly little information available on specific local currency experiences, particularly the defunct ones. Suffice it to say, this project took longer than I expected it to.

This list revises Collum‟s effort, and provides links where available to information about that local currency. Sources include newspaper accounts, past issues of Local Currency News, various online books and reports, and older versions of websites accessible through Internet Archive.

I made two editorial decisions that have changed the composition of this list compared to others. First, I dropped the Chamber of Commercesponsored plans (like Crested Butte, Colorado), which were essentially coupons or gift certificates not designed for general circulation. This includes any participants in defunct programs run by Certificheck, which declared bankruptcy last year. Second, I have dropped Liberty Dollars from this list. After studying its operation, I concluded that it is simply a scheme for selling bullion coins and has no genuine local content in its design. Finally, I dropped entries that did not use actual currency (i.e. that were LETS or Time Dollars), except for a few exceptions (such as Seattle‟s “Time Bucks”) which appear on so many local currency lists that clarifying their character might be useful.

I considered a currency active if its website is functional and up-to-date. Of course, currencies can still circulate without websites, but in the absence of any other information this was the obvious criterion. In one case, “Dillo Hours” (Austin, Texas), I labeled it active without a website on the basis of a report made to me by someone who had recently visited that town.

This list remains incomplete in many places. Even as I added listings for older currencies that received only incidental mention in the sources, I also tried to include references to schemes that are currently being conceived (like Detroit “Cheers”). I may have missed some of these newest ones. Anyone perusing this list who may be able to „fill in the blanks‟ or otherwise provide an information source, please contact me. Likewise, if you have currency images you wish to share, I would much appreciate it. Thanks!

State/Province and City United States Arkansas Fayetteville Arizona Flagstaff

Currency Name

Denominations

Date Begun

Status

Remarks

Ozark Hour

Forming

http://www.ozarkia.net/money/index.html

Flagstaff Neighborly Notes

1/10, ½, one hour

2000

Inactive

Sponsored by the Flagstaff Tea Party community newspaper (closed 2002) http://www.flagteaparty.org/Subjects/FNN/FNN_Home.html http://www.flagteaparty.org/Publications/Dec2000/Pages/New Money/newmoney.html

See also this old link from an earlier version of the Ithaca Hours webpage: http://www.lightlink.com/hours/ithacahours/otherhours.html Prescott High Desert Dollars 1, 5, 10, 20 dollars Inactive Issued by Central Arizona Mutual Credit Association. Exchangeable with Flagstaff Neighborly Notes http://www.flagteaparty.org/Subjects/FNN/Moneywithcarebuil tin.html See also this newspaper article from 2000: http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=894&dat=20000407 &id=B7AKAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Mk0DAAAAIBAJ&pg=7040,6 61294 Apparently they worked like the first version of Berkshares. People had to deposit gift certificates redeemable in their product as collateral for the notes they received.

Tucson

Tucson Traders

Tucson Token (=$1 US)

1997 1999 (paper currency)

Inactive

Thomas Greco was involved with this. See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm Website existed through 2003. See: http://web.archive.org/web/20031119051922/http://tucsontrade rs.org/ No currency samples available

Tucson

Tucson Local Currency

Forming

See: http://www.actonwisdom.com/tlc/ This site is otherwise not much concerned with local currencies. No details provided.

California Arcata/Eureka Humboldt Exchange Community Currency 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 dollars 2003 Active A project of Democracy Unlimited of Humboldt County (DUHC) http://www.humboldtexchange.org/ There seems to be no relationship between this currency and the other earlier Eureka currencies (see below).

Berkeley

Berkeley BREAD

¼, ½, and one Hour (=$US 12)

1997

Inactive

Berkeley Region Exchange and Development. Approx. $30,000 issued. For an early descriptive article, see: http://www.ainfos.ca/A-Infos97/3/0350.html See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm See also: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0004.html And this archived link: http://web.archive.org/web/20000823170522/www.localcurren cy.org/frameset_local_currencies.html Two articles by Miyoko Sakashita, former Director of BREAD: http://www.sustainable-city.org/articles/roots.htm http://www.sustainable-city.org/articles/currency.htm

Bolinas

Sand Dollars

Inactive

A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/currency.htm Like Durango (CO) Community Cash, this began as a ledgerbased (LETS) program, but then assumed a paper form. Jill Whitcroft, the founder, died in 2004. http://www.ptreyeslight.com/stories/apr08_04/whitcroft_obit.h tml

Eureka

Humboldt Hours

1999

Inactive

Begun by Humboldt County Greens. George Kirkpatrick was the contact person. See this 1998 list of local currencies: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olyw a.net/vision/links.html Begun by Humboldt Local Community Project. Were these ever issued? http://www.arcataeye.com/old/top/000418top02.shtml

Eureka

Humboldt Clams

2000

Inactive

Garberville

Sequoia Hours

Inactive

A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/currency.htm See also: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olyw a.net/vision/links.html

Fort Bragg

Mendocino SEED

Inactive

SEED=Self-sufficient Ecological Economic Development. For an ambitious survey of SEED users, see: http://www.andrewlowd.com/thesis/Chapter7.htm#1

Mendocino Nevada City

Mendo Moola TradeMarket ½, 1, 5, 20 Trades 2007 (date of first newsletter) 1999

Forming Active

http://mendomoola.wordpress.com/ http://www.ncgvtrademarket.org/

North Fork

North Fork “Forks”

Inactive

Brief mention is made of this previous currency experiment in the current North Fork website (see next listing below). There was also an earlier local currency listed in Colorado called “North Forks Helping Hands” (see below).

North Fork

North Fork Shares

1 Share =$US 12 (other denominati ons?)

Summer 2009

Forming

Interestingly, this is an Ithaca Hours-style currency (all the other recent ones follow the Berkshares model). The group‟s website is quite professional and well-documented: http://www.nfshares.com/ This is being promoted by Wilson Riles: http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2009/05/06/18593121.php Founder or organizer seems to have been Carol Brouillet: http://www.communitycurrency.org/

Oakland Palo Alto

Acorns Area Bucks

Forming Inactive

San Luis Obispo

San Luis Obispo Hours

Inactive

A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm

Santa Barbara

Santa Barbara Hours

1997

Inactive

Sponsored by the Fund for Santa Barbara. Operated for two years in the late 1990s. For early details see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0005.html One of its founders was Mark Phillips: http://lightpages.net/lp/message.cfm?messageid=259518&logi n=462819 Website existed through August 2000: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.silcom.com/~sustain/ SBHours

Santa Monica Santa Rosa

Santa Monica Hours Sonoma County Community Cash ¼, one hour (=$US 10) 1998

Inactive Inactive (2000)

A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm See archived website: http://web.archive.org/web/20030719225411/www.sonomatim e.org/ Co-founder has website. http://mikesandler.org/ecolecon.htm#currency

Ukiah

Ukiah Hours

1/10, ½, 1, 2 hours

2000

Inactive (never opened)

http://www.greenmac.com/hours/index.html Last updated 2004, this website notes that the scheme never got off the ground. A variety of articles on the proposed currency can be found on this site. Currency images are also available.

See also the last paragraphs of Lowd‟s thesis, chapter 7: http://www.andrewlowd.com/thesis/Chapter7.htm#1 Colorado

Boulder

Boulder Hours

½, one, and two hours (=$US 10)

1993

Inactive

Jhym Phoenix gave a presentation on Boulder Hours at the 1997 T.O.E.S. conference: http://www.ese.upenn.edu/~rabii/toes/Toes97Prog1.html#Wor kshop%20on%20Community%20Currencies Phoenix is describe elsewhere as having organized “four” local currencies. There is a brief description of Boulder Hours in Greco‟s New Money book, ch. 10, along with images of the currency: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/cc/NMfHC/chp10.html#fi g10.6

Boulder

Forming

The Boulder city government has discussed support for a “complementary” currency. This report alludes to two different efforts underway as of late 2007: http://www.bouldercolorado.gov/files/City%20Council/WIPS/ 2007/10-25-07/2a.pdf Carbondale Spuds are referred to in Turmel‟s transcript of the 1997 TOES conference. Krista Paradise organized the currency. See: http://turmelpress.com/t97works.htm This started as a Time-Dollar program but switched to scrip. For early details see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0004.html Sponsored by the Women‟s Resource Center. References to “Community Cash” are archived between 1998 and 2000: http://web.archive.org/web/20000621003800/www.wrcdurang o.org/communitycash.html

Carbondale

Carbondale Spuds

Inactive

Durango

Community Cash

1997

Inactive (2000)

Fort Collins Paonia

NOCO Hours North Fork Helping Hands

½ hour

2002 1999

Active Inactive

http://www.nocohours.org/ A listing can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olyw a.net/vision/links.html Contact person was Randy Kokernot.

Connecticut

Willimantic

Thread City Bread

¼ , one hour = $US 10

1999

Inactive

Contact person was Donna Nicolino For early details see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0005.html Two New York Times articles describe this currency: http://www.nytimes.com/1998/07/26/nyregion/cash-it-is-witha-local-cachet.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all http://www.nytimes.com/1998/05/28/nyregion/giving-moneylocal-color-small-connecticut-town-issues-its-own-currencyurge.html?pagewanted=2 Approx. 320 hours issued by Thread City Bread Committee.

Florida Gainesville Gainesville Hours ¼, one hour =$US 10 1997 (¼ hour issued in 1998) Inactive (2003) These were issued by the Gainesville Barter Network. Contact person was Shanti Vani. This article describes the founding of Gainesville Hours: http://www.afn.org/~iguana/archives/1997_07/19970705.html Website pages are archived at: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.palmstone.com/barter For early details, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0005.html No currency images available Georgia Atlanta Atlanta Hours Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/currency.htm And at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olyw a.net/vision/links.html Associated with the Georgia Green Party. Hugh Esco was contact person. No sign that this program was ever launched. Hawai‟i

Kilauea

Kauai Barter and Trade Network

Coconuts

1995

Active?

Kauai Alternative Resource Management Agency (KARMA) began issuing “coconuts”. http://web.archive.org/web/20020116173848/http://www.realk auai.net/Barter/Coconut.php In 2005, a LETS was adopted, whose unit of account is the KISS (from Kau‟i Island Self-Sufficiency) LETS http://kauaian.net/VTP/essays/smartcn.html

Idaho Boise Boise Hours Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/currency.htm And at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olyw a.net/vision/links.html Neysa Jensen was contact person. Indiana Bloomington BloomingHOURS ¼, ½, and one Hour (=$US 10) 1999 Inactive See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm BloomingHOURS was sponsored by the Bloomingfoods Coop and operated out of the Sustainable Living Office at the Bloomington Environmental Center. http://www.bloomington.in.us/~blmghour/index.html. Website has not been updated since 1999. Indianapolis Kansas Barter Bucks 1994 Inactive Sponsored by Positive Change Network, Inc. For early details, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html

Lawrence

REAL Dollars

1, 3, 10 dollars

2000

Inactive

Contact person was Boog Highberger REAL=Realizing the Economic Alternatives in Lawrence Website is archived at: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://lto.lawrence.ks.us/ Most activity seems to have taken place between 2000 and 2001. This currency was issued against an equivalent fund of $US. See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm For an approving discussion of REAL Dollars, see Lowd‟s thesis, chapter 5: http://www.andrewlowd.com/thesis/Chapter5.htm

Kentucky Berea Berea Bucks 2, 10 dollars 1997 Inactive Founded by the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED). Approx. $6,000 were issued. See also this old link from an earlier version of the Ithaca Hours webpage: http://www.lightlink.com/hours/ithacahours/otherhours.html Louisiana New Orleans Mo‟ Money One “Mo” (=$US 5) 1996 Inactive This operated in a New Orleans housing project, and involved the Tulane/Xavier Campus Affiliates Program. For an early description, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0004.html The online community where this website was located, AOL‟s Hometown, has been shut down. However, archived pages with currency images can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20001002034218/members.aol.com/ ALinNOLA/MoMoney.html Maine

Unity Maryland Baltimore

Waldo Hours

1996

For an early description, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html

Baltimore Hours

1/10, ¼, ½, one hour (=$US 10)

2001

Inactive (2003)

Founded by Brad Johnson and funded by the Baltimore Community Foundation. http://baltimore.indymedia.org/newswire/display/1258/index.ph p http://www.theglobalreport.org/issues/284/culture.html Website archive contains very little: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.geocities.com/baltimor ehours/ See also this old link from an earlier version of the Ithaca Hours webpage: http://www.lightlink.com/hours/ithacahours/otherhours.html

Mount Rainier Takoma Park

Anacostia Hours P.E.N. Neighborhood Exchange

1 hour (=$10 US)

2006

Active

http://www.anacostiahours.org/ No information found.

Massachusetts Amesbury Amesburg [sic?] Hours Inactive For a brief listing see: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Carl Todd Gloucester Cape Ann Dollars Inactive A project of Wellspring House, Inc., sponsored by Cape Ann Sustainable Communities Project. See: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/cc/cc@Xroads.html Otherwise no information available

Great Barrington

Berkshares

1, 5, 10, 20, 50 Berkshares 1, 5, 10, 20 dollars

1993 2006 1991

Active

Earlier issue from 1993 consisted of a single denomination (one Berkshare) See: http://www.berkshares.org/

Greenfield

Valley Dollars

Inactive

For early information, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html Website is archived until 2003: http://web.archive.org/web/20030619231244/http://www.valley dollars.org/ See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm Valley Trade Connection. Issued approx. $V 59,000

Michigan Detroit Detroit Detroit Cheers Great Lakes Hours 2009 1995 Forming Inactive Modeled on Berkshares. See: http://www.modeldmedia.com/features/detroitcheers18809.aspx For early information, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html A 1995 article by Michelle Brown in the journal Synapse describes Great Lakes Hours: http://www.nrec.org/center_old/synapse31/glh.html The plan also involved Eden Winter and Grace Lee Boggs. Boggs is a distinguished activist who also attended the 1997 TOES meeting. She is still around: http://boggsblog.org/ South Bend Michiana Money Forming See their website: http://www.michianacurrency.org/ Program to begin in late 2009. Traverse City Ypsilanti Bay Area Bucks Tower Hour 1, 5, 10, 20 Baybucks 2005 Active Forming http://www.baybucks.org/ http://www.sustainableypsi.org/?m=200707

Missouri Columbia Columbia Hours Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm And at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Devin Scherubel. See the discussion of Columbia Hours in Lowd‟s thesis, chapter 5: http://www.andrewlowd.com/thesis/Chapter5.htm Apparently it never started. Kansas City Kansas City Barter Bucks 1993 Inactive For early information, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html Another brief listing can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Jean Rogers. Begun by Kansas City Greens. Montana Missoula New Hampshire Chesterfield New Mexico Santa Fe Santa Fe Hours 1994 Inactive Contact person was Christina Reece. For early information, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html Begun by Santa Fe Greens New York Brattleboro Hours Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm Missoula Hours Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm

Albany

Capitol Area SelfSustaining Hours

Inactive

Contact person was Jonathan Finn. A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm

Brooklyn

Brooklyn Greenbacks

1/8, ¼, ½, one Greenback (=$12 US)

1997

Inactive (2001)

Started by the Brooklyn Green Party, Brooklyn Society for Ethical Culture, and the Central Brooklyn Federal Credit Union. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/28/nyregion/neighborhoodreport-brooklyn-up-close-make-money-to-make-money.html There is little internet archive on this group: http://web.archive.org/web/19981203062558/http://www.panix. com/~levner/nygreens/tohtml.cgi?locals/brooklyn/greenbacks.ht m

Brooklyn

Forming (2009)

Brooklyn Torch Project http://brooklyntorch.org/ A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm http://www.ithacahours.org/

Buffalo Cobleskill

Buffalo Hours Common Cents Community Currency Ithaca Hours 1/10, ½ one hour 1/8, ¼, ½, one hour (=$10 US) 2004

Inactive Inactive

Ithaca

1991

Active

Kerhonkson New Berlin

Stoneridge Hours Chenango Hours 1996

Inactive Inactive

Contact person was Christina Campion. A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm For an early description, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html May have been connected with the Chenango County Greens.

Oneonta

Oneonta Hours

¼, ½ hour, one hour (=$10 US)

2001

Inactive

A brief mention can be found at: http://www.ithacahours.com/otherhours.html This was founded by Annie Avery: http://www.nyc.indymedia.org/front.php3?article_id=27208 See also: http://old.thedailystar.com/news/stories/2002/05/29/ours.html

Philmont

Columbia County Hours

1995

Inactive

Contact person was Virginia Osborn For an early description, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html

North Carolina Asheville Earthaven Leaps Active? Sponsored by Earthaven Ecovillage. There is a brief reference to “Leaps” on its website: http://www.earthaven.org/index.php Otherwise no details are available about this currency. Carrboro Carrboro Cash Inactive This has been mentioned as a failed predecessor to the PLENTY. See Board of Alderman minutes from 2000: http://www.townofcarrboro.org/boa/Minutes/2000/02_15_2000. pdf No information found For an early description, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html See also: http://www.main.nc.us/BarterNetwork/

Durham Mars Hill

Bull City Bucks Mountain Money 1995

Inactive Inactive

Pittsboro

PLENTY (Piedmont Local EcoNomy Tender).

1, 5, 10, 20, 50 PLENTYS (earlier: 1/4, ½, one PLENTY=$ 10 US)

This was issued at at two different times:2002 for the “Hour” version, 2009 for the “Berkshare” version

Active

http://theplenty.org/ www.ncplenty.org

One old PLENTY is being exchanged for 10 new PLENTYS

http://www.nowpublic.com/world/north-carolina-town-printsown-currency-support-local-business There is an extensive business plan for PLENTYS at http://www.ncplenty.org/businessplan.pdf In addition to much media attention, this scrip was the subject of an article in the IJCCR.

Lyle Estille is the “Paul Glover” of this scheme.

Ohio Akron Summit Hours 1994 Inactive (2003)? Started by the American Friends Service Committee (Quakers). Greg Coleridge was contact person. For an early description, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html A small description of Summit Hours can be found archived at: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.afsc.org/glrhome/sum mit.htm Webpage was posted in 1996 taken down in 2003. Apple Creek Cleveland Wooster Hours Cuyahoga Hours 1995 Inactive Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm Issued by the NE Ohio Greens. David Ellison was contact person. For early information, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html

Columbus

Simply Hours

1996

Inactive

Contact person was Marilyn Welker. For early details, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html A link to “Simply Hours” and the outline of an Hour plan can be found on the archived website of Simply Living from 1999 to 2000: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.simplyliving.org No currency image found and any reference to Hours disappeared on later versions of Simply Living.

Kent

Portage Hours

1994

Inactive

Administered by Portage Association for Community Economics (PACE). Contact person was Jefferson Beck. For early details, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0004.html

Oklahoma Tulsa Tulsa Hours Inactive A brief listing can be found at: http://www.progress.org/archive/currency.htm Apparently this was never started. No mention of this was ever made in the Tulsa World. Oregon Corvallis Corvallis Hours 1/8, ¼, ½, one hour (=$10 US) 2002, 2004 Active http://www.hourexchange.org/

Eugene

Emerald Ecos Community Currency

¼, 1/3, ½, one Eco (=$12 US)

2003

Inactive

Website is archived for 2003-2004 at: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.emeraldecos.org See also this short announcement from 2003: http://friends.designcommunity.com/notes/404.html

Hood River/GLCC

RiverHOURS

1/10, ½, one hour (=$10 US)

2004

Active

Gorge Local Currency Cooperative is a project of the Columbia Gorge Earth Center http://www.riverhours.org/ See also this extensive and recent interview: http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/interview-gorge-localcurrency-cooperative-riverhours See also: http://www.cascadiacommons.org/index.php/thecascadian/49-currency-2

Portland

PDX Hours

No physical currency

Active

http://www.pdxhours.org/emails/070410.html As of 2008, it seems to have been decided not to issue a paper currency but to use debit card technology: http://www.cascadiacommons.org/index.php/the-cascadian/49currency-2. See also: http://www.pdxcurrency.com/taxonomy/term/27/0

Portland

Cascadia Hours

¼, ½, one, two, four Hours

1994

Active

http://www.cascadiahourexchange.com/

Pennsylvania Bethlehem Lehigh Valley Barter Hours 1994 Inactive (1997) Started by the Lehigh Valley Greens. For early details see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0004.html Another brief listing can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Guy Gray. For a discussion of its demise, see: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/cc/localmoney.html Philadelphia Equal Dollars 1, 5, 10, 20 Equal Dollars 1996 Active Sponsored by Resources for Human Development, Inc. http://www.equaldollars.org/ See also: http://beta.catcomm.org/en/solutions/15

Texas Austin Dillo Hours ¼, ½, one Dillo Hour (=$US 10) 1994 Active Issued by Armadillo Trading Club. See 1996 reference: http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_02866379425_ITM For early details, see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0004.html Lyndon Felps, a founder of Dillo Hours, moved to Earthaven Ecovillage in 2006 (see North Carolina, above). http://www.mynewsletterbuilder.com/tools/view_newsletter.php ?newsletter_id=1409601564 Houston Taft Vermont Brattleboro Bristol Burlington Blue Money Bristol Bucks Burlington Bread/ Currency Project 1, 5, 10, 20 “Slices” 1998 (w/ second issue in 2004) Inactive Inactive Inactive No information found No information found Startup funding from Ben & Jerry‟s, Green Mountain Fund, and Burlington‟s Community and Economic Development Office. Project Revived in 2004. Approx. $15,000 issued Last website is archived at: http://web.archive.org/web/20071217010623/http://burlingtoncu rrency.org/ See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm Hardwick Buffalo Mountain Dollars ¼, ½, one hour (=$10 US) 1996 Inactive Contact persons were David Briars and Barbara Conn. Approx. 525 Hours issued. See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm Houston Hours Greyhound Bucks Inactive Inactive No information found No information found

Montpelier

Green Mountain Hours

1/10, ¼, ½, one hour (=$10 US)

1996

Inactive

Website is archived through late 2007: http://web.archive.org/web/20070928191846/http://www.green mountainhours.org/ See also this old link from an earlier version of the Ithaca Hours webpage: http://www.lightlink.com/hours/ithacahours/otherhours.html

Virginia Charlottesville Charlottesville Barter Network Is this a paper currency? Active? Website was taken down in 2008. Archived website for tradelocal.org contained the Charlottesville Barter Network (renamed Rivanna Barter Network) See: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.tradelocal.org Floyd Floyd Hours (Floydian Scrip) ¼, one hour 2001 Inactive See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm Another brief listing can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Washington Bainbridge Island Bainbridge Island Bucks 1997 Inactive For early details see: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1997/0005.html Was this currency ever issued?

Bellingham

Life Hours

Is there a paper currency?

2004

Active

Fourth Corner Exchange Is this a LETS? http://www.fourthcornerexchange.com/index.php There is a YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2qO2uPX12Q&feature=rel ated This is a ledger-based system but users begin with a positive balance represented by their membership fees. Accounts are also checkable.

Bremerton

Kitsap Hours

Inactive

A brief listing can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Paulette Hoffman.

Kettle Falls

Kettle River Hours

Inactive

A brief listing can be found at: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Tara Kerr.

Bellingham

Kulshan Cash

1999

Inactive

http://www.whatcomwatch.org/old_issues/v8i1.html#story7 Was this ever implemented?

Lopez Island

Lopez Island Hours

1995

Inactive

Issued by Lopez Island Commonwealth. See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm No information found

Mount Vernon

Skagit Dollars

Inactive

Olympia

Sound Hours

1/10, 1/5, one hour (=$10 US)

1996

Inactive

Founded by the Sustainable Community Roundtable and administered by Sound Exchange. The Sound Hours website is archived through 2005: http://web.archive.org/web/20001030173539/www.olywa.net/ro undtable/index.html Currency images are available there.

See description at the EF Schumacher site: http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/retired_inplanning.htm Sound Hours are now exchangeable with Fourth Corner Exchange “Life Hours” http://www.fourthcornerexchange.com/news.php

Olympia Seattle Wisconsin Madison

Olybarter Network Time Bucks

Inactive

No information found This is a LETS.

Madison Hours

¼, ½, one hour (=$10 US)

1996

Active

http://www.madisonhours.org/

Milwaukee

Milwaukee Hours

Inactive

For a brief listing, see: http://web.archive.org/web/20000930120639/http://www.olywa. net/vision/links.html Contact person was Ruth Cody.

Milwaukee

Forming

As of late 2008, two Milwaukee neighborhoods were discussing a Berkshares-type currency: http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chitalk_moneydec03,0,2902061.story

Canada

Alberta

Calgary

Bow Chinook Hours

1996

Inactive

http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/local_currencies/currency_grou ps.html This Hours program was re-introduced as “Calgary Dollars” in 2002. http://www.ffwdweekly.com/Issues/2002/0307/act5.htm Bow Chinook Hours were still to circulate alongside Calgary Dollars, although it is unclear if Hours were exchangeable for Dollars at any fixed rate.

Calgary

Calgary Dollars

$1, 5, 10

2002

Active

http://calgarydollars.ca/

British Columbia Nelson Kootenay Hours 1994 Inactive These were issued by the Nelson Ecocentre. See http://web.archive.org/web/20031015230158/ecocentre.kics.bc.c a/ And http://web.archive.org/web/20010503060836/www.kics.bc.ca/ec ocentre/index.html And http://resdir.kics.bc.ca/details.php?id_org=113

Prince George

Prince George Hours

1997

Inactive

http://www.progress.org/currency.htm And http://web.archive.org/web/20071019075541/http://www.cyberc lass.net/towns.htm

Salmon Arm

shuSwap Hours

1 Hour = $10C

1994

Inactive

See http://web.archive.org/web/20071019075541/http://www.cyberc lass.net/towns.htm And http://eclipse.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0005.html And http://www.sfu.ca/cscd/gateway/sharing/pdfiles/chapter8.pdf And http://www.sfu.ca/cscd/gateway/sharing/chap8.htm

Salt Springs Island Nova Scotia Halifax

Salt Spring Dollars

$1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100

2001

Active

http://www.saltspringdollars.com/

Maritime Hours

1994

Inactive

See http://web.archive.org/web/20071019075541/http://www.cyberc lass.net/towns.htm And http://eclipse.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0005.html

Parrsboro

Coastal Gems

1997

Inactive

See http://www.progress.org/currency.htm And http://eclipse.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jul1997/0005.html

Ontario Kingston Kingston Hours 1996 Inactive http://www.progress.org/currency.htm This was established by the Ontario Public Interest Research Group (OPIRG). http://web.archive.org/web/19970125222114/http://www.ams.qu eensu.ca/OPIRG/money.htm

London

Barter Bucks

One Buck = $1C

1998

Inactive?

See http://web.archive.org/web/20071019075541/http://www.cyberc lass.net/towns.htm

Madawaska Valley Tamworth

Unity Dollars

$1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50 1/12, 1/6, ¼, ½, one, two hours $1, 5, 10, 20, 50

2006

Active

http://www.numismondo.com/pm/can/local/unity/index.htm

Tamworth Hours

2004

Active

http://www.cyberclass.net/ This link takes you to the “UsuryFree” Network.

Toronto

Toronto Dollars

1998

Active

http://www.torontodollar.com/