You are on page 1of 568

Construction and Design

of Prestressed Concrete Segmental Bridges


Walter Podolny, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.
Bridgc Division
()Hicc or Ellgineering
h'dcr;ti II iglll\'dY :\dmillisl ratioll
L' .S. Depart illenl 01 Tr;lIls[Jortalioll
Jean M. Muller
(:llaillll;11I (lilhe Board
Figg alld ),[uJkr Ellgincers, [Ill.
BR1T"
LEM".
-9 AUG 1982
82/19656
A Wiley-Intersdence Publication
John Wiley & Sons
New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore
Copyright 1982 by john Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved. Published simuhaneollsly in Canada.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond
that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United
States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright
owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further
information should be addressed to the Permissions
Department. john Wilt)' & Sons, Inc
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:
Podoln)', Walter.
Construction and design of prestressed concrete
segmental bridges.
(Wiley series of practical construction guides
ISSN 0271-6011)
"A Wiley-Interscience publication."
Includes index.
I. Bridges, Concrete-Design and construction.
2. Prestressed concrete construction. I. Muller, jean M.
II. Title. III. Series.
TG355.P63 624.2 81-13025
ISBN 0471-05658-8 AACR2
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
-- .. -...---
d
e
. -------- .-------
Series Preface
The Wiley Series of Practical Construction Guides
provides the working constructor with up-to-date
information that can help to increase the job profit
margin. These guidebooks. which are scaled
mainly for practice, but include the necessary
theory and design. should aid a construction con
tractor in approaching I\ork problems I\'it h more
knowledgeable confidence, The guides should be
useful also to engineers. architects. planners.
specification writers. project managers, superin
tendents, materials and equipment manufacturers
and, the source of all these callings, instructors and
their students.
Construction in the United States alone will
reach $250 billion a year in the early I980s. In all
nations, the business of building will continue to
grow at a phenomenal rate, because the population
proliferation demands !1('I\ living. I\'orking. and
recreational facilities. This construction will have
to be more substantial. thus demanding a more
professional performance from the contractor. Be
fore science and technology had seriously affected
the ideas, job plans, financing, and erection of
structures, most contractors developed their
know-how by field trial-and-error. Wheels, small
and large, were constantly being reinvented in all
St'C(ors. bccause there ,\as no interchange of
knmdedge. The current complexity of cOlIStru{'
tion. even in more rural areas, has revealed a dear
need for more proficient. professional methods
and tools in both practice and learning,
Because construction is highly competitive. sOllle
practical technologv is necessarily proprietary. BUI
most practical day-to-day problems are common to
the whole construction industry. These are the
subjects for the Wiley Practical Construction
Guides.
M. D. MORRIS. P.E.
v
Preface
Prestressed concrete segmental bridge construc
tion has evolved, in the natural course of events,
from the combining of the concepts of prestress
ing, box girder design, and the cantilever method
of bridge construction. It arose from a need to
Qvercoml: construnion difficulties in spalIning
deep valleys and river crossmgs without the use of
conventional falsework, which in some instances
may be impractical, economically prohibitive, or
detrimental to environment and ecology.
Contemporary prestressed, box girder, seg
mental bridges began in Western Europe in the
1950s. Ulrich Finsterwalder in 1950, for a cross
ing of the Lahn River in Balduinstein, Germany,
was the first to apply cast-in-place segmental con
struction to a bridge. In 1962 in France the first
application of precast. segmental, box girder COll
struction was made by Jean Muller to the Choisy
Le-Roi Bridge crossing the Seine River. Since then
the concept of segmental bridge construction has
been improved and rdined and has spread from
Europe throughout most of the world.
The first application of segmental bridge con
struction in North America was a cast-in-place
segmental bridge on the Laurentian Autoroute
near Ste..\dele. Qllebec. in 1964. This was fol
lowed in 1967 by a precast segmental bridge cross
ing the Lievre River near ~ o t r e Dame du Laus,
Quebec. In 1973 the first U.S. precast segmental
bridge was opelied to traffic in Corpus Christi.
Texas, followed a year later by the cast-in-place
segmental Pine Valley Bridge near San Diego,
California. As of this date (1981) in the United
States more than eighty segmental bridges are
completed, in construction, in design, or under
consideration.
Prestressed concrete segmental bridges may be
identified as precast or cast in place and cat
egorized by method of construction as balanced
cantilever, span-by-span, progressive placement,
or incremental launching. This type of bridge has
extended the practical and competitive economic
span range of concrete bridges. It is adaptable to
almost any conceivable site condition.
The objective of this book is to summarize in one
volume the current state of the art of design and
constrllction methods for all I ypc,; of segmelHal
bridges as a ready reference source for ellgillcer
ing faculties, practicing engineers, contractors, and
local, state, and federal bridge engineers.
Chapter I is a quick review of the historical evo
lution to the current state of the art. It bITers the
student an appreciation of the way in which seg
mental construction of bridges developed, thc
factors that influenced its development, and the
various techniques used in constructing segmental
bridges.
Chapters 2 and 3 present case ,tudies of the pre
dominant methodology oi constructing segmental
bridges by balanced cantilever in both cast-in-place
and precast concrete. Conception and design of
the superstructure and piers, respectively, are dis
cussed in Chapters 4 and 5. The other three ba
sic methods of constructing segmental bridges
progressive placement, span-by-span, and incre
mental launching-are presented in Chapters 6
and i.
Chapters 2 through i deal essentially with girder
type bridges. However, segmental construction
may also be applied to bridges of other types.
Chaprer 8 discusses application of thc segmcntal
concept to arch, rigid frame, and truss bridges.
Chapter 9 deals with the cable-stayed type of
bridge and Chapter 10 with railroad bridges. The
practical aspects of fabrication, handling, and
erection of segments are discussed in Chapter II.
In selected a bridge type for a particular site, one
of the more important parameters is economics.
Economics, competitive bidding, and contractual
aspects of segmental construction are discussed in
Chapter 12.
Most of the material presented in this book is not
-
vii
viii Preface
original. Although acknowledgment of all the
many sources is not possible, full credit is given
wherever the specific source can be identified.
Every effort has been made to eliminate errors;
the authors will appreciate notification from the
reader of any that remain.
The authors are indebted to numerous publica
tions, organizations, and individuals for their
assistance and permission to reproduce photo
graphs, tables. and other data. Wherever possible.
credit is given in the text.
WALTER PODOLNY, JR.
JEAN M. MULLER
Burkt, 1
Pans, France
january 1982
.."iiliiI........... ________-----
Contents
1 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and 2.8 Gennevilliers Bridge, France, 52
Segmental Construction 1 2.9 Grand';"'fere Bridge, Canada, 55
2.10 Arnhem Bridge, Holland, 58
1.1 Introduction, 1
2.11 :-';apa River Bridge, C.S.A., 59
1.2 Development of Cantilever
2.12 Koror-Babelthuap, C.S. Pacific
Construction, 2
Trust Territon', 61
1.3 Evolution ()f Prestressed
13 Vejle \'jord Bridge,
Concrete, 4
Denmark, 63
1,4 Evolution of Prestressed Concrete
2.14 Houston Ship Channel Bridge,
Bridges, 5
C.s.A.,68
1.5 Long-Span Bridges with
2.15 Other Structures, 71
Conventional Precast
2.lG Conclusion, 81
Girders. R
References, 81
1.6 Segmental Construction, 10
1.7 Various Types of Structures, 12
3 Precast BaLanced Cantilever Girder
1.8 Cast-in-Place and Precast
Bridges 82
Seg-mental Construction, 17
1.9 Various \Ici hods of :U I III roclllU iOIl , 82
Construction, 18 3,2 Choisy Le Roi Bridge and Other
1.10 Applications of Segmental Structures in Greater Paris,
Construction in the Cnited France, 83
States, 26 :5.3 Pierre Benite Bridges near Lyons,
1.11 Applicability and Advantages of France, 89
Segmental Construction, 28 3.-1: Other Precast Segmental Bridges
References, 30 in Paris, 91
Oleron Viaduct, France, 96
J.b Chillon Viaduct, Switzerland, 99
2 Cast-In-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder
Hartel Bridge, Holland, 103
Bridges 31
:L8 Bridge, Brazil, 106
2.1 Introduction, 1
:t9 Bear River Bridge, Canada, 108
2,2 Bendorf Bridge, German" 35 3.1 () J FK ;"'lell1orial Cause\\ay,
2.3 Saint Adele Bridge, Canada, 37 U.S.A., 109
2,4
BOllguen Bridge in Brest and ;) .11 Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridges,
Llcroix Falgarde Bridge, France. 113
France, 38
:U2 Saint Cloud Bridge, France, 114
2.5 Saint Jean Bridge over the 3.13 Sallingsund Bridge,
Garonne River at Bordeaux, Denmark, 122
France. 41 3.14 B-3 South Viaducts, France, 124
2.6 Siegtal and Kochertal Bridges. 3.15 Alpine Structures,
Germany, 43 France, 129
2.7 Pine Valley Creek Bridge, 3.16 Bridge over the Eastern Scheidt,
U.S.A.,46 Holland, 134
IX
x Contents
3.17 Captain Cook Bridge, 5.5 Piers with Double Elastomeric
Australia, 136 Bearings, 241
3.18 Other Notable Structures, 139 5.6 Piers with Twin Flexible Legs, 253
References, 147 5.7 Flexible Piers and Their Stability
During Construction, 263
4 Design of Segmental Bridges 148
5.8
5.9
Abutments. 271
Effect of Differential Settlements
4.1 Introduction, 148
on Continuous Decks, 276
4.2 Live Load Requirements, 149
References, 280
4.3 Span Arrangement and Related
4.4
4.5
4.6
Principle of Construction, 149
Deck Expansion, Hinges, and
Continuity, 151
Type, Shape and Dimensions of
the Superstructure, 159
Transverse Distribution of Loads
6 Progressive and Span-by-Span
Construction of Segmental Bridges
6.1 Introduction, 281
6.2 Progressive Cast-i n- Place
Bridges, 283
281
Between Box Girders in
6.3 Progressive Precast Bridges, 289
4.7
4.8
Girders, 164
Effect of Temperature Gradients
in Bridge Superstructures, 170
Design of Longitudinal Members
for Flexure and Tendon
6.4
6.5
6.6
Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place
Bridges, 293
Span-by-Span Precast
Bridges, 308
Design Aspects of Segmental
4.9
Profiles, 173
Ultimate Bending Capacity of
Progressive Const ruction, 314
References, 319
Longitudinal Members, 190
4.10 Shear and Design of Cross
7 Incrementally Launched Bridges 321
Section. 193
7.1 Illlrodunioll.321
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
Joints Between Match-Cast
Segments, 199
Design of Superstructure Cross
Section, 202
Special Problems in
Superstructure Design, 203
DeAections of Cantilever Bridges
and Camber Design, 205
Fatigue in Segmental
Bridges, 210
Provisions for Future
Prestressing, 212
Design Example, 212
Quantities of Materials, 219
Potential Problem Areas, 220
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.G
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
Rio Carolli, Venezuela, 323
Val Resle! Viaduct, Italy, 327
Ravensbosch Valley Bridge.
Holland, 329
Olifant's River Bridge, South
Africa, 331
Various Bridges ill France. 333
Wabash River Bridge, U.S.A., 335
Other Bridges. 338
Design of Incrementall)
Launched 34::1
Demolition of a Structure by
Incremental 352
References, 352
References, 224
8 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid
Frames, and Truss Bridges 354
5 Foundations, Piers, and Abutments 225
8.1 Introduction, 354
5.1 Introduction, 225 8.2 Segmental Precast Bridges over
5.2 Loads Applied to the Piers, 230 the Marne River, France, 357
5.3 Suggestions on Aesthetics of Piers 8.3 Caracas Viaducts, Venezuela, 363
and Abutments, 232 8.4 Gladesville Bridge, Australia, 371
5.4 Moment-Resisting Piers and 8.5 Arches Built in Cantilever, 374
Their Foundations, 234 8.6 Rigid Frame Bridges, 382
........ _ .. _._. ______ ------- iI' ....
Contents xi
8.7 Truss Bridges, 392 11 Technology and Construction of
References. 399 Segmental Bridges 465
9
Concrete Segmental Cable-Stayed Bridges 400
Il.l
11.2
Scope and Introduction. 465
Concrete and Formwork for
9.1 Introuuction,400 Segmental Construction. 466
9.2 Lake Maracaibo Bridge, 11.3 Post-tensioning Materials and
Venezuela. 405 Operations, 470
9.3 Wadi Kuf Bridge, Libya. 407 11.1 Segment Fabrication for
9.1 Chaco/Corrientes Bridge, Cast-In-Place Cantilever
Argentina, 408 Construction, 475
9.5 \lainbrticke, GermallV, 410 11.5 Characteristics of Precast
9.6 Tiel Bridge. 412 Segmellts and \Iatch-Cast
9.7 Pasco-Kennewick Bridge. Epoxy Joints. 485
C.S.A., 418 11.6 \1anufacture of Precast
9.8 BrolOnne Bridge, France. 41!:l Segments, 493
9,9 Dalluhe Canal Bridge, 11.7 Handling and Temporan
:\ssclllhh of Preca,1
9.10 Examples of Segments, 507
Concepls, 4:W 11.8 Placing Precast Segments, 50!}
Referellces, 439 References. 517
10 Segmental Railway Bridges 441
12 Economics and Contractual Aspects of
IO.l Illtl'OdllUioll 10 Panicubr Segmental Construction 518
IO,':!
10.:l
IO,,!
:\spects of Bridges and
Field of Applicatioll, 441
La VOlllte Bridge over the
Rholle Ri\'('l'. Frallct'. 412
\Ior:llld Bridge III L\om,
Frallce,442
Cerg\ POlltoise Bridge Ileal'

12.2

Bidding Procedures, 518
Exampies of Some Interest illg
Biddillgs alld Costs, 523
j lit I CI,C ill EITlticll(\ ill
Concrete 528
References, 535
":Iris, Frallce, 'H
10,5 :-'!allle La Vallee and Torn 13 Future Trends and Developments 536
!(Ui
10.7
1O.H
10.9
Bridges for the Express
Lille lIeal' Paris, Fl'allce, 444
Clichy Bridge Ileal' Paris,
Frallce, l!q
Oidaill's Bridge, SOllth
:\frica, '1:)2
[ncremental" Lallllched
R;lil\\';!\ Bri( for the
High-Speed Line, Paris to
Lmlls, France,
Segll1ental Raih,'av ill
1:3.1
1:),2
1
1:3.4
LL")
13,6
Introductiol1,536
536
Segmental Application to
Bridg;e Decks, 542
Bridge Piers and
Substructures, 543
Application to Existing or :\ew
Bridge I) ijH
Summary, 548
References, ;")49
Japall,457
to, 1() Special Oe'iign peets of Index of Bridges 551
Segmenral Railwav Bridges, 458 Index of Personal Names 555
10.11 Proposed Concepts for Future Index of Firms and Organizations 557
Segmental Railwav Bridges, 404 Index of Subjects 559
1
Prestressed Concrete Bridges
and Segmental Construction
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 DEVELOP!'v1ENT OF CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION
1.3 EVOLUTION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
1.4 EVOLUTION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGES
1.5 LONG-SPAN BRIDGES WITH CONVENTIONAL PRE
CAST GIRDERS
1.6 SEGMENTAL CONSTRUCTION
1.7 VARIOUS TYPES OF STRUCTURES
1.7.1 Girder Bridges
1.7.2 TnJsses
1.7.3 Frarn(>, with Slant
1.7.4 Concrete Arch Bridges
1.7.5 Concrete Cable-Stayed Bridges
1.8 CAST-IN-PLACE AND PRECAST SEGMENTAL CON
STRUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The conception, development, and worldwide ac
ceptance of seglllental in till' field or
prestressed concrele bridges represents one 01 the
most and illlport;lIlt achievelllents in
civil engineering durillg the past thirtv \ears. Rec
ognized to<i;l\ in all COlllltries ;111d particlilariv ill
the United States as a sale, praCTical, and econolllic
construction method, the seglllental concept prob
ably owes its rapid growth and acceptance to its
founding, frOl1l the I)eginning, on sound construc
tion principles sllch as cantile\'er construction.
Using this method, a bridge structure is made up
of concrete elements usually called segments
(either precast or cast in place in their final position
in the structure) assembled by post-tensioning. If
the bridge is cast in place, Figure 1.1, travelers are
used to allow the various segments to be con
structed in successive increments and progressively
1.8.1 Characteristics of Cast-in-Place Segments
1.8.2 Characteristics of Precast Segments
1.8.3 Choice between Cast-in-ptace and Precast
ConstnJction
1.9 VARIOUS METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
1.9.1 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever
1.9.2 Precast Balanced Cantilever
1.9.3 Span-by-Span ConstnIction
1.9.4 Progressive Placement ConstnIction
1.9.5 Incremental Launching or Push-Out ConstnJction
1.10 .\PPUCATTONS OF SEGMDITAL CONSTRUCTTON
IN THE UNITED STATES
1.11 APPLICABILITY AND ADVANTAGES OF SEGMEN
TAL CONSTRUCTION
REFERENCES
prestressed together. II the bridge is precast, seg
Illent.s are Illanufactured in a special casting vanl
or factory, transported to their final position, and
placed ill the structure bv various tvpes or lallnch-
FIGURE 1.1 Cast-in place form traveler.
1
2 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
FIGURE 1.2. Olcron Vi'HIlIct, scgllH'llIal (ollSlrllclioll ill progress. 011\' t"pical
P)('CISI seglllt'llt placcd jll tile 01('1"011 Vi;,dllCl.
I
Ill).; equiplllent. Figure while prestressing
.!lhincs the ;t;,-,;clIlhly al1d prmides the stnJcturai
strellgth.
\1ost carl\' seglllelltal bridges were huill as call'
tilc\'crs, where construction procceds ill a S\'l1lIIlet
rical fashion from the bridge picrs ill sllccessi\(' ill
('n'lIlcllts to cOlllplete each spall and lil1al!\ the
eillire superstructure, Figure 1.3. Later, olher COII
,tructioll methods appeared in conjunction with
FIGURE 1.3. Cantil<'\er (omtrucliol1 applied to pre
st ressed concrete bridges.
the scglllelital cOllCept to IUrlhcr it, !icld of appli
C;1t io 11.
1.2 Developmerrt oj Cantilever Construction
The idea ofcalltile\'er (ollstrllctioJl is anciellt ill the
Oriellt. Shogun';, Bridge located ill thc cit\ of'
.'\'ikko, Japall, is the eadicst recorded GtlltileHT
bridge ,Illd dates b;lck 10 the fOlll'1!J The
Wall<iipol'c Bridge, Figure lA, was built ill tlte
sc\'clIteellth century in Bhutall, betweell lndia and
Tibet. It is constructed frolll great timbers that
arc corbeled OUt IowaI'd each othcr from mas
si\e abut mellts and thc narrowed illlen al fillall\'
capped with a light beam.
1
FIGURE 104. Wandipore Bridge.
3 Development of Call t ilever Constmdion
Tholllas Pope, a :\ew York Clrpenter, was in
spired b\' these structures that he used the concept
in his "Fhing Le\cr Bridge," In IH [0 he built a 50
ft ([5 rn) model on a scale of in, to I It ([ to 111)
represellting half of a proposed IHOO ft (549 Ill)
span. It was to be a single wooden structure
ing the Hudson River near New York City, Figure
1.5. According to witnesses the 50 ft ([5 Ill) unsup
ported arm withstood a [0 ton (9 1111) weight. Pope
puhlished the design of his daring and interesting
concept the following \'ear. Althollgh arched in
form. the optil1listic span was a calltilever beam in
principle. with the "fhing levers" projected from
great maSOIll'\' abutments, tined out on the :\ew
YOlk side as apartlllents, Pope's presentation of
this desigll was anolllpatlied bv rile following
couplet":
Lei the broad arc the spaciolls Hudso[J stride
And spall Columbia's rivers far [JJore wide
COll\ince the world ,\lllcricl hegins
To fo'nn Arts. the ;lIlCiClll \\()rk of killgs,
Stupendous plan! which llone belorc c'cr
j'otlild.
ThaI half an arc sund UPOIl rhe
ground
Without support while building, or a rest;
This caus'd the theorist's rage and 'iceptic's
jest.
Prefabrication techniques were successfullv
combined with cantilever construcriot1 in many
bridges near the end of the nineteenth century, as
exemplified by such notable structures as the Firth
of Forth Bridge, Figure 1.6, and later the Quebec
Bridge, Figure 1.7, mer the Saint Lawrence River.
These st.rllClU res bear witness to the engineering
genius of an earlier generation. Built more re
cently, the Greater :\ew Orleans Bridge over the
\Iississippi River, Figure 1.8, represelJls 11lodcm
cOlHemporan' long-spall ,Iecl clI1filevcr cOllslrnc
I [()Il.
Because the properties and behavior of pre
stressed concrete are related more closetv to those
of structural sleel than those of comelttional rein
rorced cOllcrete. the applicatiotl of this material to
cllllileH:r construction a logical step ill the
COil! iIwing developmetlt or bridge cngllleeriJlg,
FIGURE l.i. Bridgt:.
FIGURE 1.6. Firth of Forth Bridge. FIGURE l.8. Greatcr :-.lew Orleans Bridge.
-
4 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
This applicatioll has eyol\'ed over many years by
the slIccessive de\'e!opment of mallY concepts and
innovations. III order to see how the present slate
olthe art has beel1 reached, let us briefly trace the
devcloplllelll of presu'essed concrete and in par
ticular its applic<ltioll to bridge construction.
1.3 Evolution of Prestressed Concrete
The in\'cllIioll of reinforced concrete stirred the
Illlagination 01 t'llgilleers in 11I;JJl\ countries. Thev
envisiolled IlIa tat relllcndoll s ad va 11\,1 ge could be
achie\cd, if the steel could he lensioned to put the
,qrllctllrc in a pennallclli state 01 compression
g-1'Catcr thall all\ tellsile stresses g-clleraled by the
<tpplied loads. The state of the art of pre
stressed concrete has C\ohcd froll1 the erfort and
('x]lericlln' of lIIall\' and scielltists o\'cr
lhc past nillet\' \cars" I 1 OW('\'('I' , lire concept of pre
stressing is centllries old. Swiss imcstigators ha\'c
shown tl1;lt as earh as :!70(l H.C. thc :tnciellt Egyp
tians prestressed their s(,;lgoing \'('sscls long-itlldi
nail\'. This h;IS 1)(,(,1l detenl1illcd from pictorial
represcntations fOlllld in Fifth Dynast\' tOIllI)s.
The hasic principle or prestressing was used in
the era It of cooperage WhCll the cooper wound
ropes or !!letal hands aroulld wooden staves to
forlll harrels.:
l
When thc I)ands were lightened,
thcv were under tensile prestress, which created
cOlllpression betwecn the SWH'S and enabled thelll
\0 rcsist Iroop tCllsiol1 produced by internal liquid
pressure. III other words, the hands and staves
wcre hot h prest ressed hefore thev \\'(Te subjected
to all\ sel\'i('(' loads. The woodell cartwheel with ils
shrunk-Oil iroll rim is al10ther example of pre
stressed cOl1struction.
The (irst all(,lIlpt to introdllcc internal stresses in
reinforced (OllCl'('te mel1lbers iJy tensioning the
steel reinforcement was made about 1886 whell
P. H. Jackson, all engineer ill San Francisco, obtained
a Ullited St;ltes patent ()r stcel rods in
concrete nJ(:lIliJers serving as Hoor slabs. ] n 1888,
C. E. \N. Dilhrillg of Berlin secured a patent for the
Illallufacture of slabs, battens, and small beams for
structural engineering purposes by embedding
tensiollcd wire in concrete in order to reduce
cracking. This was the first attempt to provide pre
cast concrete units wit h a tensioned reinforcement.
Several structures wcre constructed using these
concepts; IHlWe\'er, ollly mild steel reinforcement
was available at the time. These structures at first
hehaved according to predictions, but because so
little prestrcss force could be induced in the mild
steel, the\' lost their properties because of the creep
and shrill kage of the concrete. I n order to recover
some 01 the losses, the possibilitv of retightening
the reinforcing rods after some shrinkage and
creep of the concrete had taken place was
suggested in 190f\ by C. R. Steiner of the L'nited
States. Steiner proposed that the bond of em
bedded steel hars be destroyed b\ lightly tension
ing the bars while the concrete \\'as still voung and
then tellsioning them to a higher stress when the
concrete had hardened. Steiner was also the first to
suggest the lise of cuned tendons.
In 19:25, R. E. Dill of :\ebraska took a further
slep t()\\'anl freeing cOllcrete beams of any lensile
stresses In tensioning high-tensile steel wires after
the concrete had hardened. Bonding was to he
prevented 1)\ suitahh' coating the wires. He
explicith llI{'llliollCd the ;!(h';llltage of lIsing st('eI
with a high elastic lilllit alld high strength as COll1
pared to onlinan reillforcing hal'S.
In 19:21'1, E. Freyssillct of France, who is credited
wit h the !llOdtTll dc\('loplllellt of prest rcssed COI1
nete, started min,!.!; high-strellgth steel wires ror
prestressil1g. Although Frnssillct also tried tile
lIlethod oj pretcllsiol1lllg, where the steci was
bOl1ded to the cOl1crete without elld al1chorages,
the lirst 1)l;lctlcd applicatioll of this method \\"as
ll1ade 1)\ E. H(lH'! ai;olll I Wide applicatioll 01
the prestressil1g tcchlJiqlle was 1l0! possible ulltil
reliahle al1d ecollol11icailllt'thods (If tellsionillg alld
elld allchorage were dc\ised. From approximately
1939 OIL E. Fn'\ssillet, "fagllt'l, awl othelS d('
\'cloped differcllt 1ll(,tl\()(ls alld procedures. Prc
st ress hegall to gail1 SOlllC importallce ahow 1945,
while allernatin' prestressing lllethods were beillg
devised 1)\, ellgilleers ill \'arious coulltries.
During the past thirty \'ears, prestressed con
crete ill the Cllited States has growll from a
hrall<!-IH':W idea illto all an:cpted lllethod or COI1
crete construction. This growth. it result of a l1ew
applicatioll of existing l1latelials and theories, is in
itsel f phellolllenai. I II Europe the shortage of ma
terials and the cllforced economies in construction
gave prestressed concrete a substantial start. De
veloplllent in the Cnited States, however, was
slower to underway. Designers al1d contractors
hesitated mainly because of their lack of experi
ence and a reluctance to abandon more familiar
methods of construction. Contractors, therefore,
bid t he first prestressed concrete work conserva
tively. Moreover, the equipmcnt available for pre
stressing and related techlliques was essentially
new and makeshift. However, experience was
gained rapidly, the quality of the work improved,
..
.. ",
._ 1\1 {'I
5 Evolution of Prestressed Concrete Bridges
m
"

.---- ---:::..........
....
.. ,
\
FIGURE 1.9. Frevssinet\ Esbh Bridge on the '.larne
River.
and prestressed concrete became more :md more
competitin: with other Illaterials.
1.4 Evolution of Prestressed Concrete Bridges
Although France lOok the lead ill Ihe de\Tlopmenl
of prestressed concrete. Ill;Ul\ European COUllt ric:;
SIKh as Belgilllll. England, Switzerland.
and Holl;llld quickh showed interest. As earl:: as
1948. Frcnsinet llsed prest ressed coneret e for I he
constructioll or fi\'e bridges o\'er the \larne River
,near P;lris, \\ith ft (7t Ill) spans or all excep
tiollally light ;l()pC;lrance. Figure 1.9, ,\ Sllne\
made ill (;erlll;lll\ .showed I hat between IIJ49 ;lIld
1953. out 01 ;)00 bridges built. 350 \\ere pre
stressed.
I'

!
I
\...:.i
I

L
I. 2' 4" .1
V
....
.'
...
FIGURE 1.11. .-\:\SHTOPCI I-girder c!'Oss sections.
FIGURE 1.10 \\'allllll Lane Bridge. Philadelphia
(COllrtt"\' of the Portland Cement :\ssociation),
Prestressing in the Lnited Slates followed a <Iii
ferent course, Instead of linear prestressing. cir
cular prestressing as applied to storage tallks took
lhe lead. Lillear prestressillg as applied to be;tllls
did [lOl sian until 1949. The first strllcture of tiJis
tYlw a hridge ill \LtdisOlI COllll(\', Telll]essee.
followcd ill In the well-known HiO ft HH.HO
Ill) spall Walilut LlIle Bridge in Philadelphia, Fig.
lire 1.10. Ih the middle or 1951 it was estimated
that 17:'1 brid!.{cs alld 50 buildillgs had heel] Cllll
strllClcd ill Ellrope ;lIld 110 !llore thall 10
ill the Lilited III 1952 the Portlalld Cellleill
.\sS()Ciatloll cOllducted a SUnle\' ill this COUllln'
silowill!.{ 100 or Illorc structurcs cOlllpleted or
.r.--TI
=:
L
I f2"
'I
IV
6 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Constme/ion
under construction. In 195:1 it was estimated that
there were is bridges in Pennsyh'ania alone.
After the Walnut Lane Bridge, which was cast ill
place and post-tensioned, precast pretensioned
bridge girders e\'oh'ed, taking ach'antage of the in
herent economies and qualin' control achievable
with shop-fabricated members, With few excep
tions, during the 1950s and early 1960s, most mul
tispan precast prestressed bridges built ill the
Cnited States were designed as a series of simple
spalls. The\' were designed with standard
AASHTO-PCI* girders of various cross sections,
Figure Ll1. for spans of approximately 100 ft
m), hut more cOlllmonh for spans of 40 to 80
It {I:! 10 :!4 IIlL The a<!\'alltages of a continuous
cast-ill-place st ruet ure were ab;lI1doned in I;l\or of
the simpler constructioll offered bv plallt
produced st;tJ1(brdizcd units.
AI lillIe, plecast prctensiollcd
found all outstandillg application in the Lake
Pontchartraill crossing Ilorth of ;\cw Orleans,
Louisiana. The crossillg consisl eel of more t hall
:!:!()O idelltical S(i It (Ii 111) spalls, Figures I,I:!
through I. H. Each SP,lll Illadc of a sillgle
tOil 1I1011olith with pretensioned longitudillal gird
"\ltl(,l ;(;]It ;\,,,,,'1011;011 01 State High"';l\ "11(1 TL'"'i'or!.llioll
Offlci"b (1"'CVlOU,h known ", AASIIO. Amcrican A"ocialloll
of Slall' IIlghw;l\ Offlci;lIs) "lid Presln'"ed (;OIl(T('I(' illSlitlltC,
r
FIGURE 1.12. Lake l'olltchartraill Brid!-\c. C.S.A.
crs all d a reill/()J'Ccd (,Ollcre1 e deck cast ill t egrall\'.
resting ill turn Oil a prccast cap alld two pre
stressed 'PUll piles. The speed of erectioll \\'as ill
credihle. oftell Illore thaI! eight (,()]llpiell' spam
pi;.ccd ill a sillgle da\.
III the middle 19GOs a growIllg COlK('rll \\;IS
'ihoWIl about the s;det\' of highw,tys. Tile
AASHTO Traffic Safel\' COllllllit!ee called ill ;1
1 rcporr
1
for the ", , , adoptioll and llSC of t\\O
Sp;1l1 hridges for overpasses lTOSSillg dilided Illgh
\\'<I\,S , .. to elilllillate the bridge piers nonllalh
placed adjacellt to the ,houlders." Figllrc LIS. It;
terstat{' high"',l\'s tOd;1\ reqllire oHTpasses witl;
two, tl1r('e, aud /<lllr 'pallS of II to 1HO II (54.9 Ill)
or 101lger. III the case of ri\er OJ strealll (Tossings.
FIGURE 1.13. Lake POlltchartrain Bridge, U,S.A.
...""..""., ........' < , , ~ . - '
(a)
33'-0"
..~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
18'-9"
(b)
FIGCRE 1.14.
\erse sectioll.
Lake Ponlch;lItrain Bridge. C.5..-\. (11) Longilwlinal ,e.-lion. (Ii) Trans
7
tt
8
Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
STANDARD 4-SPAN INTERSTATE CROSSING
Span tor Skewed Brldge$
Skew Span
30 144'
4!5 177'
60" 2!50'
FIGL'RE 1.15. Standard four-span illlcrstatc clOssing
(COllrleS\ of lilt' POrlbnd Cemcnt .\sso(iat ion 1.
longer spans in the range of 300 rt (9].5 111) or
longer may be required, and there is a very distinct
lrend toward bridges. I t soon became
apparent that the conventional precast pretell
,jollC'd AASHTO-PCI ginlers were limited In their
transportable lellgth and weight. TrallSportation
mer the higlm<l\s limits the precast girder to a
length or 100 to 120 It to :)G.()), depending
upon local regulatiolls.
1.5 Long-Span Bridges with Conventional
Precast Girders
As a result of longer spall requirements a study was
conducted I)\' the Prestressed Concrete Institute
(PCI) in cooperatioll with the Portland Celllel1l As
sociation (peA).:' This study proposed thai simple
spans up to 140 It (42.7 Ill) and continllous spallS
up to ]60 ft (48.H m) be constructed of stalldard
precast girders lip to 80 ft (24 111) in length joined
1)\ splicing. To obtain longer spans the use of in
clined or haullched piers was proposed.
The following discussion and illustratiollS are
hased 011 the grade-separalion studies conducted
In PCI and PCA. Actual structures will be illus
64'
trated, where possible. to emphasize the particular
design concepts.
The design stud), illustrated in Figure 1.16 uses
cast-in-place or precast end-span sections and a
two-span unit with AASHTO I girders.
s
Narrow
median piers are maintained in this design, but the
abutments are extended into the spans by as much
as 40 ft (12 m) using a precast or cast-in-place
frame in lieu of a closed or gravity abutment.
\\'hen site conditions warrant, an attractive type of
bridge can be built with extended abutments.
A similar span-reducing concepl is developed in
Figure] .17, using either reinforced or prestressed
COl1crele for cantilever abutlllents. An aesthetic
abutment design in reinforced concrete was de
n.-loped for a grade-separation structure on Ihe
Tram-Canada Highway near Druml1lolldvilJe in
the Province of Quebec, Figure 1.18. This 1'1'0
\ided a It (9.9 Ill) span reduction that led 10 Ihe
lISe of t\Ve IV Standard AASHTO I girders 10
SP;1I1 It (29.7 111) to a simple, llarrow median
pIer.
:\ c<lsi-in-placc reinlorced cOllcrete frame wilh
olliward-:-.loping legs provides a stahle. ccnter sup
porring struclure that reduces spall lellgth by 29 It
(H.H 111). Figure].1 Y. This enables either standard
box secriolls or I seclions 84 ft (25.6 Ill) IOllg 10 be
w,cd ill Ihe two main spans. This hn'out was used
(()J the Hohbema Bridge in Alberta. B.C.. Canada,
shown in Figure 1.20. This bridge was builr with
precasl challuel girder sectiolls, but could be buih
wilh AASHTO I girders or hox secriollS. The me
diall frallle with inclined legs was cast ill place.
'I'll(' schematic and photograph in Figures 1.21
and 1.22 show the Ardrossan Overpass in Alberta.
I t is similar to the Hobbema Bridge except that the
spans are longer and, with the exception of a
casi-in-place footing, the median frame is made up
of precast units post-tensiolled together, Figure
1.2 I. The finished bridge, Figure ] .23, bas a
Af: II
\. Precosl or
Frome
E.LE.VATION
SECTION A-A
FIGURE 1.16. Extended abutments (courtesy of the Prestressed Concrete Institute,
from reI. G).
....
.. -0
_ " 0
9 Long-Span Bridges with Conventional Precast Girders
AF'F'ROX.,' ..-----'
ELEVATION
nz:
GIROEA
SECTION
FIGURE 1.17. Call1iincred abulllH.'lIb (coulleS\ u[" the P r e ~ l r e s s e { l Concrete
!ll,lilllte, rrolll rd. 6).
pleasing appearance. The standard units were
channel-shaped siringers 64 in, wide and 41 in.
deep (1.6 III bv I.tH m). The use of precast ullits
allowed erection or the entire superstructure, in
cluding the median rrame. in onlv three weeks.
The bridge was opened to trafficjusr eleven weeks
after construction began in the early sumlller of
196(),
lh lise or lemporan bents. Fii-iure 1.21.
standard units t)O It (18.3 Ill) long can be placed
over Ihe median pier alld connected to main span
1I11ih with cast-in-place reinforced concrete splices
located near the poim of dead-load contrallexure. FIGURE 1.18. DIll1l11l101Hhille Bridge (collrtesv or
the Portland (:CIIlI'11l :\"'ociatlOn).
FIGURE 1.19. Median frame cast in place (courtesv of the Prestressed
CotHTl'tc Institute. from ref. 6).
-- .,
Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction 10
FIGURE 1.20, HolJhem,l Bridge. completed structure
l<ollncs\' of the Ponland CCIl1Cllt Association).
This design is slightly morc expensive than PI'('\,I
ous oncs but it prO\ides the mosl open t\'IK' tW()
span structure.
The structural arrangement of the Sehastian
Inlet Bridge in Florida consists or a three-span \I!lit
o\'er the lllain challnel, Figure J The ell<lspall
of this three-spall ullit is 100 It (30.5 lll) IOllg and
cantileH:rs 30 ft (9 Ill) beyond the piers to support
a ft (3G.G Ill) precast prestressed drop-in spall,
Figure The end-spall seClioll was huilt in two
seglllellts witlI a cast-in-place splice with the help 01
a falsework bent. The :\apa River Bridge at V,t1
kjo, California (not to be confused with the \:apa
River Bridge described in Section 2.11), used a
prccast concrete calltile\,cr-suspended spall COll
cept silllilar to the Sebastian bllet Bridge, at about
the same tillle. The olll" differellce was that the
cantile\'er girder was a sillgle girder extcllding
from the side pier o\'er the maill pier to the hinge
support for the suspended span.
The t\'pe of construction that uses long,
standard, precast, prestressed lIllits never quite
achieved the recogllition it deserved. As spans in
creased. designers turned toward post-tensioned
GIst-in-place box girder construction. The Califor
nia Division of Highwa;s, for exallIple, has been
quite successful with cast-in-place, multicell, post
tensioned box girder construction for multispall
structures with spans of 300 It (91.5 lll) and even
longer. However, this t\'pe of construction has its
own Iilllilations. The extensive fOrInwork used
during casting often has undesirable effects on the
em'ironlllclit or the ecology.
1.6 Segmental Construction
constructioll lias hecn delilled
7
as a
Illcdtod of COllst ruct ion in whieh primar\' load
supporting lIlclllhers arc composed of indi\'idual
lllemhers called segmcllts post-tellsiolled together.
rile cOlJcepts dncloped ill the pel-peA studies
and desnibcd ill the prcC(:dillg scctioll cOllie under
this delillitioll. alld wC' Illight call theln "longitudi
nal" seglilelltal cOllstruction becallse the indi\'idual
clelllcilts arc IOllg with respect to their width.
III Europe, llleanwhile, sel{lllelltal constructioll
proceeded ill a sligl1th differellt malltler ill COlJ
jUllctiotl with box girder dcsil{ll. SCI{InCllts wcre
cast ill place ill r<:lathclr short lellgths hut in flll1
loadw;I\ width and depth. T()(bv segmclltal COIl
struction is uSllally understood to hc the type de
\clojJcd ill Europe, Howc\cr, as will be shown
lalcr, tlte segllH'llts lIced lIot he of full-roadw;l\'
ELEVATION
16'-6'
Lf7-----L---'---'-;..;;;......I----r1-.
e
llI: 48
AASHO-PCI
eox SECTION
SECTIONS A-A
FIGURE 1.21. Median frame precast (collrtes\, or the Prestressed Concrete
InstifUle, hom reI'. G),
11 Segmental Construction
FIE:...D SPLICE
A-A
FIGCRE 1.24. Field splice for cOlltinuity (courtesy of the Prestressed COll
crete lmtitute, from ref. 6),
FIGURE 1.22. Ardross<ln Overpass llledia II
frame (counes\ of the Portbnd Ccment Association).
width and can become rather IOllg in the 1011
gitudill<l I d ircctioll of t he bridL{l\ dependi Ilg OIl the
constrlluioll S\stelll lllilized.
Eugene Frevssinet. ill It.H5 to 1941:). was the lil-st
to use precast segmental constructioll for pre
stressed COIlClTte bridge;., :\ bl'idge at LUZallL\
over the \bnH: Ri\ ('I' ahout :iO llliles east or Paris.
Figure I. '27, \\;IS followed In a groll p or precast
bridges mer tlrat rin:!'. Shorth thereafter, Urich
Finsterwal<it:r applied Gist-in-place seglllelltal pre
stressed cOllstructioll in a babllced cantilever
fashion to;1 bridge (l'n-;,illg the Ltl1ll Rin:r at Bal
duinsteill. Cenll;lIl\. rhis S\stelll or c<lntile\er
segmental COIlst rllct iOll rapidlv gained wide ac
ceptal1l:e ill arter cOIlstructioIl of a
bridge U'os.,ing the Rhillc at Worllls ill 195:2. as
shown ill Figun.: \\ith three spam or :):)0.
371, and II (100. :111<1 HH Ill). :\Iore thall
300 such slrucllllT'i, with spalls ill excess of It
(76 m), werc constl'llued bctweell 19:,)() al1d 1965
FIGURE 1.23. Completcd Ardrossan Ovcrpass
(courtesy of the Portland CClllent Association).
in Europe.:
l
Since thell the concept has spread
throughollt the world,
Precast seglllenr,ll construction also was evolving
during this period, In 1952 a single-span COUllt:
bridge near Sheldon. :\cw York. W;15 designed hv
the Frey'isillet COlllpam. Although tbis bridge W;IS
constructcd or longitudinal Luher than the Euro
peall transversc seglllents, it represents the hrst
practical applicatioll of lllatch castillg, The bridge
girders were divided into three IOllgitudinal seg
lllelits that were cast end-to-etld, The center seg
IIlelll. wa, cast first aiid then the end segments were
cast directh agaillst it. Ke\'s were cast at the joints
so that the three precast eieIllcnts could be joined
at the site ill tbe S,lIlle positioll they h;id in the pre
casting \;tnL Lpon shipment to the job site the
three eleillcllts of a girder were post-tensioned to
gether with cold joints. HI,It
The first major application of lllatch-cast. pre
cast segmelltal cOllstruction was no[ consummated
SeClIOn AA
12 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
100' 180' 100'
- ......
'I'
C65' .._3_0'. 35' 65'
35' I,
FIGURE 1.26. Sebastian I nJet Bridge (courtesy of the Prestressed Concrete Ifl
stitute, from ref. 6) .
FIGURE 1.25. Sebastian Inlet Bridge (courtesy of the
Portland Cement Association),
ulltil ]962. This struClure, designed by Jeall r-.luller
and built by Entreprises Campenon Bernard, was
the ChoisyIe-Roi Bridge over the Seine Rin'r
south of Paris, Figure 1.29. This concept has been
refined and has spread from France to all parts of
the wodd.
The technology of casl-in-place or precast seg
mental hridges has advanced rapidly in the las!
decade. During its initial phase the balanced
cantilever method of construction was used. Cur
relltly, other techniques such as spall-b:/-span, in
cremental laullching, or progressive placelllent
also arc available. Any of these cOl1struction
methods iliaI' call on either cast-in-place or precast
segments or a combination of both. Consequently,
a variety of design cOIJcepts and cOllstruction
lllethods are now available to economically pro
duce segmental bridges for almost anv site condi
tion.
Segmental bridges mav be classified broadh' b\
four criteria:
1. The ultimate use of the bridge-that is, high
way or railwa\' structure or combination
thereof. Although man\' problems are com
mon to these two categories, the considerable
increase of live loading in a railway bridge
poses special problems that call for specific so
lutions.
2. The type of structure in terms of statical
scheme and shape of the main bending mem
bers. Many segmental bridges are box girder
bridges, but other types such as arches or
cable-stayed bridges show a v..ide \'arietv in
shape of the supporting members.
3. The use of or precast 01
a combillation thereof.
4. The method of construction.
The sections that follow will deal brie/l\ with til('
last three classifications.
1.7 Various Types of Structures
hOlll the point or view of their statical schellle.
there ale essentialh' five categories of structures:
(I) girders, (2) trusses, (3) rigid frames, (4) arch
frallJes. and (5) cable-staved bridges.
1.7.1 GIRD':lm J5WJ)U-:S
Box girders in the of cases are the most
ef'ficient and economical design for a bridge. Whell
constructed in balanced GlIltile\'er, box girder
derks were initially made integral with the
while a special expansion joint was provided at the
center of' each span (or every other span) to allow
.. ..
13 Various Types of Structures
n :iii "3':"'.": _ ..
..
J
i
FIGURE 1.29. Choisv-Ie-Roi Bridge.
FIGURE 1.27. Luzane\( Bridge over the Marne Ri\'cr
for volume changes and to control differential
deflections between individual cantilever anTIs. [t is
now recognized that continuitv of the deck is desir
able. and l110st structures are now continuous over
several spans, bearings being provided between
deck and piers for expansion.
Todav, the longest box girder bridge structure
that has been built in place in cantilever is the
Korol' Babelthuap crmsing in the Pacific rrust ter
ritories with a center span or 790 ft (24 [ m), Figure
& Widmann). 1.:)0.12 A box girder bridge has been proposed for
FIGURE 1.30. Koror-Babclthuap Bridge. elevation and cross section (rcf. 12).
14 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
FIGURE 1.32. Saint Cloud Bridge. France. FIGURE 1.35. Rip Bridge, Brisbane, Australia.
...
.....
_ ,oj n
longitudinal section
100' 100'
I I
DO

,I.
- Typical sections at span center
and over main piers
..
FIGURE 1.3 I. Tht' (;n'at Belt I'If>jl'ct.
the Creal Belt ill Denlllark \\'ith a JOiO fl
(:126 111) clear main spall, Figure I, The box
girder design has bcell applied wilh equal suc
c('ss 10 Ihe cOllstruction of difficult and spectacular
stl"ll(:lurcs such as the Saint Cloud Bridge o\('r
the Seine Ri\cr lIcar Paris, Figure J,3:!, or 10 I he
constructioll 01' c!e\';tted structures in \('1'\ CO!l
gestcd urban areas slIch as the B<) \'iaducls Ileal
Paris, Figure 1.:1:).
1.7.2 lRl'SSFS
Whcll spall lellglh illcreases, Ihe I\']lied box girder
hecollles hea\"i' ami diHicult 10 build. For Ihe pur
pose or dead weighl while silllplir\"illg
casl ing or VtT\' dccp wch sect ions. a t russ wit h opell
webs is a \cr:-' saiisraCl0rV type that call he C()ll\"C
!Iiellth' huilt ill call1ilever, Figure J,;)4. The tech
llological lilllilatiolls lie ill the complication or COIl
!IectiolJs between prestressed and
chords. An otllslanding example is the Rip
in Brisb;lIIC, Australia, Figure 1.;):1.
'.'.6ii''',;
I ' 'otl "0<........ .... _,, __ .
FIGURE 1.33. B-3 \'iaduCls, France.
The cantilever method ha" potential applications
hel\\'een the optimum spall length'. Ollvpical hox
girders for the low ranges and of SI;l\Td hridges for
the high ranges.
1.7."3 /-/(A,\1/-;S JrlrJI SI.. /'\']"
Whcll tile configuration of the sitc allows, the lise
01 inclillcd legs reduce" the dfcctin' span length.
FIGURE 1.34. Long-spall COliC! el(" lillSSCS.

15 Various Types of Structures
Nt;
I
I !
/ '"
FIGt:RE 1.36.
Pro\isiollal Ilack ,!;t\"S or ;t tClllporan pier ;1I-e
lleeded 10 permil cOllslructioll III LIlltilcHT. Figure
1.3(). ["his requircllIcllt 111;1\ ,olllclill1cS presclIl
diflindl\ .. \11 illtercstillg c,ample or ,tiel! a ,chcme
is (hc BOllhollllllC Bridge oycr 1/](' BL!\ct RiV"tT ill
Frallce. Figme 1.:17.
The sciIeme is a trallsilioll hClweell the bo,
girder with \enied picrs alld Ihe true arch. where
the load is clrried Il\ 1he drch rill, ;tiOllg I he pres
sure lille with lIlinillllllll hClldillg while the deck is
supporlcd In spandrel col ti III II s.

'I
...
.......
"'."l:n

FIGURE 1.37. BOllholl1tlle Bridge.
I

;1
,I .:


.::
; __ I
I' ...- / I" __ , , 1/ :;
Lung-spall fratlle.
1.7.1 (.'O.W.RI:TF . INCH IWI/)(;/:S
COllCITte arches are an ecollolllicti w;!\, to Iransfer
loads to the ground where foundation cOl1ditiol1s
are adequate to resist horil.ollul loads. Eugene
Fre\ssinet prepared a design for a 100{) meter
ft) clear span 40 v"{'ars ago. Because of con
struction difficlllties. however. the maximulTI span
built to date (1979) has been no IIlore than I ()O() II
Ill). Construction Oil falsework is made
difficult and risb bv the effect of strong winds
d II ri ng construct ion.
flle lirst outstanding concrete arch was built at
bv Freyssinet ill 1928 with three fiOO ft
(I H;) Ill) spans. Figure Real progress was
achie\"ed only when free calltilever and provisional
,Ll\ llIelhods were applied to arch constrtKtion.
Figure 1.39. The world record is pn:sentlv the Kirk
Bridge ill Yugoslavia. Imilt in cantilever and COl1l
FIGURE 1.38. P!ougastel Bridge. France.

16 Prc'stressed Concrete Bridges and Segmelltal Construction
-,
FIGURE 1.39.
FIGt:RE lAO. Kirk BridgTs.
.:
pkted ill 1979 with <l dear of 1:!HO It (:190 Ill).
Figure lAO.
1.7.5 CO'\"CNEn. LWH.-Sr.1l1.1> filUj)(;},) '"
\\'!Jcn a span is i>eyolJ(l 1he reach of <l COllE'Il1 iOJl,iI
girder bridge. a logical stcp to suspend the deck
1)\ a s\'slem oC pdons alld Sla\'S, Applied 10 sted
Sf rUClures Cor the last t wellt \' \cars. t his approach
g'aillcd illlll1ediate acceptallce ill thc field of COIl
crete brid ges wilcli cOllq ruCl ion bcca lIIe possihle
l..4sr
ItfCLOS(./'U'
1
FIGURE 1.41. Long-spall concrete cablc-sta yed bridges.
SECOI'fO

17 Cast-in-Place and Precast Segmental Construction
FIGURE 1.42. Ihotollllt' Bridge. Frallct',
and ecolloll1iGlI ill balallced calltilevel' with a larg-e
nUlllber of sta\'s 1IIlifol'lllh' ;dollg- the
deck. Fig-ure IAI, I'lIe long-cst 'ipall or this type is
the Brotolllle Bridge ill Fraw" with a 10;)0 It ctW
01) dear Illaill'ip,lll mer the Seille River. Figlll'('
1.42, Single In lOllS alld olle lillc of Sla\s :IIT iOCllCd
along the centl'rlllll' 01 !Ill' hl'ld;..il',
1.8 Cast-in-Place and Precast Segmental
C()ns/ruction
1,8,1 Cfl,W, ! CT/JUSTICS OF L1SI',/\',/JI..I<:F
S/:C.\I F,\ r\
In cast-in-pl:ln: U)lISlrllctioll. \('gTlll'Ili'i ;IlT c;t'il olle
after another illliteir fill:d InelltO!l ill lite stl'llctllt't',
Special equipnll'lll is llSed for Ilti" pllrpme. '>11(11 as
traveler's (for COIl'ilrllctioll) or f()l'I11work
units I1l<)\'ed ;dollg ,t stlpporting g;lllIl'\ (for spall
cOllstrllctiOI1), btl'll seg!!l('nt is rcild'ol'ced
with cotH'entional lIntcnsiol1cd steel ;I!ld 'iOllle
times by trans\'(:rsc or \crucd pn:'itres'iing or hot h.
while the assel!,lbl of>eglllclllS i'i h_::
-tellSioning.
cast end-to-end. it is
not difficult to placc IOllgitlldin.d reilll'on:illg steel
across the joillls betweell SCg-lllClllS if the desigll
calls for colltinltolls reinforcemctll. Joints !Il<lV be
treated as reqllired for safe trallsfer of all bending
and shear stresses alld for water tightlless ill ag
gressive eli mates. COllnection betweell ind i\'idual
lengths of longitlldillal posHellsiollitlg dllns lll;t\
be made easih' at each joillt alld for each telldon.
The method\ essential limitation is that the
strength of the concretc is alw<\\s 011 thc critical
path of cOllstruction and II
the structure's deformability. particularlv durin/.{
cmi'S'i'lw:tion, DeAections of a typical cas!:ln:,>Sce
GlIltile\'cr are often two or three times those of the
same camilever made of precast segments.
The local effects of concentrated forces behind
the anchors of prestress tendons ill a young con
crete (two or four days old) are always a potential
source of concern and difficulties,
/.8.2 C/I,/IUCTERISnCS OF PREC.iST
[n precast segmelltal constrllction. segments are
manufactured ill a plant or near the job site. then
transported to their final positioll for asselllblY.
I nitialh'. joints between segments were or comen
tional t>Ve: either concrete poured wel joints or
dn mortar packed joints. :Vlodern seglllcntal COI1
st ruct ion calls for the lllatch-castillg techllique. as
mcd for the Choisv-Ie-Roi Bridge further de
\'eloped and refilled. \\'hcreb:; thc seglllents are
precast against each other. preferabh in the same
"ciati\'(: order thev will have ill the final strllctllrc,
\:0 ;uIjllstlllent is therefore llccessarv between
,cgmcnts before assembly. The joints arc cithcr
left <In' (ill ;Ireas where climate permils) or made of
a vel'\' thin fillll of epox:: resin or mineral complex.
which docs not alter the lIlatch-casting properties.
.l'here is llO lIecd for allv waiting period ror joint
lllre. and final asselllbly of segments bv prest res
111:1\' proceed as bs! as practicable,
Becausc the joints are or negligihle thickness.
1here is u-;uallv no mechanical cOllllect iOIl bet wecn
thc illdi\iduallellgths of tendoll ducts at thejoillt.
L'ql:tlh' no attempt is Inade to obtain cOlltinllitv
of the longitudinal con\'entional steel through the
joints. ,tithollgb se\'eral methods are
han: heen applied slIcccssfulh (as ill the Pasco
Kellilewick cable-sl<l\ecl bridge, for exalllplc).
Segillellts Illay be precast 10llg ellough ill advallce
01 their asselllbh in the structure to reach
'iufficiellt strellgtll and maturitv and to miuilllize
both the deHecriol1S during construction alld the
elfeets of cOllcrete shrinkage and creep ill the
5t ruct u re.
If erection of precast segments is to proceed
smoothl\,. a high of geometry control is re
quir'ed during match casting to ensure accuracv.
1.1-1. CH01CE BETWEE.V CAST-IX-PLACE ./XD
PRECAST CO,VSTRL'CTIO.v
Both cast-in-place methods and precast methods
h;l\e been successful!:' lIsed and produce suhstall
(/
s
Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction 18
tially the same final structure. The choice depends
on local conditions, includillg size of t he project,
time allowed for constructioll. restrictiolls on ac
cess and environment, and the equipment available
to the successful contractor. Some items of interest
are listed helm\':
1. SjJ(w/ of COlis/ruction Basical"', cast-in-place
calltile\'er construction proceeds at the rate of one
pair of segments 10 to 20 It (:1 to 6 m) long even
fOllr to se\'en d;l\s. On the average. Olle pair of
travelers permits the completioll of 150 f't (46m) of
hridge deck per 111011th, excluding the transfer
from pier 10 pier and fabrication of the pier table.
Oil the otlier hand, precast segmental cOllstructioll
allows a cOl1siderablv /'aster erectiol1 schedule.
a. For the Oleron Viae! lIct, the average speed of
collJpletion of tlw deck was 750 It C22H 1Tl) per lIlont h
for more than a year.
h, For both the B-:1 Viaducts ill Paris and the
Long Kev Briclge ill Florida, a typical 100 to I f)() It
(:10 to 4:) Ill) spall was erected ill two working cla\s,
repres('l1til1g a construction of I:10() It HO() Ill) of
fillished bridge per lIlollth,
c. Saillt Cloud Bridge llear Paris, despite t hl' ('x
cept iOllal di fficlilt y of its geolllet n and design
schellle. was COllstructed ill exactlv Olll' \Tar, its
total area anloullting to 250,()OO sq It sq
III ).
It is evident, then. that cast-in-place GllJlile\'er COlJ
struction is basically a slow process, while precast
seglllental \"ith lllatching jOlllls is ,lI11011g the las
test.
2. 1117.'('.111111'111 ill Sf'(,Cla/ Equil'lI/f'IIt f lere t hl'
situation is usuallv reversed. Cast-in-place requires
usually a lower investment. which IlIa kes it COIlJ
petitive on short structures \\ith long spa ns [ for
example, a typical three-span structure with a
center span in excess qj approximately :150 f't (J 00
m)].
III long, repetitive structures precast
may he 1I10re economical than cast-ill-place. For
the Chillon Viaducts with twin structures 7000 n
(2134 111) long in a di I'ficu 11 environmcllt, a detailed
comparative estimate showed the cast -ill-place
method to be 10% more expensive than the pre
cast.
3. Size alld Weight of S('gmerlts Precast seg
JIlemal is limited by the capac:it y or transportation
and placing equipment. Segmellts exceeding 250
tons are seldom economical. Cast-ill-place con
struction does not ha\'(' the same limitation, al
though the weight alld cost of the travelers are di
rectly proportional to the ,,'eight of the heaviest
segment.
4, Ell1!lromnfJlI Rfslricliolls BOI h precast and
cast-in-place segmelltal permit all work to he per
formed from the lOp, Precast. however. adjusts
more easily to restrictions such as allowing work to
proceed over traffle or allowing access of workmell
ami materials to the various piers.
1.9 Methods of Construction
Probahh Ihe most signihcant classification of seg
lllental hridges is In llll'1 hod or cOllslrUClioll. Al
though cOllstruction mel hods ma\' be as varied as
the ingenuit\ or Ihe designers alld contractors,
thn Ldl into 10111' hasic categories: (J) halall(ed
c<lntiienT, spall-I>\ -span cOllstructioll. (:I) pro
gressive placclIlellt COllst ruet iOIl. alld (4) 111 ('r('
lIlcl)tal launchillg or push-oUl construction.
1,9,1 c.'ISr/.\'j'j.,l(J, li.1LJ.\'CUl C/.\T/UJUI
The h;li;lllccd or frce calli iI('\('1 COllst run ion CO)l
(ejlt \\'as origillalh dcn'loped to elilllilJate
Lllsework, TClIJporan sllOrillg Ilot ollh is ('XPCIl
si\'(' hUI call he ;1 hazard ill tile Lise of suddcll
floods, as cOlJfirllJed 1)\ lll;tm f;tilllles. (her Ila\'iga
ble waterways or Iranled highwa\'s or railways,
lals('\\ork is either not allowed or ;,('\eIT" re
strictcd. Cantiien:r cOllstructiol], \\hetlier cast ill
place or precast, clilliinates slIch difficulties: C()IJ
structiolJ ilia\, pro(ced from Ihe permallellt piers,
and the Slrllcture is sell-supportillg at all sLtges,
The hasic prillciple of the lIIethod \\as outlincd ill
Section 1. J (Figme
In cast-ill-place COllst ructioll the jonn\\'ork is
sllpported from a 1ll00ahie form carrier, Figure
1.1. Detaib of the lorlll Iranlers arc showll ill Fig
lire 1.43. The forllltra\'eier 1IJ00es forward 011 rails
attached to the deck of the completed structure
and is anchored to the deck at the rear. With the
form t r;J\e!er ill place, a ncw segmellt is formed,
cast, and strcssed to the IHe\'iolish constructed
segment. I n some instances a covering m<l\ be pro
vided on the form carrier so that work m<ly pro
ceed during inclelllent weather, Figure 1.44.
The opcration sequence in cast-in-place bal
anced cantilever construction is as follows:
1. Selling lip and <l(Uustillg carrier.
2. Selling up and aligning forms.
I
Various Methods of Construction 19
CENTERJACt<
GANG-BOARD BOTTOM
FRAME WORK
FRONTAL UPPER
WORKING PLATFORM !
FRONTAL LOWER
WORKING PLATFORM
FIGURE 1.43. Forlll I r;I\\:I('I' IC()t!rtl";\ or D\ckcrhofT & Widmallll),
3. Placing reinlorcclIlcl1l and tendoll ducts.
4. COIlCl'Cling,
5, lllscriing plt'SlleSs IClldollS illlhc segmcnl and
stres'iing
6, RCll1millg I he IOl'll1work,
7. I hI.' lorm carrier (0 the llCXI position
and slarling ;1 new C\cle,
Initia!!\', Ihe normal cOl1slruClion time for a
segmellt W;IS olle week per fOl'1nwork lIni!. Ad
vances ill precast sq';ll1enul construction ha\c bcen
applied ret'el)t!\' 10 the cast-ill-pbce method in
order to reduce the nde 0[' operaliolls and in
crease the eificiellc\ of the travelers. \'.'jth todav's
techllologY' it does Hot seem possible to reduce the
FIGURE 1.44. Bendorf Bridge form tra\-e!er (cour
tesy of DvckerholT & Widmann).
cOllStl'llnioll time for a full cycle below two work
ing ;lIHI this ollly for ;1 very simple structure
with constant cross section and a moderate a1l10UIlI
or reinforcillg' and prestress. For a structure with
\;triahle deplh and longer spans, say ;Ibove 250 ft
(75111), the typical nell' is more realistically three to
lour working' <la\;;.
\Vhe!e a IOllg viaduct type structure is 10 be COIl
strllcted of cast-ill-place segmellts, an auxiliary
stee! girder may be used to support the f()rmwork,
Figure 1A5, as on the Siegtal Bridge. This equip-
FIGURE 1.45. Siegtal Bridge, use of an auxiliary truss
in cast-in-place construction.
, ,
20 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
i
ment may also be used to stabilize free-standing
pier by the anchming of the girder
to the completed portion of the structure. Nor
mally, in construction using the form traveler pre
viously described, a portion of the end spans (near
the abutments) must be cast on falsework. I f the
auxiliary steel girder is used, this operation may be
eliminated. As soon as a double typical camilever is
completed, the auxiliary steel girder is advanced to
the next pier. Obviously, the economic justification
for use of an auxiliary steel girder is a function of
the number of spans and the span length.
1.9.2. PRECAST BALA.\'CED C;/]\'TILEVER
For the first precast segmental bridges in Pal'is
(Choisy-le-Roi, Courbevoie, and so on, 1961 10
1965) a floating crane was Itsed to transfer the pre
cast segments from the casting yard to the barges
that transported them to the project site and was
used again to place the segments in the structure.
The concept of sell-openlling launching gantries
was developed shortly thereafter for the COllst ruc
tioll olthe Oleron Viaduct (1964 to 1966). Further
refined and extellded in its potential, this concept
has heen used ill many large structures.
The ereclioll optiollS available Gill be adapted to
almost all construction sites.
I. Crane Placing Truck or cr,l\vler cranes are
used on land where feasible; float.ing cranes Illay
be used for a hridge over navigable water, Figur'c
1.46. Where site cOllditions allow, a portal crane
may be used Oil the fulllengtb or the deck, prefer
ably with a castillg yard aligned with the deck near
FIGURE 1.46. Segment erection by barge-mounted
crane, Capt. Cook Bridge, Australia (courtesy of G. Be
lofr, Main Roads Department, Brisbane, Australia).
one abutment to minimize the number of handling
operations, Figure 1.47.
2. Beam and Winch A1c1hod If access by land or
water is available under the bridge deck, or at least
around all permanent piers, segments may be
lifted inlO place by hoists secured atop the previ
ously placed segments. Figure 1,48. At first this
method did not permit the installation of precast
pier segments upon the bridge piers, but it has
been improved to solve this problem. as will be ex
plained later.
3. Launching Gan/rip.I There are essentially
two families of launching gantries, Ihe details or
which will be discussed in a later chapter. Here we
briefly outline their use.
In the first family developed lor the Oleron Via
duct, Figures 1.49 and 1.50. the lalllKhing gantrY
is slighth more than the typical span length, alld
t he gantry's rear support reaction i;. applied ncal
the far end of the last completed cantilever. All
segments are brought onto the finished deck alld
placed bv the launching gant!'y ill balanced can
tilever; after cOlllpletion of a calltilever, alter
placing the precast segment over the new pier. the
launching gantry launches itsclllO the next span to
start a new cycle of operations.
In the second family. developed for the De
venter Bridge in Holland and for the Rio Niteroi
Bridge in Brazil, the launching gal1lrY has a length
approximately twice the tvpical span, and the reac
tioll of the legs is always applied abo"e the perIna
nent concrete piers, Figures 1.51 amI 1.52.
Placing segments with a launching gamry is now
in most cases the Illost elegant ane! efficient
method, allowing the least disturbance to the envi
ronment.
1.9.3 SPAN-ln'-SPAN COSSTRUC710.\'
'The balanced cantilever construction method was
developed primarily for long spans, so that con
struction activity for the superstructure could be
accomplished at deck level without the use of ex
tensive falsework. A similar need in the case of
long viaduct structures \\ith relatively shorter
spans has been filled by the development of a
span-by-span methodology using a form traveler.
The following discussion explains this methodol
ogy.13,14,15.16
In long viaduct structures a segmental span-by
span construction may be panicularly advanta
geous. The superstructure is executed in one direc
...
.. "
21 Various Methods of Construction
rt 1:'1 r:
I 11
COUPE TRANSVERSALE
o
FIGURE 1.47. .\liLt!JC;llI Bridge ,II r()urs. Fra[]ce.
tion, span In span. bv Illeans of a forll1 traveler,
Figure with construuion joints or hinges lo
cated at the point or cOIltr:lllexllre. The forlll car
rier in effect provides a tvpe of factory operation
transplanted to the jol) site. It h;lS lllany or the ad
vantages of 1ll;ISS production C011111101lIy associated
with precast plant operations as well as the added
advantage of permitting adjustment, ill
Hoist placing at Pierre Benile Bridges. FIGURE 1.48.
France.
the field. The form traveler 111;1\' be supported on
the piers, or frolll the edge of the previously COlll
pleted construction, at the joint location, and at the
forward pier. In some instances, as in the ap
proaches of Rheinbrticke, Dusseldorf-Flehe, the
movahle formwork may he supported from the
ground. Figure 1.54. The forlll traveler consists of
a steel superstructure, which is lI10ved from the
co111 pleted portioll of the structure to the next span
to be cast. For an above-deck carrier, large
form work elements are suspended from steel rods
during concreting. After concreting and post-ten
sioning, the forms are released and rolled forward
by means of the structural steel outriggers on hoth
sides of the form traveler's superstructure. For a
below-deck carrier, a similar procedure is followed.
l\lany long bridges of this type have been built in
Germany, France, and other countries. Typical
construction time for a 100 ft (30 m) span
superstructure is five to eight working days, de
pending upon the complexity of the structure.
Deck configuration for this type of construction is
usually a monolithic slab and girder (T beam or
douhle T), hox girder, or a mushroom cross sec
Prestressed q:oncrete Bridges and Segmental Construction 22

,.,:....1...- Il.._
.... ...\... , '
FIGURE 1.50. FIGURE 1.52. Rio :'\iteroi laullching girder.
Ion Viaduct.
Placing pn:<.:ast segments on the Ole
,/
(a)

, :400 m-.--l8QfL_+
... ..... 1 06.00 en __ ...
(b}
Ie)
FIGURE 1.49. Fir.s! Llllli'" 01 bUllchillg g;lll!ric, (Ole
rOll \iaduCl).
lioll. This llIethod has heell lIsed rce<:nlh III the
l'lliled States Oil lhe l)el1l1\' Creek 1lI lhe
stale of Washinj.;IoIl.
III ils illitial fOrIll. as described above, the spall
b\'-spall lllelhod is a casi-ill-place techllique. The
sallle principle has heell applied in conjullction
wit h precasl segmental (,'Ollst ructiolJ for I wo \'ery
larj.;c st me' '.Ires ill tile Florida Ke\'s: LOIlj.; Key
Bridge alld SevelJ \lile Bridge, \\ilh SIXlllS of I 1 Hit
(36 Ill) and 135 ft (40 Ill), respectively. Segmellts
are assembled Oil a steel truss to make a complete
FIGURE 1.51. S(,({)lJ<i [alllih 01 [;\lIlll'hillg galltri('s.
Rio :\itcloi Bridge.
spall. Prestressillg telldol1s t hell asslIre 1he <[sselll
1>1\. of the various segments ill Olle spall while
achieving full cOlltinuity with the precedillg spall,
Figw'es 1.55 alld 1.5G. The lIoatinj.; crane lIsed [0
place the segmellts over Ihe also 1Jl()\'es the
[rllss (rolll spall to spall. The contractor lor the
Sevcn I\1ilc Bridge modified the erection scheme
frolllihat lIsed for LOllg Key Bridge bv sllspending
a spall of scgments 11'0111 an O\('r1)(.';ld fabc\\'ork
tntss. This is lite first application of' a method that
seellls to have a great potelltial for treslle struc
tllres ill tcrms or speed of cOllstructioll and e(OIl
(}Ill L
1.9.4 PIWGRL'iS/I'E PL-ICE,HF,,\'T COXSTIWCT/(),\'
Progressive placement is similar 10 the span-IJ\
span method ill that construction starts at olle end
or Ihe structure and proceeds cOlltinuously 10 the
., IT db
23
-
Various Methods of Construction
.'.
h ,
i
FIGURE 1.53. Span-by-span construction using a
form traveler (courtesv or elI'ieh Finsterwalcler),
FIGURE 1.54. Form traveler supported from the
ground. Dtisseldorf-Flehe Bridge.
- PRINCIPE DE POSE
FIGURE 1.55.
ments.
Span-bv-span assembly of precast seg-
FIGURE 1.56. Placing segments on assembly truss for
Long Key Bridge.
other end. It derives its origin, however, from the
cantilever concept. In progressive placel1lellt
the precast segments are placed from one end of
the structure to the other in successive cantilevers
on the same side of the various piers rather than
by balanced cantilevers on each side of a pier. At
present, this method appears practicable and
economical in spans ranging from 100 t" 300 ft
(30 to 90 m).
Because of the length of cantilever (one span) in
relation to construction depth, a movable tempo
rary stav arrangement must be used to limit the
cantilever stresses during construction to a reaSOll
able level. The erection procedure is illustrated in
Figure 1.57. Segments are transported over the
completed portion of the deck to the tip of the
cantilever span under construction, where they are
positioned by a swivel crane that proceeds from
one segment to the next. Approximately one-third
of the span from the pier mav be erected bv the
free cantilever method, the segments being held in
position bv exterior temporary ties and final pre
stressing tendons. For the remaining two-thirds of
the span, each segment is held in position by tem
porarv external ties and by two stays passing
through a tower located over the preceding piers.
Al! stavs are continuous through the tower and an
chored in the previously completed deck structure.
The stavs are anchored to the top Aange of the box
girder segments so that the tension in the stavs can
be adjusted by light jacks.
U sed for the first time in France on several
structures, Figure 1.58, progressive placement is
being applied in the United States for the con
struction of the Linn Cove Viaduct in
Carolina. In this bridge the precast pier construc
tion proceeds also from the deck to solve a difficult
problem of environmental restrictions.
.,
7
24 Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
TOWER
FIGURE 1.57. placement ereClion procedure.
The progressive placement method may also be
applied to cast-in-place construction.
1.9.5. INCREMENTAL LAUNCHING OR PUSH-OUT
COl,'STRUCT/ON
This concept was first implemented on the Rio Ca
roni Bridge in Venezuela, built in 1962 and 1963
by its originators, Willi Baur and Dr. Fritz
Leonhardt of the consulting firm of Leonhardt
and Andra (Stuttgart, Germany).17
Segments of the bridge superstructure are cast
in place in lengths of 30 to 100 ft (10 to 30 m) in
stationary forms located behind the abutment(s),
Figure 1.59. Each unit is cast directly against the
previous unit. After sufficient concrete strength is
reached, the new unit is post-tensioned to the pre
vious one. The assembly of units is pushed forward
in a stepwise manner to permit casting of the suc
ceeding segments, Figure 1.60. Normally a work
cycle of one week is required to cast and launch a
segment, regardless of its length. Operations are
-...- . - --
25

Various Methods of Construction
FIGURE 1.58. Fontenm' Bridge. progressl\'c placing
(onstruuiol1.
scheduled so that the concrete can attain sufficient
strength over a weekend to allow laullching at the
beginning of the next week. Generally. fabrication
in the oil-site can be done in the open, al
though in inclement weather a protective covering
mav be provided.
Bridge alignlllent in this type or cOllstruction
mav be either straiglll or cUlTed; however, the
curve lIlust have a COllstatlt radius. This rcquire
ment of constant rate of curvature applies to bot h
horizontal and vcrtical curvature. The Val Ristel
Bridge in Italv. which was incrementally bunched
on a radius or 1<):2 It (ISO Ill). is ill Fig
ure 1.61. Roaclw;\\ gcoIII et n tluts is dictated by
construction. as opposed to I he present practice in
the Cniled Slates. in which cOI1<;trllctioll is dictated
by geolllctrv.
To allow the supcrstructurc to movc forward,
special low-friction sliding bearings are provided at
the various piers with proper lateral guides. The
main problcm is to imure the rcsistance or the


_________________jIl
FIGURE 1.59. Casting bed and laul1<.:hing arrange
ment (counes\' of Prof. Fritz Leonhardt).
r.

FIGURE 1.60. Incremental launching sequence
(murre,\, of Prof. Fritz Leonhardt).
superstructure under its own weight at all stages of
launching and in all sections. Four methods for this
purpose are used in conjullction with one another.
I. A first-stage prestress is applied concentrically
to the entire cross section and in successive in
crements over the entire length of the
superstructure.
2. To reduce the large negative bending mo
mellts ill the fronl (particularly just before the
superstructure reaches a new pier) a fabricated
structural steel launching nose is attached to
the lead segment, Figure 1.62 .
3. Long spans may be subdivided by means of
tem porary piers to keep bending moments to a
reasonable magnitude, This construction
technique has been applied to spans up to 200
ft (60 m) without the use of temporarv
falsework bents. Spans up to 330 ft (l00 m)
have been built using temporary supporting
bents. 'rhe girders must have a constant depth.
which is usually one-twelfth to one-sixteenth of
the longest span.
4. Another method has been used successfully in
Fmnce to control bending moments in the
-
26
I
Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental CQnstructiQn
-.j
FIGURE 1.61. I ncrcmcnlal launching on a curve
(courtCSY of Prof. Fritz Leonhardt).
deck in the forward pan of the superstructure.
A system using a tower and provisional stays is
attached 10 the front part of the superstruc
ture. The tension of the stays and the corre
sponding reaction of the tower on the deck are
automatically and continuously controlled
during all launching operations to optimize the
stress distribution in the deck, Figure 1.63.
After launching is complete, and the opposite
abutment has been reached, additional prestress
ing is added to accommodate moments in the final
structure, while the original uniform prestress
must resist the varying moments that occur as the
superstructure is pushed over the piers to its final
position.
Today, the longest incrementally launched clear
span is over the River Danube near Worth, Ger
many, with a maximum span length of 550 ft (168
m). Two temporary piers were used in the river for
launching. The longest bridge of this type is the
O!ifant's River railway viaduct in South Africa with
23 spans of 147 ft (45 m) and a IOtal length of 3400
FIGURE 1.62. Stccllaum:hing nose (mul!csv of Prof.
Fritz Leonhardt).
ft (1035 111). The incremental launching technique
was used successfully for the {il'st time in the
United States for the construction of the \Vabash
River Bridge at Covington, Indiana.
1.10 Applications of Segmental Construction
in the United States
The state of the art of designing and constructing
prestressed concrete segmental bridges has ad
vanced greatly in recent years. A wide variety of
structural concepts and prestressing methods are
used, and at least a thousand segmental bridges
have been built throughout the world. We may
conclude that segmental prestressed concrete con
struction is a viable method for building highway
bridges. There are currently no known major
problems that should inhibit utilization of seg
mental prestressed concrete bridges in the L'nited
States. They have been successfully consummated
in other countries and are increasingly being em
ployed in the L'nited Slates.
27
WD
.'
Applications of Segmental Construction in the United States
(aJ
(bJ
FIGURE 1.64. Three Sisters Bridge.
(c)
(dJ
(e)
FIGURE 1.63. IIHH'lllcnlai bunching with provi
sional tower and 'iU\ ,.
One of the earliest projects for which segmental
constructioll was considered was the proposed I n
terstate 1-266 Potomac River Crossing in Wash
ington, D.C., Figure 1.64, otherwise known as the
Three Sisters Bridge. This structure contemplated
a 750 ft (229 Ill) center span with side spans of 440
ft (134 m) 011 reyerse hve-degree curves, huilt wilh
cast-in-place segmental construction. Because of
environmental objections. this project never
reached fruition.
The JFK \[emorial Causeway (Intracoastal
Waterway), Corpus Christi, Texas, Figure 1.65,
represents the hrst precast, prestressed, segmental,
balanced cantilever construction completed in the
United States. I t was opened to traffic in 1973. De
signed by the Bridge Division of the Texas High
way Department, it has a center span of 200 ft (61
m) with end spans of 100 ft (30.5 m).
The first cast-in-place, segmental, balanced can
tilever, prestressed concrete bridge constructed in
the United States is the Pine Valley Bridge in
California, on Interstate 1-8 about 40 miles (64 km)
east of San Diego. Designed by the California De
partment of Transportation, the dual structure,
Figure 1.66, has a total length of 1716 ft (53,6 m)
FIGURE 1.65. JFK ;"'femorial Causeway. Corpus
Christi, Texas.
FIGURE 1.66. Pine Valley Bridge (courtesy of
CALTRANS).
28
Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
FIGURE 1.67. Rendering of Houston Ship Channel Bridge.
with spans of 270, 340,450, 380, and 276 it (82.3,
103.6, 137.2, 115.8, and 84.1 m).
As indicated previously, numerous segmental
bridge pntiects have been constructed or are con
templated in the United States. Many of them will
be discussed in detail in the following chapters.
Among the most significant are the Houston Ship
Channel Bridge with a clear span of 750 ft (228 m),
which will be the longest concrete span in the
Americas, Figure 1.67, and the Seven Mile Bridge,
which will be the longest segmental bridge in
:\'orth America, Figure] .58.
FIGURE 1.68. Rendering of Seven Mile Bridge.
1.11 Applicability and Advantages of Segmental
Construction
Segmelltal construction has extended the practical
range of spall lcngths for concrete hridges. Practi
cal collsiderations of handling and shipping limit
the prestressed I-girder type of bridge construc
tion to spans of about ]20 to ISO ft (3710 45 Ill).
Bevond this range, post-tensioned cast-in-place
box girders on falsework are the only viable con
crete alternative. At many sites, however, falsework
is not practical or evcn feasible, as when crossing
deep ravilles or large navigable waterways.
Falsework construction also has a serious impact
upon environment and ecology.
Prestressed concrete segmental construction has
been developed to solve these problems while ex
tending the practical span of concrete bridges to
about 800 ft (250 m) or even 1000 ft (300 m). With
cable-stayed structures the span range can be ex
tended to 1300 ft (400 m) and perhaps longer with
the materials available today.13 Table 1.1 sum
marizes the range of application of various forms
of construction by span lengths.
Although the design and construction of very
long-span concrete segmental structures pose an
important challenge, segmental techniques may
29 Applicability and Advantages of Segmental Construction
TABLE 1.1 Range of Application of Bridge Type by Span Lengths"
Bridge Types
0- 150 ft
100- 300 II
100- ft
250- 600 fI
200-1000 ft
800-1500 ft
I-type pretensioned girder
Cast-in-place post-tensioned box girder
Precast balanced cantilever segmental, constant depth
Precast balanced cantilever segmental, variable depth
Cast-In-place cantilever segmelllal
Cable-stay with balanced cantilever' segmental
a 1 ft O.:\o4il Ill.
find even more important applications in moderate
span lengths and less spectacular structures. Espe
cialh in difficult urban areas or ecologv-sensitive
sites', segmenlal structures h;I\'e proven to be a val
uable asset.
Tod<l\' 111mI for new bridges can be adapted
for segmental cOllcrete construction. The principal
advantages of segmcl1Ial cOllstrllctiol1 ma\' be
summarized as follows:
1. Seglllelllal COllsrru('Iion is ;tIl efficient and
economical met hod lor a large range of span
lengths and I\pes of structllre. Structures with
sharp cllrves and \'ariable superelevation mav he
easily accol1lll1odated.
2. COllcrete seglllellLtl cOllstruction often pro
vides for I he lowcst ill\CSll1lCtlt cost. Savitl!-{s of 10
to 20o/c ovcr comentional mcthods have been
realized In competitive bidding 011 alterllate de
signs or b\' realistic cost comparisolls.
3. Segmelltal cOIl!'trtlcrioll permits a reduction
of construction time. This is particularly true for
precast methods, where segments may be man
ufactured while substructure work proceeds and
be assemblcd rapidly thereafler. Further cost sav
ings ensue from the lessenillg of the influence or
inflation on total const ructioll costs,
4. SegJl1ental construction protects the envi
ronment. Segmental viaduct-type bridges Gill
minimize the impact of highway construction
through em'ironmentalh sensitive areas. \Vhereas
conventional cllt-antl-fill nVe highway construc
tion can scar the cllvil'Onlllellt and impede wildlife
migration, an elevated viaduct-type structure re
quires onh a relatively narrow path along the
alignment to provide access for pier construction.
Once the piers have been constructed, all con
struction activit\' proceeds from above. Thus, the
impact on the environment is minimized.
5. Interference with existing traffic during
construction is significant!; reduced, and expen
sive detours call be eliminated. Figure 1.69 indi
cates how precast segments may be handled while
traffic is maintained with a minimum disturbance.
6. Segmental construction contributes toward
aesthetically pleasing structures in many different
sites. A long approach viaduct (Bl'Otonne, Figure
1. 70), a curved bridge over a ri\'cr (Saint Cloud,
Figure 1.7l), or an impressive viaduct over a deep
valley (Pine Valley, Figure 1.66) are some examples
where nature accepts human endeavor in spite of
its itllperfcctiom.
7. Materials and labor arc lIslIal! y available 10
callv for segmental construction. The overall labor
requirelllcilt is less than for cOllventional con
struction methods. For the precast option a
part of the work force on site is replaced by plant
labor.
8. As a consequence, quality control is easier to
perform and high-quality work may be expected.
9. Segmcntal bridges when properly designed
and when constructed by competent contractors
under proper supervision will prove to be practi
cally free of maintenance for mallv veal's. Only
bearillgs and ex pansion joints (usuallv very few for
continuous decks) nced to be controlled at regular
intervals.
....
":;;;..
.
FIGURE 1.69. Saint Cloud Bridge, segments placed
ovel' traffic.
30 . Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Segmental Construction
FIGURE 1.70. Brotonne Bridge approach.
10. During construction, the technique shows
an exceptionally high record of safety.
Precast segmental construction today is compet
itive in a wide range of applications with other
materials and construction methods, while it adds a
further refinement to the recognized advantages
of prestressed concrete.
FIGURE 1.71. Saint Cloud Bridge, France, curved
bridge over a river.
References
I. H. G. Tyrrell, History of Bridge Engineering, Henry G.
TYITell, Chicago, 1911.
2. Elizaheth B. Mock, The Archi/ec/ure of Bridges, The
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1949.
3. T. Y. Lin, Design of Prestressed Concrete S/ruclurcs.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958.
4. Anon., "Highway Design and Operational Practices
Related to Highway Safety," Report of the Special
AASHO Traffic Safety Committee, February 1967.
5. Anon., Prestressed Concrete for Long Span Bridges, Pre
stressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, 1968.
6. Anon., "Long Spans with Standard Bridge Gii'ders,"
PCI Bridge Bulletin, March-April 1967, Prestressed
Concrete Institute, Chicago.
7. "Recommended Practice for Segmental Construc
tion in Prestressed Concrete," Report by PCI Com
mittee on Segmental Construction, journa/ of the
Prfltrflsed Concretr Institute, Vol. 20, :\0. 2, March
April 1975.
8. Clrich Finsterwalder, "Prestressed Concrete Bridge
Construction," jounla/ of the A mrriwlI COllcrrte Illsti
tute, Vol. 62, 1\0. 9, September 1965.
9. F. Leonhardt, "Long Span Prestressed Concrete
Bridges in Ellrope,"jouT/w/ of the Prr'strr,l.lrd COllcretr
I II.Ititute , Vol. 10, No. I, Februarv 1965.
10. Jean Muller, "Long-Span Precast Prestressed Con
crete Bridges Built in Cantilever," Fint Intnllatiolla/
SYllljlO.lium, COllcrrte Bridge Desigll, ACI Publicatioll
SP-23, Paper 23-40, American Concrete Institute,
Detroit. 1969.
II . .lean Muller, "Ten Years of Experience in Precast
SegJllen tal Const ruct ion ," j ourlla/ oj' thf' Prr.l/rrs.lf'r!
COllrrf'/f' Institute, Vol. 20, ,,",0. I, January-Februan
1975.
12. \fan-Chung Tang, "Kmor-Bahelthllap Bridge-A
World Record Span," l'reprint Papn 3441. ASCI-:
Convention, Chicago. October 16-20, 1978.
1:-\. c. A. Ballinger, W. Podolny, Jr., and M . .J. Ah
ralIallls, "A Report on the Design and Construction
of Segmelltal Prestressed Concrete Bridges ill West
erll Ellrope-1977," International Road Federa
tion, Washington, D.C., June 1978. (Also a\'ailable
f!'Olll Federal Highway Administration, Offices of
Research alld Development, \\'ashillgtoll, D.C., Re
po1'l :\0. FHWA-RD-78-44.)
14. Clrich Fillsterwalder, ":\ew De\'Clopmellts in Pre
stressing Methods and Concrete Bridge COllstruC
tioll," Ihwir/ag-Bf'Tich/e, 4-1967, September 1967,
D\'ckcrhofl & Widmann KG, Munich, Germany.
15. lJlrich Fillsterwalcler, "Free-Cantile\'er COllstructioll
of Prestressed COIIC\'ete Bridges alld \1ushroolll
Shaped BI'idges," First Ill/al/ationa/ SpnjlOsiulll, COI/
rrr/r Bridgf' Df'sigll, ACI Publication SP-23, Paper SP
23-26, AlIlerican Concrete Institute. Detroit, 1969.
16. C. A. Ballinger and W. Podol ny, Jr., "Segmental
Construction in \\'estern Europe-Impressions of
an IRF Stud\, Team," Procredings, Conference con
ducted by Transportation Research Board, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., TRR 665,
Vol. 2, September 1978.
17. Willi Baur, "Bridge Erection by Launching is Fast,
Safe, and Efficient," Civi/ Engineering-ASCE, Vol.
47, No.3, March 1977.
18. Walter Podolny, Jr., and J. B. Scalzi, "Construction
and Design of Cable-Stayed Bridges," John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York, 1976.
2
Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 BENDORF BRIDGE, GERMANY
2.3 SAIl'<T ADELE BRIDGE, CANADA
2.4 BOUGUEN BRIDGE IN BREST Al'<D LACROIX FAL
GARDE BRIDGE, FRAl'<CE
2.5 SAINT JEAN BRIDGE OVER THE GAROl'<NE RIVER
AT BORDEAUX, FRAl'<CE
2.6 SIEGTAL AND KOCHERTAL BRIDGES, GER\t:ANY
2.7 PINE VALLEY CREEK BRIDGE, U.S.A.
2.8 GENNEVILLIERS BRIDGE, FRANCE
2.9 GRAND'MERE BRIDGE, CANADA
2.10 ARNHEM BRIDGE, HOLL-\ND
2.11 NAPA RIVER BRIDGE, U.S.A.
2.12 KOROR.BABELTHUAP, U.S. PACIFIC TRUST
TERRITORY
2.13 VEJLE FJORD BRIDGE, DENMARK
2.i introduction
Developed initiallv for steel structures. cantilever
construction was lIsed for reinforced concrete
bridges as earh as fift\ veal's ago. In 1928. Frevs
sinet used the cantilever cO!lcept to construct the
springings of the arch rib in the Plougastel Bridge.
Figure 2.1. The reactions and overturning 1l10
melHs applied bv the faisework to the lower part of
the arch ribs were balanced bv steel ties connecting
the two short cantilevers..-\ provisional prestress
was thus applied bv the ties to the arch ribs with the
aid of jacks and deviation saddles.
The first application of balanced cantilever con
struction in a form c1oseh' resembling its present
one is due \0 a Brazilian engineer, E. Baumgart,
who designed and built the Herval Bridge over the
Rio Peixe in Brazil in 1930. The 220 1 (68 111)
center span was constructed by the cantilever
method in reinforced concrete with steel rods ex
tended at the various sIages of construction by
threaded couplers. Several other structures 1'01
2.14 HOUSTON SHIP CHANNEL BRIDGE, U.S.A.
2.15 OTHER NOTABLE STRUcrURES
2.15.1 Medway Bridge, U.K.
2.15.2 Rio Tocantins Bridge, Brazil
2.15.3 Puente Del Azufre, Spain
2.15.4 Schubenacadie Bridge, Canada
2.15.5 Incienso Bridge, Guatemala
2.15.6 Setubal Bridge, Argentina
2.15.7 Kipapa Stream Bridge, U.S.A.
2.15.8 Parrots Ferry Bridge, U.S.A.
2.15.9 Magnan Viaduct, France
2.15.10 Puteaux Bridge, France
2.15.11 Tricastin Bridge, France
2.15.12 Eschachtal Bridge, Gennany
2.16 CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
lowed in varioLls countries, particularly in France.
Albert Caquot, a leading engineer of his time, built
several reinforced concrete bridges in canlilever.
Shown in Figures 2.2 through 2.4 is Bewns
Bridge over the River Seine ncar Paris, with a dear
center span of 31 () ft (95 m), being constructed
in successive cantilever segments with auxiliarv
trusses. 'This bridge design was prepared in 1942.
The method was not widely used at that time,
because the excessive amount of reinforcing steel
Overturning
moment due
to centering
FIGURE 2.1. Cantilever construCLion of arch spring
ings for Plougastel Bridge, France.
31
32
L
33 Introduction
I,'
J""'...... flh

ttY.... ft ,.,,. I. NJIItI f,ltw",*"
FIGURE 2.3. BezoJls Bridge, constructioll procedure.
required to balanlt: the calltilevcr moments pro
duced the tendency toward cracking inherent in
an oH.'ITei nl'orced slab suhject to permanent tell
sile stresses.
The introduction of prestressing in conuete
stnldllrcs dralllatically changed the situatioll.
Cscd successfully in 1950 and 1951 by Fillsterwal
der with the German firm of DyckerhofT & \Vid
mann for the construction of the two bridges of
Balduillstein and :\eckarrews, balanced cantilever
construction of prestressed concrete bridges ex
perienced a continuous popularity in German\'


FIGURE 2.4. Bezons Bridges under construction.
34
Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 2.5, La Voulte Bridge. France.
and surrounding countries. !'\icolas Esquillan de
signed and built a large bridge by the cantilcvcr
mcthod over the Rhine River in France, La Voulte
Bridge (J 952), where an overhead truss was lIsed
during construction, Figure 2.5.
Betwcen 1950 amI 1965 more than 300 such
hridges were constructed in Europe alonc. Initially
all structurcs were prestresscd by high-strength
bars, and hinges werc provided at the center of the
various spans. Later other prestressing methods
with parallel wire or strand tendons were also used.
More important, a significant improvement in
structural behavior and long-term performance
was made possible b\ the achievement of deck
continuity between the various cantilever arms.
The first cantilever bridges with continuous
were designed and built in France in 1962: the
Lacroix Falgarde Bridge and Bougllen Bridge.
Figures 2.6 and 2.22. Subsequently, the
of continuity were recognized and accepted in
many countries.
From 1968 to 1970 cantilever construction was
considered for the Three Sisters Bridge in Wash
ington, D.C., Figure 1.64. This never
reached the construction stage. The hrst cast -in
place balanced cantileYer segmcntal bridge built in
the United States is the Pine Valley Creek Bridge
ill California (1972 to 1974), Figure '2.7. To dalc.
all segmcntal bridges constructed in the U niled
States have been eit hcr prccast or cast -in-place
cant ilever const ruction, wit h thc following cxcep
tions:
\-"abash Ri\'cr Bridge. illcremelltallv launched
(Chapter 7)
Dcnny Creek alld Florida Ke\'s Bridgcs, spall-In.
span constructioll (Chapter 6)
FIGURE 2.6. BOllguen Bridge in Brest, France. First continuous rigid-frame structure
built in balanced cantilever.
35 Bendorf Bridge, Germany
,
r
,> ....
"", ......
;:
..

,;;"Y
1
t
FIGURE 2.7. Pinc Valin Creek Bridge,
,
Lilln COH? Viaduc\. progressive placement COll
stmelioll (Chapler ())
The bal;lIlCed clillilever lllethod or
has alreadv been briefly described. III Ihis chapter
we shall see how this 1l1ethod has beel! i111
plelllcll1cd OIl structures bcfore we go Oil
to cOllsider specific design ;tI1d technological as
pects.
2.2 Bendorf Bridge, Germany
An earh alld outstanding example of the casl-il1
place balanced (;1I11ile\er bridge is the Bendorf
autobahn bridge O\'er the Rhine River about 5
miles (8 km) north of Koblenz, West Germ<1ll\'.
Built in 1964, this structure. Figure 2.8, has a total
length of 337S ft (1029.7111) with a navigation span
of 682ft (20S m). The design competition allowed
the competing firms to choose the material,
configuration, and design of the structure. Navi
gation requirements 011 the Rhine River dictated a
328 ft (100 111) wide channel during construction
and a final channel width of 672 ft (205 m). The
winning design was a dual structure of cast-in
place concrete segmental box girder construction.
consummated in two distinct portions. In part one
FIGURE 2.8. Bendorf Bridge (courtesy of Dyckerhofl
& Widmann).
(west.) are the river spans consisting of a symmetri
cal seven-span colltinuOlls girder with an overall
length of 1721 ft (524.7 Ill). In part two (east) are
the' nine-span contilluous a ppro:Jch girders wit.h
the spans ranging froJl1 134.5 ft (41 111) to :WH rt
Ill) and havillg an o\eralllellgth of 1657 h (505 m),
Figures 2.9 and 2.10.
The continuous, seven-span. malt1 river stnlC
lure consists of twin, independent, single-cell hox
girders. Total width of Ihe hrid[.ie cross SCUiOll is
I() I 1'1 (30.S() 111). Each single-cell box has a lOp
lbnge width 01 rt (13.2 Ill), a hottOlll Jlange
width of 23.6 ft (7.2 m), and wehs wilh a constant
thickness or 1.2 h Ill). Girder dept h is 3-t.2H h
(10.45 m) at the pier and 14.44 ft (4.4 111) al
midspan represellting, with respect to the main
span, a depth-tn-span r;lIio of 1120 and U1:7. re
specti\'eh'. Girdcr depth of t.he cnd or this se\CIl
spall unit reduced to 10.H ft (3.3 Ill). The main
spall has a hinge at midspan that is de-
Hinge
Longitudinal section
Plan
Cross section at
river pier
Cross section
at pier G
FIGURE 2.9. Bendorf Bridge, Part One (West), lon
giwdin<ll section. plan, and cross sections at the ri\'er
pier and pier G, from ref. 1 (courtesy of Beton- lind
Stahlbetonball).
36 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
I
. ,';. - .. II, a,roa
9 ,m"L __ "to _.. __ sc,o __ L-__ ,,8,0 cao ' -----.!...-.- sz.o--f!...-I,S-_1-
----.-.------------SOS,Om------------;-,-,.--------.----- -.-_.---._.--,
Longitudinal section
Plan
Federal
FIGURE 2.10. Bendorf Bridge, Part T\w (East). longitudinal section and plan. from
ref. I (courtesy of Beton- und Stahlbetonbau).
signed to transmit shear and torsion forces only,
thus allowing the superstructure to he cast
l11011olit hically with the rnai n piers.
1

2
After con
struction of the piers, the superstructure over the
navigahle portioll of the Rhille was completed
within one year. The repetition of the procedure in
240 sCi-illlcnts executed one aftcr the other offered
numcrous occasions to mechanize and improve the
erection Illet hod. 3.4
Thc dcck slah has a longitudinally varying thick
ness from II in. (279.4 O1m) at midspan to 16.5 in,
(419 Illlll) at the picrs, The bottom flange varies ill
thickncss from fi in. (152 mm) at midspan to 7.87 ft
(2.4 Ill) at the piers. To reduce dead-weight
bending-moment stresses in the bottom flange
concrcte, compression reinforcement was used
extensivel\' in regions away from the piers.
Thicknesses or the various elements of the cross
seClioll are controlled partly by stress requirements
and partly by clearance requirements of the ten
dons and anchorages.
The structure is three-dimensionally pre
stressed: longitudinal prestressing uniformly dis
tributed across the cross section; transverse
prestressing in the top flange; and inclined pre
stressing in the webs. A total of 560 Dywidag bars
1! in. (32 mm) in diameter resists the negative bend
ing moment produced by a half-span, Figure 2, I L
FIGURE 2.11. BendOl-f Bridge, cross section showing
tendons in the deck, ref. 2. (courtesy of the American
C()!l(Tete Institute).
The maximum concrete compressive stress in the
bottom flange at the pier is IS00 psi (12.4 MPa). As
a result of the three-dimensional prestress tbe ten
sile stresses in the concrete \\'cre negligiblc. The
longitudinal prest ressing is incrementalh' de
creased from the pier to the hinge at midspan ami
to the adjacent piers: thus, shear stresses in the
webs on both sides of t he main picrs are almost
constant. Therefore, the web thickness l-emalIlS
constant and t he diagonal prest ressing remains
ycrv nearly constant.
Const ruction began on March 1, 1962. After
completion of the foundations and piers, balanced
calltilever operations began from the west river
pier in July 1963 and were com pleted at the' end of
that year. Segments were 12 ft (3.65 m) in Icngth in
the river span and 11.4 ft (3.48 Ill) in the remaining
spans, Segments \\'ere cast on a \\'eekh cycle. As the
segments becal1le shallower, the construction cvcle
was adyancecl to two segments per week. During
winter months, to protect operations from inclem
ent weather, the form traveler was provided with
an enclosure, Figure 2.12,
FIGURE 2.12. Bendorf Bridge, protective covering
for form traveler (courtesy of Ulrich Finsterwaider),
l
37 Saint Adele Bridge, Canada
-------.j' -"-'--132'
' I,
, "
FIGURE 2.13. SIC. ;\dcle Bridge, elevation, from ref. 5 (courtesy of Engineering News-Rf'corrl).
FIGURE 2.14. Ste, Adele Bridge, view of variable
depth box girder (COllrtes\" of the Portland Cement As
sociation),
III the comtrllctioll of the approach spans, the
n\'c spans from the east abutl]lent were built in a
rOllline manller with the assistatlce of faisework
bents. The rour spans over water were cOllstructed
bv a pro,L\"ressi\'e placell1en t cantilever fllet hod
Chapter 6), which elllplm'ed a telllpOl'ar:' cab1e
stay arrangement to reduce tht: calltilever stresses.
2.3 Saint Adele Bridge, Canada
;
This sttllCllln:', buill in 19Gl (the same year as the
Bendorf Bridge), represents the lirst segmental
bridge, in the COlltelllpOran' sense, cOllstruLied ill
North America. [I crosses the River of the :'vlules
near Ste..\dele, Quebec. alld is part of the
Laurential) .\lliOrtlllie. II is a single-cell box girder
contillllolis three-span dual strllcllIre with a cellter
span of265 tr Ill) and end spansof ft () in.
(40.4 m), Figure 2.13. ,\t one elld is a prestressed
concrete :'):) t't (If).H m) simple spall. The bridg-e has
a Ion ft CW,;')!Il) \Trtical clearance oyer the river ill
the GlIIVOIl helow,
The \'ariable-depth girder is 16 ft 3 in. (4.96 Ill)
deep at the piers and 6 ft (1.83 tTl) deep at midspan
and its extremities, Figure 2.14. Each dual struc
ture consists of;} single-cell rectangular box 23 ft (7
Ill) wiele with the top fiang-e cantilevering- on each
side 9 ft (2,75 m) for a total width of 41ft (12.5 m),
Fig-ure 2.15, pr()\iding three traffic lanes in each
direnioll. Thickness of bottom flange, webs, and
top flange are respectively I ft It in, (0.35 m), I ft 6
in. (0.46 Ill), and I ft (0.3 rn).5
A (Otal of 70 prestressi Ilg tendons were required
in each girder. Each tendon of the SEEE system
cOllsists of seven strands of seyen 0.142 in. (3.6
!llln) wires, The se\'en strands are splayed out
through a steel ring ill the anchorage and held in a
circular pattern by steel wedges between each of
the strallds. The number of tendons anchored off
at each seglllent end varies with the distance from
the pier, increasing- from an initial six tendons to
eig-ht tendons at the eighth segment, then de
creasing to two tendons at the eleventh segment at
midspan. There are an additional 44 positive
mOlllellt tendons ill the center span located in the
bouolll flange. 5
Ste. Adele Bridge, view of end of box
girder segment (counesv of the Portland Cement As
sociation),
Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilet!er Girder Bridges 38
FIGURE 2.16. Ste. Adele Bridge, dual structure
under constructioll bv the balanced cantilever method.
frOll! ref. j (courtesv of EligillN'rilig Sl'll',I-RI'(Orrl).
Forty-sevell segments are required for each
strtlCture, eleven cantile\'ered each side of each
pier, a closure segment at midspan of the cellter
span, and a segment cast in place on each abut
lllent. Segments cast hy t he form tr,l\'e!er were 10
It n in, Ill) in lellgth.' Four traveling forllls
were used 011 the olle pair 011 each side of
the pier for each of the dual structures, Figures
2.16 and 2.li.
The forllls \\'ere supported bv a pair of 42 ft
(12.8 111) long, 36 in. (914.4 Illlll) deep structmal
steel beams spaced 15 f't (S.Si m) 011 centers, that
cantileyered beyond the completed portion of the
structure. Initially the cantileyered beams were
FIGURE 2.17. Ste. Adele Bridge, view of form travel
ers c<lntile\'(:ring from completed port ion of the st rtle
tllre, from ref. 5 (courtesy of Enginl'fring A'('us-Rf(Ord).
counterweighted with iO tons (63.5 !Ill) of concrete
hlock, which was gradualh' diminished as COI1
struction proceeded and the depth of the segments
decreased. The first pair of segments (at the pier),
each with a length of21 ft in. (6.4i m), were cast
on a temporary scaffolding braced to the pier,
Figure 2.1 H, which remained fixed in position
throughout the erection process.
s
Construction of four segments per week, one at
each end of a cantilever from two adjacent piers,
was attained 1)\ the following fi\'e-d,1\ cOllstruction
cycle'>:
Fir,11 day: Travelillg forms moved, hottOlll flallge
fOrilled, reillforced. alld cast. In the parallel span
there was a olle-dav lag such that cre\\'s could shih
back alId forth between adjacent structures,
S('(ond dO)': Reinforcement placed for wehs and
top /lange.
Third d(l\': Concrete placed for webs alld top
lIallge. cure hegun.
Fllurlh do)': TendOlls placed ,llld prest ressi llg
jacks positiollcd while COlJcrete was ctlring.
FijI" doy: Prest ressing aCCOlll pi is lIed. Forms
stripped: preparatiolls lllade 10 repeat ndc.
rile ncle begaq Oil :-tolJday. Since there was a
lag of ()ne day 011 the parallel structure. a six-!!;!\'
work week was required. U pOll completioll of the
ele\'en th seglllellt ill each ca I1tih:\'Cr the cont raet or
installed telllporan' blsework to support the
abutlllent end amI then cast the closure segment at
midspall. Counterweights were imtalled at the
abutmellt cnd to balallce the weight of thc closure
forms alld seglllent weight. After installation and
stressing of the contilluity tcmlons. ai>utmelll seg
ments were cast and expallsioll joillts installed."
2.4 Bouguen Bridge in Brest and Lacroix Falgarde
Bridge, France
The Bouguen Bridge in Brittany, West Province in
France, is the lirst rigid-frame continuous struc
ture built in balanced calltilever (1962 to 19(3).
The finished bridge is shown in Figure 2.6, while
dimensions are given in Figure 2.19. It carries a
three-lane highway over a valley 145 ft (44 m)
deep-Le Vallon du Moulin a Poudre-and pro
\'ides a link between the heart of Brest city and Le
Bouguen, a new urban development.
The total length of bridge is 684 It (208 Ill). The
main structure is a three-span rigid frame with
Sf
39 Bouguen Bridge in Brest and Lacroix Falgarde Bridge, France
FIGURE 2.18. Ste. Adele Bridge. schematic of construction sequence. from
ref. ;) (courtesy of EngiW'Pring News-Record).
piers elasticall\' built-in on rock foundations with
span lengths of 147, 268, and 147 ft (45, 82, and 45
m). At one end the deck rests on an existing
masonry wall properh strengthened; at the other
end a shorter rigid frall1e with a clear deck span of
87 ft (26.5 111) p1'Ovides tire approach to the main
bridge.
'The deck cOllsists of two box girders with vertical
webs of variable height, varving frolll 15 ft 1 in.
(4.6 m) at the support to 6.5 ft (2 m) at midspan
and the far ends of the side vVidth of each
box girder is 10 ft (3 Ill); web thickness also is CO[l
stant throughout the deck and is equal to in.
(0.24 111).
Piers consist of two square box COIUllllIS I() ft by
10ft (3 x 3 m) with wall thickness of 91 ill. (0.24 m)
located under each deck girder. Two walls in.
(0.22 111) thick with a slight recess used for ;11'
chitectural purposes connect the two COIUIIIIlS.
Both piers are of conventional reinforced concrete
construction, sli p-formed at a speed reaching 14 ft
(4.25 m) per day in (JIle continllolls operation,
(a)
I !
J 1
i

,..
'.00

(\
"
.00

;
I
I
p,;
---r
'_00 100
Midspan section Pier section Plan section at pier
(b)
FIGURE 2.19. Bouguen Bridge. France, general dimensions. (a) Longitudinal section.
(Ii) Cross sections.
40 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
, ,/
. i ! i ~ . ...~ FIGURE 2.22. Lacroix-Falgarde Bridge, view of the
FIGURE 2.21. Bouguen Bridge, view of the traveler. structure during construction.
FIGURE 2.20. Bouguen Bridge. construction of east
cantilever.
The superstructure box girders are connected to
the pier shaft bv transverse diaphragms made in
tegral with both elements to insure a rigid connec
tion between deck and main piers. Construction of
the deck proceeded in balanced cantilever with 1()
ft (:1 m) long segments cast in place in form travel
ers with a one-week cycle, Figures 2.20 and 2.21.
High-early-strength concrete was used and no
steam curing was Iequired. Concrete was allowed
to harden for 60 hours before application of pre
stress. The following cube strengths were obtained
througboUl the project:
60 hours (time of pre 3700 psi (25.5 I\fPa)
stress)
i days 5500 psi (37.9 MPa)
28 days 7000 psi (48.3 MPa)
90 days 8200 psi (56.5 MPa)
Only one pair of form tra\'elers was used for the
entire project, but each traveler could accommo
date the construction of both girders at the same
time.
During construction of the deck, much attention
was given to the control of vertical deflections.
Adequate camber was gi"en to the travelers to fully
compensate for short- and long-term cOllcrete
deflections. The cumulative deflection at midspan
of the first cantilever arm was H in. (40 mm) at
time of completion. Concrete creep caused this
deflection to reach 3 in. (75 mm) at the time the
second cantilever arm reached the midspan sec
tion. Proper adjustment of the travelers allowed
both cantilever arms to meet within i in. (3 mm) at
the time continuity was achieved. flat jacks were
provided over the outer supports to allow for am'
further desired adjustment.
The structure is prestressed longitudinally b,
tendons of eight 12 111m strands:
76 tendons over the top of the pier segment,
32 tencions at (he bottom of the crown section,
20 tendons in the side spans,
and transversely bv tendons of seven 12 111m
strands.
The Lacroix Falgarde Bridge over Ariege
River in France, built in 1961 and 1962, is similar
to the Bouguen Bridge and represents (he first
continuous deck built in balanced cantilever (see
(he photograph of the finished bridge, Figure
2.22). It consists of three continuous spans 100,
200, and 100 ft (30.5, 61, and 30.5 111). The single
box girder has a depth varying between 4 ft 5 in.
and 10 ft 6 in. (1.35 to 3.2 111). Dimensions are
given in Figure 2.23. The superstructure rests on
both piers and abutments through laminated
bearing pads.
The deck was cantilevered and the construction
started simultaneously from the two piers with
four travelers working symmetrically. During COI1
41 Saint Jean Bridge Over the Gardonne River at Bordeaux, France

_ 30 25 j 60.00 I 30 2
[
2.50 I
FIGURE 2.23. Bridge. e\e\;ttion and cross seniol1.
structioll. the deck was telllpOLlri!v fixed to the
piers b\' vertical prestress. rhe structure is pre
stressed longitlldinalh h\' tendolls of H IllIll
strands alld tLlIlS\er'iel\ 1)\ tendons of tweh'e 7
mill strallds.
2.5 Saint Jean Bridge over the Garonne River at
Bordeaux, France
Completed ill .\pril the Saint Jean Bridge ill
Bordeaux is a remarkable application of the new
concepts deH'loped at that time in cast-in-place
cantilever cOllstructioll. l'he main structure has all
or !5!i() t't (47:') Ill) and is continuous
with expallsionjoilll'i ollh on:r the ahutments. The
deck is free to expand on neoprene hearings lo
cated Oil all ri\'('r piers. Figl1l'e 2.21. .'\ very
efficient method of pier and fOllndatioll constl'llC
lioll was also which will he described in
more detail ill ChaplCl' 5.
The bridge was built in the heart of the cit\' of
Bordeaux O\'er the Caroline Ri\'er between a 175
year-old multiple-arch stone structure and a 120
year-old railwav bridge designed by Eiflel, the en
gineer who designed the EifTel Tower.
The main structure includes six continuous
spans. The central spans are :253 h (77 111) long and
allow a navigation clearance of 38 ft (11.60 m)
abm'e the lowest water level, while the end spans
are only :2:22 ft (67.80 111) long. Short spans at both
ends. 50ft (15.40 m) long, provide end restraint of
the side spans over the abutments. The overall
width of the bridge is RR ft (26.RO m), consisting of
six traffic lanes, twO walkways, and two evde lanes.
Super'structure dimensions are shown in Figure
2.25,
The deck consists of three box girders. The COIl
stant depth of 10.R ft (3.30 m) has been increased
to 13 ft (3.90 lll) over a length of 50 It (15 111) on
each side of the piers to illlprme the bending
capacit\' of the pier section and reduce the amollnt
of cantilever prestress. :\0 were used
except O\'er the supports. '['he results of a detailed
a11 a lysis performed to <fetermi ne t he transverse
hehavior of the deck con firmed this choice (see
detailed description ill Chapter 4).
Longitudillal prestressing consists of tendons
with t we!ve H 111111 and twehe } ill. st rands. Trans
verse prestressillg consists or tendons with twelve R
nllll strands at 2.5 ft (0.75 m) illtervais. Vertical
prestressing is also provided ill the wel)s near the
supports.
As indicated in Figure 2.26. three separate pier
colulllns support the three deck girders. 'They are
capped with large prestressed transverse dia
phragms. The piers are founded in a gravel bed lo
cated at a depth 0[,15 ft (14 Ill) below the river level
bv means of' a reinforced concrete circular caisson
FIGURE 2.24. Saint Jean at Bordeaux, view of the
completed structure.
:
COUPE LONGITUOINALE
(a)
FIGURE 2.25. Saini Jean al Bordeaux. (a) Longitudi1lal and (/I) (TOSS seniollS.
1
t--.
~ t J
1
\(DI
1
/
If
f\
29'(>'
(,.
i
':0
I
! .,
i
t'3ali
29'(>'
I
1 's'
I
,
FIGURE 2.26. Saint Jean Bridge at Bordeaux, typical section at river piers.
::
42
43 Siegtal and Kochertal Bridges, Germany
FIGURE 2.27. Saint Jean Bridge at Bordeaux, work
progress on piers and deck.
18.5 ft (5.60 1l1) in diameter and 10ft (3 m) high,
tloated and sunk to the river bed and then open
dredged to the gravel bed. Precast circular match
cast segments prestressed vertically make up the
permanent walls of caissons, while additional seg
ments are used temporarily as cofferdams and
support for the deck during cantilever construc
tioll. A lower rrel11ie seal allows alld
placi llg of plain concrete fill inside the caisson .. n.e
reinforced concrete fOOling and pier shaft are
finally cast ill one ([;\\'.
The superstructure box girders were cast in
place in 10 ft C3.05 Ill) long segments using twelve
form travelers, allowing simultaneous work on the
three parallcl cantilevers at. two different piers.
The 20 fl (0.1 111) long pier segment was cast on the
temporary supports provided bv the pier caissons.
allowing the form travelers to be installed and can
tilever construction to proceed. Six working days
were necessarv for a complete cycle of operations
Oil each traveler. Work prog-ress is shown ill Fig
lues 2.27 and 2.28. Total construction tillle for the
entire 130,000 sq It (12,000 m
2
) was approximatelv
FIGURE 2.28. Saint Jean Bridge at Bordeaux. can
tilever construction on tvpical pier.
one year, as shown on the actual program of work
summarized in graphic form in Figure 2.29. To
meet the very strict construction deadline or the
contract, it was necessary to bring to the project site
another set of three travelers to cast the last can
tilever on the left bank and achieve continuity with
the southern river pier cantilever. Altogether.
meeting the two-year construction schedule was
recognized as an engineering achievement.
Exactly one hundred years earlier, Gustave Eif
fel had built the neighboring railway bridge in
exactly two years-food for thought and a some
what humbling reHection for the present genera
tion.
2.6 Siegtal and Kochertal Bridges, Germany
The Siegtal Bridge near the town of Sieger, north
of Frankfort, Germany, represents the first indus
trial application of cast-in-place cantilever con
struction with an auxiliary overhead truss. This
method was initially developed by Hans Wittfoht
and the firm of Polensky-und-Zollner amI sub
sequently used for several large structures in Ger
many and other countries. One of the 1110St recent
and rcmarkablc examples of this technique is the
Kochenal Bridge between Nuremberg and Heil
bron, Germany. Both structures will be briefly de
scribed in this section, while a similar application ill
Denmark is covered in another section of this
chapter.
Siegtal Bridge is a twelve-span strllctUl'e 3450 rt
(1050 m) long resting on piers up to 330 it (lOO Ill)
high, with maximum span lengths of 344 ft (105
m). Figure 2.30. Two separate box girders carr"
the three lraflic lanes in each direction for a total
width of 100 ft m). Figure 2.:31. Structural
height of the constant-depth box girder is 19 ft (5,8
Ill), corresponding to a span-to-depth ratio of 18.
The deck is continuous throughout its entire
length, with fixed bearings provided at the three
highest center piers and roiler bearings of high
grade steel for all other piers and end abutments.
Piers have slip-formed reinforced concrete hollow
box shafts with a constant transverse width of 68
ft (20.7 m) and a variable width in elevation with
a slope of 40 to 1 on both faces.
The superstructure was cast in place in balanced
cantilever from all piers in 33 ft (10 m) long seg
ments with an auxiliary overhead truss supporting
the two symmetrical travelers, and a cycle of one
week was obtained without difficulty for the con
struction of two symmetrical 33 ft (10 m) long seg
,I
PONT OESCHAMPS
.L
1
w
fl' !' tTl'

g

;t


.",
l\! z '"

1 J !
f d ;U
,
93.21 1 83.16 17.00 .. .W1iL .. 1
i ! ' L

i
I AVRIL
L
j
'MAl I
,
! I !;l
!

i

I JVIL
l BATTAGf

:6:---
1PlEUXO
i!i .!Q
I?',AOUT
jPIEU
,


::
!
'OCT. .L.:...!
j
-"'.1
;;
r-
NOV.
t=:h
.,.-.i B. I BArTAGE
DEC

.1.1
illl:'
'"
lil 1PlfUX
JANV
I
L \ E,,

BETON
1
_\. JIf2

[t:1AR5
'"
\
AM<lCE
":'"
!:! i CL
: AVRIL
i
"'\. / \ A.
iBE11lN
IMAI j
BETON
/ \. :7::--"
P'PHASE

1'1,.
-'
'ij i!i
L...J
JUIL
J \
!l
- 'AovT
..L ,.\
. ICLAVAGf
---

A
!\
:,)EPT
I L
" 7'
1_\
OCT
I 1 -I.
to
1 \
l-
I
--
/ " / .. '\ I
\
NOV
:=:::::::::::: L
-
DEC
JANV
/
---
FINn.
(

IJ') "- I
--==-
-c; FEV
g:
L
-
MARS
1965
FIGURE 2.29. Sailll Jean Bridge at Bordeaux. actual program or \\ork.
Elevation
Cross section 1
Longitudinal section
Cross section 2
Top view Horizontal section
FIGURE 2.30. SiegtaI Bridge, general dimensions.
44
45 Siegtal and Kochertal Bridges, Germany
JI
! 00 375
'00
FIGURE 2.31. Sicgtal Bridge. tvpical cross section.
mellls. The auxilian truss was also first used to cast
the pier segment abo\e each pier, Figure 2.32, be
fore cantilever const ruct ion could pnx:eed, Figu re
2.33. Because the pier shafts are lIexible and have
limited bellding capacil:', il was inadvisable to sub
ject thelll to ullsnnlllelrical loading conditiolls
during deck cOllStruction. rims, the merhead
truss also served the purpose of stabilizillg the GIll
tilever arms beli)j'C conlillllit\, was achieved with
the previolls cantilever.
The auxilian steeitruss is made of high-strength
steel (50 ksi vieid strength). Prestressing is applied
to the upper chord, which is subjected to high tell
sill' stresses in order to reduce t he weight of the
equipment. 'I 'he overall lellgt h of the truss is 440 n
(135 !Il) long to ;tCCOllllllodate the maximulll span
length of 3,H ft (105 lll). rhe total weight of' the
truss and of tile two sllspended travelers, allowillg
castillg of two :$:$ (\ (I() Ill) long .'leglllCrtlS, was 6{)() t
(600 lilt). DeckcOllCl'ete was pUlIlped to the \'ariolls
segments through pipes carried from thc finished
deck bv tlte allxiliarv truss, Figures alld
\Vork cOllllllelKcd on the superstructure in
l\larch 1966, The first box girder was completed ill
April 1968. The truss and travelers were illl
lllcdiateh transferred to the second box girder,
which was completed ill Septelllber 1969. Thus,
the average rate of casting was as follows:
First bridgl': 3450 ft (1050 1l1) in '25 months, or 140
ft (4 Ill) per momh
Sl'(olld bridgr': ;H50 It (l050 m) in 17 mOllths, or
rr ({)2 111) pCI' mOllt h
Both bridges: G900 It ('2100 111) in 42 months, or
100 ft (50 m) per mont h
An otIlstanding contemporary example of the
sanle technique is lhe KochertaI Bridge in Ger
Illany, shown ill fill aI progress ill Figure '2.36. Gen
eral dilllellsions of the project arc givcn in Figure
Total length is 3700 ft (1128 Ill) with typical
spam of 453 fl (138 Ill) supported on piers up to
f)OO ft (183 Ill) ill height. The single box girder
superstructure with precast outriggers canies six
t raJ'fic lanes for a lotal widt h of 101 ft (30.7G Ill).
Box [Jiers wcre cast ill climbing forms with ft
1II) high lilts. The top sectioll is COllstant for
all piers with olltside dimensions or 16.4 by 2H.'2 1't
FIGURE 2.32. Siegtal Bridgc, pier segment casting. FIGURE 2.33. Siegtal Bridge, cantilever construction.
46 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
\
FIGURE 2.34. Sicgtal Bridgc. elcvation or O\'Crhead truss and travelers.
(5 hv 8.6 m). The f6ur faces are sloped to increase
the dimensions at foundation level to a maximum
of 31.2 by 49.2 It (9.5 by 15 m) for the highest
piers. Wall thickness varies progressiveh' from top
to bottom, to follow the load stresses, from 20 in.
(0.5 m) to 36 in. (0.9 01).
The constant-depth superstructure is cast in two
stages, Figure 2.38: (l) the single center box with a
width of 43 ft (13.1 111) and a depth of 23 ft (7 m),
and (2) the two outside cantilevers resting on a se
ries of precast struts. To meet the very tight con
struction schedule of22 months it was necessary to
llse two sets of casting equipment. working simul
taneously from both abutments toward the center.
Each apparatus was made of an overhead truss
equipped with a launching nose to move from pier
to pier and two suspended travelers working in
balanced cantilevers, casting segments on a one
week cycle. Figure 2.39.
2.7 Pine Valle), Creek Bridge, U.S.A.
The first prestressed concrete cast-in-place seg
mental bridge built in the United States was the
Pine Valley Creek Bridge on Interstate 1-8 between
San Diego and El Centro, Calif6rnia. Figures 1.66
and 2.7, opened to traffic late in 1974. This struc
t tire is located approximately 40 miles (64 km) east
of San Diego and 3 miles (4.8 km) west of the
FIGURE 2.35. Siegtal Bridge. typical section of truss
and travelers.
FIGURE 2.36. Kochertal Bridge, general vIew of
project.
47 Pine Valley Creek Bridge, U.S.A.
o I 5
ft
,""" ."'"..,, .' , II
lk --'- ,! 'II
.---- I
..... Kocher l,
Unl'''' Musch.lk.lk - "._.-_ _
_._---_.-------_..
Obtrfr Buntsands t
Herlbronn Nurnb"g c.--:C>
'\'"
- 81,00 IliaD l38GG [J6,00 1]3,00 Il8.00 Il8,00
1l8,OO - 61,00
1128.00

I '
,I
U"
FIGURE 2.37. Kochenal Bridge. e\nation. plan and
ero,s sect iOIl.
commutlit\ of Pine Valle\ and within the Cle\e
land :'\ation,Il Forest. Interstate 1-8 crosses over a
sell1i,lrid l-cgion that is highly erodible when the
ground c()\'Cr is disturbed; consequenth' strillgent
controls were imposed on access roads and
ground-c()\'cr disturbances. Structure type was
influenced 1)\ the following factors: site restric
tions. ecollomics. ecological considerations. and
Forest Sel'\ice limitatiolls. After com paring \arious
possible schemes sllch as steel arch, deck truss, or
steel. box girder. the California Department of
Transport,ltion selected a concrete box girder
bridge predicated on the use of cantilever seg
(1/)
JO,7&
58J 13.10 8.83
(b)
FIGURE 2.38. Kochertal Bridge. typical cross sec
lions. (Il) First stage casting. (b) Final stage.
48 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
...

FIGURE 2.39. Kocherral Bridge, cantilever construc
lion.
mental construction, particularly well suited to the
site because the depth and steep slopes of the "allev
made the use of falsework impractical. Also, the
cantilever method minimized scarring of the
natural em'ironment, which was a major consider
ation [or a prC!iect located in a :\:ational Forest.
The bridge has an average length of 1716 ft (523
m) ane! consists of twin two-lane single-cell,
trapezoidal box girders each 42 ft (12.8 m) out-to
out. The deck is 450 it (137 m) above the creek
bed. The superstructure c o n s i s ~ s of five spans of
prestressed box girders 19 ft (5.8 m) deep. The
center span is 450 ft (137 Ill) in length, Ranked by
side spans of340 fl (103.6 lll) and 380 ft (115.8111),
with end spans averaging 270 ft (82.3 Ill) and 276 ft
(84.1 11l). The bridge was constructed with four
cantilevers. Pier 2 has cantilevers 115 ft (35.1 m) in
length. piers 3 and 4 have 225 ft (69.6 m) cantile
vers, and pier 5 has 155 ft (47.2 m) cantile
vers,6.7.R Figure 2.40. Provisions were made in the
design 10 permit the portions of spans I and 5 ad
jacent to the abutments to be constructed segmen
tally or un falsework at the contractors' option. The
later option was exercised by the contractor. !I. 10
CANTu.evtR
ABUT. 6
,.
,.
PIER Z
PitR ~
PltR 3
PIER"
ELEVATION
I
TYPICAL SECTION
FIGURE 2.40. Pine Valley Creek Bridge, ele\'ation and typical senion, from ref. 8.
49 Pine Valley Creek Bridge, V.SA.
Hinges were prodded in spans 2 and 4 at the
end of the main cantilevers. In the preliminarv de
sign, consideration was given 10 the concept of a
continuous structure for abutment to abutment
without any intermediate joints. Continuity has
mallV advantages insohlr as t his particular struc
ture is concerned. Howner, it has the significant
dis<I(hantage of large displacements uncler seismic
loading conditions. Because of the extreme dif
ference in height and stiffness between piers, it was
determined that all the horizontal load was being
trallsmillecl to the shoner piers, which were not
capable of accepting it.
H
The pier foundations posed sOllle interesting
cOllStruniOll problems. The top ft (f) tll) of the
rock material at the ;;ite 'was badlv
fissured, with sOllJe tissuring as deep as 40 ft (12
m). :\'arrow footings onlv 1 ft (0.3 Ill) wider than
the pier shafts, tied dowII wit h rock anchors, were
preferred to the conv(:,lHional spread footings to
minimize the amount of eXGl\;lIion.
Although the piers are because or
their sizc, thc\ are no! ulliqllc in concept. The two
main piers, :1 and ..t:, are approximatelv 370 It (I U
Ill) in height and are made up or two vertical cellll
lar sectiol1s intercollnected with horizontal tics. III
a trallsVerse directioll the piers h,l\e a constant
width to ElCilita!e slip-form cOllstructioll. while in
the IOllgituciin;d directioll the sectioll varies
parabolicalh. with a llIinimul11 width or 16 1'1 (4.9
m) approximateh olle-third down h'olll the top. At
this point the\ flare out 10 n In 24 ft (7 In 7.3 m)
at the soffil. The pier wall t hicklless is a cotlstan! 2
ft (0.6 m).6.!)
Earthqllake cOllsiderations produce the critical
design load Ii)!' the piers. rile 1940 EI Centro earth
quake was used as the forcing function in the de
sign anahsis. Design criteri;l re<luired that the
c.omplcted strllctural fLlIne withstand this force
level \\'ithmll exceeding stress levels of 75c;{ of
yield. The picr struts arc all important clement in
the seisIlIic design of rhe piers. They provide duc
tility to the piers h\' pmviding energy-absorbing
joints alld an increased stabilit\" against buckling
for the PI'illcipal shaft elements. Because of the size
of the struts in relation to the pier legs, the major
ity of the rotatioll in the 5t rut-Iegjoint occurs in the
strut. Thus, ;t yelT high percentage of tranS\'erse
confinillg reinforcemellt was required in the strut

9
to insure the ductility at this location.
6
Although preliminan design anticipated the
slip-forming technique for construction of the
piers, the contractor tinalh elected to use a self
climbing forllJ system. Steel forms permitted 22 ft
(6.7 m) high lifts, and they were given a teflol1
coating to facilitate stripping while producing a
high-guality finished concrete surface.
COllstruction of the pier caps was especially
challenging. The pier caps, Figure 2.41, consist of
two arms 60 ft (18.3 m) in height, which pntiect
outward at an approximate angle of 60
0
from each
stem of the pier shafts. These arms are constructed
in four lifts in such a manner that the forms for
each lift are tied into the previous lift. Upon com
pletion of the pier cap arIllS they are tied together
and the top strut is formed, reinforcement placed,
and cast.. The pier cap is prestressed tra!lsversely in
order to overcome side thrust from the
structure.
The superstructure consists of two parallel
trapezoidal box girders 42 ft( 12.8 m) wideand 19 It
(5.R 1l1) deep with a 38 ft (11.6 111) space between
the boxes, sllch that all additional box girder may
be cOllStructed for future widening, Figures 2.40
and The boxes. in addition to being post
tensioned longitudinalh-, have transverse prestress
ing in the deck slab, together with sufficient mild
st eel rei n forcemcllt to l'esist nominaI construct.lOll
loads, allowing the transverse prestressing opera
tions to be relllO\'cd fmIll the critical path. The
SfiAFT
110'
280'
280'
&CI

'NCUNED
COL......
!
PIER
lCct.......1
tJ-"---'-"-': FOOTING
OF PIER
SECT. X:L
{e'ER s_n
FIGURE 2.41. Pine Vallev Creek Bridge, elevation.
side vie\\". and cross section of pier. from ref. 7 (courtesy
of the Portland Cement :\ssociation).
50 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
BARRIER RAILING
FIGURE 2.42. Pille Valle\ Creek Bridge, t\'jlical hox
girder cross section, from reI". 7 (courtesy of the Ponland
Cement Association),
sloping webs and large deck ()\'Crhallgs \,'ere lIsed
to minimize the slab spans and the number of
gi!'der webs and to accentuate a longitudinal shad
ow line. thus the apparet1l depth. The web
thickness of 16 in. (406 mm) was selected to permit
side-by-side placement of the largest tendon I hell
being used ill bridge construction alld to keep the
shear reinforcement to a reasonable size and
spacing, Figure 2.42. The bottom slah al lllidspan
is 10 in. (254 mm) thick and flares out to 6.5 ft (1.98
111) at the pier.
6
,7.9 Construction of the superstruc
ture proceeded in a balanced cantilever fashion.
Figures 2,i and 2.43.
As shown in Figure 2.44. the erectioll scheme
proposed by the contractor allowed all super
structure work to be performed in a continuous
sequence, essentially from the top. Four forlll
travelers were used for the cantilever construction
of t his project, one at each end of each cantile\'er
arm. Basically, one tni\'eler consisted of an o,'el'
head steel truss used to support the 'onnwork for
the typical 16.5 It (5111) long segments. The truss is
anchored, af the rear. to the previoush' cast seg
ment, while the front end is equipped with hr
draulic jacks used for grade adjustment. High
dellsit y plywood was used for all formed surfaces.
A total of 1i2 cast-ill-place segments ,,"ere required
for the entire structure. Falsework was required
close to abutments 1 and 6 to complete the side
spans beyond the balanced cantilever arms,
Fonnwork used in that portion of the structure
could be reused above each intermediate pier cap
to construct the 35 ft (l 0.7 Ill) long pier segl1lent
before the actual cantilever construction pro
ceeded.
The cross section of the superstructure allowed
STEEL TAUSS USED FOR ACCESS
TO CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION
AB.6
?'STEfL TOWERS
FOR LAUNCHING
AUXIUARY BRIDGE
AUXIUARy BRIDGE
PIER 5
SUPPORTEO AT PIE.R CAP
COlJNTERltltiGHT
c
STEEL SAODLE
AUXILIARY BRIOGE
SUPPORTED BY SUPERSTRUCTURE
FIGURE 2.43. Pillc Valin Crcck
bridge. froJl] rd. 7 ((Jurtes\ of the Portland Ccment As
sociatioll).
an auxiliar\' truss 10 he located between the t\\'()
concrete box girders, Figut'e 2.43, This auxiliary
bridge consisted of a st rucIU ral steel t russ I() It
(3.05111) square in cross section and :120 ft (97.5 m)
in length. In a stationan positioll it was supported
at the leading end on the pier cap strut and at the
rear end of a steel saddle between the two concrete
boxes, I twas desiglled such that the frollt end
could be cantilevered out 225 It (68.6111), \,'hich is
one-half the main span, Electric winches allowed
longitudinal launching between the concrete box
girders. When pier 5 was completed, the auxiliary
bridge was erected in spall 5-6, utilizing tempo
rary Sll ppon towers near abutlllent 6. Subsequent
30 ft (9. I m) lengths of auxiliary truss were attached
at the abutment amI incrementallv launched to
ward pier 5, umil its frotH end was supported on the
pier cap. The pier table was thell constructed and
cantilever construction commenced until the
structural hinge in span 4-5 was reached. Upon
completion of the closurejoint in span 5-6 the aux
iliary truss was launched forward until the front
end reached pier 4. The form travelers were dis
mantled from the tip of the cantilever and
reerected on the pier table at pier 4. and cantilever
FIGURE 2.44. (Opposite) Pine Vallev Creek Bridge,
erection scheme proposed by the contractor. from ref.
10.
~
Cantilever
Construction
from pier 5
4
construction on
conventional
falsework
3
(i)
Stage 4
from pier 2
CD
Stage 5
completion
auxiliary
"
bridge @
/
G)
I"
0
0
auxiliary
bridge
I
n
G)
CD
51
52 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
construction was started again. This cycle was re
peated until closure was achie"ed in span 1-2.
The use of the auxiliary truss had the following
advantages
1o
:
1. Men and materials for the superstructure
could reach the location of construction from
abutment 6 over the auxiliary bridge and the
already completed portion of the superstruc
ture without interfering with the valley below.
2. The construction equipment (tower cranes and
hoists) at the piers was required only for the
actual construction of the piers and could be
relocated from pier to pier without waiting for
completion of the superstructure.
3. Except for construction of abutment 1 and
pier 2, site installation for the entire project
was located at one location, near abutment 6.
Concrete was supplied from a batching plant lo
cated approximately.2 miles (3.2 km) from the site.
Ready-mix trucks delivered the concrete at abut
ment 6. The concrete was then pumped through 6
in. (152 mm) pipes down the slope to the foot of
piers 5 and 4. The concrete for the superstructure
was pumped through a pipeline installed in the
auxiliary truss right into the forms. A second
pump with a similar installation was located at
abutment 1 to supply concrete for abutment 1 and
pier 2.10
A 5000 psi (35 MPa) concrete was specified for
the superstructure, presenting no unusual prob
lems. However, to maintain a short cycle for the
construction of the individual segments it was nec
essary to have sufficient strength for prestressing
30 hours after concrete placement. This was
difficult to achieve, since the specifications did not
allow type III cement and certain additives. A so
lution was to prestress the individual tendons nec
essary to support the following segment to 50 per
cent of their final force. The form carrier could
then be advanced and the remainder of the pre
stressing force applied after the concrete reached
sufficient strength and before casting the next
segment. to
Prestressing was achieved using It in. (32 mm)
diameter Dywidag bars. Longitudinal tendons
were provided in 33 ft (10 m) lengths and coupled
as the work progressed. Temporary corrosion
protection of the bars was obtained by blowing
"VPI" powder into the ducts and coating each bar
with vinyl wash or "Rust-Van 3 10."8
=
2.8 Gennevilliers Bridge, France
The Gennevilliers Bridge, Figures 2.45 and 2.46, is ==
a five-span structure with a total length of 2090 ft
(636 m). At its southern end it is supported on a
common pier with the approach "iaduct from the
port of Gennevilliers. It crosses successively an en
trance channel to the port, a peninsula situated
between the channel, and the Seine River itself,
Figure 2.47. It is part of the Al5 Motorway, which
traverses from the Paris Beltwav through Gen
nevilliers, Argenteuil, the valley d'Oise, and on to
the city of Cergy-PonlOise. The present structure
provides a four-lane divided highway with provi
sion for a future twin structure.
The superstructure is a variable-depth two-cell
box girder with spans of 345, 564, 243, 564 and
371 it (l05, 172,74, 172 and 113111). Depth varies
from 29.5 ft (9 m) at intermediate piers to 11.5 It
(3.5 m) at midspan of the 564 ft (172 m) spans and
its extremities, with a depth of 23 ft (7 m) at
midspan of the short center span, Figure 2.46.
Depth-Io-span ralios of the 564 ft (172 m) spans al
midspan and at the piers are respectiveh' 1/49 and
1119. The curved portion of the structure has a
radius, in plan, of 2130 ft (650 m). The longitudI
nal grade is a constant 1.5 percent within the zone
of cUrYature. Because the short center span is sub
jected to negative bending moment over its entire
length, the structure behaves much as a continuous
three-span beam.
In cross section, Figure 2.48, the two-cell box
girder has a bottom Range \'aning in width from
42.2 It (12.86 !TI) at midspan to 30.5 ft (9.3 m) at
the pier, for the 564 ft (172 m) span. Thickness of
the bottom Range varies from 47 in. (1.2 m) at the
pier to 8 in. (20 cm) at midspan. The top Range has
FIGURE 2.45. Gennevilliers Bridge, view of curved
five-span structure.
53 Gennevilliers Bridge, France
$
.. "lfz
o
FIGURE 2.46. Cenm:vil!iels Bridge. plan and dev'ation, from ref. II.
an overall width of 50.!) ft (18.48 111) with a 6 ft
Ill) overhang 011 one side and 1),2 ft (l.88 111)
on the olher. Thickness of the top flange is a con
stant 8 ill. (20 cm). The center web has a constant
thicKness of It) in. (400 mll1). Exterior webs, which
are inclined tHO to the venical, varv in thickness
from 16 in. (400 !TIm) at the pier to 12 in. (300 mm)
at midspan. Diaphragms, Figure 2.49, are located
at the su pports. The superstructure is prestressed
in three directions, with strand tendons being
utilized longitudinally and transversely and bar
tendons utilized for the webs. I nterior anchorage
FIGURE 2.47. Gennevilliers Bridge, aerial view of the completed bridge.
54 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
At Support At Mid Span
FIGURE 2.48. Genne\'ilIiers Bridge. cross section, from rei. II.
blocks for the longit udinal prestressing are located
FIGURE 2.49. Genne\'illicrs Bridge. interior vie\\'
showing diaphragm.
at t(,P slab level.
The superstructure is fully continuous over its
total length of 2090 ft (636 Ill) between the nonb
ern abutment alld the southern transition pier \\'ith
the approach viaduct. The deck rests upon the
four main piers supported Iw large elastollleric
pads. The superstructure was cast in place using
the balanced cantilever method according to the
step-by-step scheme shown in Figure 2.50, Seg
ments over the piers (pier segments) were COII
structed first on formwork, in a traditional man
ner, except for their unusual length [26 ft (1.9m)]
and weight [850 t (770 mt)].
Four travelers were used for casting the t\piGd
11 ft (3.35 m) long segments varying in weight
from 242 t (220 mt) near the piers to 110 t (100 mt)
at midspan.
ll
The travelers were specially designed
to achieve maximum rigidity and prevent the usual
tendency to crack a newly cast segment under the
deflectiolls of the supporting trusses of COI1\'ell
tional travelers. The framework used for this pur
pose was made of self-supporting forming panels
assembled into a monolith weighing 120 t (110 Illt)
and prestressed to the preceding part of the
superstructure to make the unit substantially
deflection free, Figure 2.51. Stability, especially
uncleI' wind loads or in the event of an accidental
failure of the travelers during the construction pc
riml, was maintained by a pair of cables on each
55
Grand'mere Bridge, Canada
A ~
a
I
B
L Jr
K
I
~
~ 0
Bl B2
," A2
g
I
;
0
!
it 1-- iiIi[
~
t----
~
81 82 Al A2
0
Ii II ~
ML
JL
------r
t
I-
I
0
81 B2 Al 42
gO--
I
~ - Lti:mL
-LL
1
l
I
0
A1 A2
8' 82
~
---
:-f
t t
- ~ 0
I
CD
M A;

r
B' S2
-
9 !l I
~ I
r t
i
CD
:if
""
~
A281
t
r 1_
L
@
B2
E
&
FIGURE 2.50. (;ennl'villicrs Bridge, erectioll seqlll'l1Ce, fWIll reI. II.
side of the pier cOllllening the superstructure to
pier base,
2.9 Grand'lV1ere Bridge, Canada
This three-lane ClSI-ill-p!;Ke segmelltal bridge is
located Oil Quebec .\Uloroule ;,)5 and crosses the
SI. .\Lmrice Ri\er ;1J)proxil11;ueh :) miles (4,8 kill)
llorth of Grand'.\lere, Quebec. Figure 2,52. Water
depth at the bridge site is (Her Ito ft (35.5 lll), with
all additional 150 rt (ri,15 111) depth of sand, sill,
"'. -,
\
and debris above bedrock. The river liow at the
bl'idge site is 3,6 ftlsee ([, I rn/sec),
During the preliminary design stage ill 1973 and
1974, several structural solutiolls were considered,
The use of short spans of precast concrete
A:\SI-ITO sectiolls or structural steel girders re
quiring a number of piers was il11l11edi;nely aban
doned because of river depth and cnrrent velocity
at the site. Site conditions required the develop
ment of all economical long clear span with as few
piers as possible in .(he river. Options available
FIGURE 2.51. Gellnevilliers Bridge, supersrructure
under const ructioll,
FIGURE 2.52. Grand'Mere Bridge. general view
showing' parabolic soffit of center span, (courtesy of the
Portland Cement Association),
56 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
were structural steel, post-tensioned precast seg
mental, and several options of cast-in-place pre
stressed concrete, varying in span, cross section,
and pier requirements. The design finally selected
for preparing the bid documents was a concrete
cantilever single-cell box with a center span of 540
ft (165 rn), a 245 ft (75 m) western land span, and a
150 ft (46 rn) eastern land span for a IOtal length of
935 ft (285 m). The design actually used for con
struction, Figure 2.53, for the same total length,
has a main span increased to 595 ft (181 m) and
two equal 170 ft (52 m) long side spans. The corre
sponding slight increase in cost of the superstruc
FIGURE 2.53. Grand'Mere Bridge, center span
ture was far more than offset by eliminating the
parabolic arch soffit (courtesy of the Portland Cement
need to build a caisson in 48 ft (15 m) of water 98 ft
Association).
(30 111) above bedrock for the west pier. This rede
sign, developed in cooperation with the contractor,
allowed an overall saving of approximately of piers, where they are supported a secondary
the project cost. pair of 4 It by 4 It (1.2 by 1.2 m) bearing capped
The two identical 170 ft (51.9 m) long land spans The 40 It (12.2111) wedge-shaped shore ends
cantilever from the main piers and act as counter of the land spans taper from t.he secondary piers to
weights for the main span. From a depth of 32 ft grade at the top of the abutment. The abutments,
(9.8111) at the main piers they taper to a depth of 28 which are just 16 ill. (406 mill) thick, are designed
It (3.5 m) at a point 130 ft (39.6 m) from the maill to support the approach slab onl\', Figure 2.54.
- I
ELEVATIOti
\ ! 7(
TY PICA L SECT 10M
OETIlIL OF ABUTMENT
FIGURE 2.54. Grand'Mere Bridge, general arrangemem, (a) Elevation.
(11) Typical section. (c) Detail of abutment.
57 Grand'mere Bridge, Canada
Modular, confined rubber expansion joints are
provided in the roadway above the abutments. The
wedge portions of the land spans are solid con
crete, helping counterhalance the weight of the
main span under service conditions as well as dur
ing the construction stage. The land spans have a
web thickness of 2 ft (0.6 111), a 3 ft (0.9 m) thick
bottom slab, and a 15 in. (381 mrn) thick top flange.
A 2 h (0.6 m) thick diaphragm is located 78 ft (23.8
m) outboard of the secondary piers to form a
chamber between the solid wedge end and the
diaphragms. This chamber was incrementally hlled
with gravel in three stages to counterbalance the
main span as it was progressively constructed. The
bottom soffit of the west land span was supported
on temporary steel scaffolding. However, because
of the terrain slope, the east land-span bottom
soffit was plywood-formed on a bed of sand spread
- - - - ~ ....- - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '
Plan
(a)
----....- - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
'{
='
~ .
- " " " " - - ~ .
Elevation
(b)
FIGURE 2.55. Arnhern Bridge. (II) Plan. (b) Ebation.
58 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
050
302
050 050
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 2.56. Arnhcm Bridge, typical cross sections of main bridge and Rat-slab
ramp. (Il) Main structure. (b) Prestressed flat-slab ramp.
over the mck. l:pon completion of concreting and
curing, the sand was hosed out from under the
formwork, allowing it to be stripped.
12
2.10 Arnhem Bridge, Holland
The Arnhem Bridge, Figure 2.55, is a cast-in
place. lightweight concrete, segmental bridge cross
ing the Rhine River with a center span of 448 ft
(136 m), a south end span of 234 ft (71 Ill), and a
north end span of 238 ft (72 m) connecting to ap
proach ramps. It is a dual structure composed of
two-cell box girders. Figure 2.56a. The western
structure has two 30 ft (9.1 111) roaclw<J\"s for au
tomobile traffic. The eastern structure has a 23 ft
(7 m) roadw<l\ reserved [or bus traffic, a 17 ft (5.3
m) roadway for bicycles and motorcycles, and a 7 ft
(2.1 111) pedestrian walkwa\. Ramp structures are
of prestressed flat slab construction, Figure 2.56b.
The main three-span ri\"er cmssing with an
overall width of 122.7 ft (37.4 111) consists of two
2110
auto's auto's
0)3 +:.
Q13
double-cell box girders that vary in depth from 6.5
ft (2.0 m) at midspan to 17 ft (5.3 m) at the piers.
The western rectangular box girder has a width of
49 ft (14.8 m) with] 0 ft (3 m) top flange canrilevers
for an overall width of 68.4 ft (20.84 m). The east
ern rectangular box girder has a width of 35.4 ft
(l0.8 111) with top flange cantilevers of 8.6 1't (2.62
m) for a total width of 52.6 ft (16.04 111), Figure
2.56a.
Construction of the main spans is bv the conven
tional cast-in-place segmental balanced cantilever
method with form travelers. The form travelers
are owned by the Dutch Government and leased to
the contractors. Strand tendons were used for
post-tensioning, and the lightweight concrete had a
weight of about 110 Ib/ft3 (1780 kg/m
3
), Figure
2.57.
Temporary supports at the pier were used for
unbalanced loading during constructioll, Figure
2.58. Precast exposed aggregate facia units were
used for the entire length of the structure and its
approaches, Figures 2.59 and 2.60.
1630
openbaar vervoer
f'etsers VOf!tgangers
]
,d
ij
~ l
0'
r t
59

Napa River Bridge, U.S.A.
FIGURE 2.57. Arnhem Bridge, center-span canli!c\'
erg,
--=--'
FIGURE 2.58. Arnhem Slidge, temporal'v pier sup
ports for unbalanced !1l0!TleI l!:, ,
2.11 Napa River Bridge, U.S.A.
The River Bridge, Figure is located Oil
Highwav 29 just south 01 the city of :\apa. Califor
nia, and pr{)\'ides a four-lane. 66 ft (20 111) wide
roadway over the :\apa River to bypass an existing
two-lane lift span and several miles of city streets,
The 68 ft (20,7 111) wide, 2230 ft (679,7 111) long
bridge consists of spam varying in length from
120 to 250 ft (36,58 to 76,2 111) and a two-cell
trapezoidal box girder van'illg from 7 ft 9 ill, (2,36
m) to 12 ft (3,66 m) in depth, Figure 2,62, Three
hinged joints were provided at midspan in spans 2,
6, and 10. These joints involved elaborate connec
tions incorporating e1astomeric bearing pads and
hard-rubber bumper pads to withstand severe
movement and shock during an earthquake, Fig
ure 2,63, All other joints between the cantilevers
were normal cast-in-place closure joints,13 The
superstructure is fixed to the piers, for
seismic resistance,
The Structures Division of the California De
partment of Transportation (CALTRA::--IS) de
veloped plans and specifications for three alterna-
FIGURE 2.59. Arnhem Bridge. vIew of prestressed
f1at-slah ramp structure,
FIGURE 2.60. Arnhem Bridge, precast exposed
aggregate facia units,
:,.
FIGURE 2.61. Napa River Bridge, aerial view,
tive types ot construction, Figure 2.62. as follows:
A. A conventional continuous cast-in-place pre
stressed box girder bridge of lightweight con
crete.
B, A continuous structural-steel trapezoidal box
girder composite with a lightweight concrete
deck.
C. A cantilever prestressed segmental concrete
box girder bridge allowing either cast-in-place
60 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
PROFILE GRADE
Pier 2
6<3150'-0" 120'-0"
..... ~ .. - ~ -
Abul
ELEVATION
A
Welded
ALTERNATIVE B
Conlde-,er Segmenlol PIS
LHJh!welqht Cone 80x Glrder
ALTERNATIVE C
FIGURE 2.62. l\apa River Bridge. profile grade, elevation, and alternate sections.
Rom
Bumper -+-----'
Bump_.e:r_-I----.
lfiizq---
FIGURE 2.63. Nap<l River Bridge, mid-span hinge
joint wid1 seismic bumbers.
Rubber
or precast segments. Erection was allowed on
faJsework or bv the free cantilever method.
Because of poor foundations and a readily avail
able aggregate supph. all alternatives utilized
lightweight concrete in the superstructure. Alter
nati\'e C utilized trans\-erse prestressing in the deck
to reduce the number of webs to three. as com
pared to seven webs required in alternative A. Of
seven bids received and opened on :-\()\'ember 6,
1974, six were for alternati\'e C and the seventh
and highest was for alternati\'e B. :-\0 bids were
submitted for altemative A.
Design of the superstructure required light
weight concrete with ,1 com pressive strength of
4500 psi (316 kg/clll
2
) at 28 days and 3500 psi (246
kg/cm
2
) prior to prestressing. The three-web win
ning alternative required a minimum of formed
surfaces and forced the majority of longitudinal
prestressing into the flanges, resulting JI1
maximum prestress eccentricity, and therefore an
economical solution.
Contract plans showed the minimum prestress
force required at each section and permitted the
use of either 270 ksi (1862 MPa) strand or )50 ksi
(1034 MPa) bar tendons. Prestressing force dia
grams were provided for both materials. The con
tractor had the option of balancing segment length
against prestress force to achieve the most eco
nomical structure. In addition, the plans provided
the contractor with the option of a combination of
diagonal prestressing and conventional reinforce
61 Koror-Babelthuap, U.S. Pacific Trust Territory
River Bridge, falsework bents FIGURE 2.66. Napa River Bridge, longitudinal loop
(courtesy of Phil Hale, CAL tendons.
ment in the wehs for shear reinforcement or the
utilization of conventional stirrup reinforcement
only. The design was based upon a 40,000 psi (276
MPa) prestress loss for the 270 ksi (1862 MPa)
strand and 28,000 psi (193 loss for the 150
ksi (1034 MPa) bars. Because the loss of prestress is
a function of the type of lightweight aggregate
used, the contractor was required to submit test
values for approval concerning the materials to be
used and relevant calculations.14
The contractor elected to use the cantilever
cast-in-place alternative supported on falsework
until each segment was stressed, Figure 2.64.
Falsework bents with ten 70 ft (21.3 m) long, 36 in.
(914 111m) deep, wide-Mange girders support each
balanced cantilever. The falsework was then
moved to the next pier, leaving the cantilever
free-standing, Figure 2.65. The entire formwork,
steel girders, and timher forms were lowered by
winches from the cantilever girder after all nega
tive post-tensioning was completed. Positive post
13
tensioning followed midspan closure pours.
:\"apa River Bridge, free-standing can
tilever and supporting bents for false work
The 250 ft (76.2 m) long navigation span was
constructed with a complicated segment sequence
because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that a
70 ft (21.3 m) wide by 70 ft (21.3 m) high naviga
tion channel be maintained. Approximately 60 ft
(18.3 m) of span 4, over the navigable channel, was
constructed in three segments on suspended
falsework by the conventional cast-in-place seg
mental method.
13
All transverse and longitudinal post-tension
ing tendons consist of tin. (12.7 mm) diameter
strands. Longitudinal tendons are twelve! in. (12.7
mm) diameter strand, with anchorages located in
the top and bottom flanges such that all stressing
was done from inside the box girder. Loops are
used for economy and efficiency, as shown in Fig
ure 2.66. The longest span over the navigation
channel is prestressed by 50 (twelve in. strand)
tendons. Transverse prestress in the top flange al
lowed a 10 ft (3 m) cantilever on each side of the
two-cell box girder. Transverse tendons consist of
four in. diameter strands encased in nat dUGS
2.251>y 0.75 in. (57 by 19 mm) with proper splay at
both ends to accommodate a Rat bearing at the
edge of the deck slab.
2.12 Koror-Babelthuap, U.S. Pacific
Trust Territory
This structure currently represents (1979) the
longest concrete cantilever girder span in the
world. It connects the islands of Koror and Babel
thuap, which are part of the Palau Island chain of
the Caroline Islands located in the United States
Trust Territory some 1500 miles (2414 km) east of
the Philippines, Figure 2.67.
62
'::;
....
.
.'
.
'ill. .... a
'if
j (j!JSa
" .ucu
,,;(,y/
II"
... lttt>IHLI>W
'Ilt fiE" !.f A {
f
!I'oIOOf>lfSIA
"
t,
PI'tlLlPPINE SEA


_
CAQOUNE l'SlAI'oIOS
FIGURE 2.67. Koror-Babelthuap Bridge, location
map, from ref. L'i.
In elevation this structure has a center span of
790 ft (241 111) with sicie spans of 176 ft (53.6 m)
that cantilever another 61 ft (18.6 111) to the abut
ments, Figure 1.30. Depth of this single-cell box
girder superstructure varies parabolica'Uy from 46
it (14 m) at the pier to 12 ft (3.66 m) at midspan of
the main span, Figure 2.68. The side span de
creases linearly from the main pier to 33 ft 8 in.
(10.26 m) at I he end piers ancithen to 9 ft (2.74 Ill)
at the abutments. The structure has a symmetrical
vertical curve of 800 ft (243.8 m) from
abutment to abutment with the approach roadways
at a 69t grade.
I5
Superstructure cross section, Figure 1.30, is a
sillgle-cell box 24 ft (7.3 m) in width with the top
flange cantilevering 3 ft in. (1.16 m) for a total
top flange width of 31 ft 7 in. (9.63 m), providing
two traffic lanes and a pedestrian path. The webs
have a constant thickness of 14 in. (0.36 m). Bot
tom Bange thickness varies from 7 in. (0.18 m) at
midspan of the center span to 46 in. (1.17 m) at the
FIGURE 2.68. Koror-Babdthuap Bridge, parabolic
soffit of main span (courtesy of Dr. Man-Chung Tang,
DRC Consultants, Inc.).
Cast-in-Place Balallced Calltilever Girder Bridges
main pier and then to 21 in. (0.53 01) at an inter
diaphragm located in the end span. This
diaphragm and the one at the end pier form a bal
last compartment. Another ballast compartment is
located between the end-pier diaphragm and the
abutment. The bottom flange under the ballast
compartments is 3 ft (0.9 m) thick in order to sup
port the additional load of ballast material. Top
flange thickness varies from 11 in. (0.28 m) at
midspan of the main span to 17 in. (0.43 m) at the
main pier and has a constant thickness of 17 in.
(0.43 m) in the end spans.
15
The superstructure is monolithic with the main
piers, with a permanent hinge at midspan to ac
commodate concrete shrinkage, creep, and ther
mal movements. The hinge can only transfer verti
cal and lateral shear forces between the two
cantilevers and has no moment-transfer capacitv.
15
superstructure was constructed in segme;1ts
the end spans on falsework and the main span
111 the convenLional segmental cantilever manner,
using form travelers. Aftcr foundations were com
pleted, a 46 ft (14 m) deep by 37 ft (11.3 m) pier
segr:lent was constructed, Figure 2.69, in three op
erallons; first the bottom Bange, then thc webs and
diaphragm, and finally the top Bange. Upon com
pletion of the pier segment, form travelers were
installed and segmental construction begun. Two
form travelers were used to simultalleously ad-
FIGURE 2.69. Koror-Babelthuap Bridge, pier seg
ment (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann).
63 Vejle Fjord Bridge, Denmark
FIGURE 2.70. Koror-Babelthuap Bridge, main-span
c<lntile\ers adyancing (counesy of Dvckerhoff & Wid
mann).
vance the main-sp;1l1 c<lll1ilc\'ers, Figure 2.70. Seg
ments ror this project were 15 ft (4.57 111) ill
length.
ls
On this project. each segment took slightly more
than olle week to construct. .-\ tvpical cn:le was as
10110\\'s: I.;
l. \Vhen the cOllcrete strength in the last segment
cast reached 2500 psi (l7.2 MPa), a specihed
llumber of tendo!]s, ranging frOI11 six to 12,
were stressed to :j() percent or their final force,
thus enabling the form traveler to advance in
preparation t()l' the following segment.
Advancin,Li the form tr;l\c!er also brought for
ward the Olllside forms or the box. The forms
were cleaned while rough adjustments of ele
\'<ltion were made.
3. Reinforcement and prestressing tendons were
placed ill the bottom llange and webs. The in
,.,ide forllls were advanced and top flange reill
I'on:ell1ellt alld tendons placed.
4, .\fter the prc\iou, segment COlKrete had
reached;! ,trength of 3500 psi (24.1 \IPa), the
remaining- tendons were stTessed. The previ
ous segment had to be fully prestressed before
concrete for the subsequent segment could be
placed.
5. Fine adjustment of the forms for camber and
required correction was made.
6. :"Jew segment concrete was placed and cured,
I. \Vhen the new segment reached a concrete
st rength of 2500 psi (I i.2 MPa), the cycle was
repeated.
The stmcture was prestressed longitudinallv,
transversely. and verticallv. Three hundred and
two longitudinal tendons were required at the pier
segment. As the cantilever progressed, 12 10 16
tendons were anchored otT at each segment, with
eight longitudinal tendons remaining for the last
segment in a cantilever at midspan. As the stnK
ture has a hinge at midspan, there were 110 con
tinuity tendons in the bottom flange. Transverse
tendons in the top flange were spaced at 22 in.
(0.56111) centers. Vertical tendons were used in the
webs to accommodate shear. Spacing for the verti
cal web tendons was 30 in. (0.76 111) in the center
span and 15 in. (0.38 111) in the end spans. All ten
dOllS were l:'r in. (32 mm) diamcter bars.ls
Side spans were constructed on falsework resting
on compacted hi!. The sequcnce of segmental con
struction in the side spans was coordinated with
that in the so that the unbalanced mo
ment at the main pier was maintained within pre
scribed limits.
2.13 Vejle Fjord Bridge, Denmark
This structure crosses the Vejle Fjord about 0.6
mile (I kl11) cast of thc V cjle Harbor. I t is part of
the East Jutland \lowrway, which will provide a
In'pass around the city of Vejle, Denmark. A total
lenglh of 56 II ft (1710 m) makes it the second
longest bridge in Denmark.
Bid documents indicated two alt.ernative designs,
on(' in steel and one in concrete. The steel alterna
tive called for a superstructure composed of a
central box girder with cantilevered outriggers
slIpporting an orthotropic deck and Ijonl spans of
413 It (126111). The second alternative required a
prestressed concrete superstructure with a central
box girder to be constructed by the balanced can
tilever method utilizing either precast or cast-in
place segmelHs, with Ijord spans of 361 ft (110 111),
The successful alternative was the cast-in-place
segmental prestressed concrete box girder.
The bridge, in plan, is straight without any hori
zontal curvature. It does have a constant grade of
0.5% falling toward the north. :"Javigation re
quirements were a minimum 131 ft (40 m) vertical
and 246 ft (75 111) horizontal clearance. Water
depth in the fjord is generally 8 to 11.5 ft (2.5 to
3,5 m) except at the navigation channel, where the
depth increases to 23 ft (7 m). Under the fjord bed
are !avers of ver\, soft foundation mat.erials, vary
ing in depth From 26 to 39 ft (8 to 12 m). There
fore, the piers in the tJord are founded on 8 in. (0.2
m) square driven reinforced concrete piles varying
in length from 100 to 130 ft (30 to 40 m), Figure
2.7 L Piers on the sOllth bank are founded on
Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
64
s;.OIllCR[TE 90X-G1RDER
TOP or VIER
c:ASTlt., fiXED FORMWORK

Tl-iICKNSSES $"1OWN
Co><'l{$PONC TO AvtRAGl
SITUATION AT PIEFl.S to-U
Mue

GRAVl:llV SAND
FIGURE 2.71. Vejle Fjord Bridge, piers
founded on driven reinforced concrete piles.
bored reinforced concrete piles, 59 in. (1500 mm)
in diameter, Figure 2.72. On the north bank one
pier is founded on driven reinforced concrete piles
and one is supported directly on a spread footing.
The cross section of the bridge, Figure 2.73,
which carries four traffic lanes with a median bar
rier, is a variable-depth single box with a vertical
web and prestressed transverse ribs. Total width
between edge guard rails is 87 ft (26.6 m). Box
girder width is 39.4 ft (12 m), with a depth vary
ing from 19.7 ft (6 m) at the pier to 9.8 ft (3 m)
at midspan. Each segment is cast with a length of
11.3 ft (3.44 m). Transverse top flange ribs are
spaced at 22.6 ft (6.88 m) centers-that is, every
other segment joint.
The total bridge length is divided into four sepa
rate sections by three expansion joints located at
t he center of spans 4-5, 8-9, and 12-13. Lon
gitudinal prestress is achieved by Dywidag (twelve
FIGURE 2.72, Fjord Bridge, land piers founded
on bored piles.
0.6 in. diameter strand) tendons, as are the trans
verse prestress in the top slab and the continuity
prestress in the bottom slab.
A 492 ft (150 m) long steel launching girder and
two special form travelers were used for casting in
place the full width of the 11.3 ft (3.4 m) long seg
ments in balanced cantilever. Insulating forms
followed the form travelers in order to prevent the
formation of fissures due to adverse temperature
gradients. I n addition, the steel girder stabilized
the concrete structure during construction and was
used for the transportation of materials, equip
ment, and working crew. The total weight of the
girder including the two travelers was approxi
mately 660 t (600 mt). A typical longitudinal sec
tion of a cantilever is shown in Figure 2.74, along
with the structure erection procedure.
Work on the bridge started in the summer of
1975 and was scheduled for completion in 1980.
---'-- .----...........
,.
j
"".
j
'

0
0
N
..
Z
0
0
I
.Q
U
.Q
N
W
(j)
lfl(Jlr1C>{S
dlM1S
3aln!) iiS
(j)
(j)
0
U

tI
0
1.1)
S3Nvl ::u
-JvMl l
'"
"'"lS
30In")
g I ]N\l1
'"

z
j
11.
0:
UJ
0: :::
W .::
> :::
o ;;:
:..
;:;
o

I-
:..;
1"
.N
"

;:l
::2
....
CL
65
t
n

A
N
Il
U
N
S
ti
P
P
O
R
T
U
)
_

T
O

A
L
T
E
R
N
A
T
E

C
A
S
T
T
N
G

O
f

t)O
R
K

lN
G

c
Y
e
L
l]
S

P
E
R

T
E
N
D
O
N
S
.
R
E
H
O
V
A
L

B
O
X
-
T
Y
P
E

G
I
R
D
E
R

C
'>

C
'>

L
O
N
G
I
T
U
D
I
N
A
L

S
E
C
T
I
O
N

P
O
S
I

T
l
O
N

O
f

P
R
E
S
T
R
E
S
S
I
N
G

T
E

N
D
O
N
S

C
[
N
T
R
[

l
I
N
(

o
r

S
P
A
N

,
,
-
C
H
H
R
E

U
N
E

O
f

S
P
A
N

S
U
P
E
R
S
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
E
,

P
R
I
N
C
I
P
L
E

O
F

E
X
E
C
U
T
I
O
N

A
U
X
I
L
I
A
R
Y

E
Q
U
I
P
M
E
N
T

E
T
C
.

C
O
N
S
T
R
U
C
T
I
O
N

P
R
I
N
C
I
P
L
E
S

@

L
A
U
N
C
IIIN
G

G
r
R
n
E
R
.

L
E
N
G
T
H

1
0
5

'r.'F
.rC
H
T

A
P
r
.

Q
)

C
(
)
N
C
R
E
T
IN
G

O
F

$
Y
l'lH
E
T
R
I
C
A
L

S
E
C
T
IO
N
S

F
R
m
{

r
r
r
:
R

l
l
I
O
-
S
f
'A
N
.

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
S

O
F
'
]
.
4
4

H

L
E
N
G
T
H

c
A
S
T
)
0
0

T
H
E

liA
S

T
H
E

F
0
L
L
O
m
N
G

F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
S
:
-
:
;
T
A
R
lt
,
T
Z
T
N
G

T
H
E

C
O
N
C
R
E
r
r

S
T
l{
!.lC
T
t1
R
E

D
t
!
lU
N
r
.

c
o
r
:
r
-
G
IR
U
e
T
t
o
N

-
T
R
A
N
S
P
O
R
T
I
N
G

O
F

H
A
T
F
R
l
f
i
L
S

A
N
D

-
A
C
C
E
S
S

f
O
R

C
R
r
H

T
llE

G
I
R
D
E
R

L
l
\
l
m
c
m
:
n

S
L
lC
C
r
::S
S
1
V
f
:L
Y

A
c
c
O
R
O
I
N
r
;

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
F
;S
S

F
R
O
}
!
P
I
E
R

T
O

P
I
E
R
.

C
A
R
R
I
A
G
F
S

F
O
R

C
O
N
C
R
E
T
lN
G
,
W
E
I
C
H
T

1
S
O

P
E
R

C
A
R
R
I
A
G
E

IN
C
,
S
E
C
T
I
O
N
.

J

I
.f
I
T
H

rO
R
M

F
O
R

O
f

S
U
I
'F
:
R
H
R
U
C

S
E
C
T
r
o
N
5

O
f

)
,
U

H

F
U
L
L

h
'1
])
T
1
I
o
r

T
H
f

R
R
I
D
G
r

[N
;)
o
{
l.tl\..lt'l
C
A
S
T

O
N

S
C
M
fC
t-O
'N
G

:
;
C
A
F
f
O
U
H
N
G

F
O
R

O
F

S
U
P
E
R
S
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
E

s
r
C
T
I
O
N

O
N

T
o
r

O
f?

P
I
E
R
S
.

@

S
L
I
P

F
O
R
ti

o
r

!
'I
E
R

C
D

1
'(1

l
'R
F
l
n
n
t
l
S
L
Y

E
S
T
A
l
\
U
S
H
E
D

f.lR
ID
C
E

S
E
C
T
I
O
N

flY

O
F

C
F
.N
T
R
t:
$
1
',(;'1
"
1
(1
;1

i
N

t
H
D
-
S
P
A
N

A
N
D

P
R
E

S
T
f
W
S
S
1
N
f
.
A
f
lD
T
T
I
O
N
A
L

T
E
N
I
'O
N
S

I
N

C
lR
D
F
.R

S
U
d
\

A
}
lll

D
F
:e
K

A
tO
N
G

T
I
lE

L
A
lf
N
C
lllll:
G

C
A
N
T
U
.E
V
E
R

S
F
C
T
W
N
,

!
I
F

C
O
N
C
R
r
T
k

T
I
lE

S
I
lP
F
R
S
T
f
{
U
C
T
1
!
R
E

T
H
E

N
(
)
R
T
I
lE
R
N

A
N
n

n
Y

W
::A
N
l1

o
r

I
n
F
N
T
l
C
A
L

5
T
R
l1
C
T
I
lR
E

A
S

O
E
S
C
R
I
l
t
t
:
U


l
S

l
w
n
n

S
H
f
t
n
,
T
A

T
H
F
:
S
O
U
T
llE
R
N

n
m

O
F

E
Q
U
1
N
!
F
.N
T

M
m

T
H
F
_
1


S
A
ltF
:
C
ilN
S
T
R
llC
T
H
lN

P
R
f
N
C
1
P
L
F
:
S
.

1
'H
P

E
D
G
E

R
E
M
I
S

O
F

T
ilE

B
R
I
I
lG
E

n
E
C
K

A
R
E

F
W
A
I
.L
Y

t ..(
J
N

C
R
f
'T
r
::D

T
N

A

H
O
R
K
T
N
C

C
D

l,
A
t
'N
C
lll

s
(
'
(
t

i
o
n

a
l
i
d

e
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

s
e
q
!
!
!
'
1
1
(
'
.
F
I
G
U
R
E

2
.
7
4
.

F
j
o
r
d

B
r
i
d
g
e
.

67 Vejle Fjord Bridge, Denmark
FIGURE 2.75. Vejlc Fjord Bridge. launching girder.

..(
FIGURE 2.76. \'ejlc Fjord Bridge. tranS\'erse ribs.
Construction progress ill the spring of 1978 is il
lustrated in Figures 2.75 through 2.78. Figure 2.79
is an aerial view showing the structure nearing
completion. To keep within the construction
schedule, it was hnalh necessan' to use two com
plete sets of launching girders and twill travelers
working simultaneousl \ frol11 both ends of the
bridge.
FIGURE 2.77. Vejlc Fjord Bridge. pier segment \\itll
diaphragm.
FIGURE 2.78. \'ejlc Fjord Bridge. )Il\truction \ic\\.
spring 197H (courtes\ of H. A, Lindberg).
FIGURE 2.79. Vejle Fjord Bridge. aerial vIew from
the north\\est.
68
"<u
)
'j
C:,
)
;/
Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
2.14 Houston Ship Channel Bridge, U.S.A.
This bridge, a rendering of which is shown in Fig
ure 1.67, includes a main structure over the Ship
Channel ill HOllston, Texas, and two approach
viaducts. The main structure is a three-span con
tinuous box girder, cast in place in balanced can
tile\er. Span lengths are 375,750, and 375 ft (114,
229, and 114 111). The navigation channel is 700 ft
(213 111) wide at elevation 95 ft (29 m) and 500 it
(752 Ill) wide at elevation 175ft (53.4 m), Figu re
2.80.
The three-web box girder carries four traffic
lanes separated hy a 2 ft 3 in. (0.7 111) central bar
rier and has two 3 It 9 in. (1.14 111) parapets. The
box girder is fixed to the top of the main piers to
make the structllre a three-span rigid frame. Sup
port for the box girder is prm'ided by ebstomeric
bearings on top of the transition piers, where it is
separated frolll the approach \'iaducts 1n expan
sion joints.
FOUlidfi/iol/,\ The two center piers and two tran
sition piers rest Oil 24 in. (610 111m) diametel'
dri\'cn steel pipe piles. The center piers each rest
upon 255 piles with a unit pile capacity of 140 t
(127mt). Foolingsare 81 ft (24.i m)wide, 85 ft (26
Ill) long, aud 15 h(4.6 m) deep. These footings are
surrounded by a sheet pile coilerdam and are
poured Oil a 4 ft (1.2 m) thick sub/'ooting seal con
crete. The transition pier footings are 50 ft (15.2
m) wide, 35 ft (10.7 111) long, and 5.5 it (1.7 m)
thick and rest on iO piles each of lOO t (90 111t)
bearing capacil\.
Pins The main piers prmide for the stability of
the cantilevers during construction (unbalanced
constructioll loads and wind loads) and participate
in the capacil\' and behavior of the structure under
service loads (long-term loads due to creep and
.5.00'/.
shrinkage, superimposed dead loads, and !i\'e
loads). They are, therefore, heavil\' reinforced;
their dimensions are:
Total heighI (from top of footing to bottom of pier
segments): 160 ft 10 in. (49 m)
Length (parallel to centerline of highwav): 20 ft
constant (6.1 m)
Width: variable from 38 ft at the bottom to 2i ft i
in. at the top (11.6 to 8.4 111)
Pier cross section: rectangular box, with 2 ft (0.6 m)
constant wall thickness
The transition piers support the last segment of
the main structure side span and the last span of
the approaches. The pier shaft is a rectangular box
with I ft 4 in. (0.4 111) thick walls. Their heights are
152 ft (46 m) at olle end and 164ft (50 111) at the
other end of the bridge. The length, parallel to the
centerline of the highway, varies from 18 to 8 ft
(5.5 102.4 m); the width is 38 ft (11.6 m) constant.
Atop the pier, a 6 ft 8 in. (2 111) cap carrics the per
manent elastomeric hearings and all the temporary
jacks and concrete blocks t hat will be used at the
time of the side-span closure pour. All four piers
are slip-formed.
Box Girder SUjJers/ruc/ure Dimensions of the
variable-depth box girder were dictated by \'ery
stringent geometry requirements. Vertical align
ment of the roadway was determined by the
maximum allowable grade of the approach via
ducts and the connection thereof with the roadway
system on both banks. The clearance required f'or
the ship channel left, therefore, only a structural
depth of 21.8 ft (6.6 m) at the two points located
250 ft (76 m) on either side of the midspan section.
The soffit is given a third-degree parabolic shape
to increase the structural depth near the piers in
order to compensate for the very limited height of
FIGURE 2.80. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, longiludinal section.
69
Houston Ship Channel Bridge, U.S.A.
the center portion of the main span. Maximum Longitudinal prestress is provided by straight
depth at the pier is 47.8 ft (14.6 m), with a span strand tendons (twelve 0.6 in. diameter or nineteen
to-depth ratio of 15.3. Minimum depth at midspan 0.6 in. diameter strands), as shown schematically in
is 15 ft (4.6 m), with a span-to-depth ratio of 49. Figure 2.82.
O\'er the 500 ft ( 152 m) center portion of the main
Transversely, the top slab is post-tensioned by ten
span the span-to-depth ratio is 23, compared to a
dons (four 0.6 in. diameter strands) in flat ducts
usual value between 17 and 20. Typical dimensions
placed at 2 ft (0.6 m) centers.
of the box section are shown in Figure 2.81. Post
tensioning is applied to the box section in three Vertically, the three webs are also post-tensioned as
dimensions: prescribed in the specifications to a minimum
'"
1-0

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
________J
I
___
'11
to I-I,
I
i
II
I
I
I I
: I
IT
\ I I
\ III
\... __ ___J !L

FIGURE 2.81. Houston Ship ChanIlel Bridge. box section.
teodons I,xO.6'/J prestress over main
n /
II / t1
I \ } \,
I \
-T \
0
I / \
[I
I \
I \
r
\
(I2x O6dia.and (I9xO6"dia. ) Continuity prestress at mid span
FIGURE 2.82. Houston Ship Channel Bridge. longitudinal prestress.
70 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 2.83. Houston Ship Channel Bridge. details of tr;l\clcrs.
cOlllpressi\e stress equal to that is, 230 psi (1.6 balanced moments into the pier shafts. Additional
MPa) for a concrete = 6000 psi (41.4 vertical post-tensioning tendons are provided in
\fPa). the two 2 ft (0.6 Ill) thick pier diaphragms lar this
purpose. End segments over the transition piers
Details of the form traveler are shown in Figure were designed to allow either the approaches or
2.H3. the main structure to be completed first, as these
Pier segments over the main piers are of unusual are two separate contracts.
size alld posed a \'ery interesting design problem, It is possible to make an adjustment at the end
arising from the transfer of the superstructure Ull- piers to compensate either for differential settle
71 Other Notable Structures
(a)
',' -.,,,;
.",. ")!,
. (hi .f'" "". ,
tiiI.;i!
FIGURE 2.84. :-"led\\;tv BridgT. LK, (I) [\-pical con
struction ;,cqHl'ml', (b) Vic\\' of f1nishcd bridge,
Illems 01' for al1\ deviation of the deflectiolls from
(lie asslll1led call1ber diagram llsed for construc
tion,
Provisions ha\"c been lIlade for unexpected ad
ditiollal concrete shrinkage and creep problems;
empn' ducts have been placed in the pier segment
diaphragms and at midspan to allow for future
possible installation of additional tendons located
inside the box girder but outside the concrete sec
tion, should the need for such tendons arise.
2.15 Other Notable Structures
There are so mam' outstanding and interesting
cast-in-place cantilever bridges in the world today
that it is impossible to discuss the subject ade
quately in the space available here. :'vlention should
be made, however, of several notable structures
not vet covered by a detailed description.
2,15,1 JHEDWAY BRIDGE, UK
One of the first very long-span calltilever bridges
was the :\Iedway Bridge, This structure used a se
ries of temporary falsework bents to provide sta
bilit\ during construction, Figure 2.84.
2./5.2 RIO TOCL\TINS BRIDG};. BRAZIL
This structure h<Js a center span of 460 ft (140 m)
and two side spans of only 174ft (53 m), Figures
2,85 and 2,86,
2,15.3 PCEXTE DEL AZUFRE, SPAI,V
This bridge is located very high over a deep canyon
of the Rio Si!. Cantilever cast-in-place was the ideal
answer to allow construction with a minimal con
tact with the environment, Figures 2,87 and 2.88,
2.1 H SCflL'BEX.1CADIE BRIDGE. C.'1.VADA
This three-span bridge with a center span of 700 ft
(213 111) crosses the Schubenacadie River, near
Truro, :\ova Scotia, High tidal range. swift cur
rents, ice, and adverse climatic conditions made
the construction of this structure very challenging,
Figures 2.89 and 2,90.
2./5.5 /,VCIEXSO BRIDGE, GUATEA-lALA
The main three-span rigid frame structure with a
center span of 400 ft (122 m) is of cast-in-place bal
anced cantilever construction, and the approach
spans are of precast girders, Figures 2.91 and 2.92.
The very severe 1977 earthquake left the center
structure completely undamaged, while the usual
damage took place in the approach spans.
72 Cast-in-Place Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridge'S

I
____ T _ ...__ ___
+-__._--""'Q2'--__+-_.. ___. 256 .
..::5::::32::.; .:...:70::....-__..

___..
FIGURE 2.85. Rio Tocantins Bridge. Brazil, tvpical elevation and cross section.
2.15.6 SETL'BAL BRlJJGE, ARGENTINA
This three-span structure with a main span of 460
It (140 111) rests on two main river piers with [win
\'ertical ...... alls and piles, with a transition footing at
water elevation, Figures 2.93 and 2,94.
2.15.7 KIPAPA STREAM BRIDGE, U.S.A.
This bridge is located in the Island of Oahu in the
State of Hawaii, The dual structure has an overall
...
FIGURE 2.86. Rio Tocantins Bridge, Brazil, view of
the finished bridge.
width of 118 It (36 m) to accommodate six traffic
lanes, three in each direction, and consists of two
double-cell box girders of constant depth with
interior spans of 250 ft (76.2 m), Figures 2.95 and
2.96. Construction was by cast-in-place cantilever
with segments 15 ft 3 in. (4.65 m) long. The bridge
has pleasant lines, which blend aestheticall\' with
the rugged deep-valley site.
2,15.8 PARROTS FERR}, BRIDGE, U.S.A,
This structure, built in California for the Corps of
Engineers, represents a major application of light
weight concrete for cast-in-place cantilever con
struction, Figure 2.97.
2.15.9 MAGNAN VIADUCT, FRANCE
Located just off the French Riviera in Southern
France, this four-span continuous structure rests
on 300 ft (92 m) high twin piers of an I-shaped
section. Superstructure was cast in place in two
stages (first the bottom slab and webs and then the
top slab) to reduce the weight and cost of travelers.
Figures 2.98 and 2.99 show the principal dimen
sions and views of one cantilever and the finished
structure, Figure 2.100 .
73 Other Notable Structures
6500 13000 '500
RIO SIL
13.70
.-h-f=t
I 310 I I
"I
I
: 9'
"'! I
i
I I I I I
I L :-----+
J-: ---------- J[ -1--4
--,,,- j
FIGURE 2.87. PUl'lltl' dd Al.ufre. Spain. tvpical dc\ation and sections.
2.1 ill) 1'( Tr:. /IX liIUf)C/:". FR./SCE fI (G5.3 111) span. ll1aking both structures very slen
der. Figures 't.l0l alld 2.102. StitT "V" piers in
These ;lre t\\in bridges <Tossillg Ihe Seine River both structures help reduce the flexibility of the
Ile;!r Paris. Bcc;tllse of \Tn' stril1gent clearance and deck.
gconletn rcqllirements. the ayaibble structural
de]>1 h \\,;IS ollh It (I.S m) for Ihe cle;n' 275 l't 2.15.11 TRIC/SnV RRII)(;E, FR. LVCt:
(S:l.S 111) sp;ln ;lIHI4.S It (1.-+7111) for the clear 21-+
This structure spam the Rhone River with no piers
in the river, which necessitates a long center span
and two yerv short side spans anchored at bOlh
ends against uplift. The center portion of the main
span is of lightweight concrete, while the two zones
over the piers where stresses are high are of con
ventional concrete, Figures 2.103 and 2.104.
2.15.12 ESCH-ICHTAL BRlDGE, GERMANY
This bridge is located near Stuttgart, Germam'.
The superstructure consists of a large single-cell
box girder with large top flange cantilevers sup
ported by precast struts. Because of the weight in
volved, the central box was cast in one operation;
struts were installed and flanges cast subsequently,
FIGURE 2.88. Puente del Azufre. Spain. Figures 2.105 and 2.106.
..
TO WINDSOR
"EST
It.
I
I
1

, I
11:5
Section over Piers
-- ---------------- --' 'I
EXISTING RIVER SOTTOM
Elevation
Section at Midspan
FIGURE 2.89. Shubcllacadic de\<ltioll and seC! ions, hom leI. I(j,
TO TRURO
FIGURE 2.90. Shubenacadie Bddge, support system
for unbalanced cantilever moment at pier (courtesy of
the Portland Cement Association),
FIGURE 2.91. Incienso Bridge. Guatemala, view of
the structure,
74
390.00
,25.00 6.00 I 64.00 122.00
ELEVATION
MAIN BRIDGE
111 SECTION 1/2 SECTION
ON SUPPORT ON SPAN
FIGURE 2.92. IIKiel1'o Bridge. Guatemala. dimensions.
79.00 ..Z.Q.. ..___
lr

FIGURE 2.93. Setubal Bridge. Argentina, dimensions.
75
FIGURE 2.94. Setubal Bridge. Argentina, \'ie\, of the
bridge,
205' 250' 250'
.. T
i I : ;
1,1, .
Irr r_:::::r==i
Abut 1 : --I Abut 2
2 3 4 5 6 7
Elevation
" .
'"
14" 12" 14"
.,
';::
'" >,
Cross Section
12"
FIGURE 2.95. Kipapa Stream Bridge. elevatioll and cross section.
...
FIGURE 2.96. Kipapa Stream Bridge, construction
view (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann).
5
(!J I..f
:-
FIGURE 2.97. Parrots
Ferry Bridge, dimensions,
ref. 17,
COUPE LONGITUDINALE
(!) 0)
AAllLOH
FIGURE 2.98. ~ I a g n a n
Viaduct, \Ol1giludill,d ;,enioll.
FIGURE 2.99. :\[agnan ViaduC[, view of a cantilever. FIGURE 2.100. :-"Iagnan Viaduct, aerial view of [he
completed bridge.
ii
FIGURE 2.101. Putcaux Bridge, aerial "iew of the completed bridge.
COUPE LONGITUDIIILE
Ct P2 P3
i i
- - - ~ . - - ---------_.--
II... - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - ~ - - J.
,a.II.tJ
IJU.."
~ - ' "
!
."
2 ... , US
...........
FIGURE 2.102. Puteaux Bridge. longitudinal section.
C4
.'Ul'--_____
! /_1
". /
nu PlRIII - PIll '1111
78
...
--
n
r
\
I
I
i

30.25
25.25 Silon Ii qtr
203 DO
142.50
I
1
,250. ,750
., .' ..
3025
...

/. .
2525
<',
"

-

-

o
U"l
(\J
2 60 2 60
240 5.20 240
FIGURE 2.103. fricastin Bridge, dimensions,
79
FIGURE 2.104. Tricastin Bridge, view of finished bridge.
FIGURE 2.105. Eschachtal Bridge, casting flange FIGURE 2.106. Eschachtal Bridge, view of outrigger
cantilevers. struts,
80
81 References
2.16 Conclusion
The man\' structures described above show the
versatilitv of cast-in-place babnced cantilever COIl
struction, particularly in the held of very-long-spall
bridges with few repetitive spans. The design as
pect of these structures will be discussed in Chap
ter 4 and construction problems in Chapter 11.
References
L H. ThuL "Briickenbau," Bf'/otl- 111111 S/ablhf/ollbau, 61
Jahrgang, Hetl 5, :-'lai 19i16.
:!.. ell'jeh Fills!erwalder, "Prestre,sed COlltTele Bridge
ConSI ruction." JOlin/III oj IiiI' .i ltil'nmll COllal'l/' 11I.,li
1111,'. Vol. ():?, :-':0.9. Seplember 1965.
:1. Llrich Finsterwalder, ":-':ew Developments ill Pre
stressing \'lethods and Concrete Bridge Construc
t i( HI," [)w,idtlg-Bpnch/r, t-I <)0i, September 19t;i,
Ihl kerholl &: Widlll,lnll KG, 'dUlliLil, Cel'lllam.
4. Llrich FillSlen,',ddel', "Free CalltileH'I' COIlSII'uctioll
01' Prest !'cssed COllcrete Bridges and \Iush roolll
Sh;lped Bridges," Fir.lIIIl/!l'IIflllllllll! SHII/JIi.'/llIIl, CI)II
ITI'II' Bodg!' D".,igll. AC1 Publication SP-2:L Paper
American COllcrete Institute, Detroit.

5. "Brid),ic Built :\top the SCCIlCI\ With CtlltileYCI'ed
l'I'an'ler"" Snl'.l-Rt'((}rrl, JUllC IH, 19(i4.
t). Dale F. Downing, "Cantiit'\'Cr Prestressed
Clst-ill-l'lan' Construction 0(' the Pine Valle\' Creck
Bridge." presentcd to thc .\ASHO Anllu;ti \'lecting,
Los ,\ngeles. California, :-':o\elllber II I;"), IlJi3,
i. "Pine \';dle\ Crcek Bridgc, California:' Bridgc Re
(101'1 SR It)!.lll E, Portland Ccment Association,
Skokie, 111., 19i4,
8, Richard A. Dokken, "CALTRA:-':S ExpericlH.:e in
Segmental Bridge Design," Bridgf' Noles, Division or
Structures, Department of Transportation. State or
California, Vol. XVII, :-':0. I, March IY75.
9. A. P. Bezzonl:', "Pine Valley Creek Brid).!;e
Designing for Segmental Construction," ;vleeting
Preprim 1944. ASCE National Structural En
gineering \1eeting. Apdl 9-13, 1973, San Francisco.
10. Richard Heinen, "Pine Valley Creek Bridge: Use 01
Canrilever Construction," \teeting i'reprint 19H I,
ASCE :-':;ltional Srruclllral Engineering Meeting,
April Y-I3, 19i3, San Francisco.
II. ".'1..15 et A.H6 raccorde!l1ent aurorOllticr dans Ie
nord <lu departetllcllt des hams-de-seine," \iinisrerc
de \.'Equipc1l1ent DireClioll Departcmelltal dc
L'Equipement des Hauts-de-Seine, Paris, September
1976.
12. "Bridge Has 595 l't Post-tensioned Span," HNI!'Y
COlls/ruc/ioll ,Vews, August:!, 1976.
I:), ":-':apa River Bridgc, :-':apa, California," Portland
Cement Associatioll, Bridge Report, SR 194.01 E,
19i7.
H. ".\lternale Bidding for California's :\apa River
Bridge WOI1 bv Prestressed COl1crete
Segmental Construction," Prestressed Concrete in
s! itll! e. Post-Tensioning Division, Special Brid ge
Report,
15, \lau-Chung Llllg, "Koror-Babelthuap Bridge-A
World Record Span," Preprint Paper 3441, ASCE
COIl\Tntion, Chicago, October 16-20, 1978.
16. D. W, MacIntosh and R, A. Whitman, "The
SlllIht'llacadie Bridge, :\ova Scotia," All
Illlal Conl'erence Prcpl'ints, Roads and Trallsporta
tioll Association or Canada, Olla\\'a, 1978.
17. "Concrete Alternate Wins Competitive Bidding
Comest [I)r Long SP,Hl Bridge," Bridge
Rcport, Post-Tensioning Institute. A.pri I 1977.
3
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder BTidges
3.1 1l\.'TRODUCfION
3.2 CHOISY-LE-ROI BRIDGE AND OTHER STRUC
TURES IN GREATER PARIS. FRANCE
3.3 PIERRE BENlTE BRIDGES NEAR LYON. FRA1':CE
3.4 OTHER PRECAST SEGMENTAL BRIDGES IN PARIS
3.4.1 Paris Belt (Downstream)
3.4.2 Paris Belt (Upstream)
3.4.3 Juvisy Bridge
3.4.4 Twin Bridges at Conflans
OLERON VIADUCT. FRANCE
3.6 CHILLON VIADUCT. SWITZERLAND
3.7 HARTEL BRIDGE, HOLLAND
3.8 RIO-NlTEROI BRIDGE. BRAZIL
3.9 BEAR RIVER BRIDGE. CANADA
3.10 JFK MEMORIAL CAUSEWAY, U.S.A.
3.II SAINT ANDRE DE CUBZAC BRIDGES, FRANCE
3.12 SAINT CLOUD BRIDGE, FRANCE
3.13 SALLlNGSUND BRIDGE, DENMARK
3.1 Introduction
;\s indicated ill Chapter I. precast sq..;mental coJ)
stnluioll had its origins (in the cOl1temporalT
sense) in France in 1962 as a logical ahernati\'e to
the cast met hod of const ruction. To the
advantagc oj' segmental cantile\cr cOllstructioll.
primarily the elimination of (ol1\'cl1tional false
\\'ork. thc technique adds the rcfinel1lellts im
plicit in t he use of precasling.
The characteristics or precast segmental con
struction arc:
I. Fabrication of the segments can be accom
plished while the substructure is ullder con
st ructioll, thus enhancing erection speed of the
superst rU(ture.
2. lh virtue of precasting and therefore mawritv
of the cOllcrete at the time of erection. the lime
required for strength gain of the concrete is
H'IIl()\'cd from the construction critical path.
82
3,14 B3 SOUTH VIADUCfS. FRANCE
3.15 ALPINE MOTORWAY STRUCTCRES. FRANCE
3.16 BRIDGE OVER THE EASTER]\; SCHELDT. HOLLAND
3.17 CAPTAIN COOK BRIDGE, AUSTRALIA
3.18 OTHER NOTABLE STRUCTURES
3.18.1 Calix Bridge, France
3.18.2 Vail Pass Bridges, U.S.A.
3.1S.3 Trent Viaduct. U.K.
3.18.4 L-32 Tauernautobahn Bridge. Austria
3.18.5 Kishwaukee River Bridge. U.S.A.
3.18.6 Kentucky River Bridge. U.S.A.
3.1S.7 1-205 Columbia River Bridge. U.S.A.
3.lS.8 Zilwaukee Bridge. U.S.A.
3.18.9 Ottmarsheim Bridge. France
3.18.10 Overstreet Bridge, Florida, U.S.A.
3.18.11 Freeway, Melbourne, Australia
REFERENCES
3. :\.S a result of the maturit\, of the concrete at
the time of erection. the effects of concrete
shrinkage and (Teep arc Illinil1lizecl.
4. Superior qualin' cOl1trol call be achie\'ed for
factory-produced precast concrete.
i-Jom,'\cr, geometric cOlltrol during fahrication of
segments is and corrections during erec
tion are more difficult than f()r cast-in-place seg
mental construction. In addition, the connection
of longitudinal ducts for post-tensioning tendons
and the COlltillUit\ of reinforcing steel. if the\' are
required in the are less easilv achieved III
precast than in cast-in-place methods.
Although precast segmental had been used as
early as 1944 for the Luzanc\ Bridge O\'er the
\1arne Ri\'er, Figure 1.'27, \\'ide acceptance began
when match-casting techniques \,'ere developed.
Basicallv, the principle of fabrication of precast
segments is to cast them in a series one against the
other in the order in which they are to be assem
83
Choisy-le-Roi Bridge and Other Structures in Greater Paris, France
hied in the structure. The front face of a segment,
thus. seryes as a bulkhead for casting the rear face
of the subsequent segment. Methods of fabrication
of precast segments will be discussed in Chapter
11.
Seglllents are erected in balanced cantilever
starting from a segment over the pier, which is the
first to be placed. \-Ioditications to the initial prin
ciple have further increased the fiexibility of erec
tion procedures. Two major modifications are (1)
temporarv prestress ties to secure two or more suc
cessive segments and thus free the erection equip
ment, and (2) cantilever prestressing tendons an
chored illside the box sections instead of at the
segment face as on early structures. These refi ne
lIlents mean that the placing of segments and the
threading and stressing of tendons becollle illde
pelldem operations.
Efficient application of this method has resulted
in the use of cantilever construction in moderate
to small-span strnctures where it had preyiollslv
been considered utleconomical. Examples are the
15-;) South \'iaduet (Sectioll 3.14) composed of
spans ranging from 9H ft (30 111) to 164 ft (50 Ill)
and the .-\Ipine \Iotorwav Bridges (Sectioll ;).15)
where the spans range between 60 ft ( IH Ill) to 100
ft CW Ill).
It is interestillg to note a constant evolution to
\\anl increased transverse dimensions alld weight
of precast seglllellts. Problems in precasting,
transportillg, and placing segments that are COIl
stallll\' becoll1ing heavier and wider are being
progressively resolved. Chapter 4 will deal with this
progressive e\'ollltiOI1 as applied to some French
precast segmental bridges and will discllss typical
cross sect iOlls of sOllie precast segmental bridges
constrllcted or ill the design stage ill the Cllited
States.1.2
In cont inuous structures expansioll joilHs mav
be spaced verv far apart. Continuous bridges lip to
;3:)00 ft (I (jOO 111) in length hale been constructed
\\'ithollt intermediate joints: however. this may not
be an upper limit, provided that the design of
bearings and piers is correctly integrated into the
total design of the structure. Free longitudinal
movement of the bridge due to creep and temper
ature change is allowed for by placing the structure
on eiastomeric or sliding (teflon) bearings. We can
also use pier Hexibi!ity to accommodate these
movements by fixing the superstructure to the
piers. In this case, flexibility can be obtained either
bv pier height or by the use of single or double
thin-slab walls, thus reducing the piers flexural re
sistance.
The first precast segmental bridge to be built on
the North American Continent was the Lievre
River Bridge on Highway 35, 8 miles (13 km) north
of Notre Dame du Laus, Quebec. with a center
span of 260 ft (79 m) and end spans of 130 ft (40
m), built in 1967. It was followed in 1972 by the
Bear River Bridge, Digby, Nova Scotia (Section
3.9), with six interior spans of 265 ft (81 m) and
end spans of 204 ft (62 m). The JFK Memorial
Causeway, Corpus Christi, Texas (Section 3.10),
opened to traffic in 1973, was the first precast seg
mental bridge to be constructed in the United
States. In the United States, as of this writing, the
authors are aware of more than 30 precast seg
mental bridge projects that are either completed,
uncler construction, or in the design stage. Some
are listed in Table 3. I."
3.2 Choisy-le-Roi Bridge and Other Structures in
Greater Paris, France
The first bridge to lise the precast segmental cal1
tilever technique with epoxied match-cast joillts
was built at Choisv-Ie-Roi near Paris between 1962
and 1964. It carries \iational Highway 186. a part
of the Paris Great Belt system, over the Seine River
just east of Orly Airport, Figu re 3.1. This structure
is a three-span continuous bridge of constant
dept II with end spans of 12:1 ft (37.5 m) and ;1
center span of 180 ft (55 m). Figures 3.2 and 3.3.
This bridg-e replaced one constructed in 187(),
which had a superstructure of six steel girders with
five spans of approximately 75 ft (23 111). This
structure, determined to be no longer adequate as
earlvas 1939, was se\erely damaged during World
\Var II. It in turn had replaced an ancient bridge
of five 66 !"t (20 m) oak a1"ch spans designed by
the famolls mathematician Claude-Louis-Marie
~ a v i e r "
In 1961, a stud, bv the Administration of
Bridges and Roads allowed two options, one in
prestressed concrete and the other in steel, each
having three continuous spans of 123 ft (37.5 mi.
180.1 ft (55 m), and 123 ft (37.5 m). Four pre
stressed concrete solutions were considered. The
successful solution is illustrated in Figure 3.2.
The overall width of the superstructure for this
dual bridge is 93.2 ft (28.4 m), Figure 3.3. Each
bridge consists of two single-cell rectangular box
girders. Tlte superstructure accommodates dual
two-lane roadways of 23 ft (7 m), two 13 ft (4 m)
sidewalks, and a 10 ft (3 m) median.4.3 Individual
box girders have a constant depth of 8.2 ft (2.5 m),
-------------------------------------------------------------
84 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
TABLE 3.1. Precast Segmental Concrete'Bridges in North America
Date of Method of Span Lengths.
Name and Location Construction Construction" It (m)
Lievre River, NOire Dame 1967 B.C. 130 260 130
du Laus, Quebec (39.6 - 79.2- 39.6)
Bear River, Digby, 1972 B.C. 203.75 5 @ 265 203.75
Nova Scotia (62.1 - 6 @ HO.77 - 62.1)
JFK Memorial Causeway, 1973 B.C. 100 200 100
Corpus Christi, Texas (30.5 - 61 30.5)
Muscaluck River, U.S. 50, 1975 B.C. 95 190 95
North Vernon, Indiana (29- 5H 29)
Sugar Creek, State Route 1620, 1976 B.C. 90.5 180.5 90.5
Parke County. Indiana (27.6 55 27.6)
Vail Pass, 1-70 V,est of Denver, 1977 B.C. 134 - 200 200 134
Colorado (4 bridges) (40.8 51-61-40.H)
134 - 2()() 200 145
(40.H - 51 - 61 - 44)
151-155210-210-154
(46 47.2-64-6cJ 47)
1;)3 210 210- 154
(46.6 64 64 47)
Penn DOT Test Track Bridge, 1977 O.F. 124
Penn Sate C niversity, (37.H)
State College, Pa.
Turkey Run State Park 1977 B.C. 180 - IHO
Parke County, Indiana (:)4.9 - 54.9)
Pasco-Kennewick. Columbia 1978 B.L 406.5 981 - 406.5
River between Pasco (124 - 299 124)
and Kennewick, Washington
(cable-stay spans)
Wabash River, U.S. 136, 19/H 1.L. 93.5 4 We I Hi - 93.5
Covington, Ind. (28.5 - 4 @ 57 28.5)
Kishwaukee River, Winnebago Co. 1979 H.C. 170 :-1 ((1 250 170
near Rockford. III. (51.8 3 ((1 76.2 - 51.8)
(dual structure)
Islington Ave. Ext., Torollto, 1979
B,C, 2 ((I 16 I 2()0 - S (ii 272
Ontario (2@49-61-50 H3)
Kentucky River, Frankfort, Ky. 1979 B.C. 22H.5 - 320 22H.5
(d ual structure) (69.6 97.5 69.6)
Long Key, Florida (contract let S.S. 113 - 101 ((i 118 - 113
late 197H) (34,4
Linn Cove, Blue Ridge P.P. 98.5 163 - 4 @ 180 163 - 98.5
Parkway, N.C. (30-49.7 4 @ 54.9-49.7 30)
(contract let late 197H)
Zilwaukee, Michigan B.C. 26 :-.; .B. spans total length
(dual structure) 8,087.5 (2,465)
(bids opened late 1978) 25 S.B. spans total length
8,057.5 (2,456)
maximum span 392 (119.5)
"Method-or-construction notation; B.C.-balanced cantilever, LL-incrementallaunching, OJ,'.-on falsework, P.P.-progressive
placement, S.S.-span-by-span.
top Range width of 21.65 ft (6.6 m), and a bottom crown, Figure 3.3. The bottom Range thickness is
flange width of 12 ft (3.66 m). Webs have a con 6 in. (0,15 m), except near the river piers where
stant thickness of 10i in. (0.26 m), and the top the thickness increases to 15.75 in. (0.4 m) to ac
flange is of constant section throughout its length commodate cantilever bending stresses. The
with a minimum thickness of 7 in, (0.] 8 m) at its downstream half of the bridge (consisting of two
~ - - - .
85 Choisy-le-Roi Bridge and Other Structures in Greater Paris, France
@J
113
A4
,.
\'''."
Precast Segmental Bridges
1 Choisy-le-Roi 1962-64
2 Courbevoie 65-66
3 Ring Motorway 66-68
4 Ring Motorway 67-68
5 St Cloud 72-74
6 Juvisy 66-68
7 Conflans 70-72
8 St Maurice Interchange 78
9 B-3 South Viaduct 71 72
10 Marne la Vallee 75-77
II Torey RR 78
12 Clichy RR 78
Cast-in-Place Segmental Bridges
13 Gennevilliers 1974-76
14 North West A-86 Interchange 78
15 Clichv High\"ay 73-75
16 Puteaux Bridges 75-77
17 Issy les :'vloulineaux 71 71
18 Cravelle H-75
19 Joinville 74-76
20 Neuilly sur \'-Iarne h6-68
FIGURE 3.1. Location map of segmental bridges in greater Paris. FI'ancc.
box girders) was constructed first, alongside the which were 16.4 ft (5 m) in length and weighed
existing bridge. :\fter removal of the existing 60.6 tons (55 1m), The pier segments also con
bridge. the second or upstream half was con tained two diaphragms which provided continuity
structed. Each dual structure was constructed by with the inclined wall piers, Figure 3.3,
the balanced cantilever method utilizing Freyssinet The segments were fabricated in a precasting
tendons for the longitudinal prestressing. Box vard on the left bank of the Seine approximatelv a
girder segments were 8.2 ft (2.5 m) in length and mile (1.6 km) upstream of the project site, Figure
weighed 22 tons (20 mt), except the pier segments 3.4. Although this bridge might be considered of
moderate importance with respect to span lengths,
its importance lies in the method of fabrication. It
was the first to use segments precast by the match
casting technique. Segments were cast in the pre
casting yard as a series of 8.2 ft (2.5 m) long units,
one against the other, on a continuous soffit form
which had been carefully adjusted to the intrados
profile of the bridge with allowance for camber.
This came to be known as the "long-line" method
(see Chapter 11). Two sets of steel forms riding the
soffit form and overnight steam curing allowed the
production of two segments per working day. To
prevent bonding of the segments to each other in
the casting form, a special peel-off bond breaker
was sprayed over the end of the segment before
the adjacent segment was cast. The segments were FIGURE 3.2. Choisv-Ie-Roi Bridge.
86
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
Elevation
2lHO
120 7J.)O
;(0'
.. :\0
Fm -,-
I:.
lL ..... _')
"""
-
; !
,
.
L j
1HI2
("
Elevation and cross section of river piers
Cross SEction of superstructure
FIGURE 3.3. Bridge. dimensions: ele
vatioll. elevatioll and (TOSS section of River piers, cross
section of superstructure.
suhsequently stripped from the soffit form at their
match-cas! joints and reassembled at the bridge site
in balanced cantilever on each side of the river
piers.
4
A floating crane handled the segments at the
casting yard. After the u nits were loaded on barges
and transported to the project site, the same crane
placed the segments over a retractable jig rolling
inside the box girder in the completed portion of
the bridge and was thus freed for another segment
placing operation. A platform mounted on jacks
on the jig, Figure 3.5, allowed for adjustment of
the segment at the desired position.
4
A I ft (0.3 m)
wide gap was temporarily maintained between the
faces of the segments to allow workmen to apply
Choisy-le-Roi Bridge and Other Structures in Greater Paris, France
87
FIGURE 3.4. Choisv-Ie-Roi Bridge, view of the precasting yard.
FIGURE 3.5. Choisv-Ic-Roi BI'idge, retractable erection jig.
the epoxvjoinl material. Thejig \Vas then retracted
and prestressing tendons were placed and stressed
to connect the two sym metrical segments on each
side of the previousl\' completed portion of the
cantilevers on either side of the pier."
Placing of the precast segments in a call1ilever
fashion OIl each side of the pier progressed step by
step. as indicated in Figure 3.6. Tendon layout is
illustrated in Figure 3.7. Cpon completion of the
two twin cantilevers from the river piers. a cast-in
place closure pour was consummated at midspan
and a second series of prestressing tendons were
placed in the bottom flange to achieve continuity
between the two center-span cantilevers. These
tendons were given a draped profile to allow the
locati<,>Tl of tendon anchorages in the top flange of
the box girder. Both series of tendons, cantilever
and coIllinuity, overlap each other and cOIllribute
....
FIGURE 3.6. Choisy-Ie-Roi Bridge. segment placing
,dth floating crane.
88 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 3.7. Choisy-le-Roi Bridge, tendon lavout.
to a substantial reduction in the shear forces in the
webs as a result of the vertical component of the
prestress. The side spans were constructed in a
similar manner. The three precast segments adja
cenl to the abutments were assembled on
falsework. After a closure pour between these
segments and the cantilever from the river pier,
positive-moment tendons were placed and stressed
in the end span to achieve continuity. Because the
midspan area of the center span had little capacity
to withstand moment reversal under ultimate load,
additional short tendons were located m the top
flange to achieve full reinforcement continuity
with the longest cantilever tendons.
5
The same construction technique used for the
Choisy-le-Roi Bridge was used for the Courbevoie
Bridge, built bet ween 1965 and 1967, which also
crosses the Seine in the northwest suburb of Paris,
Figure 3.1. The bridge has three symmetrical
spans of 130, 200, and 130 ft (40, 60, and 40 m) for
a tOlallcnglh of 460 ft (140 m), Figure 3.8. Four
box girders of constant depth carry the 115 ft (35
4.o(1Q. __.. _ ~
NEUILLY 35.70
I I
NIVEAU NORMAL DE LA SEINE 23.50
FIGURE 3.8. Courbevoie Bridge, elevation.
89
Pierre Benite Bridges near Lyon, France
m) wide deck, Figure 3.9. The available depth of
only 7.5 ft (2.28 m) made necessary a very slender
structure; depth-to-span ratio for the main span is
1126.
5

6
Each river pier is an assembly of two half-piers,
Figures 3.9 and3.10, which are fixed at the level of
the foundation. Each half-pier consists of a rectan
gular shaft 9 by 26 ft (2.8 by 8 m), which supports
two pairs of prestressed concrete walls, above the
normal water level, in the form of a parallelogram
of 18 in. (0.45 m) thickness and 10.5 ft (3.2 m)
width. The walls are arranged in a "V" in the
transverse direction of the bridge and have a di
mension of 6.7 ft (2.05 m) out-to-out of walls in the
longitudinal direction.
6
The girders are fixed at the
piers and supported on elastomeric bearings at the
abutments. A total of 148 precast segments of 12.5
ft (3.8 m) length were required for the super
structure. They were fabricated in four months at
the rate of two segments per day, in two sets of
steel forms, electrically heated and insulated with
polyurethane lining:'
Erection at the site was accomplished by a float
iug crane. After careful (lcljustment of the pier
segments, they were erected at the rate of four per
day. The temporary jig used at Choisy-le-Roi for
adjustment of the segments was replaced in this
project by two temporarv steel beams bolted to the
top of each segment and connected to the com
plett:d section of the cantilever bv prestressing
bars:;
The girder was prestressed longitudinally and
tra nsversely. th rough three longitudinal cast-in
place strips between the top flange cantilevers of
the box girders. The completed structure is shown
in Figure 3.10.
3.3 Pierre Benite Bridges Near Lyon, France
These two large bridges carry the rnotorway from
Paris to the Riviera south of Lyon near the Pierre
Benite hydroelectric plant, Figure 3.11. There are
two separate bridges, one over the draft channel of
the power plant and the other over the Rhone
River. Both structures are twin bridges, each
bridge consisting of two single-cell box girders.
Typical dimensions in longitudinal and cross sec
tions are shown in Figures 3.12 and 3.13. The same
constant depth of 11.8 ft (3.6 m) is used for all
spaf}S of the two bridges. However, a haunch
under the intracios of the box girders increases the
,
FIGURE 3.9. Courbe\oie Bridge, cross section at river
pier and abutment.
.. ,
:: \."..
. \ 0::::: ' ....
\ '!o.

FIGURE 3.10. Courbevoie Bridge. view of completed
bridge.
FIGURE 3.11. Pierre Benite Bridge, view of the
finished bridge.
90 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges.
___ ____ ... _________ __________ __________

Bridge over draft channel
(1 )
(hJ
FIGURE 3.12. l'icrn' lknil{, Bridge. longitudinal s('((iollS. (({) Bridg(, ()\er draft
Hel. (h) Bridge owr Rhone Rin'r.
16.92
'.
,
1
. +.
1 ,
'n ,t

FIGURE 3.13. Pierre Benile Bridge, t\'Pica] ClOSS section.
structural depth over the piers to a maximum of 14
ft (4.28 m) for the 276 ft (84 m) span. All piers rest
on compressed-air caissons and are made of solid
cylindrical columns 6.5 ft (2 m) in diameter which
support the cast-in-place pier segment, including
skew diaphragms between the two individual box
girders of each bridge. This pier segment served as
the starting base for precast segment placing in
balanced cantilever for the superstructure.
The 528 segments were precast near the southern
hank of the draft channel. This application of pre
cast segmelltaJ construction was the occasion to
conceive and develop for the first time the short
linc precasting Illethod, whereby the segments are
cast in a formwork located in a stationary position.
Each segrnent is cast between a fixed bulkhead and
the preceding segment, in order to obtain a perfect
match. After a learning curve of a few weeks, each
of the two short-line-method casting machines was
used to cast one segment every day. Details and
specific problems of the short-line method will be
described in Chapter II. Figure 3.14 shows the
precast segments as they were fabricated, tem
porarily stored, loaded on barges by a very simple
portal structure equipped with winches, and finally
transported to the construction site.
Other Precast Segmental Bridges in Paris 91
I
I
I
~ -
FIGURE 3.14. Pierre Benile Bridge. precasting yard
and loading portal. ((Ii {'recasting vanL (h) Loading portal.
Placing of all segments in the two twin structures
. was achieved in balanced cantilever. using the
cast-in-place pier segments as a starting base. This
project used the newlv developed "beam-and
winch" erection system, illustrated in Figure 3.15
together with J close-up view of a typical seg
ment-placing operation. Electric winches are sup
ported in a cantilever position from the com
pleted part of the deck to allow each segment to be
lifted oFf the barge and placed in its final position.
Because of high-velocity river currents on one
structure, it was considered advisable to transfer
the segments from the barge to the winch system
close to the piers to allow temporary anchorage of
the barge. Therefore, segments had to be moved
longitudinally from the barge position to their final
10GJ.tion. A special trolley carried the winches and
the suspended segment while riding along rails
fixed to the finished deck. A general view of the
construction site with segment placing in progress
is shown in Figure 3.16.
Both precasting and placing operations were
carried out successfully. All the segments were
placed in the structures in 13 months. The only re
gret was that this erection system did not provide
for precast pier segments. The geometry of the
cast-in-place pier segments was further compli
cated by the skew of the bridges, such that the
contractor expended as much labor on this aspect
of construction as in precasting and positioning all
the precast segments.
3.4 Other Precast Segmental Bridges in Paris
The first two match-cast bridges, Choisy-le-Roi and
Courbevoie, were followed by a series of other
crossings over the Seine River. All contracts for de
sign and construction were obtained on a competi
tive basis with other types of materials or construc
tion methods.
The next two structures were for the construc
tion of the Paris Belt :'lotorway which crosses the
Seine at two locations, one downstream of the city
and one upstream; see the location map, Figure
3.1. They were followed by several others, which
are briefly described in this section.
3.4.1 PARIS BELT (DOIV.\STllE,1!H)
These twin bridges, Figure 3.17, carry four traffiC
lanes. Dimensions are shown in Figures 3.18 and
3.19. Ylaximul1l span length is 302 ft (92 m) and
the structural depth of the four box girders is 11 ft
(3.4 m), increased toward the piers to a maximum
of 21.3 ft (5.5 m) bv straight haunches. Because of
the skew between the axis of the bridge and the
How of the Seine. the pier shafts were given a spe
ciallozenge shape. which proved very efficient for
the hydraulic flo\\' and is of pleasant appearance.
The limited bending capacity of the shafts called
for temporary supports during cantilever COIl
struction operations.
Precast segments were manufactured on the
bank of the Seine with two casting machines
(short-line method). For the part of the bridge
superstructure located over the river, segments
were placed with a floating crane, Figure 3.20. In
fact, almost half the bridge length was placed over
land au t of reach of the floating crane. The beam
and-winch equipment used at Pierre Benite Bridge
was substituted for the crane to place these seg
ments. There was also need of additional falsework
on one bank to compensate for the unusually long
-"
1f '
FIGURE 3.16. Pierre Benite Bridge, under construction.
FIGURE 3.15. Pierre Benite Bridge, segment placing
scheme (hft and tllP right).
92
FIGURE 3.17. Paris Belt (Downstream), view of
finished bridge.
C
tA
.
E

R
O
.
P
I
L
E
}

.5
3

C
V
L
E


R
D

P
>
L
E

1

<
i1
q
6

...

"
r
,,"

H
N

\2
<
l-
3
'!
_
L
!
J

_
_

_
_
"-:::-
..

A
l:;,..S
L
A
i

'1
<
2
0
'
1
'1
A
H
t.r
s

!
t
1
,(
.(
I
'
1
1
Q
,S
O
'
C
R
A
t
E
C
R
A
"
6
7
...,7

9
2
,0
0

8
1
.<
4
6

3
1
2
,5
0
6

"
'2
,.D
.1

r

t
7
'1
,6
5

F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
1
8
.

I
'
a
r
i
,

B
e
l
l

(
D
o
w
m
l
r
c
;
t
l
l
l
)
,

s
e
c
t
i
o
l
l
.

!
9
0

I

'
:

9
0

z
e
D

.

'
N

L
b
I
"

"
,

_
_
2
%
_

_
<
t
'*
>
o
.
-
,

.

J

]

l
.

J
l
.

J

:

'
e


l

,

3
l
o
3
5
Q
:

.o
J

'

'

'
"

'
F

.
J

9
0
0

8
0
0
I

M
O
O

F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
1
9
.

P
a
r
i
s

B
e
l
r

(
D
o
w
l
l
s
t
r
e
a
l
l
l
)
,

c
r
o
s
s

s
e
c
t
i
O
I
l
.

1
..0

1
.1
0

Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges 94
FIGURE 3.20. Paris Belt (Downstream), segment
placing.
end span, which could not be changed because of
stringent pier location requirements.
3.4.2 P,4RIS BELT (UPSTREAM)
On the other side of Paris another segmental
structure, also carrying the Beit Motor-way over the
Seine, was designed for five traffic lanes in either
56,62 65.m
FIGURE 3.21. Paris Belt (Upstream), vIew of the
finished bridge.
direction, Figure 3.21. The twin bridges have di
mensions similar to those of the downstream
bridge, and each structure has two parallel bo;-:
girders connected by transverse prestress. Dimen
sions are shown in Figures 3.22 and 3.23. A circu
lar intrados profile was used in lieu of the straight
haunches. All segments were precast on the river
bank in the immediate vicinity of the bridge, using
d ~ u t , . u i l
FIGURE 3.22. Paris Belt (L'pstrcam), longitudinal section.
E
o
o
N
...
3.50 m
3.50m 3.50 m 3.50m
3.50 m 3.50m
3.5Om 3.50 m 3.50m
3.50m
FIGURE 3.23. Paris Belt (Upstream), typical cross section.
._--_._--_.
95
Other Precast Segmental Bridges in Paris
PHASES D'EXECUTION DU T AllllER SEQtll!NCES OF nu: Dl!'.CK COIISTRUCTlctI
Right Bank
Quay of Bercy
FIGURE 3.24. P;ll'is Bell (l'pstream), typical segment placing scheme.
the sallie two casting machines lIsed previously for
the downs! ream bridge.
Placing segments in the struClure posed some
interesting problems, as shown in the sequence
diagrams of Figure 3.2-!-. Pier segments were too
heavv to be handled as one unit and were sub
divided into two segments, assembled upon the
pier shaft before cantilner placing could start. A
FIGURE 3.25. Juvisv Bridge. completed structur:.
crane, either on crawlers or on a barge, together
with the beam-and-winch equipment handled all
segment placing,
3.4.3 JUVISY BRIDGE
This bridge, Figure 3.25, is also on the Seine just
somh of Choisy-Ie-Roi; see the location map. Fig
ure 3,1. Dimensions are shown in Figure 3.26.
Segments were cast by the short-line method near
the site and placed with a floating crane, An aux
iliary falsework on both banks allowed segment
placing and assemblv beyond the reach of the
floating crane,
3.4.4 nnv BRIDGES AT CONFL4NS
These twin bridges, Figure 3.27, placed about 320
ft (100 m) apart to allow for interchange ramps on
both banks, are upstream of Paris where the Seine
and Marne Rivers merge; see the location map, .
Figure 3.1. Dimensions and construction methods
were similar to those of the Courbevoie Bridge al
ready described.
96
:
V
EL 133
I
/1\

I
I
I
I
I
I
.,..
I
=t==
I
1
f--.I
i I
I
EL.122

7
/
EL.69


I
l
! :
I. j
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges'
, .,
I "
t 24-3
24-3
10'

EL 133 i
FIGURE 3.26. Ju\'isy Bridge, cross seclion.
FIGURE 3.27. Twin Bridges at Conflans, finished
hridge.
3.5 Oieron Viaduct, France
The Oleron Viaduct provides a link between the
mainland of France and the resort island of Oleron
off the Atlantic West Coast 80 miles (128 km) north
of Bordeaux, This structure has a total length be
tween abutments of 9390 ft (2862 m). In the navi
gable central part of the structure are 26 spans of
260 ft (79 m), Figure 3.28. Approach spans consist
of two at 194 ft (59 m), sixteen at 130 ft (39.5 m),
and two at 94 ft (29 m). The superstructure is sup
ported by 45 piers and was assembled by pre
stressing match-cast segments, using epoxy joints.
Balanced cantilever construction was accom
plished utilizing a launching gantry for erection.
In the approach spans the superstructure has a
constant depth of 8.2 ft (2.5 m). Depth of the
center spans varies from 14.9 ft (4.5 m) at the piers
to 8.2 ft (2.5 m) at midspan, Figure 3.29. The rec
tangular box segment has a bottom flange width
of 18 ft (5.5 m) and a top flange width of 34.8 ft
(10.6 m). Webs ha,'e a constant thickness of 12 in.
(0.3 m), while the top and bottom flanges are 8 in.
(0.2 m) and 7 in. (0.18 m) thick, respectively, Fig
ure 3.30. Typical segment length is 10.8 ft (3.3 m).
Expansion of the deck is provided in every
fourth span by a special stepped (ship-lap) joint
with horizontal elastomeric bearing pads, Figure
FIGURE 3.28. OJeron Viaduct, cQmpleted structure.
97 Oleron Viaduct, France
1
'1
I
I
i
I
" ~
~ .
\r /
_.
18'
FIGURE 3.29. Olcron Viaduct. typical cross section. from ref. :> (courtesy of
I he American Concrete l!lStitute).
3,30. Throughout the total length of structure
there are ten expansion joints: one at each abut
ment and eight intermediate ones. The latter are
located at points or cOlltraftexure in a tvpical
interior span subjected to a continuous uniform
l o a d . ~ The segments with the expansion joint have
the same length as typical segments and are in fact
two hair-segments that are temporarily preassem
bled with bolts. with a special lavout of temporary
and permanent prestressing tendons. It is then
possible to maintain the balanced cantilever erec
tion procedure beyond the expansion joint to
midspan. Later on, when continuity has been
achieved in the adjacent spans, the expansion
joint segment is "unlocked" to perform in the in
. tended manner.
The precasting plant was located in the vicinity
of the mainland abutment. Production in this plant
was scheduled so that the 24 segments required for
a typical 260 ft (79 m) central span could be fabri
cated in nine working days. Segments were pro
duced by the long-line method, described in
Chapter 11. Four sets of steel forms rode a bench
that was carefully aligned to the longitudinal
profile of the roadway and the variable-depth soffit
with due provision for camber. Segments were
match-cast in the same relative order in which they
were subsequentlv assembled at the site.;; An aerial
view of the casting yard is shown in Figure 3.31.
Handling of segments in the casting and storage
yard was accomplished by a special railwav
mounted gantry capable of handling loads varying
r:
I
I
!
1
I-;:V'"
" I
I I
!Il.JI!L
'2
FIGt:RE 3.30. Oleron Viaduct, typical center span elevation, from ref. 5 (cour
tesy of the American Concrete Institute).
98 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges'
FIGURE 3.31. Olemn Viaduct. aerial "iew of casting
\ard.
from 45 tons (42 I11t) for the center-span segment
to HO tons (i3 111t) for the pier segment. A lowboy
dolly riding on rails or the finished bridge and
pmhed by a farm tractor transported the segments
from stor:tge to their 10catiol1 for assembly.
Cantilever erection at the site was accomplished
by a launching gantry, Figure 3.32. This gantry
was the key to the successful operation of this proj
ect. Although the structure is erected oyer water,
the use of floating equipment would have been
difficult, expensive, and subject to uncertainty be
cause of the great tidal range and the shallowness
of water in most of the area traversed by the
structure. Floating equipment would have been
able to reach the approach piers only at high tide.
During low tide the marsh area, which is the loca
ti011 of France's famed Marennes oyster beds,
could not accept any tire-mounted or crawler
mounted equipment. Consequently, it was decided
to work entirely from above with a launching
gantry. This new technique was developed for the
first time for this structure and was later refined
for other structures. For the typical central spans
the erection cycle required between eight and ten
working days.f'
Construction began in May 1964, three months
after design work had started. The first segment
was cast in July and placed in August 1964. Side
spans laid on a cu I've were completed in December
and the launching gantry was then modified for
construction of the center spans. The last of the
8iO precast segments was in place in March 1966,
alld the bridge opened to traffic in May, after an
overall construction time of two y e a r s ~ ; see the
summary of the work program in Figure 3.33. A
FIGURE 3.32. OleHln \'iarluct. cOllStruClioll yic\\
showing camilcHT span. from ref. :> (counes\, or lhe
American COf1cr('lC InslillHc).
view of the final structure is shown in Figurcs 3.28
and 3.34.
The Olcron Viaduct was thc first applicJtiolJ of
the launching-gantry concept for placing segments
in cantilever. Se\'craJ structures were later de
siglled and huilt \\'ith the same construction
method. \iention should be lIlade here of three
special bridges:
I. Blois Bridp,f min tlt(, Loir(' Hit'('r The princi
pal dimensiolls are given in Figure 3.35. The
superstructure box girders rest on the pier shafts
through twin elastomeric bearings, which allow
thermal expansion while prm'iding partial re
straint for bcnding-moment transfer between deck
and piers. Consequently, sa\'illgs are ohtained both
in the deck and in the foundations. All segments
were placed in the bridge wit h an improved ver
sion of the launching gantry first designed for the
Oleron Viad uct. High-strength steel and stays
were used to provide minimum weight with a sat
isfactory stillness during operations, Figure
3.36. High-strength bolt connections were used
throughout to make the gantTv completely capable
of dismantling and easily transportable to other
construction sites.
2. Aramon Bridge over the Rhone River This was
the next structure where the same gantry could be
used, Figure 3.37.
3. Seudre Viaduct Located just a few miles
south of Oleron over the Seudre River, this 3300 ft
(1000 m) long viaduct was also of precast segmen
tal construction and used the same launching gan
99 Chillon Viaduct, Switzerland
CONTiNENT OLERON
PIERS ON FOOTINGS PIERS ON FOOTINGS
FIGURE 3.33. Olcl'OlI Viaduct, program of work,
tn. The linished structure is shown in Figure 3.:HL
Foundations foJ' the cellter spalls were built Illside
sheet pile cofferdams in spite of verv swift tidal
currents.
3.6 Chillon Viaduct, Switzerland
The 7251 ft (2210 111) long dual structures of the
Chillon Viaduct are part of European Highwav E-2
and are located at the eastern end of Lake Geneva
passing through an environmentallv sensitive area
and very close to the famed Castle of Chillon, Fig
ure 3.39. In addition, the structures have verv
difficult geometrical constraints consisting of 3%
grades, 6% superelevation, and tight-radius curves
as low as 2500 ft (760 m). Each structure has 23
spans of 302 ft (92 m), 322 ft (98 m), or 341 ft (104
m). The variable spans allowed the viaduct to be
fitted to the geology and topography, providing
minimum impact on the scenic forest. The viaducts
are divided bv expansion joints into five sections of
an approximate length of 1500 ft (457 m),
Twin rectangular slip-formed shafts were used
for the piers. varying in height from 10 to 150 ft (3
to 45 m). Stability during construction was excel
lent and required little temporary bracing except
between the slender walls to prevent elastic insta
bility.! With the exception of three piers in each
FIGURE 3.34. Oleron Viaduct, aerial view of finished
bridge.
100 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
CD ELEVATIOn - ELEVATION
9.100 9\00 91,00 61,50
PI P? P 3
p,
CI) (DUPE TfiAnSVERSALr
CROSS SECTION
to 4 ~ 79 m at midspan
FIGURE 3.35. Blois Bridge. elevation and t\'pical cross section,
\'iaduct, all piers are hinged at the top. The piers ment of the superstructure.
that are less than 72 ft (22 m) high are hinged at The superstructure consists of a single-cell rec
the base; taller piers are fixed at their base, being tangular box with a cellular cantilever top flange,
sufficiently flexible to absorb longitudinal move- Figure 3.40, and with a depth varying from 18.5 ft
FIGURE 3.36. Blois Bridge, launching gantry
operating on the superstructure.
FIGURE 3.37. Aramon Bridge, launching gantry.
Chillon Viaduct, Switzerland 101
FIGURE 3.38. Seudre Bridge, finished structure.
(5.64 m) at the longer-span piers to 7.2 ft (2.2 m) at
midspan. Widths of top and bottom flange are re
spectively 42.7 ft (13 m) and 16.4 ft (5 m). Dimen
sions of the two typical cantilevers are noted in
Figure g.41. :\laximum segmem weight was 88 tons
(80 mIl. :\ cellular cantilever top Bange was used
because the overall width of the top flange ex-
FIGURE 3.39. Chillon Viaduct, aerial vie\\'.
ceeded 40 ft (approx. 12 m) and the cantilever
length was 13.15 ft (4 Ill). An altemative would
have been to provide stiffening ribs as used in the
Saint Andre de Cubzac Viaducts (Section 3.11) and
the Sallingsund Bridge (Section 3.13).
Segments were precast in a yard at one end of
the structure with five casting machines, allowing
Over supports
(a)
1300 1300
5.00
At mid-span
(b)
FIGURE 3.40. Chilion Viaduct, cross sections. (a) Over supports. (b) At midspan,
III 91
=
102
103 Hartel Bridge, Holland
FIGURE 3.42. Chillon Viaduct, precasting yard.
an average production of 22 to 24 segments per
week (see aerial view, Figure 3.42).
Erection was by the conventional balanced can
tilever method with a launching gantry designed to
accommodate the bridge-deck geometry in terms
of curve and variable superelevation. The overall
length of the gantry was 400 ft (122 m) and the
total weight 2,50 tons (230 mt). Special features of
this gantry will be discussed in Chapter 11. Can
tilever placing of precast segments is shown in Fig
ure 3.43.
This structure is truly an achievement of mod
ern technology with emphasis upon the aesthetic
and ecological aspects of design.
3.7 Hartel Bridge, Holland
The 1917 ft (584.5 m) long Hartel Bridge crosses a
.canal in Rotterdam, Figllre 3.44, and consists of
the following elements:
FIGURE 3.43. Chillon Viaduct, cantilever construc
tion with launching gantry.
Sections I, II, and V, conventional cast-in-place
prestressed concrete box girders
Sections III and IV, precast prestressed concrete
segmental box girders
Two steel bascule bridges.
The original design contemplated that the total
structure would be constructed as conventional
cast-in-place box girders on falsework. Substitution
at the contractor's request of cast-in-place seg
mental construction by precast segmental con
struction for sections III and IV saved the exten
sive temporary pile foundation system necessary to
avoid uneven settlement of false work because of
initial soil conditions. The redesign proposed two
single-cell rectangular box girders as opposed to
one three-cell box girder, Figure 3.44, omitting the
center portion of the bottom flange and providing
thinner webs and a thicker bottom flange.
In the segmental box girder design the climen
sions of the deck slab are constant over the entire
length, girder depth varies from 4.92 ft (1.5 m) to
17 ft (5.18 m), the webs have a constant thickness
of 13.8 in. (0.35 m), and the bottom flange thickness
varies from 10 in. (0.26 m) to 33 in. (0.85 m). Up to
a depth of 9.35 ft (2.85 m) the segments have a
length of 15.8 ft (4.8 m); over 9.3 ft (2.85 m) the
length decreases to 12.3 ft (3.75 m).
The vertical curvature of the bridge was made
constant for the full length of sections III and IV
by increasing the radius from 9842.,5 ft (3000 111) to
J9,029 ft (,5800 m), which resulted in a repetition
of eight times half the center span. This repetition
justified precast segments.
A long-line casting bed (see Chapter 11) was con
structed on the centerline of the bridge box girders
at ground level, Figure 3.45. Thus, a portal crane
was able to transport the cast segments to the stor
age area and also erect them in the superstructure,
Figure 3.46. The end spans have three more seg
ments than half the center span; these were sup
ported on temporary falsework until all the pre
stressing tendons were placed and stressed, Figure
3.46.
The first segment cast was the pier segment;
each of the remaining segments was then match
cast against the precedi.ng segment. The pier seg
ment was positioned on bearings on top of the pier,
Figure 3.47, and the two adjoining segments were
positioned (one after the other) and the joints
glued with epoxy resin. Temporary high-tensile
bars located on the top of the deck slab and in the
bottom flange were stressed to prestress the three
104 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
._v~
84.1 117.4
Elevation
I
I I I
r ~
I
l....-
I
'"
0
" no
'"
~ ,
-
~
~ - - -
.---.
Cross section of the
original design
F
HALF CROSS SECTION A
HALF CROSS SleTtON _ B
Cross sections of the redesign
FIGURE 3.44. Hartd Bridge. typical dimensions: c!('yatioll, cross sections of the origi
nal design. noss sections of the redesign (coune,\" or Brice Bender, BV:\ISTS).
segments together. After the epoxy had hardened,
the permanent tendons were placed and stressed.
The two segments adjoining the pier segment were
supported during erection on Hat jacks on the top
of the outside struts of a steel scaffolding bearing on
the pier foundation. Thus, the flat jacks were used
for adjustment of the segments to achieve proper
geometry control. The remaining segments were
FIGURE 3.45. Hanel Bridge. method of casting segments (courtesy of Brice
Bender, BVN/STS.
105 Hartel Bridge, Holland
FIGURE 3.48. Hartel Bridge, completed structure.
FIGURE 3.46. Hartel Bridge, portal crane for han
dling segments.
erccted in thc cOT1\'enlional balanced Glnlilever
met hod. Thc cOl11pleted struclurc is shown in Fig
ure 3.4H.
Othcr slructures using prccast scgmental con
strllction wcre suhscquentl\' designcd and built in
the \iclhcrlands. Shown in Figurc 3.49 is the
Ilridgc o\'cr the ljssel at Deventcr, where segments
in thc 2n It (74 111) SP;Il1S were placed with a
launching gallln. The overall Icngth of the gantry
was S2() ft (i:')ti 111), allowing the legs to bear on the
permanent concrete piers and impose no loading
on the deck during construction. Figure 3.50.
... .... --f--..--._- .. ---f
.___._____ ._%_n__ n_______ : ~ ~ [
FIGURE 3.49. Dnenler Bridge, placing segments
\\'ith the launching gantry.
FIGURE 3.47. Hartel Bridge, erection sequence and detail of tempo
ran- pier bracing (courtesy of Brice Bender, BVN/STS).
106 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
156 m (520 It)
74 m ttl
Max bridge span 74 m (247 ttl
FIGURE 3.50. Deventer Bridge. elevation of gantry.
3.8 RioNiteroi Bridge, Brazil
The Rio-Niteroi Bridge crosses the Guanabara Bay
connecting the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi,
thereby avoiding a detour of 37 miles (60 km). This
structure also closes the gap in the new 2485 mile
(4()OO km) highway that interconnects north and
south Brazil and links the towns and cities on the
eastern seaboard, Figure 3.51. Although the route
taken by the bridge across the Bay seems somewhat
indirect, it was selected because it avoids very deep
water and is clear of the flight path from Santos
Dumont Airport.
Total project length is approximately 10.5 miles
(17 km). of which about 5.65 miles (9. I km) is {)\"er
water. The alignment begins at the Rio side with a
3940 ft (1200 m) radius curve, then a straight sec:
tioll. \\itl1in which are located steel box girder
na\'igation spans totaling 2872 ft (848 m) in length.
This is followed by an island, where the viaduct is
interrupted by a road section of604 ft (184 ml. and
finally <lIlother 3940 ft (1200 m) radius curve ar
riving at Niteroi.
The precast concrete viaduct sections
have a lOlal length of 27,034 ft (8240 m) repre
senting a total deck area of 2,260,000 sq ft (210,000
JoooPeuaa
___
Cuiobo

Paulo .
The

pol' . RioNiteroi
,u"uno " Bridge
FIGURE 3.51. Rio Nileroi Bridge. site location map.
107 Rio-Niteroi Bridge, Brazil
m
2
)", making this bridge the largest structure of its
type. An aerial view of the crossing under traffic is
shown in Figure 3.52. The superstructure has 262
ft (80 m) continuous spans with an expansion joint
at every sixth span, Figure 3.53. It consists of two
rectangular box girders for a total width of 86.6 ft
(26.4 m) and a constant depth of 15.4 ft (4.7 m). A
2 ft (0.6 m) cast-in-place longitudinal closure joint
FIGURE 3.52. Rio-Nileroi Bridge, view of the com
pleted ;,lrurture.
between the top Range cantilevers provides con
tinuity between the two box girder segments. Typi
cal segments have a length of 15.75 ft (4.8 m) and
weigh up to 120 tons (110 mt). The pier segments
are 9.2 ft (2.8 m) in length. Special segments are
used for expansion joints.
Longitudinal prestressing tendons consist of
twelve! in. (13 mm) diameter strands in the top
and bottom Ranges with a straight profile, while
the resistance to shear stresses is obtained by verti
cal web prestress, Figure 3.54.
All segments were manufactured in a large pre
casting yard on a nearby island. Ten casting
machines (eight for the typical segments and two
for the pier and hinge segments) were laid in two
independent parallel lines, each equipped with a
portal crane for carrying the segments to the stor
age area and the loading dock. More than 3000
segments were subsequently barged to their loca
tion in the structure and erected by four launching
gantries working simultaneously on each of the two
parallel box girders and on either side of the bay,
Figures 3.55 and 3.56. The rate of segment placing
was remarkable. A typical span was assembled and
completed in five working days. Between the
months of February and July 1973, an average of
Cross section
i IJQaJ
Elevation
(h)
FIGURE 3.53. Rio-Nileroi Bridge, cross section and elevation. (a) Cross section. (b)
Elevation.
108
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges'
t ...80 t
7 8 (I 8
ELEVATION
BARRE5 MACALLOY 0
lij
. . -
PLAN CABLAGE SUPERIEUR
I PLAN CABLAGE INFER'EUR I

FIGURE 3.54. Rio-Niteroi Bridge, typical span dimensions and tendon layout.
278 precast segments per month were installed in
the structure by the four launching gantries, rep
resenting an area of 180,000 sq ft (17,000 m
2
) of
finished bridge per month. At the same speed,
OIeron Viaduct could have been built in two
months. Such is the measure of the determination
and enthusiasm of engineers and constructors of
the New World.
3.9 Bear River Bridge, Canada
The Bear River Bridge is about 6 miles (9,7 km)
east of Digby, Nova Scotia, on trunk route 101
between Halifax and Yarmouth, near the An
napolis Basin; it replaces an 85-year-old structure,
Preliminary studies showed, and construction bid
prices verified, that precast segmental was more
economical than sted construction by nearly 7%.7.8
109 JFK Memorial Causeway, U.S.A.
FIGURE 3.55. Bridge. cantilever con
struction.
rotal structure length is 1998 ft (609 m) with six
interior spans of 265 ft (80.8 m) and end spans of
204 ft (62.1 111), Figure 3.57. The layout has very
severe geo1llctrv constraints. In plan, the east end
of t he bridge has two sharp horizontal curves con
to each other ami to the west end tangent bv
two spiral curves; minilllum radius is 1150 ft (350
III). In elevation, the bridge has a 2044 ft (623 m)
vertical curve with tangents of 5.5 and 6.0 percent.
Two sets of short-line forms employed by the con
tractor to Gist the segments met the variable
geoll!etry requirements admirably. The accuracv
of casting was stIch that only nominal elevation
adjustlllents were required at the abutments and
the center-span closure pours.
R
The single-cell box girder su perstructure is con
tinuous for the total length of the bridge. Typical
(Toss-section dimensions are indicated in Figure
:>.58. Prestressing tendon layout is illustrated ill
. Figure 3.59 for a tvpical luterior span. Fiftv-hve
tendons were required for negative moments and
22 for positive-moments. The majority of nega-
FIGURE 3.56. Rio-\iiteroi Bridge, launching gan
tries.
tive-moment tendons were inclined in the web
and anchored at the face of the segments. Anchor
age of six tendons at the face of the first segment
acUacent to the pier segment (three in each web)
produced a large upward shear force at the face of
the pier segment, which was not overcome until
therrection of several additional segments. The
midspan positive-moment tendons are continuous
through the cast-in-place closure joint at midspan.
These tendons, indicated by capital letters in Fig
ure 3.59, were placed in preformed ducts upon
completion of erection of the segments in a span
and the closure pour consummated. All positive
moment tendons were anchored in the top flange.
The precast segments are typically 14 ft 2 in. (4.;>
m) in length and the closure pour at midspan is 4
ft 4 in. (1.3 m) long.
7

H
The precast segments are reinforced with pre
fabricated mild steel reinforcement cages, in addi
tion to the primarv longitudinal prestressing ten
dons, Figure 3.60, and transverse prestressing in
the top Hange. Web shear reinforcement varies
depending on the location of the segment. The 145
precast segments were cast in a plant located Ilear
the bridge. This plant was equipped with two cast
ing molds, each producing one segment per day. A
12-hour steam curing perioe! was used and a con
crete strength at 28 clays of 5000 psi (34.5 MPa)
was achievecJ.7
Because of the curved layout of the bridge and
its relative shortness, the use of a launching gantry
would have been uneconomical. Segments were
placed by a 200 ton (180 Illt) mobile crane on land,
or on a barge over water, Figure 3.61. Construc
tion of this bridge started in Mav of 1971. and it
was opened to trafflc on December 18, 1972 .
3.10 JFK Memorial Causeway, U.S.A.
A portion of the JFK :\fellloriai Causeway repre
sents the first precast. prestressed, segmental box
girder completed in the United States. Opened to
traffic in 1973, this 3280 ft (1000 m) long structure
spans the Gulf Intercoastal Waterway in Texas to
connect Corpus Christi and Padre Island. It was
designed by the Bridge Division of the Texas
Highway Department under the supervision of
v'layne Henneberger. The Center for Highway
Research, University of Texas at Austin, under the
supervision of Prof. John E. Breen, assisted in the
design and also built and tested a one-sixth scale
mode! of the bridge to check design requirements
and construction techniques.
9
,

o

i
P
I
E
R
4

.
I

I

B
R
G
S
.

,
.
,
,
"
"

2
6
5
"
0
"

.
_
-
-
-
-

C
O
N
C
,
P
A
R
A
P
E
T

W
A
L
L

1
2
7

'
'
'
'
'
'
1
'
'
1
'
'

f
t
M
.
w
.

L
,

E
L
.

0
0
.
0

7
>

f
4
C
<
t

"
,
,
.
r

>
h
v

p
.
.
.
.

V
?

c

:
:
;
;
O
"
"
,
,
(
t
t
<

>
p
>

E
L
E
V
A
T
I
O
N

F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
5
7
.

H
e
,
l
l

R
i
v
C
l
'

e
l
c
v
a
t
i
o
n
,

f
r
o
m

r
e
I
'
.

H

(
c
o
u
r
l
e
s
v

o
f

t
h
e

P
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
e
d

C
O
l
l
c
r
e
t
e

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
)
.

P
'E
R

2

2
6
5
"
0
"

E
X
I
S
T
I
N
G

R
I
v
E
R

B
E
D

Ii:.
P
I
E
R

3

I

m
"
o
"
.

"
'
I
'.
.
C
;
.
'
$
O
'
.
'
(
"
'
n
e
.
.
,

,
.
.
,

,
,
,
,
'.
)
l
'O
l
7
1

)
1
2
1
7
5
)
1
<
)
1
0

Ii:.
P
I
E
R

1

U
N
I
T
S

N
O
.
7
,

2
1
,
4
7
,
6
7
,

B
1
.
1
0
7
,

1
2
1

A
N
D

1
4
7

A
R
E

C
A
S
T

I
N

P
L
A
C
E

(
D
E
C
K

C
L
O
S
I
N
G

U
N
I
T
S
)

:
o
'--<l. ROADWAY
39' -6"
2-6"
b.
16'-0"
15'-0' 6'-0"

I
I r<l.
PRECAST
UNIT
l
la"
I
10"
-
/
-
-
I'-a"
4'-3" 4'-6"
(
4'-6" 3'-10 3'-10' 4'-6"

I
a"
l'
./"
,
1'-0"
6'-a" 6'-a" 1'-0"

la'-o"
'--
r.-I'- 4"
,
FIGURE 3.58. Bear Riyer Bridge, typical cross section, from ref. 8 (courtesy
of the Prestressed Concrete Institute).
HALF INTERIOR SPAN TENDON ELEVATION
ACH TENOON UT'LiZES
,
DIAMETER
STRANDS ______
270 K
UIl'
I "
14 IS!III, /,. \\'1.. 11
. _01 l1,iW

..
"
13
11
77
., . - '\
i
II TNOONS I
. ,
/'
.
I

,
9tH"
SECTION AT MIDSPAN SECTION AT PIER
TENDON DISTRlaUTION
FIGURE 3.59. Bear Ri\'er Bridge, typical center-span tendon elevation and
distribution. from ref. 8 (courtesy of the Prestressed Concrete Institute).
111
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridge; 112
FIGURE 3.60. Bear River Bridge, longitudinal pre
stress ducts in forms (courtesy of thc Pl'csll'essecl COll
<Tele I nstitllle).
FIGURE 3.61. Bear River Bridge, erection by
barge-mounted crane (counesy of the Prestressed Con
crete I IIstitu Ie).
The structure consists of thirty-six 80 ft (24.4 m)
long approach spans of precast, prestressed bridge
beams and the 400 ft (122 m) total length segmen
tal bridge spanning the Intercoastal Waterway.
The segmental portion of this structure has a
center span of 200 ft (61 m) with end spans of 100
ft (30.5 m). The segments were precast, trans
ported to the site, and erected by the balanced
cantilever method of construction using epoxy
joints, Figure 3.62. The precast, segmental super
structure consists of constant-depth twin box
girders with a 2 ft (0.61 m) cast-in-place longitu
,
'.
,
"'"
FIGURE 3.62. JFK Memorial Cause\\'av, balanced
cantileH'i' construction (courtesy of J. E. Breen).
dinal closure strip, Figure 3.63. Segments are
10 ft (3.05 m) in length and in cross section, are 8 (t
(2.44 m) in depth, and have a nominal top flange
width of 28 ft (8.53 m). The top Range or deck is of
constant dimension longitudinally but of variable
thickness in a transverse direction. The bottom
flange is of constant dimension transversely but
varies longitudinally from lOin. (254 mm) at the
pier to 6 in. (152 mm) at 25 fl (7.62 m) from the
pier center.
Segments were cast with male and female align
ment keys in both the top and bottom flanges as
well as large shear keys in the webs, Figure 3.64.
I ntegral diaphragms were cast with the pier seg
ments, Figure 3.65. Both matching faces of the
segments were coated with epoxv, and temporary
erection stressing at both top and bottom of the
segments precompressed the joint before installa
tion of the permanent post-tensioning tendons.
The segments were erected by a barge-mounted
crane. As each segment was erected. it was tilted 21
degrees from the in-place segment. so that a pair of
hooks in the top of the segment being erected en
gaged pins in the segment previously erected. The
new segment was then pivoted down by the sling
until its shear key slipped into the mating shear key
of the previously erected segment.
9
Figure 3.66
shows a permanent tendon being tensioned and
the temporary working platform.
The design concept on this project utilized pre
stressing tendons in the top flange for dead-load
cantilever stresses; after closure at midspan, con
tinuity tendons were installed for the positive mo
ment, Figure 3.67. Research on the model testing
of the bridge is documented in references 10
through 15 with particular emphasis in reference
14 on lessons learned during construction that
might facilitate or improve similar projects.
113 Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridges, France
Sym. @<tl
28 ft. (8.53 m)
E 6fl.(1.83ml
E
E
M
.0
N
00_
,
6'-8" (2.03 m)1
E
1=
0, ,I," 2ft. (0.6.1 m)
" pour striP
I
i
12"
(305 mm) I
00
i ____ I
17ft
. (2.13 m) : 13ft. (3.96 m) I' 7'-10" (2.39 ml i
1
'E J ! t )I. '( :.r!
FIGURE 3.63. JFK Causeway. typical cross section. Bottom slab
thickness varies from 10 in. (254 111m) at pier to 6 in. (152 mill) at 25 ft (7.62
Ill) from pier center.
FIGURE 3.64. JFK Memorial Causeway. precast seg
ment in casting vanl (courtesv ofJ. E. Breen).

FIGURE 3.65. JFK :YlemOl'ial Causeway. construction
\iew showing pier segments with diaphragms (courtesy
ofJ. E. Breenl.
FIGURE 3.66. JFK Memorial Causeway. prestressing
permanent tendon (courtesy of J. E. Breen).
3.11 Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridges, France
Opened to traffic in December 1974 after a con
struction period of 29 months, this important
structure crosses the Dordogne River north of
Bordeaux on the South Atlantic Coast. A view of
the finished bridge is shown in Figure 3.68. The
main river crossing has a total length of 3800 ft
(1162 m) with approach land spans of 190 ft (59 m)
and main river spans of 312 ft (95.3 m), Figure 3.69.
Two intermediate expansion joints located at the
point of contraAexure in the transition spans sepa
rate the deck into three sections for concrete vol
ume changes. The center section has a length of
1920 ft (585 m). The main piers have rectangular
hollow box shafts supported by circular open
dredged caissons 30 ft (9 m) in diameter. Ap
proach piers have an I section.
Another structure, constructed under the same
contract, consisted of twin bridges 1000 ft (307 m)
in length with typical 162 ft (49.5 m) spans in an
114 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
Main pier
\

FIGURE 3.67. JFK '\lelllOlial slstell) of I)l'{'stlTssing tendolls.
.. -.
FIGURE 3.68. Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge. "iew of
the finished bridge over the Dordogne Riler.
area north of the main crossing where poor soil
conditions did not permit stability of an embank
ment. Altogether the deck area is 97,000 sq ft
(29,500 m
2
), entirely of precast segmental COI1
struction. The typical cross section is a single box
54.4 ft (16.6 m) wide with transverse ribs both in
the side cantilevers and between webs, Figure 3.69,
to provide structural capacity to the deck slab
under traffic loads. A casting yard located along
the bank of the Dordogne River produced the 456
segments for both bridges (main crossing and
north viaducts) in three casting machines (two for
the typical segments and one for the special seg
ments such as pier, hinge, or end segments). Mod
erate steam curing at 86F (30C) for 12 hours in a
movable kiln enclosing the newly cast segment and
its match-cast counterpart allowed a one-day cycle
and proved very efficient in avoiding any geomet
ric corrections.
Segments were placed in the structure by the
heam-and-winch method either on land (for the
northern viaducts or the approach spans or the
lI1ain river crossing) as shown in Figure 3.70 or
over water for the main spans as shown in Figure
3.71. This was the occasion for a further
improvement in the placing scheme by beam and
winch, whereby the pier segments could he precast
and placed with the same type of equipment as
shown in principle in Figure 3.72. A provisonal
tower prestressed against the pier side face allowed
the pier segment to be installed upon the pier cap,
with the beam and winch later used for cantilever
placing. To keep the segmellt weight to a
maximum of 110 t (100 I11t) the pier segment, rep
resenting the starting base of each cantilever, had
been divided into two halves placed successively,
Figure 3.73. Figure 3.74 shows the lifting of the
last closure segment.
3.12 Saint Cloud Bridge, France
A connection between the peripheral Paris Ring
Road and the Western Motorway (A-I3) required
the construction of a bridge over the Seine ex
tended by a viaduct along the left bank leading to
the Saint Cloud Tunnel, Figures 3.75 and 3.76.
This structure has two traffic lanes in each direc
tion. It will be duplicated later by a similar adjoin
ing structure when the congested Saint Cloud
Tunnel is duplicated. Original design of this
bridge contemplated a steel structure. However, an
alternative design utilizing precast segments and
.... BORDEAUX at ANDRE DE CUBZAC -+
" ~ ~ ______" __',",,6,,",::::6C,,-_
-,
FIGURE 3.69. Saint Andre de Cubzac l)ridge, elevation and cross section.
-.
--4
FIGURE 3.71. Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge, beam
and-winch segment placing over water.
FIGURE 3.70. Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge, beam
and-winch segment placing over land.
115
PROVISIONAL
TOWER
REMOVE
TOWER
i
,
..
! FIGURE 3.72. Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge. placillg precast pier segments.
I
I
I
I
I
FIGURE 3.74. Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge, placing
closure segment in last span.
CD
FIGURE 3.73. Saint Andre Cubzac Bridge, lifting
second half pier segment.
116
117
Saint Cloud Bridge, France
FIGURE 3.75. Saint Cloud Bridge, overall view.
the balanced cantilever met bod of construction.
submitted by the contractor, permitted substantial
and was accepted bv the authorities.
The has a total length of 3618 ft (1103 m)
with a constant-depth superstructure. It includes
two sectiolls: the bridge over the Seine. which is a
1736 ft (529 111) long cuned structure; and a 1883
ft (57.t Ill) viaduct. which follows a straight
lavout along the bank of the Seine and then crosses
the Place Clemenceau. on a 2260 ft (690 Ill) radius
curve, by an access ramp to the Saint Cloud Tun
nel. It includes 16 spans divided as follows (refer to
}'igure 3.76):
Seine Bridge: 160.8.288.7.333.8,296.0, 150.9, and
two 219.5 ft spans (49,88, 101.75,90.25, .t6, and
two 66.9m)
Common area: 66A ft (20.2.t m) up to the ex pansion
joint, and then 153.1 ft (4.t.66 m), total 219.5 ft
(66.9 m)
Viaduct: five 219.5: 285.4, 210.0. and 137.8 ftspans
(five 66.9; 87, and 42 m)
Architectural considerations led to the choice of
a 11.8 ft (3.6 m) constant-depth three-cell box
girder with slopingexternal webs with no overhangs,
Figure 3.77. Segments are 7.4 ft (2.25 111) in length
with,a record width of 67 ft (20A m), their average
weight varying from 84 to 143 tons (76 to 130 mt).
Since the superstructure has a constant depth, the
bending capacity is adjusted to the moment dis
tribution bv varying the bottom fbnge thickness.
which decreases from 31.5 in. (800 mm) at the
piers to 7 in. (180 mm) at midspan. To accommo
date the curvature of the bridge the segments in
this area are cast, in plan, in a trapezoidal shape. "'\
superelevation is obtained bv placing the
units over the piers in an inclined position.
Three-dimensional prestressing was used in the
superstructure: the main longitudinal prestress.
transverse prestress in the cleck, and a vertical pre
stress in the webs to accommodate shear. .-\fter the
closlIre joint at midspan was cast. additional IOll
gitudinal prestress tendons were installed to pro
\'ide continuitv.
Superstructure segments were precast in a plant
on the right bank of the Seine. Two casting molds
were used for fabrication of the Each
mold had an external forrnwork and an internal
retractable formwork. The adjacent, previoush' cast
segment was used as a bulkhead to achieve a
match-cast joint.
For erection, segments were transported on a
trolley to a cable-stayed launching gantry of un
usual size and capacity. It was of high-vield steel
construction, 402 ft (122.5 m) in length and
weighing 250 tons (235 mt), with a maximum load
capacity of 143 tOilS (130 mt). The constant-depth
gantry truss was supported on central and rear
legs, which were runnel shaped to allow passage of
the precast segments endwise. At the central sup
port, a 52.5 ft (16 m) high tubular tower topped
118
,
1,
7_"\. '.f.lI.I:::::=_
,,1.{$ L
. I,
119
-'-'
120 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 3.78. Saint Cloud Bridge, segment placing.
MISE EN PLACE
DES
VOU550IRS SUR P1L,J..L______---''--'-''--____,____J..O-_''___, ___ __ ___
PLACING OF PILE UNITS
, 820
AVANCEMENT DU
.,PORTIQUE DE __fL_______ LlL-_______U-_______-LJ._____
LANCEMENT.
MOVING THE TRUSS
MISE EN PLACE
___-.l..L____ I]_____-....I...... l _,.... ---
PLACING THE UNITS IN CANTELIVER
FIGURE 3.79. Saint Cloud Bridge. sequence of operations in moving launching girder.
[
,
i
with a saddle provided a large eccentricity to
the three pairs of cable stays, which improved the
negative-moment capacity at this support location.
At the forward end of the gantry an additional leg
was used as a third support poillt dllring launching
and pier segment placing. Figure 3.78. The
Iaullching girder was moved forward on rails
mounted on the completed superstructure. by
'
sliding on pads placed at the central and rear legs.
The launching girder, in cross section, was trian
gular in shape. The base of this triangle
two structural steel I sections, which served as
tracks for the segment transportation trolley. The
diagonal bracing of the launching girder consisted
of tubular steel members. The girder was fabri
cated in ten sections, approximately 39 ft (12 m)
I
I
! 1
Saint Cloud Bridge, France 121
in length, so as to be transportable over the high- temporary front leg supported just in front of the
ways. These units were assembled at the job she by pier.
prestressing bars. Launching of the gantry: The gantry slid on rails at
The sequence of operatiom in moving the the rear leg and rolled over an auxiliary support
launching girder forward is illustrated in Figure placed atop the pier segment. The central leg,
3.79 and included the following operations: during this travel, crossed the gap between the
cantilever end and the pier unit.
Placing pier segment: The gantry was supported on Placing typical segments in cantilevl'r: In this phase
three points: the rear leg, the central leg placed the gantry was supported at two points: the central
near the end of the completed cantilever, and the leg placed over the pier and the rear leg anchored
A
PRECONTRAINiE 'l'ERTICAU
----- ."
B
c
o
FIGURE 3.80. Saint Cloud Bridge. sequence of operations of launching gantry over
the ri\er.
122 Precast Balanced Girder Bridges .
FICURE 3.81. Angfu Bridge, longitudinal section.
at the end of the last completed cantilever. The
segments were lifted by the trolley at the rear end
of the girder, moved forward, after a rotation of a
quarter turn, and then placed alternatively at each
end of the cantilevers under construction.
As a rf''>ult of the horizontal curvature 01 the
structure, the transverse positioning of a segment
was accomplished both by moving the segment
transportation trolley sideways relative to the
girder [possible side travel of 3 ft (0.9 m) on ei
ther side] and by moving the launching gantry it
self sideways relative to its bearing support on the
bridge. Thus, the construction of a cantilever re
quired one, two, or three different positions of the
gantry, according to the curvature radius and
length of span, as shown in Figure 3.80. Work
started in October 1971 and was completed in De
cember 1973. Placing the 527 precast segments in
the 3600 ft (1097 m) long superstructure took
exactly one year.
In terms of erection speed, a more interesting
project was successfully carried out on a precast
segmental bridge awarded to Campenon Bernard.
A unique set of circumstances arose where a bridge
over the Loire River at Angers could be fitted to
use simultaneously the dimensions and casting
machines of Saint Andre de Cubzac Bridge, which
had recently been completed, and the gantry of
Saint Cloud Bridge.
The 2577 ft (786 m) long structure rests on 10
piers and has 280 ft (85.1 m) typical spans, Figures
3.81 and 3.82, using a single box girder with ribbed
FIGURE 3.82. Angers Bridge, view of the completed
structure.
deck slab units identical to the sections used at
Saint Andre de Cubzac. The construction contract
was signed in August 1974 and the superstructure
was completed in May 1975. All segments were
placed between January and Mar 1975, in a little
less than five months, corresponding to an aver
age erection speed of 26 ft (8 m) per day of fin
ished deck.
3.13 Sallingsund Bridge, Denmark
Sallingsund in Northern Jutland between Arrhus
and Thisted is a site of great natural beauty. Con
struction of a bridge in such an environment was
the object of careful study, which concluded, after
an international competition, in the selection of a
precast segmental structure, Figure 3.83, resting
on piers of a unique design.
This structure has two end spans of 167 ft (51 m)
and 17 interior spans of 305 ft (93 m). '[here are
18 piers between the two abutments. The level of
the roadway reaches 100 ft (30.5 m) above the
water at the center span and 82 ft (25 m) at the
abutments. The two center spans are navigation
spans requiring 85 ft (26 m) vertical clearance over
a width of 197 ft (60 m). The bridge deck accom
modates two traffic lanes, approximately 13 ft (4
m) each, two cycle paths, and two sidewalks for a
total width of 52.5 ft (16 m), Figure 3.84. The
po:>
FIGURE 3.83. Sallingsund Bridge, view of the com
pleted structure.
" ::
~
1
.
.
~
\
:.\\
Ogog !lg
ag-., ~ t n ' l \
123
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges 124
su perstructure consists of precast concrete box
girder segments 11.7 ft (3.57 Ill) in length, with
epoxy match-cast joints, which are prestressed to
gether. Segment depth varies from 8.2 ft (2.5 m) at
midspan to 18 ft (5.5 m) at the pier.
The precast superstructure segments were
match-cast by the short-line method (see Chapter
11). There are altogether 453 segments varying in
weight from 86 t (78 mt) to 118 t (107 mt). The
typical segment shown in FigUl'e 3.85 has web cor
rugated shear keys together with top and bottom
flange keys. Hinge segments equipped with a
roadway expansion joint for thermal movement of
the superstructure are placed every other span
near the point of contraAexure. A hinge segment
with its diaphragm is shown in Figure 3.86.,seg
ments are placed in the structure in cantilever with
a cable-stayed launching gantry. Transfer from the
casting area and the storage yard to the construc
tion site and the launching gantry is achieved by a
low-bed dolly pushed by a tractor, Figure 3.87.
The gantry shown in Figure 3.88 should look
FIGURE 3.85. Sallingsund Bridge. "iew of a typical
segment.
"
.1'''''''' /-.
FIGURE 3.86. Sallingsund Bridge, hinge segment
with diaphragm.
familiar to the reader, as it was previously used at
the Saint Cloud and Angers Bridges.
Each pier in the v,ater consists of the followjng,
~ s shown in Figure 3.89:
Twenty-four pipe piles filled with reinforced con
crete after driving
..
A guiding template and a tremie concrete seal

A precast substructure block and precast ICe
breaker
A cast-in-place hollow box shaft with cap for re
ceiving the superstructure
-

Chapter 5 gives a detailed description of the foun
dation principles in design and construction.
..
..
3.14 B-3 South Viaducts, France
The South Viaducts or the B-3 Motorway, Figure
3.90, east of Paris, are 1.25 miles (2 km) in length
FIGURE 3.87. Sallingsund Bridge, segment trans
port.
;
FIGURE 3.88. Sallingsund Bridge, launching gantry.
125 8-3 South Viaducts, France
FIGURE 3.8iJ. Sallingsund Bridge, elevation of main
piers in water.
and have 860,000 sq ft (80,000 m
2
) of bridge deck.
The project is in a congested area that required the
crossing of railway tracks, canals, and more than 20
roads; its diverse structural geometry contains
curves, superelevation ranging from 2.5 to 6% and
grades up to 5%.
FIGURE 3.90. B-3 South Viaduct, overall view.
Figure 3.91 presents a plan of this and
shows a subdivision in accordance with the type of
cross sections used. It includes the following main
subdivisions:
1. The main viaduct VP I-A through VP I-J.
2. The main viaduct VP 2-A and VP 2-B.
3. The viaducts VI and V2, which are access
ramps to the main viaduct VP 2.
4. The viaducts V3 and V4, which are access
ramps to the \iational Road R:\3.
The original design for this project, prepared by
the French authorities, was based on conventional
cast-in-place construction of the superstructure in
complete spans using movable formwork. The
contractor proposed a more economical design
based on the use of precast segmellts. The alterna
tive design had advantages in erectioll, wherein
parts were erected by a launching truss and parts
by a mobile crane in conjunction with an auxiliary
truss and winch. The use of precast units allowed a
deeper and thus a more economical superstruc
ture, because the space required for formwork did
not have to be deducted in the clearance require
ments over existing roads and other facilities.
The superstructure has a constant depth of 6.5 ft
(2 m), consisting of three different cross sections,
Figure 3.91. Different width and transitions were
accommodated bv varying the width of the east
in-place median slab connecting the top Aanges of
the precast segments. Only the V3 and V 4 access
ramps were of conventional cast-in-place construc
tion.
The webs of the precast segments have a con
stant thickness of 12 in. (310 mm), increased in
some cases to 2'0 in. (500 mm) near a pier. Webs are
stiffened by an interior rib, which also serves to an
chor the longitudinal prestressing inside the box
rather than in the web at the end of a segment.
Where the webs are not thickened near a support,
they are prestressed vertically by bars to accommo
date shear forces. The top Aanges of the segments
are cantilevered 10 ft (3 m). In the case of segment
types 2 and 3, Figure 3.91, the top flange cantilever
between box sections is 9 ft (2.75 rn). The top
Aange follows the superelevation of the roadway.
The thickness of the cast-in-place longitudinal slab
between box girders varies from 7.9 to 13.8 in. (200
to 350 mm), depending upon its width.
The total superstructure is supported on neo
prene or sliding bearings. Expansion joints are
spaced at distances up to 1970 ft (600 m) and are
126 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
200Ct
I,
2 0 0 ~
:;.;;;r . L.--UW
22.00 m
2.00[ 31:::' . , 1
15mrw
SUD
SOUTH
FIGURE 3.91.
T Y P E 1 795 V0U5S0IRS L.1,50 ou 2,50m
I
1
9,50
,I
18.75 m
'-1
J ! t:l
T Y P E 2 1014 VOUS50lRS L. 2,50 ou 3,.mm
TYPE 3
N:JRD
N:JRTH
'" \.'4
A1
....
RN3
t
B-3 South Viaducl, plan showing segment type location.
located in special hinge joints near a pier.
Superstructure spans vary from 89.6 to 174 ft (27
to 53 m), with 90% of them being in the range of
III to 125 ft (34 to 38 m).
This project required 2225 precast segments, all
manufactured by the short-line method (see
Chapter 11), which involved the following opera
tions:
I. Subassembly of mild steel reinforcing on a
template.
2. Storage of subassembly units.
3. Assembly of complete reinforcement cages in
cluding tendon ducts.
4. Placing of the cages in the forms.
5. Concreting and curing of the segments.
6. After concreting and curing, transportation of
the segment by a dolly to a position where one
end would act as a bulkhead for the casting of
the next segment. At the same time its position
was adjusted to conform to the proper
geometric configuration of the superstructure.
7. Transfer of the segment that had previously
acted as the bulkhead to temporary storage for
further curing.
8. Transfer of the segment, eight hours after
curing, to a more permanent storage until re
quired for erection.
9. Return of the mold bottom, after temporary
storage, to the casting area for reuse.
Curing of the segments was accomplished with
low-pressure steam in the following 44-hour cycle:
I. An initial 14-hour curing period at 35C.
2. A two-hour temperature rise reaching 65"C.
3. A one-hour curing period at a level of 65"C.
The short curing cycle can be accomplished if the
following conditions are satisfied: use of a proper
cement, preheating of the materials to 35"C, rigid
forms, and proper supervision. Casting of a seg
ment required nine hours, allowing two segments
per day per form; the four forms used produced a
total of eight segments per day.
Erection of precast segments by the launching
gantry shown in Figure 3.92 is schematically illus
trated in Figure 3.93. After being rotated 90",
segments V2 and V'2 were placed at the same time
by means of two trolleys suspended from the bot
tom chord of the launching girder, Figure 3.94.
127
FIGURE 3.92. B-3 SOllth Viaduct. launching gantry
in operation.
The matching faces of the segments being erected
and the previouslv erected segments, V 1 and V' 1,
were coated with epoxy joint material. Segments
B] South Viaducts, France
V2 and V' 2 were then attached to the previously
erected segments by temporary prestressing.
During the erection operation of V2 and V'2 a
transport dolly delivered segment V' 3, then V3,
and so on. In this manner the erection of segments
could be carried out without being delayed by
transportation of the segrIJents from the storage
area. In addition, the tfueading and stressing of
the permanent prestressing tendons were inde
pendent of the erection cycle. since the tendons
were anchored in the internal ribs and could be
prestressed inside the box girder.
Where the span length was less than 125 ft (38
m), the pier segments were placed by the gantry in
its normal working position. The pier segment po
sition was adjusted from a platform fixed to the top
of the pier to avoid delaying the placement or can
tilever segments at the preceding pier. For the few
(a)
PI
P2
FIGURE 3.93. B-3 South Viaduct. erection sequence. (a) Placin.g the units: The two
trolleys bring the units V2 and V'2 which will be placed, after rotation at 90, against
the units VI and V' 1. During this time, the lorry carries the units V'3. then V3, and so on.
(b) Laullching the truss: The rear and the central are lifted abo\'e the piers PO and PI.
the tmss is supported by trestles and trolleys ill 1 alld P2 and moves forward by the
action of the trolley motors until the legs reach PI and P2. Thus the truss has advanced
along one span length and can place the pile-unit in P3 and the cantilevers from P2.
128 Precast Balanced CantiLever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 3.95. B-3 South Viaduct, auxiliary truss for segment assembly (crane placing).
(1) Auxiliary truss, (2) winch for segment lifting, (3) precast segment, (4) possible tempo
rary support (as required), and (5) concrete cantilever stability device.
_....
FIGURE 3.94. B-3 South Viaduct, placing two seg
ments in balanced cantilever.
larger spans, the pier segment was placed after clo
sure of the preceding completed spans and ad
vancement of the launching gantry. The center leg
was advanced out onto the last completed half
span cantilever, but it remained in the proximity of
tlte pier. Launching of the gantry to the next span
was achieved b\ using the two segment transporta
tion dollies temporarily fixed on the completed
superstructure by two auxiliary steel trusses. The
high degree of mechanization of the gantry to
gether with the repetitive nature of the project al
lowed speedy erection. A typical 130 ft (39 m) span
was erected and completed in two working days.
To maintain the construction schedule and
minimize required erection equipment, the super
structure segments wel'e placed simultaneously
by two different methods. The launching gantry
previously described placed 57% of the seg
ments and a mobile crane in conjunction with a
movable winch frame erected the remaining ones.
The latter method was used where access was
available for a truck-mounted crane and the seg
ment transportation dolly. The truck-mml11ted
crane could easily be used along the centerline of
the structure to place segments at outboard can
tileyer ends. However, its use became complicated
in the midspan area, particularly when it was used
to place the closure segments. To solve this prob
lem, an auxiliary truss equipped with a winch was
used in conjunction with the mobile crane. This
truss was supported at one end over the pier where
cantilever construction proceeded and at the other
end over the last completed cantilever arm, which
might or might not require a temporary support.
pier, Figure 3.95. The segments were lifted by a
trolley-mounted winch traveling along the truss.
This truss was also used to stabilize the cantilevers
during erection, since it was fixed to the pier and
the completed ponion of the superstructure. After
the pier segment was positioned by the m()bile
crane, the frame was launched with the trolley in a
counterweight position at the rear of the frame.
\Vhen the span exceeded 65 ft (20 m), the front of
the frame was held by the c r a n e ~
This structure exemplifies an innovative appli
cation of precast balanced cantilever segmental
construction to a difficult urban site and shows its
adaptability to almost any site conditions.
129
Alpine Motorway, location map.
Alpine Motorway Structures, France
3.15 Alpine Motorway Structures, France
The new Rhone-Alps Motorway system in South
East France includes 220 miles (350 km) of toll
ways, of which 60 miles (100 km) are an optional
section, between the cities of Lyons, Grenoble,
Geneva, and Valence in order to improve com
munications between Germany and Switzerland on
one hand and South France and Spain on the
other. The motorway is situated among the beauti
ful western slopes of the Alpine mountain range
(see the location map, Figure 3.96). The first 160
miles (250 km) include the following structures:
Ten viaducts varving in length between 500 and
1300 ft (150 to 400 m)
Two hundred overpass bridges
Fifty underpasses
Such a project afforded an exceptional occasion to
-
"
optimize the structures in terms of initial invest
ment and low maintenance costs.
The underpasses had to accommodate a variable
and often considerable depth of fill to reduce the
constraints of the longitudinal profile in this
mountainous region. The ideal answer was found
in the use of reinforced concrete arch structures,
which proved extremely well adapted and had a
cost approximately half that of conventional girder
bridges.
Apart from the first section of the motorway
(East of Lyons), which had to be built immediately
and therefore called for conventional solutions
(cast-in-place prestressed concrete slab), and ex
cept for certain special situations (excessive skew,
railroad crossing, and so on), a careful study
showed that the remaining 150 overpass bridges
should be of precast concrete segmental construc
tion, which were 20% more economical than other
methods and practically maintenance free. The
study further showed that segmental construction
130 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
should be extended to viaduct structures and that
all segments for both overpasses and viaducts
could be economically built in a single factory lo
cated near the center of gravity of the motorway
network. The maximum carrying distance was 110
more than 75 miles (120 km) and the average was
40 miles (60 km). Figures 3.97 and 3.98 are views
of a typical viaduct and a typical overpass in the
motorway network.
The two-span and th ree-span overpass bridges
have spans ranging from 59 to 98 ft (18 to 30 m). A
variety of standardized precast cross sections were
developed for this project, depending upon span
and width requirements. The first structures used
single and double-cell trapezoidal box sections, al
though later on voided slab sections were pre
ferred, as illustrated in Figure 3.99a. This solution
proved aesthetically pleasing and very simple to

manufacture and assemble. The viaducts had to
satisfy a wide range of environmental require
o
ments. It was found that span lengths could be
limited at all sites to a maximum of 200 ft (60 m),
(a)
FIGURE 3.97. Alpine Motorway. view of a viaduct.
f'4vr
ptll.'1.lIlrH
'00
gi

I
FIGURE 3.99. Alpine \10torll'<I). t'pied or
overpass and Yiaducts. (a) Chcrpass segments. (b) Via
duct segments.
which allowed a constant-depth superstructure
with precast segments, Figure 3.99b.
Segment manufacture was carried out in a fac
tory close to the new motorway with eas), access to
the existing highway system, which was used to
haul all segments to their respective sites. The fac
tory had two parallel bays, Figures 3.100 and
3.101, one for the overpass segments and one for
the viaduct segments. Segments for the overpasses,
Figure 3.100, were match-cast by the short-line
method with their longitudinal axis in a vertical
position. The bottom segment was a previously cast
unit. The segment at the top was then match-cast
against the segment on the bottom. After the unit
being cast had reached the required strength, the
FIGURE 3.98. Alpine Motorway, view of an overpass. bottom unit was removed for storage, and the en
; ; : . !i : ~ ~
I
(bi
(e)
FIGURE 3.100. Alpine Motorway, precasting faew)'\,.
131
132 Precast Balanced Can!ilever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 3.101. Alpine Motor\;'ay, general view of
precast factory and segment storage.
tire process repeated. Figure 3.102 is a view of a
segment in a vertical match-casting position.
Erection procedure for a typical three-span
overpass struclUre was as follows:
I. After the foundations and pier columns had
been constructed, precast concrete slabs were
placed on sand beds adjacent to the piers to form
foundations for the steel falsework towers. The
precast slabs and towers were reusable for sub
sequent bridges. The erection commenced with
placement of the first segment on top of four par
tially extended 25-ton jacks, Figure 3.1 03a.
2. The second and third segments were placed
and prestressed to the first segment, Figure
3.J 03h. The joints between the segments were
epoxy coaled as the segments were erected. The
prestressing of the second and third segments to
the first segment consisted of temporary bars
above the top surface of the segments, and other
temporary tendons within the segments near the
bottom of the segments. The four 25-ton hydraulic
jacks under the first segment were then replaced
by four partially extended 100-ton hydraulic jacks
positioned under segments two and three. The
jacks were supported on teAon sliding bearings.
3. The remaining segments were then erected,
forming cantilevers on each side of the falsework
towers, Figure 3. I 03e. The prestressing of the
segments consisted of temporary tendons posi
tioned above the segments, as indicated in Figure
3.103.
4. The erection of the segments could take
place simultaneously at both piers, or one could
precede the other, Figure 3.103d. Observe that at
this stage of erection each assembly of segments
was independently supported on four large hy
draulic jacks and hence could be raised, lowered,
T.O -.. ~
- ~
~ :
FIGURE 3.102. Alpine Motorway. venical match
casting of segments.
or rotated if required to adjust its position with re
spect to its pier or to its counterpart at the opposite
pier. This method eliminated the need for a east
in-place closure joint at midspan of the central
span. Through the adjustment of the hydraulic
jacks, perfect mating of the two centermost
match-cast segments could be achieved when the
assemblies of segments were slid together as indi
cated. The time required to erect the superstruc
ture was significantly reduced by avoiding the use
of a cast-in-place closure joint.
5. At this point in the erection, the first group
of permanent prestressing tendons were inserted
in preformed holes through the segments, after
which they were stressed and grouted, Figure
3.103e.
6. The process proceeded with the erection of
the remaining segments, Figure 3.103f.
7. After installation of precast match-cast
abutments, a second group of permanent tendons
was installed, and finally the temporary falsework
and temporary prestressing was removed, Figure
3.103g.
133 Alpine Motorway Structures, France
(oJ
'b)
(e)
(dJ
(f!
(g)
FIGURE 3.103. Alpine Bridges, erection
scheme for typical three-span overpasses. (a) Placing the
first and second segments. (b) Transfer to IOO-tonjacks.
(c) First half completed. (d) Joining precast assemblies bv
sliding. (e) Threading and stressing cables. (f) Placing
the end segments. (g) Threading and stressing last ca
bles.
Overpass structures of two spans could be
erected using the technique illustrated above for
three-span structures, Figure 3.104. As would be
expected, the longer spans required the use of ad
ditional blsework towers. An overpass bridge,
foundations plus piers and superstructure, could
be in less than two weeks. Figure 3.105
shows a typical segment being placed in the over
pass bridge with a mobile crane. Temporary pre
stress over the deck slab is shown in Figure 3.106.
The viaducts required the manufacture of larger
segments in the same precasting factory used for
the overpass segments, but with casting proceeding
in the usual short-line horizontal fashion. Three
casting machines were used simultaneously to pro
duce all viaduct segments.
134 Precast Balanced Ca1J,tile7.Jer Girder Bridges
SLIDE.
..
!
I
il
,
:1
,
Erccting sCglllcllIs in thc \ <lrious structures re
quired tile usc or a laullching gal1lr\' of an exccp
tiollalh light alld elaborate design. all()\\'ing easy
tl;lnsporLllioll ami erection from site to site. Figure
:U ()7 ..\ t\pied 200 It (60 Ill) long calltilever in
,': !
/'
5L1DE
..
eluding 25 segments. one pier segmcnt weighing
48 t (44 lilt), and 24 tYpicd segments weighing 36 t
(33 nlt) could be accol1lplished ill six to eight
working days, including launching the gantry to
the following pier and achie\'ing continuity wit.h
the precedillg cantileYer. The l1laximum rate of
segment placillg \\'as 12 units in a single day.
This is another interestiilg application of
mass-production techniques and the standardiza
tion or segment aI const ructioll.
3.16 Bridge over the Eastern Scheidt, Holland
The bridge over the Eastern ScheIdt, otherwise
known as the Oosterschelde Bridge, Figure 3.108,
FIGURE 3.104. .\lpillc :>.Iotol'\\<!\ Bridges. erectioll ,<11('11](' for two-spall mcrpass
Illidges.
FIGURE 3.105. Alpinc Motorway, segment placing in
o\"{'l'pass ",jib crane.
II
FIGURE 3.106. Alpine pro\'isional pre
stress o\'cr deck slab.
135 Bridge Over the Eastern Scheidt, Holland
FIGURE 3.107. Alpine ",-!otorwav, segment placing ill
viaducts with launching gantry.
FIGURE 3.108. Bridge over the Eastern Scheidt.
overall view or the struclUre.
is part of a project known as the Delta Works,
which closed the mouths of many rivers and
streams southwest of Rotterdam to protect the
oastline from flooding. The bridge consists of
fifty-five :300 It (91.4 Ill) spans, a roadway width of
35 ft (10.7 01), and a vertical navigation clearance
of 50 ft (15,2 m). Parameters considered in the
choice of structural type and span were economics,
foundation restraints, and ice loads,
Substructure consists of three cylinder piles with
a caisson cap and an inverted V pier, Figure 3.109.
The superstructure was assembled from seven
precast elements, one pier segment, and two each
of three progressively smaller segments to produce
one double cantilever span of 300 ft (91.4 m). The
bridge design, therefore. consists of very large pre
stressed cylinder piles, precast pier elements post
tensioned together, and precast superstructure
elements erected and post-tensioned together to
form'a double cantilever system with ajoint at each
midspan location. Because of open-sea conditions.
time restraints for construction, and scarcily of
labor, prefabrication was required to a very high
degree. Since the precast pile elements would be
large and heavy, it was decided that the pier and
superstructure segments should be equally large
and heavy. in the range of 400 to 600 tons.16
A casting yard. Figure 3.110, capable of pro
ducing all the various precast elements for the
structure was constructed near one end of the
bridge. This facility provided all the advantages of
yard production techniques and the potential for
high quality control.
The 14ft (4.27 m) diameter cylinder piles have
14 in. (0.35 m) thick walls and were cast vertically in
20 It (6 m) lengths. They were then rotated into a
horizontal position where they were aligned. joints
concreted, and the pile post-tensioned. In this
malll1er piles were produced in required lellgths
up to 165 ft (50 m). The assembled pile was then
transported hy barge to the site, where a derrick
picked it up at one end and rotated it into its verti
60010n5
56ft
190 Ions
A r
39.5fl 8

. 410-100 reversed
I/unit
400 Ion caisson
-ti k4 .. Cylindrical hollow
,.l:::i. pries
,,', .
. ';\ .
FIGURE 3.109. Bridge mer the Eastern Scheidt,
schematic of clements in Ihe .,trllnure (courtew
of Ihe Portland Cement Associatioll).
FIGURE 3.110. Bridge over the Eastern Scheidt, view
of precasting plant (courtesy of the Portland Cement As
sociation).
136 Balanced CanJilever Girder Bridges
c<l1 position. CYlinder piles weighted from 300 to
550 tons (270 to 500 mt). The pier cap was also
precast at the same yard, where it was post-ten
sioned circumferentially and vertically. The in
verted V portion of the pier was also precast with
provision for on-site post-tensioning to achieve final
assembly.16
Figure 3.111 shows the bridge under construc
tion. The temporary enclosures between each sec
tion are to protect tbe cast-in-place joint concrete
against cold weather. Cast-in-placejoints 16 in. (0.4
m) wide were used, with faces of the precast ele
lIIents serraTed to act as shear keys.
The superstrucTure segments were all set from a
traveling steel gamr)" Figure 3.111, that extended
over two and one-half spans at a time. Segments
were barged to their hnallocation, then hoisted in
s\'l11lnetrical order about each pier. The joints were
concreted and the primarY stressing completed be-
FIGURE 3.111. Bridgc mer the Eastern Scheidt, view
of launchillg alld enclosure for cast-in-place joints
(COUrIesy of the Portland Ccment Association).
!! n
--...--- .. ...
.i.
I I I I
---_.....-
L,.U
... ..
I I I I
-
--........- ,1.....
1
1
...
.... I ...
I I I
-
___...... -ll.. __....ll
.........
I ... I .....
I I

IT n
--....---............--..........-
I I I

I I
-
1: !!
--....-----...,--- ..
I

I
-
I
-
I
71 rr
--... .,.. ------_... .. .. ..
-
FIGURE 3.112. Bridge oyer the Eastern ScheIdt,
schc1llatic of erection sequence (courtesy of the Portland
Cement Association).
fore the next series of segments were hoisted into
position. Erection sequence is depicted in Figure
3.112. An aerial view of various stages of con.struc
tion is shown in Figure 3.113. A typical cycle for
two spans of superstructure, not including the pier
segment, involving the raising, concreting, and
stressing of 12 segments, was three weeks.
3.17 Captain Cook Bridge, Australia
This structure carries a six-lane highway over the
Brisbane River in Brisbane, Australia, as part of
the Riverside Expressway and South-West Freeway
designed to relieve the city'S overloaded traffic
system.
The nm'igatioll requirements were for a 300 ft
(91.4 m) wide horizontal clearance with a venicql
clearance of 4S ft (13.7 m) across 200 fl (61 m) and
40 ft (12 m) at either extremity. However, a 600 ft
(183 m) span became necessary because of the
skew crossing. Adequate bearing rock, at a reason
able depth, was found at the south bank such that
the pier could be founded on a spread footing. At
the north end, because of the steeply rising bank,
the anchor span was limited to a span of 140 fl
(42.7 m) and the abutment was designed as a
counterweight connected to the superstructure by
a prestressed tie-down wall, Figure 3.114,17
Once the navigation span requirements had
heen met, tile remaining span lengths were se
lected to meet design requirements, while the
depth boundaries had to fall within
a maximum allowahle grade requirement of 3%
and the flood level. The superstructure is a dual
FIGURE 3.113. Bridge over the Eastern Scheidt, ae
rial view of construction showing various phases (cour
tesy of the Portland Cement Association).
1
0
'-

-
-
-
1

O
"
_
J
:
n
%

_
_

_

!


_
_

o

1
1
0
'-
0
'

9
'
1
1
0
'
0
'
1
'
$
;
'
-
0

u
o
'-
o
"

I
-
-
-
-
r

_
_
_
1
'.s
:
.:
J
!

T
S
U
O
I
N
G

'-
T
p
;
E
R

2

.
.
.

P
IE
R

3

.
.
.
_
.

'
F
I
X
E
D

"

.

-
1

T
lE
W
A
L
L

A
B
U
l
,

''''
I

!
H
I
N
G
E

I
H
I
N
G
E

H
I
N
G
E

r
H
I
N
G
E

A
B
U
l

i
r

s
o
'-
o

:
.
.

to
jA
T
U
R
A
l

IIIl:
t
F
o
o
-
..e
A
'I.:
-
"
'O
O

E
L
E
V
A
T
I
O
N

1
/

I

"
,'"

B
E
A
R
,'N
G
S

,
-
"

J

t

T
l
E
W
A
l
l
r
A
B
U
I
,
'a
'
f

A
B
U
I

'
"

I

/

.
.
.
A
.

I
A
P
P
R
O
A
C
H

_
_
_

1

!...A
itE
S

E
A
S
T
S
O
U
N
D

......"
,..
E
M
iJ
A
H
M
:I
1

H
l
V
IA
D
U
C
T

:
J

1

t
A
H

S

W
E
S
T
S
O.
.u
_
N
_
o_
_
_
_
_
-
"
-
L
_
_
.,..:
.
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
r

_
_
_

_
_
_
..J
.

.
,
4
'''>

F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
1
1
4
.

C
a
p
t
.

C
o
o
k

B
r
i
d
g
e
,

p
l
a
n

a
n
d

c
i
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

f
r
o
l
l
l

r
e
I
.

1
7
.

to
>
:>

-
l

-
.
.
:
.
I

138 Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
structure of prestressed concrete segmental two
cell boxes, Figures 3.115 and 3.116.17
Steel rocker bearings were llsed to support the
superstructure at piers 1, 3, and 4, and large
diameter single steel roller bearings were used at
pier 2. Lubricated bronze bearings sliding on
stainless steel were used at the north abutment and
for the movable bearings at the suspended spans.
Steel finger joints, allowing a lOin. (250 mm)
maxirnum movement, were provided at each slid-
FIGURE 3.115. Capt. Cook Bridge, cross section at
pier : ~ . from ref. J7.
FIGURE 3.116. Capt. Cook Bridge, two-cell box gir
der segment being erected (courtesy of G. Bcloff. Main
Roads Department).
ing bearing location and rubber and steel finger
joints at the remaining locations."
The box girder segments have a maximum
depth of 32 ft (9.75 m) and a minimum depth of 6
ft (1.83 111). Segment length is 8 ft 8 in. (2.64 m). A
16 in. (0.4 m) cast-in-place, fully reinforced joint
was used between segments. Maximum segment
weight is 126 tons (114 mt). A total of 364 precast
segments were required in the superstructure with
the two segments over the tie-wall in the south
abutment being cast in place.
17
The contractor chose to locate the precasting
operation on the river bank near the south abut
ment. This casting yard consisted of a concrete
mixing plant, steam-curing plant, three adjustable
steel forms, segment tilting frame, and a gantry
crane to transport the segments to a storage area
along the river bank. Segments were designed so
that the top flange and upper portion of the webs
had a cOllstant thickness. The depth and lower
portion accolllmodated all variations. allowing the
contractor to cast in two sets of adjustable forms.
Segments were cast with their longitudinal axis in a
vertical position for ease of concrete placement
around the prestressing ducts. Separate interior
forms were constructed for each box to permit
variations in the bottom flange alld web thickness
and size of fillets. Aher casting and curing, seg
ments were lifted into a tilting frame {() realign the
segment into its normal position ready for han
dling and storage.];
_A floating crane, designed and built bv the con
tractor, was used for erection of the segments. I twas
essentially a rectangular pontoon with mounted
A-frame lifting legs rising to 120 ft (36.6 m) with
adequate clearance to service the finished deck
level, while the stability was sufficient to transport
the segments to the erection position, Figure 3.117.
An extended reach was required to position seg
ments on the first two spans in the shallow water
near the bank.
17
Segments on each side of the pier were sup
ported on falsework anchored to the pier shafts,
Figure 3.118. From this point additional segments,
as they were erected, were supported on a can
tilever falsework from the completed portion of
the structure. This falsework was fixed under the
completed girder and supported from deck level,
Figure 3.119. When the capacity of the pier to
carry the segment unbalanced load was reached, a
temporary prop support on driven piles was con
structed before cantilever erection could continue.
Segment erection then proceeded on each side
until either the joint position of the suspended
Other Notable Structures 139
FIGURE 3.117. Cap. Cook Bridge, being
transported by barge derrick to 6nal position (courtesy
of G. Beloff, l\Iain Roads Department).
span was attained or the closure gap in span 3 was
reached. The completed st.ructure was opened to
traffic in 1971, Figure 3.120.
3.18 Other Notable Structures
In Sections 3.2 through 3.15 the historical de
velopment of precast segmental bridges with
match-cast joints has been illustrated by examples,
FIGURE 3.119. Capt. Cook Bridge, cradle support
trusses and temporary support tower (courtesy of G.
Beloff, Main Roads Department).
ranging from the first structure at Choisy-le-Roi to
the largest applications such as the Rio Niteroi and
Saint Cloud bridges. Emphasis has been placed
on North American experience as well as on the
advantages of precast segmental construction for
urban structures (B-3 Viaducts) or repetitive ap
plications (Alpine Motorways). Two particularly
outstanding structures, deserving special mention
because of their size and characteristics where pre
cast serrmental was used with conventional joints
(not were the Oosterschelde and Cap
tain Cook Bridges (Sections 3,16 and 3.17). Before
closing this important chapter, let us briefly give
due credit to several other contemporary match
cast segmental bridges.
3./8.1 CALIX BRIDGE, FRANCE
This Itl-span superstructure has a maximum span
length of 512 ft (156 m) over the maritime
3.118. Capt. Cook Bridge, support for seg
ments on each side of pier (courtesy of G. Beloff, Main
Roads Department).
..
FIGURE 3.120. Capt. Cook Bridge. completed
structure (courtesy of G. Beloff, :vIain Roads Depart
ment).
140
in
g'-o"
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
.
.,..... , "\

o
FIGURE 3.121. Calix Vi,l<!url. Ilcar Cacll, Francc gellcral dilll(nsiolls.
FIGURE 3.122. Calix Viaduct, placing precast seg
meIlts ill superstructure.
FIGURE 3.123. Vail Pass Bridge, cross-scction gen
eral dimensions.
Longitudinal closure joint
waterway and typical 230 ft (70111) spalls in the ap
proaches on both hanks. Dimellsiolls are shown in
Figure 3.121. The deck consists of two parallel box
girders connected by a precast prestressed slab
strip. All segments, \\'ith a maximum weight of 49 t
(43 mt), were cast in a long bench and placed with a
tower crane tra\'eling between the box girders in
the approaches. Segments were barged in for the
main span, and a beam and winch system was used
for hoisting them into place, Figure 3.122.
3.18.2 VAIL PASS BRIDGES, L'.S.A.
These bridges are located on Interstate 1-70 over
Vail Pass near Vail, Colorado, in a beautiful set
ting at an altitude between 9000 and 10,000 ft
(2700 and 3000 m) above sea level where winter
conditions are critical and the construction period
is very short. Dimensions are shown in Figure
3.123, and a view of one finished bridge appears in
Figure 3.124,
3.183 TRE,\'T VIADUCT, U.K.
This structure carries the M-180 South Humber
side motorway over the River Trent and consists of
dual roadways of three lanes each, with a central
median. Precast segmental construction was se
lected against a steel plate girder design with a
reinforced concrete deck slab. The bridge is sym
24'-0"
20'-0" cx:i
Section near midspan
141 Other Notable Structures
FIGURE 3.124. Vail Pass Bridge, a completed precast
segmental structure (courtesy of International En
gineering Company, Inc.).
metrical with four spans of 159, 279, 279, and 159
ft (48.5, 85, 85, and 48.5 m).
Each roadway is supported by an independent
superstructure of twin concrete box girders vary
ing in depth from 16 ft (4.9 m) at the piers to 7 ft
(2.1 111) at midspan of the center spans. Principal
dimensions are shown in Figure 3.125. Each box
girder is made up of 91 precast segments 10 ft (3
m) long, varying in weight between 38 t (35 mt) to
82 t (75 mt). All segments were placed in balanced
cantilever with a launching gantry shown in opera
tion in Figure 3.126, with precast units being deliv
ered on the finished deck.
3./8.-1 L-n. TiLER.\'.1L'TOB.iH.V BRIDGE, .1L'STRI.l
This structure is located between Salzburg and
Villach, Austria. as part of a new motorwav COI1
necting Germany and Yugoslavia. The 22-span
twin bridge has a total length of 3820 ft (1167 m)
distributed as follows: 110, twenty at 180, and 110
FIGURE 3.126. Trent Bridge, launching gantry
finishing the deck.
ft (33.5, twenty at 55, and 33.5 m). Box piers have a
maximum height of 330 ft (100 m). The constant
depth superstructure of 12.5 ft (3.8 111) is made LIp
of 722 segments match-cast in a job-site factory
equipped with four casting machines, Figure
3.127. A launching gantry was used to place all
segments in the two bridges in balanced calltilever,
Figure 3.128.
3.18.5 KfSHWAUKEE RIVER BRIDGE, U.S.A.
This dual structure carries U.S. Route 51 over tlte
Kishw<lukee River near the city of Rockford, il
lillois. Dimensions are shown in Figure 3.129. Pre
stressing is achieved in the transverse and 1011
gitudinal directions bv bar tendons. All segments
were placed in the structure by a launching gantry.
shown in Figure 3.130, which represents the first
application of this method in the Cnited States.
1""----____________l1_.4_00___________----+l.1 MOTORWAY
CENTRAL
RESERVE I
I
--,-__ __
INSITU PARAPET
400 I Typical.
VARIES APPROX,
Cross
a.ooo TO 3.000 t section
O
0
V ARIES 250 TO soo
4.000 I' I
FIGURE 3.125. frent Bridge. typical dimensions.
142
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges
FIGURE 3.127. L-32 TallernaulObahn Bridge, cast
ing machine.
'J.IH.6 I\.E.\TUCl\.f Rf1!R [mIDGE, U.S.A.
This structure crossing the Kentucky River is 10
ciled in Franklin County just south of Frankfort,
Kentucky. It is a three-span structure with a 323 ft
(98.5 111) center span and 228.5 ft (70 m) side spans.
In cross section the superstructure consists or two
rectangular boxes. It is the hrs! precast segmclltal
bridge to he constructed in the United States using
the long-bed casting method, Figure 3.131. A view
during construction is shown in Figure 3.132.
FIGURE 3.128. L-32
launching gantrv.
'rallern<lUtobahn Bridge,
'.IH.! 1-205 COLU,\1Bf.4 IUl'EH ImmGE. U.S.A.
This large project represents olle of the ap
plications of precast segmental construction in the
United States, The 5770 ft (1759 m) long structure
carries Interstate 1-205 from Vancouver, Wash
ington, across the :-';orth Channel of the Columbia
River to Government Island near Portland, Ore
gon. Twin structures carry two 68 ft. (20.7 rn) wide
roadways with span lengths varying between 600 ft
(183 m) and 242 ft (74 m). Typical dimensions of
2eiO'-O' 250'-0' 250'-0' ,
POST-TENS'!?NEO SEGMENTAL CONCRETE 80X GIRDER
EX?
(aJ
. TRANSVERSE
POST - TENSIONING
HIGH WATER
[LEV 711,0
AVERAGE WATER
lEV 694.0
(e)
I

(b)
FIGURE 3.129. Kishwaukee River Bridge, superstructure elevation and cross sections.
(0) Elevation. (b) Section at midspan. (c) Section at pier. (From ref. 18.)
Other Notable Structures
FIGURE 3.130. Kisim;tukec Ri\er Bridge, \'iew dur
ing cOllStruction sh()\\ing launching truss.
the tllain spam the river are shown ill Figure
:\.13:L Dimensiolls of the cross sectioll. as designed,
are shown in Figure 3.134. However, the contrac
tor, under a value engineering option in the COll
tract documents (see Chapter 12), elect.ed to re
the cross section to a n\o-cell box sectioll,
Figure 3. US. The colltractor exercised the op-
FIGURE 3.131. Kentllcb Rin'r Bridge. long.lillt'
cast ing bed.
FIGURE 3.132. Rin'r Bridge. dll1ing COIl-
stnH tic)!l.
tion allowed in the bidding docllmellts t.o select
his own c()mtrllUion method and proceeded with
casting in place in cOllventional travelers the two
cantilevers adjacent to the main navigation chan
nel (piers 12 and I:S). \\'hile all other spans are
or precast seglllental COtlslrll(tiol1. FigtllT :s.1 :\6
shows a rendering or the strncture.

19.(';'rr _____ \ \
\
\ \
FIGVRE 3.133. 1-203 Columbia Rivcr Bridge. cll:\'<ll ion and plan.
Precast Balanced Cantilever Girder Bridges 144
11'-10" t
67'-10" I I 67'-11" I
I t '
: = O D D r ~
FIGURE 3.134. 1-205 Columbia River Bridge, cross sections.
70'10'
11
J
-ls-'_-9.-I
FIGURE 3.135. 1205 Columbia River Bridge, revised
cross section.
J. J8.8 ZILl1'A U I\.EE BRIDGE, U.S.A,
This bridge is another important example of pre
cast segmental construction in the lJ nited States.
Located in central Michigan, this 8080 ft (2463 Ill)
long structure carries dual four-lane roadways
over the Saginaw River near Zilwaukee, Michigan.
Principal dimensions are shO\m in Figure 3.137.
FIGURE 3.137. Zil\\'aukce Bridge, typical dimensions.
The 51 spans vary in length from 155 ft to 392 ft
(47 to 119 m). An additional three-span ramp car
ries some traffic onto the southbound high-level
bridge, Navigation clearance is 125 ft (38 m) above
the Saginaw River.
For a total deck area of 1, ISO,OOO sq ft (110,000
CROSS SECTION OF PRECAST SEGMENTS
...
FIGURE 3.136. 1-205 Columbia River Bridge, ren
dering of the structure .
145 Other Notable Structures
7
I- 429:5 14197 .. ...
i--'iM9.+--.___!..!.17..!cl.8!!.l.7____ ---........... I.
I I I 1
I
11.70
I ,. --I
FIGURE 3.138. Ottmarsheim Bridge, general dimensions.
m
2
) there are 1590 large segments varying In
length from 8 to 12 ft (2.4 to 3.65 m) with a
maximum weight of 160 t (144 mt). Segments were
produced in a production-line operation with
short-line casting and placed in the structure in
balanced cantilever with a large launching gantry
accommodating two slIccessive spans.
3.18.9 BRIDGE, FR.-lNCE
.
This bridge in East France dose to Germany and
the Rhille Ri\'er at the Ottmarsheim hydroelectric
plant is todav the longest clear span of precast
segmental construction and the first major appli
cation of liglHweight concrete to this type of
structure. Principal dimensions are shown in Fig
ure 3.138..-\5 shown in the longitudinal section,
lightweight concrete was used only in the center
portion of the two main spans over the navigable
waterway and over the outlet channel of the power
Figure 3.139 is a view of the completed
structure.
3.18.10 OVERSTREET BRIDGE, FLORIDA, U.S.A.
This structure crosses the Intracoastal vVaterway
near Panama Cit\' in Western Florida. Dimensions
are shown in Figures 3.140 and 3.141. The main
navigation span is 290 ft (88 mm) long between
piers to avoid anv construction in the water fender
system during operation. Approach spans are 125
ft (38 m) long and rest on I-shaped piers bearing
on precast piles. The main piers consist of twin I
piers of the same design. The total length of
structure is 2650 ft (808 m) divided as follows: 95,
seven at 125,207.5,290, 207.5, seven at 125, and
95ft (29. seven at 38,63,88,63, seven at 38, and
29 m). Precast segments 10ft (3 m) long and
weighing a maximum of 50 t (45 mt) are designed
to be placed in balanced cantilever with an aux
iliary overhead truss (and winch system) in the
approach spans to stabilize the deck over the flexi
ble piers during construction.
3.18.11 1"9 FREEIVAr, :H/STRAL/.I
This very important project is a recent application
of precast segmental construction to urban ele
vated structures. The constraints relating to loca
tion of piers and construction over highway and
railway traffic are comparable to the conditions en
countered at the B-3 South Viaducts in Paris,
France.
The principal project dimensions are shown in
Figure 3.142. All segments will be placed in the
twin bridge using two launching gantries, which
incorporate the latest technological developments
in safety and eHlciencv.
FIGURE 3.139. Ottmarsheim Bridge, view of the
completed structure.
.
.
.
.

Q
'l

2
6
5
0
'
-
0
"

O
v
e
r
a
l
l

L
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

B
r
i
d
g
e

2
'
-
6
"
1
9
5
'
0
"
1
2
5
;
-
0
"
1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'

0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

-
r

.
.
.
.
.

-
2
0
7
'

6
"

,..w

2
9
0
'
-
0
"

2
0
1
'
-
6
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
'
-
0
"

1
2
5
-
0
"

1
2
5
-
0
"

2
'
-
6
"

.
,
.
.
.
J
.
.
t
,
.
.
.
L
o
t

B
e
g
i
n

B
r
i
d
g
e

E
n
d

o
f

S
t
a
,

2
9
3

+
5
9

S
l
a
,

3
2
0

+

2
5
'B
n
r
m

S
a
n
d

C
e
m
e
n
t

H
l
R
i
p
r
a
p
,

(
T
y
p
-
)

F
i
<
)
r
i
d
a
.

d
n
;
l
l
i
t
l
1
l
.

1
1
'
a
;
,

.
1
\

I
f
!
.
.
.
.
.
.

,

F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
1
4
0
.

(
h
e
r
S
l
r
t
T
I

2
0
'
-
0
"

J

I

F
l
o
r
i
d
a
.

c
r
o
s
s

s
e
c
t
i
o
n
s
.
F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
1
4
1
.

(
h
e
l
s
t
r
c
e
t

'
L
a
I
I

-
"
,

,
-
,

"

'
I

'
I

I
I

I
I

"

I
I

"

g

q

g

I
I

.
,

g

"

.
,

g
a
g

I

/il!
! !
"
<-</ ..
,
'....
I
F';JUR LANE CROSS 3.ECT:QN
FIGURE 3.142. F-\1 F
References 147
References
I. Jean :'Iuller, "Ten Years of Experience in Precast
Segll1ental Construction," journal of the Prestressed
Concrete Institllte, Vol. 20, "0. I, January-February
1975.
2. C. A. Ballinger, W Podolny, Jr., and M. J. Ab
rahams, ";\ Report on the Design and Construction
of Segmental Prestressed Concrete Bridges in West
em Europe-1977," International Road Federa
tion, Washington, D.C., June 1978. (Also available
from Federal Highwav Administratioll, Office of
Research and Development, Washington, D.C., Re
port "0. FH WA-RD-78-44.)
3. Walter PodolllY, Jr., "An Overview of Precast Pre
stressed Segmemal Bridges,"Jliumal of the Prestressed
CO/l(:rt'le lllsti/ue, Vol. :H, "0. I, Januarv-February
1979.
4. J. :.tllhiY<lt, "Reconstruction du Pont de Choisy-le
Roi," Till l'rl wc, Janvier 1966, "0. 372.
:.l. Jean Muller, "Long-Span Precast Prestressed Con
crete Bridges guilt ill Cantilever," Firs/ III/fllla/jullal
SymposiulII, COIINe/1' Bridgl' DI!sign, Paper SP
ACI PubliGuiotl American Concrete Imli
wte, Detroit, 1969.
6. Andre Bouchel, "Les POllts.en Beton Precontraint
de Conrbevoic et de b Grande-Jatte (HaUls-de
Seine):' La Tn:hlliljul' des Tmvaux, Juillet-Aout
1968,
i, "Bear River Hridge ," STU P Bulletin of I tlforlllation,
:">iovelllher-Decclllber
8. ":-Jova Scotia's Bear River Bridge-Precast Seg
mental Constructiotl Costs Less and the \Ionev
Swvs at Home," BridlV Bllllelill, Third Quarter EJ7:!,
PresllTssed Concrete I nstitule, Chicago.
9. "John F, Kennedy \lemorial Causeway, Corpus
Christi, Texas," Bridge Report SR 162.0 I E, Port
land Cement Association, Skokie, III., 19i-1.
10. G, C. Lace\", and J. E. Breen, "Long Span Pre
stressed Concrete Bridges of Segmental Construc
tion State of the Art," Research Report 1:.1 I I,
Center for Highway Research, The University of'
Texas at Austin, :'1ay 1969.
II. S. Kashima and J. E. Breen, "Epoxy Resins for
Jointing Segmentally Constructed Prestressed Con
Bridges," Research Report 121-2, Center for
Highway Research, The University of Texas at Aus
tin, August 1974,
12, G, C. Lacey and J. E. Breen, "The Design and Op
timization of Segmentally Precast Prestressed Box
Girder Bridges," Research Report 121-3, Center for
Highway Research, The University of Texas at Aus
tin, August 1975.
13. R. C. Brown, Jr., ". H. Burns, and J. E, Breell,
"Computer Analysis of Segmentallv Erected Precast
Prestressed Box Girder Bridges," Research Report
121-4, Center for Highway Research, The Univer
sity of Texas at Austin, November 19i4.
14. S, Kashima and.J. E. Breen, "Construction and Load
Tests of a Segmental Precast Box Girder Bridge
:'Iodel," Research Report 121-5, Center for High
way Research, The Cniversit.y of Texas at Au,lin,
February 1975,
15. J. E. Breen, R. L. Cooper, and T. :'1. Gallaway,
":VIinimizing Construction Problems in Segmelllaliv
Precast Hox Girder Bridges," Research Report
121-6F, Center for Highway Research, The Univer
sitv of Texas at Austin, August 1975.
16, BCll C. Gerwick, Jr., "Bridge over the Eastel"1l
Scheidt," jou1"I1id of the Prestressed Concrete Ins/i/l/fR,
Vol. II, "0. I, February 1966,
17,":\ Proud Achievement-The Captain Cook
Bridge," Issued bv the Commissioner of \laill
Roads-1972, \1ain Roads Department, Brisbane,
Queensland, Australia.
18, "Prestressed Concrete Segmental Bridges on FA
over the Kishwaukee River," Bridge Bulle/in, No. I.
1976, Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago,
4
Design ifSeg1nental Bridges
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 liVE LOAD REQUIREME;\;TS
4.3 SPAN ARRANGEMEl'.T AND RELATED PRINQPLF..5
OF CONSTRUCTION
4.4 DECK EXPANSION, HINGES AND CONTINUITY
4.4.1 Hinges at Midspan
4.4.2 Continuous Superstructures
4.4.3 Expansion of Long Bridges
4.5 TYPE, SHAPE AND DIMENSIONS OF THE SUPER
STRUCTURE
4.5.1 Box Sections
4.5.2 Shape of Superstructure in Elevation
4.5.3 Choice of Typical Cross Section
4.5.4 Dimensions of the Typical Cross Section
4.6 TRANSVERSE DISTRIBUTION OF WADS BETWEEN
BOX GIRDERS IN MULTIBOX GIRDERS
4.7 EFFECT OF TEMPERATI:RE GRADIENTS IN BRIDGE
SUPERSTRUCT1JRFS
4.8 DESIGN OF WNGITUDINAL MEMBERS FOR FLE
XlJRE AND TENDON PROFILES
4.8.1 Principle of Prestress Layout
4.8.2 Draped Tendons
4.8.3 Straight Tendons
4.8.4 Summary of Tendon ProfIles and Anchor Locations
4.8.5 Special Problems of Continuity Prestress and An
chorage Thereof
4.8.6 Layout of Prestress in Structures with Hinges and
Expansion Joints
4.8.7 Redistribution of Momellts and Stresses Through
Concrete Creep
4.1 Introduction
of concrete bridges in the Cllitcd
States conforms to the provisions of The American
Association for Slate Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) "Standard Specifications
[or Highway Bridges," For railway structures,
specifications or the American Railway Engineers
Association (AREA) should be consulted. For the
148
4.8.8 Prediction of Prestress Losses
4.9 ULTIMATE BEI\'DING CAPACITY OF LONGITUDI
NALMEMBERS
4.10 SHEAR Al\'D DESIG]\; OF CROSS SECTION
4.10.1 Introduction
4.10.2 Shear Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams
4.10.3 Difficulties in Actual Structures
4.10.4 Design of Lon"titudinal Members for Shear
4.11 JOINTS BETWEEN MATCHCAST SEGMENTS
4.12 DESIGN OF SUPERSTRlJCTURE CROSS SECTION
4.13 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
4.13.1 Diaphragms
4.13.2 Superstructure over Piers
4.13.3 End Abutments
4.13.4 Expansion Joint and Hinge Segment
4.14 DEFLECTIONS OF CA;\;lILEVER BRIDGES AND
CAMBER DESIGN
4.15 FATIGUE IN SEGMENTAL BRIDGES
4.16 PROVISIONS FOR FLllJRE PRF..5TRESSING
4.17 DESIGN EXAMPLE
4.17.1 Longitudinal Bending
4.17.2 Redistribution of Moments
4.17.3 Stresses at Midspan
4.17.4 Shear
4.17.5 Design of the CrossSection Frame
4.18 QUANTITIES OF MATERIAI..5
4.19 POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS
REFERENCES
most pan, the proviSIOns in these specifications
were written before segmental construction was
considered feasible or practical in the United
States.
Before discussing design considerations, the
authors wish to emphasize that no preference for
either cast-in-place or precast methods of con
struction is implied here. The intent is simply to
present conditions that the designer should be
Span Arrangement and Related Principles of Construction
149
aware of to produce a satisfactory design. Both
concepts are viable ones, and both have been used
to produce successful structures.
In general, the segmental technique is closely
related to the method of construction and the
structural system employed. This is why segmental
construction, either cast in place or precast, has
been often identitied with the cantilever construc
tion used in so many applications. It is logical to
take bridge structures built in cantilever as a basis
for the design considerations developed in this
chapter. \Vhere other methods, such as incremen
tal launching or progressive placement, require
special design considerations, such problems are
discussed in the appropriate chapters.
4.2 Live-Load Requirements
In comparing practices ill other countries to those
in the United States. an important parameter to
keep in mind is that of live-load requirements. Fig
ure 4.1 illustrates the considerable differences
among code requirelllents in variolls countries.
l
For a simple span of 164 ft (50 m) and width of
24.6 ft (7.5 m). rhe German specification requires a
live-load design moment 186% greater and the
French requires one 290Sk greater than that of
AASHTO. Some Canadian provinces use the
AASHTO specifications but arbitrarilv increase the
live load bv 25(,}.
The depth-to-span and width-to-depth ratios for
segmental construction presently advocated in the
United States have been adopted from European
practice. The lighter live loads used in the United
States should permit further refinements in our
design approach.
4.3 Span Arrangement and Related Principles
of Construction
I n the balanced cantilever type of construction,
segments are placed in a symmetrical fashion about
a pier. The designer must always remember that
construction proceeds with symmetrical cantilever
deck sections centered about the piers and not with
completed spans between successive piers.
2
For a typical three-span structure, the side spans
should preferably be 65 percent of the main center
span instead of 80 percent in conventional east
in-place structures. This is done to reduce to a
minimum the length of the deck portion next to
the abutment, which cannot be conveniently built
in balanced cantilever, Figure 4.2a.
Where span lengths must varv, as between a
main span and an approach span, it is best to intro
duce an intermediate span whose length will aver
age the two flanking spans, Figure 4.2h. In this
manner the cantilever concept is optimized.
Individual cantilever sections are generally made
continuous by insertion of positive-moment ten-
M(tm)
5000

'i'::::::::::=2
4000

,mimi
M

c:
3000
" E Germany -
0
::IE DIN 1072
2000
1000
France
CPC
India
IRC
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Q(ml
Span
FIGURE 4.1. Maximum live-load moment (simple span)
(F. Leonhardt. NeU' Practice in ConcrelR Stmctures, IABSE, New
York. 1968).
i
I
150 Design of Segmental Bridges
I '" ~ '" I
~ / //$0
. I
! i
~
G.G5-070L . L
(a)
A
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 4.2. Call1ilcH.T (On,tluClioll sll(ming choice
oj" ')lan Iellgth" and locatioll or expansion joints.
dOllS upon closure. I t is preferred not to have any
permanent hinges at midspan. Continuous decks
without joints have been repeatedly constructed to
Icngths in exccss of 2000 ft (600 m) and have
pro\'cd satisfactory from the standpoint of mainte
!laIJCC and riding quality
For very long viaducHype structures, inter
mediate expansion joints are inevitable to accom
llIodate volume changes. 'rhesejoints should be lo
cated ncar points of contrafiexure, Figure 4.2c. to
avoid objectionable slope changes that occur if the
joint is located at midspan. This consideration will
he discussed in more detail in Scction 4.4.
111 many cases it may not be possible to provide
the desirable optimum span arrangement. Thus,
the end span may be greater or less than the op
timum span length desired.
2
In the case of a long
cnd span, the superstructure might be extended
over the abutment wall to provide a short addi
tional span. As shown in Figure 4.3, a conventional
Section A-A
FIGURE 4.4. End restraint at abutment.
bearing (I) is prm'ided over the frollt abutment
wall. A rear prestressed tie (2) opposes uplift and
permits cantilever construction to proceed out
ward from the abutment 10 the joint U1), where a
connection Gill he effectcd with the cantilever from
the first intermediate pier. Figure 4.4 shows an al
ternative scheme with a constant-depth section. as
opposed to a haunched sectioll. where the deck has
been encased within the abutment \ring walls for
architectural purposes. For the normal end span. a
special segment is temporarily cantile\'cred out so
as to reach the first balanced cantilever constructed
from the next pier, Figure 4.5. Alternatively this
portion could be cast in place 011 falsework, if site
conditions permit.
1 n a short-end-span sit uation, cantilever COI1
struction starts from the first pier and reaches the
abutment on one side well before the midspan sec
tion of the adjacent span, Figure 4.6. An uplift
reaction must be transferred to the abutment
during construction and in the completed struc
ture. Consequently, the webs of the main box
girder deck are cantilevered over the expansion
FIGURE 4.3. End restraint in abutment.
151 Deck Expansion, Hinges and Continuity
FIGURE 4.5. Conventional bearing on abutment.
FIGURE 4.6. ,\nchorage ror uplift in abutment.
joint into slots provided in the main abutment
wall, Figure 4.7. The neoprene bearings are
placed above the web cantilever rather than below
to transfer the uplift force while allowing the deck
to expand freely.
Interesting examples of sllch concepts are given
in the three following bridges:
GiYors Bridge over the Rhone River, France.
shown in Figure 4.8. The main dimensions are
given with the typical construction stages of the
su perstructu re.
Tricastin Bridge over the Rhone River, France
(Section 2.13.11). :-.Jo river piers were desired for
the structure. which dictated a main span of 467 ft
(142.30 m ~ , and there was no room on the banks to
increase the side spans so as to avoid the end uplift.
Two very short side spans of onlv 83 fl (23.20 m)
provide the end restraint of the river span. The
uplift is transferred to the abutments, which are
earth filled to provide a counterweight, Figure 4.9.
The magnitude of the uplift force has been re-
J
Web cantilever
FIGURE 4.7. Longitudinal section.
cluced by the use of lightweight concrete in the
center of the main span.
Puteaux Bridges O\'er the Seine River, near Paris
(Section 2.13.10).
A few bridges have even been built in cantilever
entirely from the abutments. The RealJon Bridge
in France is one such structure, Figure 4.10, where
verv special site conditions with regard to bridge
profile and shape of the valley were best met with
this concept.
Another set of circumstances may be encoull
tered when it is not possible to select the desired
span lengths to optimize the lise of cantilever con
struction. Such was the situation of the bridge over
the Seine River for the Paris Ring Road, where a
side span on the left bank could not be less than 88
percent of the main river span over the river, while
very stringent traffic requirements governed the
placement pattern of precast segments on the right
bank, Figure 4.11.
4.4 Deck Expansion, Hinges and Continuity
4.4.1 HISGES AT :vIJDSP.tV
Historically, the first prestressed concrete bridges
built in cantilever were provided with a hinge at
the center of the various spans. Such hinges were
designed to transfer vertical shear between the tips
of two adjacent cantilever arms (which could de
velop under the live loading applied over one arm
only in half the span length) while enduring a free
expansion of the concrete deck under volume
changes (concrete creep and seasonal variations of
temperature). Continuity of the deflection curve

... ",(0) J..
,
-.'K""",,_ . ......
RIVE GAUCHE 6 5
FIGURE 4.8. Givors Bridge over the Rhone River, France, span dimensions and typical
construction stages. (I) Construction of left bank river pier segment. The eight segments
either side of the pier are erected, and pier stability is assured by temporary props. (2)
The connection between deck and abutments is made. Temporary props are removed
and the seven remaining segments are placed in cantilever. (3) The above operation is
repeated on the right bank. The central pier segments are poured. Two segments are
erected on either side of each pier, supported by scaffolding. (4) The last segment is
placed in the central span, continuity is achieved between the two cantilevers, and the
is removed. (5) The remaining 16 segments on either side of the central piers
are placed. (6) The 110m spans are completed by pouring the closure segments and
152
the continuity prestress. The superstructure is now complete.
__________________________ _________________ __
10.25 HMO
L,ghtweight concrete
Elow,;O"
Section A-A
.-.++-. __!J
Plan

" 25
FIGURE 4.9. Tricastin Bridge over lhc Rhone River. France.
------------ -
+--
I !
4 15.00
FIGURE 4.10. Reallon Bridge, France.
153
3
PHASE 1 construction of central cantilever
PHASE 2 construction of right bank cAntilever
1
PHASE 3 closure of central and right bank cantilever
PHASE 4 joining of right bank cantilever with abutment
PHASE 5 construction of left bank cantilever
PHASE 6 closure of left bank and c.:ntral cantilever
PHASE 7 joining of left bank cantilever with abutment
r
--------- _.-
:::.
--,.

_A
'.v. rr
....(
154
155 Deck Expansion, Hinges and Continuity
- ~ ~ - - c ~ - c - - - - ,
__~ ___ ,. I
FIGURE 4.11. Paris Belt (Downslream). (a) Typical
constrllction stages. (Ii) Segment assembly-right bank.
(I) Segment assel1lbly-lert bank.
was thus obtai lied in terms of vertical displacement
but not insofar as rotation at the hinge point was
concerned.
Remember that in this tvpe of structure the deck
is necessarilv fixed at the various piers, which must
be designed to carrv the unbalanced moments due
to unsnlll11etrical li\'c-Ioad patterns over the deck.
On the other hand, these structures are simple to
design because thn are statically determinate for
all dead loads and prestressing, and the effect of
live load is simple to compute. Because there are
no moment reversals in the deck, the prestressing
tendon lavout is simple.
Some disa(l\'antages were accepted as the price
of simplicity of design:
The cleck has a lower ultimate capacity as com
pared with a continuous structure, because there is
no possible redistribution of moments.
Hinges are difficult to design, install, and operate
satisfactorily.
There are manv expansion joints, and regardless
of precautions taken in design, construction, and
operation they are always a source of difficulty and
high maintenance cost.
The major disad\'antage, revealed only by experi
ence, related to the exceeding sensitivity of such
structures to steel relaxation and concrete creep.
Because of the various hinges at midpoints of the
spans, there is no restraint to the vertical and an
gular displacements of the cantilever due to the ef
fect of creep. Steel relaxation and the corre
sponding prestress losses tend to make matters
worse, while concrete creep is responsible for a
progressive lowering of the center of each span.
With time, there is an increasing angle break in the
deck profile at the hinge. The magnitude of the
deflection has been reported to be in excess of one
foot (0.03 m).
The difficulties experienced with this type of
construction are such that most governlI1ent offi
cials in Western Europe will no longer permit its
use.:
l
/.-1.2 CO.VTI.VCOCS SL'PERSTRCCTURES ~ . \.
Further research concerning the exact properties
and behavior of lI1aterials for such structures hav
ing a midspan hinge would enable more accurate
prediction of the expected deflection and thus
better control. A far more positive approach is to
eliminate the fundamental cause of the phenome
non by avoiding all permanent hinges and achiev
ing full continuity whenever possible.
To show the relative behavior of a continuous
structure and one with hinges at midspan, a nu
merical application was made for the center span
of the Choisy-le-Roi Bridge in two extreme cases:
156
l
Design of SegtJ;lental Bridges
TABLE 4.1. Comparison of Crown Deflections (Hinged versus Continuous Structure)
Casl-in-Place Precast
Hinged Structure Continuous Structure.
E v w E y w
'\0. Load Stage (10
6
psi) (in.) (in. x 103/in.) (l 0
6
psi) (in.) (in. X J0
3
/in.)
Girder weight 4.3 1.80 2.4 5.1 1.50 2.0
2 I nitial prestress 4.3 1.50 2.0 5.1 0.90 1.2
3 eumulati\'e 4.3 0.30 0.4 5.1 0.60 0.8
1 5% Deviation of prestress
23<;( 7(/(
[) Continuity prestress 6.4 0
6 Superimposed load 6.4 0.30 0.4 6.4 0.10 0
7 Finished structure (initial) 0.60 0.8 0.40 OS
R Concrete creep and losses 2.1 1.10 1.4 2.1 0
!:J Finished structure 1.70 2.2 O.3() O.R
!O Li\'e loads 6.4 (l.9O 1.1 6.4 0.30
()
Explication of symbols:
E = modulus of elasticity for each particular loading stage
verlieal deflection at crown
w = total allfiulal' hreak at crown (expre,sed in thousandths 01 inch per illch)
Derivation of results:
n) (I) ... (2) girder weight and initial prestress
(i) = ('\).,- (5) "- (6) hnished strucrul'e (initial stage)
(9) = (7) ... (HI fillished 5t ruelme (fillal slagel
Cast-in-place cantilever with a hinge at midspan, the prestress offsets a greater percentage of
and dead-load moments, 83 percent instead of SR per
cent.
Precast segmental continuous construction.
Results comparing the two structures are shown in
Table 4.1 and in Figures 4.12 through 4.14.
The study shows 110 significant difference be
tween the two tvpes of structures with respect to
tbe theoretical behavior of the cantilever method =
'"
under combined dead load and initial prestress,
Figure 4.12. I n fact, the angle change at midspan is
even slightly less for the hinged structure, because
Conllnms
PreclIS! SlruC!Ure RIDged Siruciure
FIGURE 4.13. Comparison of deflection caused by
DEAD
Clnlllmr premUSlng
LOAD ntPRESTRESSING
, Culilmr Preslressing
: CIDtloU!!! PreslresSlng
creep (hinged versus continuous structure).
o 0.4%0.6%. .
CIS! In PlBet
Caslin Piace CIDlimus
Hlnaed SlruefUre precul lliruciure !::
HlnDed S!ruelure PrlCHS! Stmlure
FIGURE 4.12. Comparison of defieClion under dead
load and prestressing (hinged versus continuous struc FIGURE 4.14. Comparison of' deflections caused by
live load (hinged versus continuous structure).
157 Deck Expansion, Hinges and Continuity
When the effect of concrete creep is considered.
however, there is a signiflcant difference between
the two types of structures, Figure 4.13. The
hinged structure has a vertical deflection of I. I in.
(28 mm) and a corresponding total angle break of
0.0028 in./inch. This value is twice that shown in
Table 4.1 and Figure 4.13 for the angle change of
one cantilever, the value of 2.8 being the total angle
break of the two abutting cantilevers. The continue
ous structure indicates a camber of 0.1 in. (3 mm).
and no angle break will ever appear because of full
continuitv.
Further, the effect of deviation of actual pre
stress load from the design prestress load points
out an important difference in the sensitivity of the
twO systems. Assuming the actual prestress in the
structure to differ from the design assumption by
5%. the corresponding maximum deflection is in
creased by 2;)o/c in the hinged structure but only
z
BI
rt
if)
et:
0
l.JJ
a... 2:
c
en


9

"'.
i
l,\
-
i " I
25
..
U
l-
-'
I , 1.>.1
"
2
. r'"
. .
4
7% in the continuous structure. Therefore, the
continuous structure is three times less sensitive to
possible deviations from the assumed material
properties.
Live-load deflections of the continuous structure
are three times more rigid than the hinged struc
ture, Figure 4.14. The deflection of a typical span
of the Oleron Viaduct in France is compared with a
continuous span and with a crown hinged in
Figure 4.15.
From these data it is obvious that the fullest use
of continuity and the elimination of hinges at
midspan whenever possible is beneficial to the
structural behavior of the bridge, to saf<:ty and
comfort of traffic, and to the structure's ac:sthetic
appearance.
I n practice, the continuity of the individual can
tilever arms at midspan is obtained by another set
of prestressing tendons, usually called continuitv
et:
W
a...
1\\

\
\
\
FIGURE 4.15. Comparisons between live-load deflections for continuous or
hinged structures.
Design oj Segmental Bridges
158
prestressing. which is installed along the span in a
continuous structure. Details of the design aspects
or this prestress will be discussed in Section 4.8.
4.4.3 EXPANSiON OF LONG BRIDGES
When the continuity of the superstructure is
lected as optimum for the behavior of the strllC
Illre. one must keep in mind that proper measures
should be concurrently taken to allow for expan
sion due either to short-IeI'm and cyclic volume
changes or to long-term concrete creep.
The piers may be made flexible enough to allow
for such expansion or ma\' be provided with elas
toll1eric bearings to reduce the magnitude of hori
zontal loads to acceptable levels when applied to
the substructure. This important aspect of the
()\'erall bridge design concept is considered in
Chaptel' 5.
Several structures are currently made continu
OliS ill lengths of lOOO to 2000 ft (300 to 600 III)
and in exceptional cases even 3000 ft (900 Ill). For
IOllger structures, full continuity between end
aiJutmellts is not possible because of the excessive
magnitude of the horizontal movements between
superstructure and piers and related problems.
Therefore. intermediate expansion joints lIlust be
provided. For long spans they should not be placed
at the center of the span, as in the early cantilever
hridges, but closer to the contraftexure point to
llIillimize the effect of a long-term deflection. Such
a concept was developed initially for the Ole ron
Viaduct and is currently used on large structures
such as the Saint Cloud Bridge in Paris, Sal
lingsund Bridge in Denmark, and the Columhia
Riyer and Zilwaukee Bridges in the United States.
Detailed computations were made in the case of
the Oleroll Viaduct to optimize the location of the
expansion joint in a typical 260 fl (80 m) span, Fig
ure 4.15 shows the shape of the deflection curve
for a uniform live loading with the three following
assu m ptions:
Fully continuous span
Span with a ce11ler hinge
Span with an intermediate hinge located at 29 per
cent of the span length from the adjacent pier (ac
tual case)
The advantages of having moved the hinge away
from the center toward the quarter-span point are
obvious:
Maximum deflection under live load is reduced in
the ratio of 2.2 to 1.
Maximum angle break under live load is reduced
in the ratio of 3.0 to 1.
For dead-load deflections the difference is even
more significant, such that there is no substantial
difference between the actual structure and a fully
continuous one.
The yariation of the angle break at the hinge
point versus the hinge location along the span
length is shown in Figure 4.16. There seems to be
little doubt that the structure is imprm'ed by selec
tion of a proper location for the hinge and the ex
pansion joint.
Theoretically, the ideal hinge position is between
points "1 and B, which are the contraflexure points
for dead and live loads. From a construction
standpoint, such a location for the binge compli
cates the erection process, for the hinge must be
temporarily blocked and subsequently released
when the span is complete and continuity is
achieved. We will collsider this subject in detail
after examining the layout of longitudinal pre
stress in cantilever bridges (Section 4.8.6).
It was recently discovered, in the designing of
the Sallingsund Bridge. that the optimumlocation
::,,;;
<l
Uj
c:
co
w
-'
<.5
Z
<l
1 'J.
"2 'I.

MID-
FIGURE 4.16. Variatioll of angle break at the hinge
with hinge location along the span.
159 Type, Shape, and Dimensions of the Superstructure
of the hinge to control the deflections under
service-load conditions does not simultaneously
permit achievement of the overall maximum
capacity under ultimate conditions. This question
will be discussed later in this chapter.
The preceding discussion of hinge location
applies particularly for very long spans or for slen
der structures. For moderate spans with sufficient
girder depth it has been found that careftil detail
ing of the prestress in the hinged span can allow
the hinge to be maintained at the centerpoint for
simplicity (spans less than 200 ft with a depth to
span ratio of approximatelv 20). Such was the case
for the cantilever alternatives of the Long Key and
Seven Mile Bridges in Florida.
4.5 Type, Shape, and Dimensions of
the Superstructure
-1.5.1 BOX SECTlO.\'S
The tvpical section best suited for cantilever con
struction is the box section. for the following rea
sons:
I. Because of the consCruction lllethod, dead
load moments produce compression stresses at the
bottom flher along the entire span length. and
maximull1 nlOTIlents OCCllr near the piers. The
typical section therefore l11ust he provided with a
large bottOlI1 Hange. particularlv near the pIers.
and this is achieved best with a box section.
The efficiencY' of the box section is very good.
and for a given amount or concrete provides the
least amount of prestressing steel. The efficiency of
a section is usually measured by the following di
mensionless coefficient:
with the notations as given in Figures 4.17 and
4.18, where some basic formulas are presented.
The efficiency would be p = I if the concrete
were concentrated in thin flanges with webs of
negligible thickness. On the other hand, a rectan
gular section has an efficiency of only 1/3. The
usual box section efficiency is p = 0.60, which is
significantly better than that of an [ girder.
2. Another advantage of the large bottom
flange is that the concrete area is sufficiently large
at ultimate load to balance the full capacity of I he
prestressing tendons without loss in the magnitude
of the lever arm.
3. The elastic stabilitv of the structu re is excel
lent both during construction and llnder service
conditions, becallse the closed box section has a
large torsional rigidity.
4. In wide bridge decks where several girders
must be used side by side, the large torsional still
ness of the individual box girders allows a very
satisfactory transverse distribution of live loads
without intermediate diaphragms between piers.
5. Because of their torsional rigidity, box
girders lend themselves to the construction of
curved bridge S11 perstruct llres a nd provide
maximum Hexibilitv tor complicated tendon trajec
tories.
(a)
Longitudinal section
, C.G.
--\-7",.",- . . --+
(b)
Typical transverse section
FIGURE 4.17. Typical characteristics of a box section: Total section height: It; cross
section area: A; mOI\lent of inertia: I; position of centroid; (,. (2; radius of gyration: )"
given hv )"2 = 1/.1; efficiencv ratio: p = r21c ,(2; limits of central core: r21c2 = pc,; r
2
1(, = p [2;
for the llsllal box girder: p = 0.60.
160 Design of Segmfntal Bridges

d,
<:
e = c, - d,

I
I
(a)
F
(b)
The optimum selection of the proportions of the
box section is generally a matter of experience. A
careful review of existing bridges provides an ex
cellent basis for preliminary design. The various
parameters that should be considered at the start
of a design are:
Constant versus variable depth
Span-to-depth ratio
Number of parallel box girders
Shape and dimensions of each box girder, includ
ing number of webs, vertical or inclined webs,
thickness of webs, top and bottom flanges
ph
h
(c)
FIGURE 4.18. Typical preslress requirements or a
box girder. (0) For maximulll llegatin' mOlllent over the
pier (J)L + LL): tOlallllOlllellt = 1\1; required prcsllTss
F = 1'v11z with:: = (\ - d
l
+ (2; usually o\'er the pierz
0.75 Ii. (h) For maximum positive moment at midspan
(DL + LL): tolalll1olllcnl = M; required prestress = F =
MIz wilh::. (2 - <i2 + (I; usually al midspan z. = O.701l. ()
For \'ariable 1ll0lJHcllls (LL): tola) moment \'arialion =
6./\1 (sum of positive and negati\'e LL moments); re
quired prestress F 6.M/ph (p 0.60).
All these factors are closely related to each other,
and they also depend largely upon the construc
tion requirements-for example, the size of the
that will 'require a large investment in
sophisticated casting equipment.
4.5.2 SHAPE OF SUPERSTRUCTURE IN
ELEVATION
Constant depth is the easiest choice and affords the
best solution for short and moderate spans, up to
200 ft (60 m). However, constant depths have been
used for aesthetic reasons for spans to 450 ft (140
m), such as the Saint Cloud Bridge in Paris and the
161
h,
Type, Shape, and Dimensions of the Superstructure
L
(a)
Constant inside shape
I
1/16 <h,/L < 1/20
optimum 1/18
1/22 <haiL < 1128
h
(h)
optimum ~ 1124
Diaphragm
(e)
1/16 <h, It < 1/20
1130 <haiL < 1/50
optimum 1/18
I
Circular intrados or
third-degree parabola
(d)
FIGURE 4.19 Longitudinal profile for segmental bridges. (a) Constant depth.
(b) Semiconstant depth. (c) Straight haunches. (d) Variable depth.
Pine Valley and Columbia River Bridges in the
United States. Figure 4.19a.
When the span increases, the magnitude of
dead-load moments near the piers normaJiy re
quires a variation of structural height and a curved
intrados. When clearance requirements allow, a
circular intrados is the easier and more aestheti
cally pleasing choice, although in some cases (such
as the Houston Ship Channel Bridge) a more com
plex profile must adjust to the critical corners of
the clearance diagram. Between the constant
depth and the curved-intrados solutions, Figure
4.19, intermediate options may be used, such as:
Increase thickness
at pier
The semiconstant depth, where the concrete rc
quired in the bottom flange near the piers is placed
outside the typical section rather than inside thc
box (constant dimension for the interior cell). This
solution has been used on two bridges in France
and is aesthetically satisfactory, Figure 4.19b.
Straight haunches (bridge for the Ring Road in
Paris). In this case caution must be exercised to in
sure compatibility of the local stresses induced by
the abrupt angle change of the bottom soffit at the
start of the haunch, where a full diaphragm is usu
ally needed inside the box, Figure 4.19c.
1/15 < h < 1/30
optimum 1/18 to 1/20
Design of SegmeJ)tal Bridges 162
4.53 CHOICE OF TYPICAL CROSS SECTJOiV
\Veb spacing is usually selected between 15 and 25
ft (4.5 and 7.5 m) to reduce the number of webs to
a minimum, simplifying construction problems
while keeping transverse bending moment in the
top and bott(;m flanges within reasonable limits.
A superstructure up to 40 ft (12 m) in width is
thus normally made up of a single cell box g . i r d ~ r
with two lateral cantilevers, the span of whICh IS
slightly less than one-fourth the total width (7 to 8
It for a 40 ft width).
For wiele bridges, rnulticell box girders may be
used:
Three webs, two cells: as in the B-3 South Viaduct
and the De\,enter Bridge
Four webs, three cells: as in the Saint Cloud Bridge
and the Columbia River Bridge
Alternatively. large lateral cantilevers and a large
span length hetween webs are accepted with special
pl'Ovisions to carry the cleck live loads transversely:
Transverse flange stiffeners as in the Saint Andre
de Cuhzac, Ve:jle Fjord, and Zilwaukee Bridges
Side boxes as in the Chillon Viaduct
Alternatively several boxes may be used side by
side to mak'e up the superstructure. Figures 4.20
through 4.24 givc the dimensions of a few struc
tures selected at random from various countries
throughout the world.
4.5.4 DIM,ENSJONS OF THE TFPICAL
CROSS SECTION
Three conditions must be considered III deter
mining the web thickness:
Shear stresses due to shear load and torsional mo
ments must be kept within allowable limits
Concrete must be properly placed, particularly
where draped tendons occur in the web
Tendon anchors, when located in the web, must
distribute properly the high prestress load con
celli rated at the anchorages
Following are some guidelines for minimum web
thicknesses:
8 in. (200 mm) when no prestress ducts are located
in the web
10 in. (250 mm) when small ducts for either verti
calor longitudinal post-tensioning tendons occur
in the web
12 in. (300 mm) when ducts for tendons \lwelve ~
in. diameter strands) occur in the web
14 in. (350 mm) when an anchor for a tendon
(twelve ~ in. diarneter strands) is anchored in the
web proper
Most codes underestimate the capacity of Iwo
way slabs. such as the roadway slab or top flange of
a box girder bridge. whether prestressed trans
versely or mild-steel reinforced. There is a great
reserv'e of strength due to the frame action be
tween slahs and webs in the transverse direction.
The minimum slab thickness to prevent punch
ing shear under a concent raled wheel load is ap
proximately () ill. (150 n1ln). However. it is recom
mended that a slab thickness of not less than 7 in:
(l75 mm) he L1sed to allow enough flexibility in the
layout of the reinforcing steel and prestressing
ducts and obtain an adequate concrete cover over
the steel and ducts.
Recommended minilllum top flange thickness
versus the actual span length het ween webs should
he:
Span less than 10 fl (3 m) 7 in. (175 riml)
Span between 10 and 15 ft 8 in. (200 mm)
(3 \() 4.5 Ill)
Span between 15 and 25 ft 10 ill. (250 mm)
(4.5 to 7.5 m)
Over 25 n0.5 111), it is usually more ecollomical to
substitute a system 01 ribs o ~ a voided slab for a
solid slab.
Early bridges used very thin bottom flanges in
ordcr to reduce critical weight and dead-load mo
ments. A 5 in. (125 111m) thickness was used in
bridges, such as the Koblenz Bridge in Germany. It
is very difficult to prevent cracking of such thin
slabs due to the combined effect of dead load car
ried between webs and longitudinal shear between
web and boltom flange. For this reason, it is now
recommended that a minimum thickness of 7 in.
FIGURE 4.20. Typical dimensions of some cast-in
place segmental cantilever bridges in France. Year of
construction and maximum span length (ft): (a) Moulin
a Poudre (1963), 269. (b) Morlaix (1973), 269. (e) Bor
deaux Sl. Jean (J965), 253. (d) Givors (J967). 360. (e)
Oissel (1970), 328
--------
(a)
2.60 235
L: .-.::6:.:.::_0:.::.0_-+.
600
(b)
H1GO
--'---
I
j
~ I D
'"
'00 900._ .. ___~ _
(<')
liOO
(d)
(e)
163
164
r
--4.
I

g:

.'S'I.
Design of Segmental Bridges
2570
'1'I;iIi'iiiiiiifr'iiiiil '; -7-- .jIIIiiiIi-<t- ....
,,'
840- ..j-
if)
I
\:.. E
,-
+1-,.. -1
(g)
1'355
(II) __
FIGURE 4.20 (Colltinued) (j) Viosne (1972), 197. Joirwille (twin deck) (1976), 354. (Ii)
Gennevilliers (1976), 564,
(1 i5 mm) be used, regardless of the stress re
quirements. Where longitudinal ducts for prestress
are distributed in the bottom flange, a minimum
thickness of 8 to lOin. (200 to 250 mm) is usually
necessary, depending on the duct size.
Near the piers, the bottom slab thickness is pro
gressively increased to resist the compressive
stresses due to longitudinal bending. In the Ben
dorf Bridge, 680 ft (20i m) span, the bottom
flange thickness is 8 ft (2.4 m) at the main piers
and is heavily reinforced to keep the compressive
stresses within allowable limits.
After this brief review of the various conceptual
choices for dimensioning the deck members, con
sideration should be given to the design of such
members with particular emphasis on the follow
ing points:
Distribution of load between box girders in mul
tibox girder bridges
Effect of temperature gradients in the structure
4.6 Transverse Distribution of Loads Between Box
Girders in Multibox Girders
We noted earlier that wide decks can conveniently
consist of two or even three separate boxes trans
, ,
,
26
i I;
-""2:",,,074-1 <HJ
28.40 I
17.50 17.50
t
Jr-m -kT
30
1
10.50
t
P.1/. !
14
7 T&
5.$0
1
- :
..
I
"(
10.50
t 4.51
P.11
Ii 1
J30 1

3.029 1 I 5.458 I 3.55 I 4.442 J 3.55 l3.029
17.30 1 17.30

10.92
10.92
-+
9.00 ,961
9.00
T96 1
9
1
0
1
1
1"11
,
--+
J
30
i
-
01 30

1
t
01 !

"'<tl
I
5.50
10.60
I
i 0:
col
11'\
N
....
FIGURE 4.21. Typical dimensions of some precast segmental cantilever bridges in
France. Year of construction and maximum span length (ft): (a) Choisy-le-Roi (1965).
180: (b) Courbevoie (1967), 197; (c) 01eron Viaduct (1966),260; (d) Seudre (1971), 260;
(e) B-3 South Viaduct (1973). 157; if) St. Andre de Cubzac (1974), 312; (g) St. Cloud
(1974:),334; (h) Ottmarsheim (1976), 564.
165
__
, i
! J :
I !
(d)
(I' )
if)
__ __ -
(g)
, 1) on
+--
Figure 4.21 (Continued)
(h)
166
"
--t
---r
-.
"".
!
(a)
(e)
(d)
(e)
FIGURE 4.22. Typical dimensions of some
segmental camilever bridges in Europe.
Year of construction and maximum span length
(ft): (a) Koblenz, Germany (1954), cast in place,
374; (Ii) Bendorf, Germany (1964), cast ill
place, 682; (e) ehillon, Switzerland (1970), pre
cast, 341; (Ii) Sallingsund, Denmark (1978),
. precast, 305; (e) Vejle Fjord, Denmark (1979),
cast in place, 361.
167
>Ii 2.
~ - - - - - - - - ~ - - - ~ -
~ - - - ~ - - - - - - ..
(!I)
..~ - - - ..~ - - -
(c)
FIGURE 4.23. Typical dimensions of some segmental cantilever bridges in Europe.
Year of construction and maximum span length (ft): (aj Felsenau, Switzerland (1978),
cast in place, 512; (b) Tarento, Italy (1977), cast in place, 500; (c) Kochertal, Germany
(1979), cast in place, 453.
168
169 Transverse Distribution of Loads Between Box Girders in Multibox Girders
Typical Cross Section
87'-3"
(a)
0 LJ
122' -6"1
126 '
I
1
. .

(h)
-cr---'-
, .
r
,-_ 1 U

--+-tJ-4'
59'
(c)
t
I J
I
39 '
(d)
:1]'
t
"\ J
20' -8"
38'-6"
(I' )
\ T
17'-5"
38'-6"
U)
j--
t
\ 7
]3' -ll" I
fiZ'-lO"
(,,0
-I
\ I r 7
50'-10"
I
(h)

t
j
36'
+

59'-3"
(i)

]
'-
I
38'

,
FIGURE 4.24. Typical dimensions of some segmental
cantilever bridges in the Americas. Year of construction
and maximum span length (1'1): (a) Rio Niteroi, Brazil
(1971), precast, 262; (h) Pine Valley, U.S.A. (1974), cast
in place, 450: (c) Kipapa. U.S.A. (1977), cast in place,
250; (d) Kishwaukee, U.S.A., precast, 250; (e) Long Key,
U.S.A., precast, 118;(/) Seven lJ.S.A., precast, 135;
(g) Columbia River, C.S.A., cast in place and precast,
600;' (h) Zilw<lukee, U.S.A .. precast, 375; (i) Houston
Ship Channel. C.S .. -\., cast in place, 750.
verselv connected by the top flange. A detailed
analysis was made of such decks with regard to the
distribution of live load between the various boxes.
It was. found that in normal structures of this type,
the combined effect of the flexural rigidity of the
roadway slab acting transversely as a rigid frame
with the webs and bottom slab of the various box
girders, on one hand, and the torsional rigidity of
such box girders on the other hand, would result in
a very satisfactory transverse distribution of live
loads between box girders. There is no need for
diaphragms between girders as normally provided
for I-girder bridgers.
Comprehensive programs of load testing of sev
eral bridges, including accurate measurements of
deflections for eccentric loading, fully confirmed
the results of theoretical analysis. This analysis has
been reported in various technical documents, and
only-selected results will be presented in this sec
tion.
The first bridge analyzed in this respect was the
Choisy-le-Roi Bridge. A knife-edge load P is con
sidered with a uniform longitudinal distribution
along the span, Figure 4.25. When this load travels
crosswise from curb to curb, each position may be
analyzed with respect to the proportion of vertical
load carried by each box girder, together with the
corresponding torsional moment and transverse
moment in the deck slab. These analyses have
made it possible to draw transverse influence lines
for each effect considered, such as longitudinal
bending moments (over the support or at
midspan), torsional moments, or transverse mo
ments.
For longitudinal moments it is convenient to use
a dimensionless coefficient, Figure 4.25c, which
represents the increase or decrease of the load car
ried by one box girder in comparison with the
average load, assuming an even distribution be
tween both girders. Numerical results show that
the transverse distribution of a knife-edge load
placed on one side (next to the curb) of a twin box
girder produces bending moments in each box that
are 1.4 and 0.6 times the average bending moment.
For the same configuration, a typical deck with [
girders would have an eccentricity coefficient of
approximately 4 compared with 1.4 for the box
girders. There are, however, two side effects to
such an encouraging behavior, which relate to tor
sion stresses and transverse bending of the deck
slab.
Torsional Moments in the Box Girder An unsym
metrical distribution of live loads in the transverse
direction tends to warp the box girders and cause
shear stresses. It is their high torsional rigidity
which produces a favorable distribution of loads
between girders. However, the maximum torsional
moments usually occur when only one-half the
structure (in cross section) is loaded, and the re
sulting stresses do not cumulate with the shear
stresses produced by the full live-load shear force.
170 Design of Segmental Bridges
Span length,
L
P
i
1 ct.
(A)
I
ct. ct.
q q
1
ho (at midspan)
[I
I.
,!i
l
J
i
Center of span
h, (over support) i 2d'
I- "
(aJ
(b)
!.6
I
,
1. ~
:.0
C,6
(e)
~ - -
----" (d)
FIGURE 4.25. Principle of transverse distribution of loads bctweell box
girders. (a) Dimensions. (b) Influence line of the shear in the connccting slab.
(c) Transverse illfluence line of longitudinal mOlTlcnt. (d) Trans\ crsc bend
ing inHuence line at section A.
Transv('r IHornen!s in the Deck Slab The deck slab
cannot be considered as a continuous beam 011
fixed supports because of the relative displace
ments on the two boxes due to unsymmetrical
loading. Figure 4.25d shows the consequence. If
the slab were resting on fixed supports, the
influence line for the moment in a section such as
(A) would be the typical line (l). Because the box
girders undergo certain deflections and rotations,
the effect is to superimpose the ordinates of an
other line such as (2).
Numerically, the difference is not as great as
may be expected at first sight, because line (1) per
tains to the effect of local concentrated truck loads
while line (2), being the result of differential
movements between box girders, pertains to the
effect of uniformly distributed loads. In summary,
deck moments are increased by only 20 to 30%
over their normal values if flexibility of the box
girders is ignored. As a matter of practical interest,
actual numerical values for several bridges in
France with either two or three box girders that
have all shmA'n excellent performance for more
than 10 years are presented in Figures 4.26 and
4.27.
4.7 Effect of Temperature Gradients in
Bridge Superstructures
Experience has shown the sensitivity of long-span
cantilever bridges to concrete creep. This resulted
in the preference for continuous rather than
hinged cantilevers. However, two more problems
arose from this significant change in design ap
proach, both being the immediate result of con
tinuity. These problems are (I) effect of tempera
ture gradient in bridge decks and (2jTectiSiriDUtiOn
171 Effect of Temperature Gradients in Bridge Superstructures

Eccen.
Caeff .
2d' ho/hl 2d
( ft) (ft)
---.-.-.. -
Spans
!
I
Bridge

..
r""
1.14 6.6/18.0 29.5 15.7
Givars
CD
T
360'
1
T
(110m)P
I I
.. - ..
DIS Paris
.---
1. 10 11.1/18.0 26.2 13.1 V 300' i (92m) +
(?) Ring Park- t I
way
U/S Paris
d
I
Sf T 15.4
1. 21
33.9 9.2/15.7
Ring Park-
I
(90m) 295'
+
CD
waY
,.
I ......
5.9/14.7 ! 1.22
23.3 14.1
Carde
I (79mi!' 260'
I
:
I
5.2/10.7
I 1. 23
i
i
220 '
, 24.9 14.6
Juvisy
!
I

:
_..
t
_._-

_.
f
\ i Chai 5y1 e-
Q
1. 28
22.3
180' (SSm) 11.1
8.2 I
I
I
Rai
I
cons tant
I
1.4


FIGURE 4.26. rransverse distribution of loads between box girders. numerical values
for se\'eral two-box girders.
2d
t
of internal stresses effects (steel
relaxation and concrete creep). The importance of
these two new problems was discovered experi
mentally. All structures are designed, according to
the provisions of the various codes, for changes of
temperature that are assumed to apply to the en
tire section. Significant bending moments in the
superstructure occur only as a result of the frame
actio;1 with the piers wh'ere a rigid connection is
achieved between sub- and superstructure. Actual
T
measurements on existing structures confirm this
assumption. The average concrete section under
goes a progressive shortening due to shrinkage
and concrete creep superimposed naturally with
the usual seasonal temperature variations, Figure
4.28b. The total concrete strain of 120 x 10-
6
in./i11. was very moderate for a period of four
years.
Daily readings, on the same bridge, of strains
and magnitude of reactions over the abutment
172 Design of Segmt:Jlta/ Bridges
.t 395 Tim
I !
~ r ' W f
I I I 1
o
2
3
~
!
6
7
!
I
~ ~
"...,
i
I
,
,....
."..,.. I
-
--
-'
-:::-
--2""
- ~
Calculated deflection
IE 6.4 X 10
6
psi)
J"
Measured deflection
J
,
-
....:;.
f::.::::.-
I
I
I &
Measured deflection
r-<
~ - - I
~ -
Calculated deflection
(E 6.9 X 10
6
psi)
I
l
I
i 3.90 Tim
\r
I
I
I
I
--
--......
......
.L
r -
I I
1 I
--
----
------::-
,.......-
~
Measured deflection
Calculated deflection
IE = 7.4 X 10
6
psi)
FIGURE 4.27. Transverse distribution of loads between box girders.
brought to light a factor that had previously been flange concentrates the sun's radiation. Within a
ignored. This was the differential exposure of the 24-hour period the reaction over the abutment
bridge deck to the sun on warm summer d;ws. This could vary as much as 26%, Figure 4.28c. The
situation is aggravated for bridges crossing a river, equivalent temperature difference between top
where the bottom flange is kept cool by the water and bottom flanges reached 18F (lOC). The
and the usual black pavement placed over the top maximum stress at the bottom flange level, due
173 Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and Tendon Profile
---u;
In
J. 11
115'
33' 6"
115'

t
+
a
i
(a)
II
LJ
C"n1t Iitr;lln J: 10-
6

.fter adjustment (or seasonal
100 -+---+----=--+-

(b)
120
SGM OF
1 10 --+----1+---+----'I+--\-------\'----t- REACJ10NS
10.) T--,---r-+'
.I",,' 19''' June J. 19,0
DIFFERENCE OF
REACTIONS
::ifti7f(
(e)
FIGURE 4.28. Champigm Bridge. observed values of
concrete sirains and deck reactions. (a) Typical dimen
sions. (b) Long-IeI'm shortening of bridge deck due to
concrete creep superimposed with temperature varia
tions. (r) Dailv lemperatLtre variations as exemplified bv
change in rl'aCiions mer al)llt111l'nts.
onlv to this tel1lperature gradient. reached 560 psi
.C3.9 :vIPa), a value completely ignored in the design
assu mptions.
Various countries of vVestern Europe have now
incorporated special provisions on temperature
gradients as a result of this knowledge. In France,
the following assumptions are required:
l. Add the effect of a 18F (lOC) temperature
gradient to the effect of dead loads and normal
volume changes (such as shrinkage, creep. and
maximal temperature differences). The effect
of gradient is computed with an instantaneous
modulus of elasticity (usually 5 million psi).
2. Add the effect of a 9F (5C) temperature gra
dient to the combined effect of all loads (in
<;luding live load and impact) and volume
changes. again using an instantaneous mod
ulus of elasticity.
The effect is usually computed by assuming the
gradient to be constant throughout the bridge
superstructure length, which is not necessarily the
case.
Figure 4.29 shows the result for the case of a
typical span built-in at both ends (this is the case of
a long structure with many identical spans). The
stress at the bottom fiber depends only upon the
following two factors:
Variation of height between span center and sup
port (ratio hJ!h
o
)
Position of the center of gravity within the section
(ratio c
2
!h
o
)
The lowest stress is obtained for a symmetrical sec
tion and a constant-depth girder.
The stress increases rapidly when the variation
in depth is more pronounced. For normal propor
tions the effect of gradient is increased by 50% in
variable-depth girders compared to constant
depth girders (240 psi versus 160 psi for a 9F gra
dient and a modulus of 5 x 10
6
psi).
4.8 Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure
and Tendon Profile
4.8.1 PRI.VCIPLE OF PRESTRESS LAYOUT
Toe longitudinal prestress of a cantilever bridge.
whether cast iII place or precast, consists of two
families of tendons:
1. As construction in cantilever proceeds. the in
creasing dead-load moments are resisted at
each step of construction by tendons located in
the top flange of the girder and symmetrically
placed on either side of the pier. Figures 4.30
and 4.3Ia. These are known as cantilever ten
dons.
2. Upon completion of individual cantilevers.
continuity is achieved by a second family of
tendons essentially placed at the center of the
various spans. Figure 4.31 b. Because girder
load moments are small. except through
because of the con
struction procedure. the continuity prestress is
designed to resist essentially the effect of:
a. Superimposed loads (pavement, curbs,
and the like).
b. Live loads.
c. Temperature gradient.
174 Design of Segmgntai Bridges
\ /
160 p,i
,on,lonl d'plh
u,uo!
ro ngf
220-2')0
30
=06')
h
.2. =060
h.
,on,lonl
d'plh .ntell.
J2 =E,(o.:l:.9)
ex Ctltfrrcltnt or

Lb.rrmol npons.lon
6& It'rr.prroturr srod;pnl I
NOiE For olh,"
modul;, or tl01lic;ty
mu!t.ply st rfH
b E
Y 5pOO.OOO
h,
h.
ELEVAi lOt; OF ,PAN SEeilClN Ai CENifR
FIGURE 4.29. Effect of thermal gradicnl Oil box girder decks.
d. Subsequent redistribution of girder load
alld cantilever prestress.
Tensile. stresses are large at the bottom Range
level, but seldom will continuity prestress gain the
full advalJlage of the available eccentricity because
of the stress conditions at the top flange level. Usu
aIlyihis prestress is divided into tendons, B 1 or B2,
located in the bottom flange, and a few tendons
such as B3 which overlap the longer cantilever
tendons, Figure 4.3Ib.
For the best selection of prestressing methods, it
is essential 1.0 use prestressing units of a capacity
large enough to reduce the number of tendons in
the concrete section, particularly in very long
spans. On the other hand, there must be a
sufficient number of tendons to match with the
number of segments in the cantilever arms. Also,
units with an excessive unit capacity will pose seri
ous problems for the transfer of concentrated high
loads, particularly for cast-in-place structures,
where concrete strength at the time of prestress is
always a critical factor within the construction
cycle.
In practical terms, prestress bars are as well
adapted to short and medium spans as strand ten
dons (such as twelve i in. diameter strands). For
very long spans 500 ft) large-capacity ten
dons (such as nineteen 0.6 in. diameter strands)
with a final prestress force of about 700 kips afford
a very practical solution for cantilever prestress.
For continuity prestress the size of tendons is go\'
erned by the possibility of locating the tendon an
chors in such areas and with such provisions as to
allow a proper distribution of the concentrated
load to the surrounding concrete section. Units
such as twelve i in. diameter or twelve 0.6 in.
diameter are usually well adapted with careful de
tailing for this purpose.
4.8.2 DRAPED TENDONS
I n early applications, both families of prestress
were given a draped profile in the web of the box
section to take advantage of the vertical component
of prestress to reduce the shear stresses. In such a
configuration there is a considerable overlapping
of tendons in the web, because the cantilever pre
stress is anchored in the lower part of the web and
the continuity prestress is anchored at the top
Range level; see the layout in Figure 4.31c. For a
constant-depth section and for segments of equal
175 Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and Tendon Profile
c
8..2
0.
20,000
10,000
;:;
:di
V )i( V
,,;X:
'"
I
u
X /0 V "<

lX.i"'.
PI
I

c:
I ffiV

r'-.. ["-.. l"'. I I "' :;;.
\j.. VY./ V v:: :-..
"
:"-l.S7L
10
--::::--: ::::::::
--:: :::..::: f:=:::: ::::::: ::--..
:z;,: :;:;::;

:E
I I I

I I I


I.
I
/ '\ I
r-
I
l-
V / '\ '\


// /
""
i"\
.-
I
,:J
V
' I
c:
0
Diagrams of moments in a cantilever
l
I I
[
I I I
]
I I I
I
ITTmr
I
I I I I
,
I I I
I
FIGURE 4.30. Typical cantilever moments and pre,tress. When placing
unit H, the increa,e of bending moment is represented by the hatched area
ancl the resultant curve is transferred from position 7 to position 8. Addi
tional sets of cantilever prestressing tendons are placed each time a pair of
segments is erected. This procedure allows the magnitude of prestress to
follow verv closely the various steps of construction.
length, it is eas\! to completely standardize the lay
out of prestress in various segments.
:vlechanization of the casting operations is a very
desirable feature. all prefabricated reinforcing
cages being identical. with ducts always at the same
locations. A substantial amount of repetition may
still be obtained in variable-depth members as seen
in Figure 4.32. which represents typical span of
the Oleron Viaduct. The two disadvantages of such
a prestress layout are:
Cantilever tendon anchors are located in the web
and it is difficult to prevent web cracking, particu
larly in cast-in-place structures, except through the
use of thicker webs and smaller tendons.
Contin'uity tendons extend above deck level at both
ends. The installation of the anchor with the
block-out for stressing is difficult in the casting
form, and good protection against water seepage
to the tendons in the finished structure is a critical
factor.
4.8.3 STRAIGHT TENDONS
Tendons are in tbis configuration located in the
upper and lower flange of the box girder and an
chored near the web in their respective flanges.
There is no draped profile for the tendons within
the web and consequently no reduction of shear
stresses due to a vertical component of prestress.
This is a disadvantage of this scheme, which may
often require vertical prestress to maintain shear
stresses within allowable limits. On the other hand,
the two advantages are:
Simplicity in both design and construction
176 Design of Segmental Bridges
span L
Average length of cantilever tendons 0,52
(a)
Avprage of continuity tendons ; 0, 35 0.50 L
(b)
A : cantilever tendons
D : continui t.y tendons
-
-
(c)
FIGURE 4.31. Tvpical layout of longitudinal prestress. (0) Cantilever tendons, (b)
Comlnutty tendons. (r) Standardized layout of tendons for constant-depth segments,
Significant reduction in friction losses of the pre
stress tendons for both curvature and wobble ef
fects, and consequent savings on the weight and
cost of the longitudinal prestress of at least 10%, all
else being equal
The Rio Niteroi Bridge (described in Section
3.8) used straight tendons, Figure 4.33. Typical
characteristics of the deck are as follows:
Span length
Width of a box
Two webs at
Longitudinal cantilever
prestress
Longitudinal continuity
prestress
Vertical prestress
262 ft
42 ft
14.2 in. each
42 (12 tin. diam.
strands)
14 (12 tin. diam.
strands)
1 in. diameter bars
i

t
\

C
a
n
t
i
l
e
v
e
r

p
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s

3
0
-
(
1
2

x
U
"

)

A

+

8
-
(
1
2

x

.
3
1
5
"

)

2
8

U

1
6

1
7

-,t.;
1
J

Z
t
,
1

1
9

1
9

1
9

1
0

i
2

'2
1

2
)

1
0

1
.;
2
5

1
7

2
0

1
6

2
7

2
8

..
_
,
.
'"
'!
_

,
,
-
.

_
.
.
,

...
,-
_

If
>

_
4
1
1

!

-:---

"
"
I
'
,

,
.

,
.,:
-

:
:
'f

"
-
-
:

'..5

1
0

9
'

7
: 1

$


6

r
-
-
;
-
-
-
]
'
'
I
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
i
t
y

p
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s

J
I

I
1
4
-
(
1
2

x

1
1
2
"

+

4
-
(
1
2

x

.
3
1
5
"

)

D
e
t
a
i
l

B

1
2
"

T
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e

-
-
?

"
,
-
"
.

'
i
'
"
' ....."

"

S
t
e
e
l

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l

p
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
.
.
!

,
,
'

F
I
G
U
R
E

4
.
3
2
.

O
k
r
o
n

V
i
a
d
u
c
t
,

l
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
l
l
a
l

p
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
.

-
...J

-
...J

-
178 Design of Segmental Bridges
V.rtical bars 25 mm (tyP. )
TOP PRESTRESS
strand 12.7 mm tI cables
BOTTOM PRESTRESS
FIGURE 4.33. Rio-;\;ircroi Bridge, [\picaJ prestress layout.
Critical stresses near the pier are:
Longitudinal compression
Vertical compression
Maximum shear stress
Diagonal stresses
Typical details of tendon profiles and anchor
ages are portrayed for Linn Cove Viaduct in North
Carolina, U.S.A., in Figures 4.34, 4.35, and 4.36.
4.8.4 Su/I1MARY OF TENDON PROFILES A.VD
ANCHOR LOCA71.0l'/S
In the two preceding configurations, tendons were
anchored in the following manner:
I. For cantilever prestress:
a. On the face of the segment In the fillet
between top flange and web.
b. On the face of the segment along the web.
c. In a block-out near the fillet between top
flange and web, but inside the b o ~ .
2. For the continuity prestress:
a. At the top flange level.
b. In a block-out near the fillet between web
and bottom flange.
850 psi
400 psi
580 psi
-110 psi (tensile),
and
1360 psi
(compressive)
c. 1n a block-out in the bottom flange proper
away from the webs.
Configurations Ic, 2b, and 2c all permit pre
stressing operations to be performed safe"" and
efficiently inside the box. Figure 4.37. permitting
such operations to be remo\'ed from the critical
path of actual placement or construction of the
segments. Only those tendons required for
balancing the self-weight of the segments need to
be installed at each step of construction. The bal
ance of the required prestressing may thus be in
stalled later, even after continuity is achieved be
tween several cantilever arms. Tendons for the
additional prestress may then be given a profile
comparable to that used in cast-in-place bridges
with a length extending over several spans. The
practical limit to this procedure is excessive so
phistication and related high friction losses in the
tendons.
4.8.5 SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF COSTINUITY
PRESTRESS AND ANCHORAGE THEREOF
Tendons for continuity prestress may not, or even
should not, always be located in the fillet between
web and bottom flange. They may be located in the
bottom flange proper. When a variable-depth
member is used, the bottom Aange has a curvature
in the vertical plane, which must be followed by the
prestress tendons. Cnless careful consideration is
!
i1
Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and Tendon Profile 179
Ie; '2" /1 J" "
. ,
$1
FIGURE 4.34. Linn Viaduct, typical cross section sll<ming prestress dllelS,
given to that fact at the cOl1cept and detailed design
stages, difficulties are likelv to develop; \\'e mav see
this bv looking at Figures -LHI and 4.39. which
show the free-body diagrams of stresses in the
bottom flange due to the together with a
f I' numerical example. Curvature of a tendon induces
l..v a di)\\'I1ward radial load. which must be resisted by
transverse bending ()riIlc-bZ)(u)nl flange
tTie\\:ebs,
!'ll Longitudinal compressive stresses in the bottom
\v) flange similad\ induce an upward radial reaction
.in the flange, counteracting at least in part the ef
fect of the tendons. Unfortunatelv. when the full
live l()ad and variable effects. such as thermal gra
dients. are applied to the ,superstructure. the lon
gitudinal stresses vanish and consequently the par
tial negation of the effect of tendon curvature is
lost. Therefore. the effect of tendon curvature
adds full", to the dead-load stresses of the concrete
Range. '{'he corresponding flexural stresses are
four to five times greater than the effect due to
dead load only. and if sufficient reinforcement is
not provided for this effect, heavv cracking is to be
expected and possibly failure. Practically. the situ
ation may be aggravated by deviations in the IOGl
tion of the tendon ducts in the segments compared
to the theoretical profile indicated OIl the drawings .
At the point between segments, ducts are usually
placed at their proper position; but if flexible tub
ing is used with an insufficient numher of sup
\
PRESTRE SSING
---.---- - ---.---
__
7
I' I. !
7 7 7 9' .. 7 7 7
. I I I . I
:,,1 I
B e
L!'l Li:::L " .
I \..V W- \..Y .
\
, ,
",I
I

'\;:6 "
FOR TEMPORARY
,3{fJ BARS
I.
A ANCHORAGE
( Along 't I const ruclton )
1
I 1
.1.,.' j'IO\" I I 10J.. " I
'-:., I I z' 0" I , "i
_ _ iii' _ I ___

i '[\.' 1 \) ':
1
.zd 0" r I,:," 2' /f2" 'zt":-.::..r
-:..----i=-----.::- . , ,I
I ., I
. __________L
I
FIGURE 4.35. Linn Cove Viaduct, top flange prestress details.
180
.1::"
FIGURE 4.36. Linn Cove Viaduct, bottom flange prestress details.
181
182 Design of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 4.37. B-3 South Viaduct. prestressing oper
ations in box girder.
porting chairs or ties, the duct profile will have an
angle break at each joint. In addition 10 the in
creased friction losses, t here is a potent ial danger
of local spalling and bursting of the iJJtrados of the
bottom Bange, Figure 4.40, Rigid dUCIS properly
secured to the reinforcement cage and placed at
the proper level over the soffit of the casting
machine or traveler will avoid this danger.
Another item concerning potential difficulties in
continuity prestress relate to the of the
anchor block-out in the bottom flange and where
anchor blocks are not close to the fillet bet ween
web and bottom flange, \;\Then this method is used
in conjunction with a ven thin bottom flange (a
UNIT LOA:; N
R
R
fREE BODY DiAGRilM
FIGURE 4.38. Secondary due 10 C\ll'ycd 1t'1l
dOll, in 1he bOllOll1 11<111gc,
flange as thin as 5 or 6 in, has been used in early
bridges), it is almost irnpossible to distribute the
concentrated load of I he anchor block in the slab
without subsequent cracking. For a 7 or 8 in. Bange
il is recommended'that no more than two anchor
Assumed Longi tudi ria 1 Radi us 1,000'
10" Typ. x 1/2", tendons) Typ,
1-----1
/3 o:()-f{LI)
:
! ,-.....,',
l -I' yj .:.J":.(;
FIGURE 4.39. Secondary stresses due to cun'ed prestressing tendons, nu
merical example, Assumed longitudinal radius = 1000 ft. Weight of bottom slab
100 psf. Effect of compressive stresses: unloaded bridge.}, 2000 psi, com
pressive radial Joad:f,.tIR (2000 x 8 x 12)/1000 200psf; loaded bridge, 0
psi. Effect of prestressing tendons: stranded tendons (twelve! in. dia strands) at
10 in. interval with a 280 kip capacity, mrresponding l-adial load: FIR =
280,000/[(10112) 1000J = 336, say 340 psL Total loads on bottom slab: (1) during
construction, load = 100 psf; (2) unloaded bridge, load = 100 - 200 + 340
240 psi; (3) loaded bridge, load 100 + 340 = 440 psC moment = we
t
/12 = 9
kips ftlft, stress in bottom slab:} MIS (9000 x 12)/[( 12 x 64)/6] 840 psi.
"I f'!l/, / f
'.) ""j or"
-
/
QJJ.;I vr
I
183 Design of Longitudinal Membr.?rs for Flexure and Tendon Profile
Partial elevation
FIGURE 4.40. Ellen of misaligllIllclH 0[' continuity
1Fcstrcss,
blocks for (I } ilL diameter strands) tendOllS be
placed ill the sallle transverse sectioll ill conjullc
tion with additional reinforcing to resist burstillg
stresses. Wherever possible. the anchor blocks for
cOlltinuitv telldollS should f)e placed ill the fillet
between the web alld flallge where the lrallsverse
sect iOll has t he largest rigidity.
4.8.6 LIH)!'T OF I.V STf?L'CrCR/,'S
JrrJlI 11/\(;J,'S I.\'/) fY,I'I\',<i/()SJ{)/.\'/S
Sectioll 4.-1:.3 explained how the expallsiolljoints ill
the Sll perstructure should be located preferablv
ncar the cOlltrallexure poillt of a span rather than
. at midspan as ill previous structures. However.
there is a resultant lOIn plication ill the lOIlSt ru(tion
proless, beclllsc cllltilever erenio" must proceed
through the special hinge segment. A t\pical con
struction procedure and the related preso'ess Iav
OUt are presented in Figure 4.-1: I. For the geollletry
of the structure in this figure. the construction
proceeds as follows:
a. Place the hrst bve segments ill balanced can
tilever and install cantilever prestress for re
sistance against dead load.
h. Place the lower half of the special segment and
the corresponding tendons.
c. Install the upper half of the special hinge seg
.ment with permallent. or provisional bearings,
and provisional blocking to permit transfer of
longitudinal compressive stresses. Cantilever
tendons may be made continuous through the
expansion joint or equipped with couplers.
d. Resume normal cantilever segment placing
and prestressing to the center of the span, with
tendons crossing the joint.
e. Achieve continuity with previous cantilever by
pouring closure joint and stressing continuity
tendons. Layout of these tendons includes an
chors in the special hinge segment to transfer
the shear forces in the completed structure.
f. Remove temporary blocking at hinge. Release
tension in cantilever tendons holding segments
7. 8, and 9 or cut tendons across t he hinge
after grouting.
4.8.7 REIJISTRlBU[/O,v OF .\IO.HENTS lLV/)
STRESSES THROUGH CONCRETE CREEP
In a staticallv indeterminate structure the internal
stresses induced lw the external IO(lds depend
upon the deformation of the structure. In pre
st res sed COllcrete structures such deformations
IllLlst include not only short-term but also long
term deformation due to relaxation of prestressing
steel and concrete creep. In conventional struc
tures sllch as cast-in-place continuous superstruc
tures, the effect is not signihcallt if all loads and
prestress forces are applied to the statical design of
the completed structure, which is the common case
of construction on sC(lffolding. The behavior of
cantilever bridges, particularlv cast-in-place stnlC
tures, is <Juite different, because the major part of
the load (the girder load often represents 8W;f, of
the total load in long spans) is applied to a statical
concept that is different from the completed de
sign. /\s soon as continuity is achieved, the struc
ture tends to resist the new Situation in which it has
been placed; this is one aspect of a very general law
ill mechal1ics whereby consequences always oppose
their cause.
A very simple example is presented in Figure
4.42, which will provide the basis for a better ap
preciation of the problem. Assume two identical
adjacent cantilever anns built-in at both ends and
free to deflect at the center. The self-weight pro
duces a moment:
--8
at both ends with a corresponding deAection and
rotation at the center of y and w.
184 Design of Segrr;ental Bridges

I 11
tendons
(a)
i:-1
I

Temporary-t> Iii T
blockmg I I ' I
(b) -LI-L
I
I
I
Coupler _

!
!

(e)

Cantilever tendor1s
I
___, __L-__ __ L-__ ____ __ ____ __ __ __
__ I
(f)
FIGURE 4.41. COllstructioll procniure alld prestress ill a span \\'ith all
expansion joint.
If the load is applied for a short time, the value
of E to take into account is E; (instantaneous mod
ulus). Assuming that continuity is achieved be
tween the cantilevers as shown in Figure 4.42c,
there cannot he an angle break at the center, but
only a progressive deformation of the completed
span. After a long time the concrete modulus has
changed from its initial value E; to a final value E
f
,
which may be approximately 2.5 times less than E;.
Because the external loads are unchanged and
the structure is symmetrical, the only change in \he
state of the structure is an additional cons.tant mo
ment M] developing along the entire span and in
creasing progressively with time until the concrete
creep has stabilized. At all times the magnitude of
this moment acljusts in the structure to maintain
__ __ __
The additional deflection at midspan, ),2' takes
place in a beam with fixed ends under the effect of
ltSO\\'n weight and only because of the progressive
change of the concrete modulus from the value E;
to the value E
f
.
Considering the concrete strain at any point of
the structure, the total strain Ef is the sum of two
terms:
where E] = strain hefore continuity is achieved,
E2 = strain after continuity is achieved.
Hooke's law relating stress and strain at a particu
lar point in time states:
= iL
E
] E
I
185 Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and Tendon Profile
-+
I
M
O
-Mlt
(d)
Mlf
FIGURE 4.42. RedistrilJlltioll or stresses through COIl
crele creep.
Similarly there is a relatiollShip between the addi
tional strain z and the corresponding pro
duced at the same location bv the same loads
applied in the continuous structure. One mav
.write:
/
..
.,=-
- E,.
where E( . the creep modulus. is given by:
or
. ( 1
..
.
/
- E
f
Thus:
1 ..
E; )
The corresponding totalslress in the structure then
becomes:
Er I
1=11 E; +1:1:\1
In other words. the effect of concrete creep is to
place the final stresses in the structure in an inter
fiaI"state (either of moments, shear forces, deAec
tions, or stresses) intermediate between:
design with free cantilevers, and
The completed design with continuity.
Assume, for example, EriE; = 0040. Thus:
1 004011 + 0.60[2
The relationship is equally true for moments,
shear forces, or deflections.
Moments over the support are:
In the free cantilevers, IV! = Mo
III the continuous structure. i'vl
The hnal moment is therefore:
and
?vI I = O.20]W
o
'
At midspan, moments are:
In the free cantilevers. 1W = ()
In the continuous structure, AI
and the actual final momeI1l:
/v1\ = 0.60 0.201'.10
The above derivation applies not ollly to exter
nal loads but also to the effect of prestressing.
Continuity prestress applied to a continuous
structure gives little iI1lernal redistribution of mo
meI1lS except in multispan structures, where the
spans react with one another according to the ac
tual construction procedure. Cantilever prestress,
which acts to offset an appreciable part of the
dead-load moments, tends to reduce the distribu
tion of moments due to external loads, Figure 4.43.
Up to now the concrete modulus has been as
sumed to take only the two values E i and E f
(short-term and long-term values). In fact, because
construction of a cantilever takes several weeks (or
even several months in the case of cast-in-place
structures), account must be taken of the concrete
strains versus the age and the duration of loading.
186 Design of Segmental Bridges
V1
+'
'"
<11
E
0
::;:
V1
V1
'"
\..
...,
V1
(!J
\..
""
'
~
Span 0
"'"
0'"
...J
"0
'"
0
'"
fa 11 dx
Mo ~ -
fa dx
o I
a LIZ
MGL Girder Load Cantilever It,oment
Pe
Cantilever Prestress Moment
MGL - Pe Moment Inducing Redistribution
Moment at ~ under M in continuous beam"
Moment of :nertia (variable)
FIGURE 4.43. Computation of moment redistribution due to' dead load and
cantilever prestress.
Such relationships are presented for normal
weight prestressed concrete and average climate in
Figure 4.44.
Concrete strains are presented for convenience
as a dimensionless ratio between the actual strain
and the reference strain of a 28-day-old concrete
subjected to a short-term load.
We see that short-term strains vary little with the
age of the concrete at the time of loading except at
a very early age. However, long-term strains are
significantly affected by the age of the concrete.
For example, a three-day-old concrete will show a
final strain 2.5 times greater than a three-month
old concrete. This is particularly important for
cast-in-place structures with short cycles of con
struction (two pairs of segments cast and pre
stressed every week, which has now become com
mon practice).
Two other factors play an important role in the
redistribution of stresses in continuous cantilever
bridges:
1. Relaxation of prestressing steel and prestress
losses. Because the stress in the prestressing
steel yaries with time (a part of that yariation
being due precisely to the concrete creep), the
internal moments that produce the deforma
tion of the structure and therefore originate
the redistribution of stresses "ary continually.
This factor is important because the resultant
moments in the cantilever arms (dead load and
prestress) are given by the difference of two
large numbers, and a variation on one usually
has an important effect upon the result, Figure
4.43.
2. Change of the mechanical properties of the
concrete section. For the sake of simplicity the
gross concrete section is usually adopted for
computation of bending stresses. In fact, the
section to be used should be:
a. The net section (ducts for longitudinal
prestress deducted from the concrete sec
187
35
Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and Tendon Profile
I I

I I
OAYS MONTflS YEARS
FIGURE 4.44. COllcretc strai\ols versus age and dura
tion of loading. :\otc that stI'ain is gin:n as a dimcnsioll
less rat.io helll'eell lhe antlal slrain alld t.he refercllce
strain of a connete subjected 10 slron-Iuin
load.
tion) for effect of girder load and prestress
up to lhe lill1e of tendon grouting.
h. The transformed section (with incorpora
tion of the prestress steel area with a suit
able coefficient of transformation) after
grouting, where the coefficient of equiva
lence iI = EjE,., ratio of the modulus of
steel and concrete, should be taken as a
variable with time, from 5 to 12 or even 15.
The abm'e disclIssion indicates the cOlllplexin' of
the problem with respect to the material properties
and indicates the unreliable results of the earlv de
Sl"ns.
.
The onl\' acceptable solution is the global ap
pro'ach. wherebv a comprehensive electronic com
pu ter program analyzes step by step the state of
stresses in the structure at different time intervals
alld whenever any significant change occurs, thus
following the complete history of construction.
SlIch programs are lIOW available and have
pro\'t;n invaluable in helping us understand
the behavior of segmental bridges. Thev provide
efficient tools for the final design of the structure.
Because it is difficult for some engineers to de
pend fully upon computer solutions in approach
ing a design problem, it is desirable to have orders
of magnitude of the moment redistribution for
preliminary proportioning and dimensioning of
the structure. The following guidelines are based
on experience and judgment.
1. Consider the case of a symmetrical span
made up of two equal cantilevers fixed at the ends
and built symmetrically. Compute girder load
llloments of the typical cantilever and prestress
moments using the final prestress forces and the
tmmformed concrete sections with n 10 (average).
2. Compute the moment at midspan due to the
difference of the above two loading cases (Figurc
4.43). \Iore generally, comput.e in the final stnlC
ture the moments in the variolls spans due to the
difference between cantilever girder load and
momcnts and final prestress momcms, including
the restraint due to piers if applicable.
:t Reference is made now to the formula given
previously and repeated here for convenience:
where I = final stress (or moment or shear load
in the structure at allY point),
It stress at the same point obtained bv
adding all partial stresses for each
construction step using the corre
sponding statical scheme of the
structure,
= stress at the same point assuming all
loads and prestress forces to be
applied on the llllal structure with
the final statical scheme,
Ei = initial or intermediate modulus of
elasticity (short-term or for the dura
tion of loading before continuity),
Er = final modulus (long-term).
Using different assumptions on the constructioll
sequence of bridge decks and the corresponding
strains as given by Figure 4.44, we find that the
average value of ErlE
i
would vary from 0.50 to
O.6i. It is recommended that the conservative
value of 0.67 be used in this approximate method.
Thus the actual moment due to redistribution
should be 0.67, the value computed under para
graph 2. This moment must be added to the effect
of live load and thermal gradient at midspan.
.320
+ 1250
Design of Sel{mentai Bridges
188

tween cantilevers of different ages, and the redis
tribution of support moment may thus vary in wide
proportions, Figure 4.45. To keep on the safe side,
it is not recommended that the reduction 'in sup
port moment be taken into account in designing
the prestress forces.
It is interesting at this stage to give some orders
of magnitude of moment redistribution by consid
ering some fundamental formulas given as refer
ence in Figure 4.46. .
It has been assumed:
That the secondary moment due to the stressing of
OLJER
ILEVER
continuity tendons is 6<;;: of the total moment (wer
250
the support,
That the distance, rI, hetween the ccnter of gra\'itv
'WMENT 5
of the cantilever tendons and the top slab is equal
DuE TO
RrDlS TRIBUTICN
to 0.0511.
ft-kips That the center of depending upon the
section dimensions, mil\ van between ((jlli 0.4
alld (21h = O.G) and ((l/h 0.6 and (2111 = 0.4),
That the e/licienn factor is p O.GO.
(i) BOTH CANTILEVERS OF SAME AGE
CANT(I) BUILT 0-100 DAYS
CD From the data indicated above and in Figure
CANT(2) BUILT 100-200 DAYS
4.46, the percentage of prestressing steel.!), may he
G) CANT (2) ONE '(EllR OLDER THAI-i
determined as 1'01l0\"s:
FIGURE 4,45. Variation of redistribution moment in
cantilevcr cOllstructioll with the cOllstruction procedure.
assuming a final Sl1'ess in the tendons of J60 ksi
assuming a maximum compressive stress in the
4. Correspondingly, the support moment (over
bottom /lange of :WOO psi:
YOUNGER
CANTILEVER
(BUILT IN 100 DAYS)
FIGURE 4.46. Approximate moment redistribution (moments over stIppon). Total
moment: M T == M GL + + M UA where l'vl w. girder load moment, = superim
posed load moment, M u == live-load momeTll (including impact). Assumed secondary
moment due to continuity prestress: 0.06 AI T' Final prestress force: P = O.94M r/(e +
(r
2
/rl)] = 0.94MT/(e + pcz). Prestress moment (1): Pe = O.94AfT/[1 + (pc2/e)]. Moment
inducing redistribution: 1\;1(;1, - PI', given by (2): (Mm. Pe)/Mr M(:fjM r - 0.94/[1 +
(pc)e)] .
the piers) is decreased bv the same amount. In fact,
the construction of cantilevers in successive stages
is such that continuity is achieved in each span be-


74<& h _}:
e. r2/C2
I CG
I
T(gross
area I . section) r2/c]
A
t J inertia
/> 9 >; >
. "
P = AJCUWg) = 20(JO
o
1irr,it of the centra 1 core
efficiency factor
Cl
average stress 2000
2000 ps i
-----
189 Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and Tendon Profile
For a symmetrical section, C
1
O.5h, and p would,
thus, be equal to 0.63%, a reasonable and common
value. The transformed percentage area of the
steel with n = lOis equal to:
np 0.125 ~ I
All mechanical properties of the section change
to make the denominator of equation (2) in Figure
4.46 increase and, consequently, the moment
inducing redistribution increase also. This fact,
which W<:lS completelv overlooked for many years,
is clearly seen in Figure 4.47, where the percentage
of moment-inducing redistribution in the various
0.600
-
0.500
0.400
7 1 ~
- - : ~
0.300
..:;;',
..,
0.200
0.100
C,/ h
0.35 0.40 0.45
c2 1h
0.65 0.60 0.55
sections is plotted versus the posItion of the cen
troid with or without transformed area.
It is interesting to study the effect of an acci
dental variation in the prestress load due to exces
sive friction in the ducts. Assume, for example, a
reduction of 5% in the prestress load for the case
ci/h 0.5 (symmetrical section over the support)
and lW(lL/M
r
= 0.80.
The intial values of (MOL - Pel/My are changed
as follows:
lOOl( 95% Percent
Prestress Prestress Variation
Gross area 0.236 0.264 1.12
Transformed 0.265 0.292 1.10
area
T'he combined effect of tendon grouting and of
added friction losses increases the redistribution of
moments by 25%.
Gross Area
Transformed Area
~
0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65
0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35
,\.1 (;/. - PI'
.rransf Gross Transf Gross
,\;IT
0.383 10.5001
0.474
0.257 0.136 0.165
0.357 0.236 0.265
0.457 0.336 0.365
Figure 4.47. Moment redistribution, numerical values over support.
190 Design of Segmental Bridges
-I.B.8 PREDICTION OF PRESTRESS LOSSES
The prediction of losses in prestressed concrete
has always been subject to uncertainty. This is due
to the high stress levels used for the prestressing
slee!, the variable nature of concrete, and its pro
pensity to creep and shrink. As recently as 1975,
AASHTO made a major revision to its code to pro
vide improved methods for predicting prestress
losses. The Structural Engineers Association of
California has an excellent report on creep and
shrinkage control for concrete in general. The re
port concludes thaI special attention should be
given to material selection and proportioning. For
creep and shrinkage calculations many European
engineers recommend the guidelines of the Feder
ation 111lernationale de la Precontrainte, Comite
Europeen du Beton (FIP-CEB).
The design computations for segmental pre
stressed concrete bridges are very involved for the
construction phase. Every time a segment is added
or a tendon is tensioned, the structure changes,
and it must be reanalyzed. As the segment ages, the
concrete and prestressing steel creep, shrink, and
relax. Thus, each segment has its own life history
and an elastic modulus that depends upon the age
and composition. To accurately compute all of
these effects hv hand, throughout the life of the
structure, would be very difficult, part.icularly
during the constrllction phase. Comprehensive
computer programs such as "BC" (Bridge Con
struction) and others have been recently developed
and are now available to aid the design engineer.
In addition to construction analysis, these pro
grams will check the completed bridge in accor
dance with AASHTO specifications. I t is possible
to revise them to satisfy other codes or loadings,
such as AREA.
:\ot only are all prestress losses properly evalu
ated and taken into account, hut redistributions of
moments due to concrete creep and steel relaxa
tion are automatically incorporated in the design
analysis.
4.9 Ultimate Bending Capacity of
Longitudinal Members
Basically, the design approach of segmental
bridges is one of service load. I t is important, how
ever, not to lose sight of the ultimate behavior of
the structure to ensure that safety is obtained
throughout.
In simply supported structures, the ultimate
capacity is very simply analyzed by comparing in
the section of maximum moment:
The total design load moment including girder
load and superimposed load (DL) and live load
(LL)
The ultimate bending moment of the prestressed
section AI"
Depending on the governing codes and the usual
practice in various 'countries, this comparison may
be done in various ways:
Apply a load factor on DL and LL and a reduction
factor for materials 011 Ivl"
Applv a single factor K on (DL + LL) and compare
with M"
Applya single factor K on LL only and compare DL'
+ KLL \\'ith M Ii
I n all cases, the designer must first compute the
ultimate capacity of the section considering the
concrete dimellsions alld characteristics of pre
stressing tendons (and possible conventional rein
fOI'Cement). From previous studies it may be shown
that the ultimate moment of a prestressed section is
cornputed very simph' bv considering a dimen
sionless factor called the weight percentage of pre
stressing steel, q (see Figure 4.48).
To accoullt for the fact that the concrete char
acteristics are less reliable than those of the pre
stressing steel, which are well known and very con
stant,'/; is usually taken equal to the guaranteed
minimum tensile strength, whereasj;. is assumed to
be only SOCX of the 28-day cylinder strength.
Considering now the case of segmental super
stl'uctures, which are most generally continuous
structures, one Illay take the conventional ap
proach of considering the various sections of the
member (for example, support section and
midspan sections in the various spans) as inde
pendent from one another in much the same wav
as for simple members. Such simplification over
looks the capacity of the redundant structure to
redistribute, internally, the applied loads, which
seems to be a conservative assumption.
In fact, it is not always as conservative and safe as
it looks, as will be shown by an example computed
numerically for a typical span of the Rio Niteroi
Bridge. For such a span the design moments are as
follows (in foot-kips X 1000):
191
t
b
L___...J,..
strain
diagram
T
Ultimate Bending Capacity of Longitudinal Members
3.6
1000
d
FIGURE 4.48. Cltimate moment of a prestressed section. (1) Dimensionless coefficient,
q' = (A j bd) whereA, area of prestressing steel, b = width of section, d = effective
depth of section (distance between centroid of prestress and extreme compression fiber),
I; ultimate tensile strength of prestressing steel,f;. = ultimate compressive strength of
concrete. (2) Value of ultimate moment: for q' < 0.07,lVI
u
0.96AJ:d; for 0.07 < q' <
0.50, AJ
u
(1 - 0.6q')AJ'/d.
Support Midspan
Girder load 116 0
Superimposed load to 5
Total dead load (DL) l26 5
Total live load (LL) 29
Total (DL + LLl l55 27
Live-load moment in simple span: :37
The ultimate moments have been computed for all
sections for both positive and negative bending.
The envelopes of ultimate moments are shown in
Figure 4.49.
, Neglecting any moment redistribution, the situ
ation would be the following over the support and
at midspan:
Section
Moment Support y[idspan
,Ill 256 79
Dl. 126 :5
LL 29 22
;Iu L6:5(DL + LL) 2.93(DL + LL)
or:I-[" = DL + 4.5 LL DL + 3.4LL
The picture is substantially different when looking
at redistribution due to plastic hinges. Assuming
an overall increase of both dead and live load
simultaneously (loading arrangement A), we ob
tain the overall safetv factor by comparing the sum
of ultimate moments over the support and at
midspan:
256 + 79 = 335
and the sum of simple span moment due to DL and
LL:
DL: 126 + 5 = 131
LL 37
Total 168
The overall safety factor is thus:
K = 335 20
168 .
approximately 20% higher than for the support
section considered alone. In fact. it is more impor
tant and more realistic to consider only an increase
of the live load, which is the only variable factor in
the structure. Proceeding as before, the safety
factor On LL only would be:
K = _3_3_5=_1_3_1 = 5.5
However, this is not the actual safety factor of the
structure, because there exists a more aggressive
loading arrangement than that where all spans are
live loaded. In the case where the live load is
applied to only every second span [arrangement
192 Design of Segmental Bridges
1 I I
T 260' ~ - 260' 260' ~ I - ~ -
I. .1. ,I. .
i . i I Elevation
I . LL.
I ILive-load arrangement (A)I 1
LL .
Support i Support
FIGURE 4.49. L'ltimale bending capacity of a continuous deck.
(b) in Figure 4.49], the first plastic hinge will ap
pear at the center of the unloaded spans with a
negative moment (tension at the top fiber) and the
support moment reaches the following limiting
value:
L'Itimate negative moment at midspan: 38
Actual dead-load moment in simple span:
126+5 131
169
This value of 169 is substantially lower than the ul
timate moment at that support section considered
by itself (Mu = 256).
The failure appears when the second plastic
hinge appears at the center of the loaded span
under positive moment (tension at the bottom
fiber). The limiting value of the safety factor K is
such that:
169 + 79 = 131 + K . 37 and K = 3.2
I n such structures a \'ery important characteristic
must be emphasized. At the time of ultimate load
failure, due either to negative moment in the un
loaded spans or positive moments in the loaded
spans, the maximum moment over the support has
only slightly increased above the value at design
load (169 against 155) and is far below the ultimate
moment of the section (256). Three interesting
consequences may be derived from this fact:
I. Because the overall safety of the structure is
not dependent upon the ultimate moment
near the supports, it is not necessary to dimen
sion the bottom flange of the concrete section
in this area to balance the ultimate capacity of
the prestressing tendons.
2. The global safety factor of the structure de
pends directly on the capacity of the sections
near midspan for both positive and negative
moments. The capacity for positive moments is
given by the continuity tendons placed in the
193 Shear and Design of Cross Section
bottom flange for service-load conditions. The
capacity for negative moments depends upon
the tendons placed at the top flange level to
overlap the cantilever tendons of the two indi
vidual cantilever arms. The magnitude of this
overlap prestress does not appear as a critical
factor when designing the structure for service
loads, yet it plays an important role in the ulti
mate behavior of the structure.
3. At ultimate load, it was shown that the areas of
the members close to the supports are sub
jected to moments only slightly in excess of de
sign load moments and in most cases below
cracking moments. No early failure due to
combined shear and bending is anticipated.
In long structures where hinges and expansion
joints are provided in certain spans, the same de
sign principles may be applied to analyze the ulti
mate capacity. Hinges represent singular points
through which the moment diagrams must go re
gardless of the loading arrangement under consid
eration. It was found that the optimum location of
the hinge with regard to ultimate safety is some
what different from the location allowing the best
control of long-term deflections. It may be of
interest therefore to move the hinge slightly to
ward the center of the span, which has a further
advantage of simplifying construction.
4.10 Shear and Design of Cross Section
-1.10,1 I,VTRODUCTION
Designing prestressed concrete members for shear
represents a challenging task for the engineer, be
cause there are many differences of opinion and
large variations in the requirements of the various
codes. In particular the ACI code and the
AASHTO specifications differ in several ways
from the FIP-CEB and other European codes.
It is common practice in many countries to de
sI(Tn reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete
/') .
members for shear by allowing the concrete to
carry a proportion of the shear loads while stirrups
(formerly in conjunction with inclined bars) carry
the rest. A complete agreement has not yet been
reached on this aspect of design for shear:
The French ('odes (CCBA, for example) allow
nothing to be taken by the concrete and the total
shear to be carried by the transverse steel, which is
certainly an overconservative approach. Obviously,
the beneficial effect of longitudinal compression
(either in columns subject to axial load or in pre
stressed members) is taken into account.
The recent FIP-CEB code allows some proportion
of the shear to be carried by the concrete.
ACI code allows a larger proportion of shear to
be carried by the concrete with a consequent sav
ings in stirrup requirements.
4.10.2 SHEAR TESTS OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE BEAMS
Tests were recently carried out in France in order
to increase the knowledge of this phenomenon,
both on simply reinforced concrete and on pre
stressed members.
4
Static tests on reinforced con
crete I beams showed that the steel stress in stir
rups increases linearly with the load and is three
times smaller than it would be if the concrete car
ried no shear, Figure 4.50. In this respect, all codes
are fully justified in taking the concrete into ac
count as a shear-carrying component.
However, dynamic testing on the same beams
showed a very different behavior. A cyclic load was
applied between one-third and two-thirds of the
ultimate static load for one million cycles, where
upon the beam was statically tested to failure, Fig
ure 4.51. Before cracking, the elastic behavior of
the homogeneous member kept the steel stress in
the stirrups very low. However, before 10,000 cy
cles, a crack pattern had appeared that remained
to the end of the test and became more and more
pronounced with a continuous increase of the in
clined crack width. Crack opening reached n- in.
(1.5 mm) at the end of the dynamic test. l\lost
probably stirrup rupture took place about 600,000
cycles, although the ultimate static capacity of the
Ii. P (tonn!;oS)
J
I
20
1
10
o
FIGURE 4.50. Stade test of reinforced concrete I
beam steel stress in stirrups.
194 Design of Segmental Bridges
.\
FIGURE 4.51. Dynamic test of reinforced concrete
I-beam web cracking and yariation of steel stress in stir
rups.
beam after dynamic testing was substantially the
same as for the other beams, which were tested
only under static loads. Such tests show that the
conventional approach of designing web rein
forcement for static loading with a large part of the
shear carried by the concrete may not provide ade
guate safety in the actual structures as soon as web
cracking is allowed to develop.
4.10.3 DIFFICUL71ES IN ACTUAL STRUCTURES
Another source of information is afforded by the
behavior of existing structures. Fortunately,
examples of difficulties imputable to shear in can
tilever box girder bridges are scarce. The authors
are aware of only two such contemporary exam
ples, which are summarized here for the benefit of
the design engineer.
The first example relates to a box girder bridge
dcck constructed by incremental launching and
shown in Figure 4.52. Permanent prestress was
achieved by straight tendons placed in the top and
boltom flanges, as required by the distribution of
moments. During launching an additional uniform
prestress was applied to the constant-depth single
box section, which produced an average compres
sive stress of 520 psi (3.60 MPa). l'\ear each pier
there was a vertical prestress designed to reduce
web diagonal stresses to allowable values.
During launching a diagonal crack appeared
through both webs between the blisters provided in
the box for anchorage of top and bottom prestress.
The corresponding shear stress was 380 psi (2.67
:\1Pa), and there was no vertical prestress in that
zone. The principal tensile stress at the centroid of
the section was 200 psi (1.40 MPa), which is far
below the cracking strength of plain concrete. In
fact, the webs of the box section were subjected to
additional tensile stresses due to the distribution of
the large concentrated forces of the top and bot:
tom prestress. Tbe truss analogy shown in Figure
4.52 indicates clearly that such tensile stresses are
superimposed on the normal shear and diagonal
stresses due to the applied dead load and may
therefore produce cracking. This could have been
prevented by extending the vertical prestress in the
webs further out toward midspan.
The second example concerns a cast-in-place
variable-depth double box girder bridge with
maximum span lengths of 400 1'1. Because the
bridge was subsequently intended to carry
monorail pylons, two intermediate diaphragms
were provided at the one-third and two-thirds
points of each span, as shown in Figure 4.53. Pre
stress was applied by straight tendons in the top
and bottom Hanges and vertical prestress in the
webs to control shear stresses. Diagonal cracking
was observed in the center web only near the in
termediate diaphragms with a maximum crack
opening of 0.02 in. (0.6 mm). Repair was easily ac
complished by adding vertical prestress after
grouting the cracks.
A complete investigation of the problems en
countered revealed that cracking was the result of
the superposition of several adverse effects, any
one of which was almost harmless if considered
separately: (1) The computation of shear stresses
failed to take into account the adverse effect (usu
ally neglected) of the vertical component of con
tinuity prestress in the bottom flange of a girder
with variable height. (2) The distribution of shear
stresses between the center and side webs was
made under the assumption that shear stresses
were equal in all three webs. In fact the center web
195 Shear and Design of Cross Section
LOAD I....
lSO'.,.. "n'on \' A NO VERTICAL PRESTRESS IN THAT ZONE
AVERAGE
COMPRESS:ON .. 1 HROUliH CRACK
520 p.l1
,. B01H WEBS
PARIIAL LOMGITUDIMAL SEOIOM
OIAGONAl TEHSIOH
OUE 10 PRESI RESS
(OISIRIBU1l0" '" WEB
TRUSS ANALOGY
TYPiCAl (ROSS SECTIOM A- A
FIGURE 4.52. Example of web cracking under application of high prestress forces.
( ct)
( .6)
FIGURE 4.53. Example of web cracking in a 400 ft span. (a) Typical cross
section. (b) Partial longitudinal section.
carries a larger proportion of the load, and shear Present design codes do not provide a consistent
stresses were underestimated for this web. (3) The margin of safety against web cracking when verti
vertical web prestress was partially lost into the in cal prestress is used. This margin decreases
tenllediate diaphragms, and the actual vertical significantly when the amount of vertical prestress
compressive stress was lower than assumed. (4) increases. In the present French code, the safety
196 Design of Segmental Bridges
factor against web cracking is 2 when no vertical
prestress is used and only 1.3 for a vertical pre
stress of 400 psi. (5) At present. vertical prestress is
usually applied with short threaded bars, and even
when equipped with a fine thread they are not
completely reliable unless special precautions are
taken under close supervision. Even a small anchor
sel significantlv reduces the prestress load, and il is
nOI unlikely that the actual prestress load is only
three-fourths or even two-thirds of the theoretical
prestress.
It should, however, be emphasized that the
difficulties mentioned above have led to progress
in this field, and the increase ill knowledge has en
sured that these examples remain rare exceptions.
Practically all existing box girder bridges have per
formed exceptionally well under the effects of
shear loads and torsional moments.
4.10.4 DESIGN OF LONGITUDINAL MEMBERS
FOR SHEAR
Tlte essential aspects of this important prohlem
are:
Dimensioning of the concrete section particulady
in terms of web thickness
Design of transverse and/or vertical prestress <llId
of conventional reinforcement
The two considerations are:
At the design stage (or, in modern code language,
serviceability limit state) prevent or control crack
ing so as to avoid corrosion and fatigue of rein
forcement.
At the ultimate stage (or load factor design concept
state or ultimate limit state) provide adequate
safety.
For the box sections used in cantilever bridges the
behavior under shear must be investigated:
In the webs.
At the connections between web and top flange (in
cluding the outside cantilevers) and web and bot
tom flange. Figures 4.54 and 4.55 show a suggested
method to compute shear loads and shear stresses.
Modern computer programs analyze the box
girder cross sections perpendicular to the neutral
axis and take into account all loads projected on
the neutral axis and the section. Equivalent results
(s)
Lt1HfIT/J.oINAl
Jr/ussu

I"
___ ....
(.6)
FIGURE 4.54. Computation of nel applied shear
load. (a) \'enical component of (Ii) Effect or
inclined hOllom flange (Resal effect). (r) !'\et she"r f01C(,.
She"r force due to applied loads /': deduct vcrtic:!I
compollent of draped tendolls = P sin 0'1: add yeni
cal compollent of cOlltinuity tendons + 1 P sin 0:
2
: de
duel Resal effeci = B tan f3; total is net applied
shear force = V,..
are obtained by cOllsidering stresses on sections
perpendicular 10 the top flange (which is usually
the orientation of joints between segments) and
projecting the loads 011 the section for determining
shear stresses. The total net shear force is the sum
of the following terms:
Shear force due to applied loads.
Reduction due to \'enical component of draped
tendons where used.
Increase due to indination ofcolltinuity tendons in
the bottom flange for variable-depth girders.
Reduction due to the inclined principal compres
sive stresses in the bottom flange (usually called the
Resal effect after the engineer who first studied
members of variable depth). Because the direction
of the principal stresses in the web is not fully de
termined, it is usual to neglect the added reduction
of shear force derived from web stresses.
Shear stresses may further be computed' from
shear force and torsion moment using the conven
tional elastic methoas.
Tests have shown that the presence of draped
tendon ducts in the webs, even if grouted after ten
sioning, changes the distribution of shear stresses.
To take this effect into account, it is suggested to
compute all shear stresses using a net web thickness
that is the actual thickness minus one-half the duct
197 Shear and Design of Cross Section
b'
b' Gross web thickness
d diameter of duct
(a)
FIGURE 4.55. Computation of shear stress. Typical box section:
net web thickness b = &' - shear stress due to shear force Va net
applied ,hear load = v V" .Qi[(Il;) 'f], where Q = statical moment at
centroid, b = net web thickness, f = gross moment of inertia, V" net
applied shear load; shear stress due to the LOrsion moment = v
C/(2b5), where C = torsion moment, & = net web thickness, 5 = area
of the middle closed box. Note: check the shear stress at centroid level.
diameter. Ducts for vertical prestress need not be
taken into account because they are smaller and
parallel to the vertical stirrups, which compensates
for the possible small effect of the prestress ducts.
Web-thickness dimensioning depends upon the
magnitude of shear stress in relation to the state of
compressive stress. In the case of monoaxial com
pression (only longitudinal prestress and no verti
cal prestress) the diagonal principal tensile stress
must be below a certain limit to insure a proper
and homogeneous margin of safety against web
cracking with its resulting long-term damaging ef
fects. Figure 4..56 suggests numerical values based
'01 the latest state of the art that are believed to be
realistic and safe. Numerical values for allowable
shear stresses under design loads are given in Fig
ures 4.57 and 4.58 for 5000 and 6000 psi concrete.
Web thickness must therefore be selected in the
various sections along the span to keep shear
stresses within such allowable values. It may be
that construction requirements or other factors
make it desirable to accept higher shear stresses.
It is necessary in this case to use vertical prestress
to create a state of biaxial compression. Figure
the horizontal compression due to prestress is par
tially lost. In fact, if both horizontal and vertical
compressive stresses are the direc
tion of the principal stress is given by (3 = 45
0
as in
(a)
(b)
4.56h indicates the corresponding procedure.
The vertical compressive stress must be at least 2.5
times the excess of shear stress above the value
for monoaxial compression.
When vertical prestress is used, the beneficial ef
fect of increasing the length of the horizontal com
ponent of the potential crack in the web created by
FIGURE 4.56. Allowable shear stress for mono- and
biaxial compression in box girders. (0) Monoaxial com
pression: allowable shear stress v = 0.05J;. +
corresponding diagonal tension = Jp given by v
2
= Jp(f,r +
Jp). (&) Biaxial compression: allowable shear stress = v =
0.05J:. + 0.20J,r + OAOJu; corresponding diagonal ten
sion = given by v:! VI + Jp) (jIJ +Jp).
198
Design of Segmental Bridges

l------1,--

V/ndX
k'O/,?I1!<7A'TAL C17/fI"/'?ESSIY STrlESS
,r,:;
/" if"')
FIGURE 4.57. AII()wable shear stresses f()} ,j; = :)000
IN.
FIGURE 4.58. AlIO\\'ablc shear stresses forr: 6000
psi.
ordinary reinforced concrete. If a higher vertical
stress is used, a crack with f3 > 45 could develop,
with a consequent reduction of the horizontal
length over which concrete and reinforcement
must carry the total shear. To prevent such a situa
tion, it is deemed preferable to use a vertical com
pressive stress not greater than the longitudinal
compressive stress,I!J < Ix.
Finally, considering present knowledge on the
behavior of prestressed concrete beams under high
shear stresses, it is not recommended that shear
stresses higher than a limiting \'alue of 1OV'];, be
accepted prior to careful investigation based Oil
'fi ' I h
speC! c expenmenta researc ,
In this respect, a very interesting case arose for
the construction of the Brotonne Viaduct in
France (described in Chapter 9), where an excep
tionally long span called for minimum weight and
consequently high concrete stresses. The most
critical condition for shear stresses developed in
the 8 in. (0.20 m) webs near the piers of the ap
proach spans, where a maximum shear stress of
640 psi (4.5 MPa)'was accepted together with an
unusuall\' low longitudinal compression stress of
500 psi (3.45 J\.lPa). Vertical prestress was used in
this case. The chan for a 6000 psi concrete, Figure
4.58, would give:
In monoaxial state wilblr 500 psi, V = 400 psi.
In biaxial state with./ = 550 psi, V 620 psi, \\'bich
u
is suhstantially equal to the actual shear stress of'
640 psi.
A test was conducted to stud"
;
the behavior of the
precast prestressed web panels in the normal de
load stage and up to failure, 4.59. Re
suits are shown in Figure 4.60. The ultimate
capacity of the web was very large and probably far
in excess of the needs. I t is believed that web
PLAN VIEW
lRANSVERSE 5EClION
FIGURE 4.59. Brotonne Viaduct, test set-up for pre
cast web panels.
199 Joints Between Match-Cast Segments
Slr!',\SfS al dPlign Ilage (approach viaducl):
Horizontal compressive stress 500 psi
Vertical compressive stress 550 psi
Shear stress 640 psi
RfSlI/l.\ or lell at rupturi':
\iormal Load 630 I
840
1.3
Clrimale ,hear H4:0 I
Horizontal compressive stress 1650 p,i
Vertical compressive Slrcss . 580 psi
Shear s l n ~ s s (elastic theorv) ,33()O psi
uniform 2200 psi
JOilll dC'ilron:d and multiple kc\'s shcarcd
011. Panels illlaCI.
FIGURE 4.60. Brotolll1e Viaduct, results of precast
web P;lIlCI t e s t ~ .
cracking control can be obtained onIv bv proper
stress limits at the design load level.
Whcn designing longitudinal bridge members
for shear. another important factor remains to be
considered, which has sometimes heen meriooked
by inexperienced designers. It concerllS longitudi
llal shear stresses developillg between the webs and
the top and bottom flanges as. shown in Figure
4.61. When web stress<.:s ha\'e been verified at the
level of the celltroid, it is not necessan to make a
detailed stud\' at other points of the web lsuch as
levels (d) and (e)l, although the principal tensile
stress Ilear the pier may be slightly higher at point
(d) than at the cel1ler of gravity. 011 the other
hand. to keep the integrity of the box girder, it is
very important to \'erifv that shear and diagonal
stresses ill sections (a), (b), and (c) are within the
/"
/"
FIGURE 4.61. L[)ngitudinal silear between web and
(bnges.
same allowable values as set forth previously for
the webs and that a proper amount of reinforcing
steel crosses each section.
This leads to the design of transverse reinforce
ment ill the cross section to resist shear stresses.
According to the provisions of the ACI Code and
the AASHTO specifications, the web shear steel
requirements are controlled by the ultimate stage.
The net ultimate shear force is given by the fol
lowing formula, based on the current partial load
factors:
where V u = net shear force at ultimate stage,
VD/, actual shear force due to the effect
of all dead loads, including the re
duction due to \'ariable depth where
applicable,
V
u
, = shear force due to live loads in
cluding impact.
Vf> = unfactored vertical component o!
prestress where applicable.
Effects of temperature gradients' and volume
changes are usually small ill terms of shear load
and may be neglected except in rigid frames. On
the contrary, shear due to moment redistribution
and secondary effects of continuity prestress must
be illcluded. A partial safety factor on material
properties is applied to the ultimate load state.
4.11 Joints Between Match-Cast Segments
Joints between match-cast segments are usually
tilled with a thin la\er of epoxy to carry normal
and shear stresses across the joint. In the earlv
strllcwres, a single key was provided in each web of
the box girder to obtain the same relative positioll
between segments in the casting yard and in the
structure after transportation and placing. This
kev was also used to transfer the shear stresses
across the joint before polvmerization of the
epoxy, which has substantially no shear strength
before hardening. Figure 4.62 summarizes rhe
force system in relation to a typical segment both
Juring erection and in the completed structure.
Provisional assemblv of a new segment to the
previously completed part of the structure is usu
ally achieved by stressing top (and sometimes bot
tom) longitudinal tendons, which inducc forces FI
(and F2)' The resultant F of FI + F2 resolves with
the segment weight W into a resultant R. The verti
cal component ofR can be balanced only by a reac
200 Design of Bridges
F1
I
Fl
p

2
(a) ,w
D lAIL
\ .
(b)
FIGURE 4.62. Typical scgment in relation to the forcc system. (0) Provisional assembly
of segment(s). (iJ) Segmcllt(s) ill the structure.
tion such as R I given by the inclined face of the key,
while the balance of the normal force is R
z
which
produces a distribution of longitudinal compres
sive stresses. In the finished structure, all normal
and. shear stresses are naturally carried through
the joints by the epoxy material, which has com
pressive and shear strengths in excess of the seg
melll concrete.
A series of interesting tests were performed for
the construction of the Rio- Niteroi Bridge in Brazil
to verify the structural behavior of epoxy joints
bet ween match-cast segments. A I -to-6 scale model
was built and tested to represent a typical deck
span near the support and the corresponding
seven segments as shown in Figure 4.63.
ELEVATION
A crack pattern developed in the web when the
test load was increased above design load, as shown
in Figure 4.64. The epoxy joints had no influence
on the continuity of- the web cracks, and the be
havior of the segmental structure up to ultimate
was exactly the same as that of a monolithic struc
ture. Failure occurred for concrete web crushing
when the steel stress in the stirrups reached the
yield point. The corresponding shear stress was
970 psi (6.8 MPa) for a mean concrete cylinder
strength of 4200 psi (29.5 MPa).
The first bending crack had previously occurred
for a load equal to 93 percent of the computed
cracking load, assuming a tensile bending strength
of 550 psi (3.9 MPa). Otber tests \vere performed
DETAIL or JOINT
f--- .... 40.00

FIGURE 4.63. Rio-Niteroi Bridge, partial e1evatioll and joint detail.
201 Joints Between Match-Cast Segments
Rio-Niteroi Bridge, web crack pattern at ultimate in model test.
!, .
r -
I
i'
, "
.. ,' .
.... - -... ......... .
. :'"
' ..
":-:-: -0
FIGURE 4.64.
in order to study the transfer of diagonal principal
compressive stresses across
shown in Figure 4,65,
(,,)
PRISMATIC
(b)
FIGURE 4.65. Rio-Niteroi Bridge. test specimens for
web, (a) Crack panel'll in web and related test specimen.
(b) Actual test specimens.
tpe segment joints as
Prismatic test specimens
/
PRISMATIC
WITH KEYS
were prepared, some with and some without shear
keys across the joint, and tested for variolls values
of/3. the angle between the principal stress and the
neutral axis or the girder. In the case of the Rio
Bridge the value of /3 is between 30 and
35, For a reinforced concrete structure /3 = 45.
A preliminary test showed that the epoxy joint
had an efficiency of 0.92 as compared to a
IIlonolithic specimen with no joint (ratio between
the ultimate load P on the prismatic specimen with
an epoxv joint and with a monolith specimen). For
various directions of the joint the results are as
follows:
0 30" 60
/3
Efficiency 0.94 0.98 0.70
It can be seen that for values of /3 smaller than 45
(which covers the entire field of prestressed con
crete members) the compressive strength is hardly
affected by the presence of the inclined joint. All
these tests confirmed earlier experimental studies
to show that epoxy joints are safe provided that
proper material quality together with proper mix
ing and application procedures are constantly ob
tained.
Several early incidents in France, and some more
recently in the United States, have shown that
these conditions are not always achieved. The logi
cal step in the development and improvement of
epoxy joints was therefore to relieve the epoxv of
202 Design of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 4.67. Precast segment \"ith multiple keys.
(.6)
FIGURE 4.68. Design of deck cross section. (a) Typi
cal loading on cross section. (b) Free-body diagram.
any structural function. The multiple-key (or
castellated-joint) design embodies this concept and
provides for simplicity, safety, and cost savings.
Webs and flanges of the box section are provided
with a large number of small interlocking keys de
signed to carryall stresses across the joint with no
structural assistance from the resin. Figure 4.66
shows the comparison between the structural be
havior of an early joint with a single web key and a
joint with multiple keys, assuming that the epoxy
resin has improperly set and hardened. It is nmN
recommended that multiple keys be used in all pre
cast segmental projects, as shown in Figure 4.67.
\Vith the current dimensions used for depth and
height of multiple keys, the overall capacity of the
joint is far in excess of the required minimum to
transfer diagonal stresses safely up to the ultimate
load state.
i
Potential J I
It=
plane, '- / Fo
I '
,,(/)
"
'-
:
(b)
FIGURE 4.66. Joint between match-cast segments,
comparison between single- and multiple-key concepts.
(aJ
4.12 Design of Superstructure Cross Section
The typical cross section of a box girder deck is a
closed frame subjected to the following loads; Fig
ure 4.68:
Girder weight of the various components (top and
bottom flanges, webs)
Superimposed loads essentially applied to the top
flange (barrier, curbs and pavement) and some
times to the bottom flange, as when utilities are in
stalled in the box girder
Live loads applied on the deck slab
A tvpical box girder element limited by two parallel
cross sections, Figure 4.68b, is in equilibrium be
cause the applied loads are balanced by the dif
ference between shear stresses at the two limiting
sections. To design the typical cross section the as-.
sumption is usually made t.hat the shape of tbe sec
tion remains unchanged and that the closed frame
may be designed as resting on immovable supports
such as A and B. Bending moments are created in
the various sections of the frame due to the applied
loads. Maximum moments occur in the deck slab
due to live loads in sections such as (a), (1)), and (0.
(d)
203 Special Problems in Superstructure Design
Because the wehs are usually much stiffer than the
flanges and the side-deck slab cantilevers and the
center-deck slab between wehs are huilt into the
webs, most of the deck-slah moments are trans
ferred to the weh, with a maximum value in section
(d) at the connection between web and top flange.
In bridges where transverse or vertical prestress or
both are used, the design of the deck cross section
is not greatlv affected by the that moments and
normal forces computed in the frame superimpose
their effects on the shear stresses due to longitudi
nal bending mentioned in Section 4.lO.
The case is more critical when only conventional
transverse reinforcing steel is used in both flanges
and webs. A common method, based on experi
ence, is to compute the steel area required on
either face at critical sections such as (a) through
(e), showl! in Figure 4.68, for the following:
1. Shear stresses ill the longitudinal members.
2. TLlllsverse bending of the frame.
The minilllulll amollnt of steel should Ilot be less
thall the larger of the followiilg:
item I pillS olle-hal r of Item 2,
item 2 plus one-hair of item 1, or
0.7 limes the slim of item I and item 2.
4.13 Special Problems in Superstructure Design
All design aspects covered ill the preceding sec
tions pertain to the design of deck members for
bending and shear regardless of the local problems
encountered O\er the piers or abutments and at
intermediate expansion joints when required. This
section will now deal with such local problems,
which are of great practical importance.
.f./3./ DI'IPHR.-JGMS
It \V,IS mentioned in Section 4.6 that the combined
capacities of the deck slab in bending and the box
girder in torsion allow a verv satisfactory trans
verse distribution of live loads between girders in
the case of multiple box girder decks. It has there
fore been common practice to eliminate all trans
vel'se diaphragms between box girders except over
the ab'ulments. Diaphragms inside the box section
are slill required over the intermediate piers in
most projects.
4.132 SUPERSTRUCTURE OVER PIERS
The simplest case is exemplified in Figure 4.69,
where a deck of constant depth rests upon the pier
cap with bearings located under the web of the box
girder. The reaction is transferred directly from
the web to the bearings, and there is need only for
a simple inside diaphragm designed to transfer the
shear stresses, due to possible torsion moments, to
the substructure. A more complicated situation
arises when the bearings are offset with regard to
the webs, Figure 4.70. Reinforcing and possibly
prestressing must be provided ill the cross section
immediately above the pier to fullfill the following
I'll nctions:
Suspend all sheal' stresses carried by the web under
point A, where a 45 line starting at the bearing
edge illtersects the web centerline (hatched area in
the shear diagralll).
Balance the moment (R . d) induced by the bear
ing offset.
Looking at other schemes, we find that decks of
variable depth pose several challenging prohlems.
Figure 4.71 shows an elevation of a box girder
resting on twin bearings designed to improve the
rigidity of the pier-to-deck connection and con
sequently reduce the bending llloments in the
deck, which will be described in greater detail in
Chapter 5.
When the loading arrangement is symmetrical in
the two spans, the transfer of the deck
reaction into the piers through the four bearings is
just as simple as for the case shown in Figure 4.69.
:\[atters look very difficult for an unsymmetrical
loading condition either in the completed struc
ture, Figure 4.71. or during construction, Figure
4.72. Let us assume that the total deck reaction is
transferred to the pier through one line of bearings
only (for example, HI in Figure 4.7 I, for an excess
of load in the left span). The compression C
2
car
ried by the bottom flange at the right is no longer
balanced by the corresponding reaction R
2
, and an
abrupt change in the system of internal forces re
sults in a large vertical tensile force T
2
, which has to
be suspended on the total width of the box section
by special reinforcement or prestress. In long-span
structures, these local effects are of no small mag
nitude. Taking the example of a 40 ft (12 m) wide
box with a 20 ft (6 m) wide hottom flange and a
span of 300 ft (90 Ill), the load carried by the bot
tom flange will probably be around 3000 t (2720
mt) and the angle change above the right bearing
204
4,65 ________.. _'_.'_ j.
ben rlngs
Design of SegmeJ}tal Bridges
t
o
o
'"
---i
'e
_*
-+-___---..:3:..:.,00 2.25
SECTlO.'\ A-A SECTION C-C
FIGURE 4.69. Picr segment for deck of constant ckpt h and simple SllppOlI.
.JJISTA/EtlTJIJN OF ,fNEAP.
J"TAESSES IN WELlS
FIGURE 4.70. Deck over piers \\'ith offset bearings.
ahout 10 percent. The corresponding unbalanced
load is therefore 300 t (272 mt), and this is more
than enough to split the pier segment along the
section between the web and the bottom flange if
proper consideration has not been given to the
problem with respect to design and detailing.
Tbe situation may be even more critical during
cOllstruction, Figure 4.72, if the unbalanced mo
ment induces uplift in one of the two bearings. The
load of the anchor rods (2) has to be added 10 the
unbalanced load resulting from the angle change
of tbe bottom Hange.
The diaphragm systems shown in Figures 4.71
and 4.72 are of the fl type where botb inclined
diapbragm walls intersect at the top flange level.
Any unsymmetrical moment that produces a ten
sion force in the top Hange T and a compressioll
force in the bottom flange may tbus he balanced by
l1ormalloads sucb as F) and C
j
, Figure 4.71, witb
no secondary bending. In tbis respect, tben, it is a
satisfactory scheme. Detailing may, however, be
difficult because of the concentration of rein
forcement or prestress tendon ancbors in the top
flange area, whicb usually is already overcrowded
witb longitudinal tendon ducts. A simple and more
practical design, although less satisfactory from a
tbeoretical point of view, is to provide vertical
diaphragms above tbe bearings. This is the logical
choice wben the deck is rigidly connected with a
205
Deflections of Cantilever Bridges and Camber Design
Neoprene bearings
FIGURE 4.71. Deck of variable (/t:pth, permanent
deck-to-pier bearing arrangemenl.
box pier and where the pier walls are continued in
the deck, as showll in Figure Here again the
transfer of all svmmetricalloads hetween deck and
pier is simple, and design difficulties arise for un
symmetrical loading. At the connecting points :l
and 8, Figure -1.73. between the top flange and the
vertical diaphragms, the part of the top flange ten
sion load T such as Tl induces into the diaphragm
another tension load and both loads result in an
unbalanced diagonal component T:
l
, which must be
resisted both bv the webs and bv special provisions
such as stiffening beams.
C/.1 J.3 EXD (1BLTJIE.VTS
A special segment will be provided at both ends of
the bridge deck with a solid diaphragm to transfer
torsional stresses to the bearings. as shown in Fig
ure 4.74. The expansion joint is, therefore. ade
quately supported by the end diaphragm on one
side and the abutment wall on the other side.
4.13.4 EXPANSION10l,VT AND fllNGE Sr:GMHNT
The expansion joints required at intermediate
points in very long structures need a special
ment to transfer the reaction between the two sides
of the deck, When the expansion joint is located
close to the point of contraflexure there is no pro
vision for any uplift force, even with a load factor
on the live loading.
The hinge segment is therefore made up of two
half-segments, as shown in Figure 4.75:
The bearing half (reference A), which is connected
by prestress to the shorter part of the span
The carried half (reference B), connected by pre
stress to the longer part of the span
Measures are taken to continue cantilever con
struction through the hinge segment until closure
is achieved at midspan: see Section 4.S.6.
Inclined diaphragms provide an efficient way to
suspend or transfer the reaction through the
bearings into the flanges and webs on both sides 0\
the box section, Figure 4.75.
One of the largest structures incorporating a hinge
segment of this type is the Saint Cloud Bridge, de
scribed in Section 3.12. A typical detail of this seg
ment is shown in Figure 4.76.
4.14 Deflections of Cantilever Bridges and
Camber Design
Each cantilever arm consists of several segments.
fabricated, installed. and loaded at differem poims
in time. It is important therefore to predict accll
ratelv the deflection curves of the val'iolls cantile
vers so as to provide adequate camber either in the
fabrication plant for precast segmcmal construc
tion or for a<ie(lu<lte adjustment of the form travel
ers for cast-in-place construction.
When the structure is staticallv determinate, the
cantilever arm deflections are due to:
The concrete girder weight
The weight of the travelers or the segmel1l placing
equipment
The cantilever prestress
After continuity between individual cantilevers is
achieved, the structure becomes statically indeter
minate and continues to undergo additional
deflections for the following reasons:
206 Design Qf Seg11Jental Bridges
@
I

'-. ..._ .._- \_
FIGURE 4.72. Tcmporan' pier and deck conllection.
Continuity prestress I. Cantilever arms.
Removal of travelers or segment placing eqUIp 2. Short-term continuous deck.
ment
3. Long-term continuous deck.
Removal of provisional supports and release of
deck to pier connections
It has already been mentioned that the concrete
Placing of superimposed loads modulus of elasticity varies both with [he age at the
time of first loading and with the duration of the
Subsequent long-term deflections due to con load (see Section 4.8.7). Deflections of types 2 and
crete creep and prestress losses will also take place. 3 above are easily accommodated by chant,ring the
Compensation for the following three types of theoretical longitudinal profile by the corre
deflections must be provided for by adequate sponding amount in each section to offset exactly
camber or adjustment: all future deflections. A more delicate problem is to
207
Deflections of Cantilever Bridges and Camber Design
FIGURE 4.73. Pier sl')-\"Illl'111 I"il h \lTtical diaphragms.
accurately predict and adequatelv follow the
deHections of the individual cantilever arms
construction. It is necessary to analyze each con
struction stage and to determine the deflection
curve of the successive cantilever arms as construc
tion proceeds, step by step. A simple case with a
five-segment cantilever is shown in 4.77.
The broken line represents the envelope of the
various cleHection curves or the space trajectory
followed by the cantilever tip at each construction

By changing the relative angular positions of the
various segments bv small angles, such as 0'"
-0'2, and so on, the cantilever should be assembled
to its final length with a satisfactorv longitudinal
profile as shown in Figure 4.78, for the simple case
considered. The practicalities of this important
problem are covered in Sections IIA and 11.6.
2.00
A
T 2.25
Sl::CTlO\" A-A SECTlONC-C
O!
."
N!
i
I
--t
FIGURE 4.74. Outline of end segment over abut
SECTION B-B
ment.
208 Design of Segmental Bridges
SECTlO:-< A-A
1.50
S.ECTIOl' C-C
B- 8
FIGURE 4.75. 1-1 illge segml'llt wilh l'xpansiolljoilli.
COUPE A.A
COUPE B.B ELEVATION
4.oof
_..
r-
r-
F

0
'" ,..;
..
Ii _ r' . \ibussoir porleu r
'-r
2.55
FIGURE 4.76. Saint Cloud Bridge, hinge segment with expansion joint.
It is interesting to compare the relative impor culational assumptions given in Figure 4.79 indi
tance of deflections and camber for cast-in-place cate that in most cases the difference would be
and precast construction. Figure 4.79 shows values even more significant if a cast-in-place cycle of less
for an actual structure, where computations have than one week were employed and if precast seg
been made for the two different methods. The cal- ments wel'e stored for more than two weeks. How
5EGMENTS N" Segments N"
OF
....
tr
g
::>
'"
2 3 4
21
---
3
"-
"
"
S
ENVELOPE
'"
CURVES.
(5
a.
a.
::>
V>
,
4
'\,
4.4
\
\
\
\
\
,
\
,
,
FIGURE 4.78. Choice and control of camber.
\
\
\
\
\
\!
\
I
FIGURE 4.77. Deflections of a typical cantilever.
1.1.1
....

o
LI d
CROWN
d -2
d -22
d+6
d+24

A SSUJI,IPTIO::-;S
PRECAST Casting one segment per day
Placing two segments par day
STRUCTURE
Segments at least 2 weeks old for placing
:
, one segment per week
Prestressing: 30 days after casting
-+---1--------=--d----,---1-4-
d ..10 d+11 d+ 12
d ... 26 d .. 27 id+27

"-I
01
1.1.11
... 1

01
FIGURE 4.79. Comparison of deAections between precast and cast in place structures.
209
210 Design of Segmental Bridges
ever, one would normally expect a cast-in-place
cantilever arm to resist deflections two or three
times greater than the precast equivalent.
4.15 Fatigue in Segmental Bridges
Basically, prestressed concrete resists dvnamic and
cyclic loadings very well. Eugene Frevssinet dem
onstrated this fact tift" years ago. He tested two
identical telegraph poles under dynamic loading.
Olle was of reinforced concrete and the other of
prestressed concrete; both were designed for the
same loading conditions. The reinforced concrete
member failed after a few thousand cycles. while
the prest ressed concrete memher sllstained the
d\'l1<llllic load indefinitely (sc\'eral million cycles).
Fatigue in concrete itself has never been a prob
lem in ;111\ known structure. hecause a variation of
compressive stress in concrete may be supported
indefinitel\'. When reference is made to fatigue in
prestressed concrete, it is alwa\'s inferred that
problel11s arise in t he prest ressing steel or
convelltional reinforcing steel as a result of crack
ing due either to bending or to shear. If cracking
could be avoicled in prestressed concrete struc
tures. the fatigue problem would he completely
eliminated.
b1
2' 0.4
0.20
Figure 4.80 shows the resistance to fatigue of
prestressing strands currently used in prestressed
concrete structures. The diagram shows tl}e limit
of stress variation causing fatigue failure versus the
mean stress in the prestressing steel. For come
nience. both values are expressed as a ratio with
respect to the ultimate tensile strength. For a steel
stress of 60% of the ultimate the acceptable range
of variation is of the ultimate for a number of
ncles between 1()6 and 10
7
Lsing. for example,
270 ksi qualit\' this variation is therefore
22,000 psi or a total range of 44.000 psi.
Because dvo<ul.lic loading on a bridge is of a
short-term nat ure, the concrete lI10dulus is high
and the ratio hetweell steel and concrete moduli is
of the order of 5. Consequentlv, the maximum
concrete stress ill an lIncnlcked section that would
cause a fatigue failure would he 44,000/5 1-\1-\00
psi, a \'alue which is probablv tell tillles the stress
\'arialion under design live loads in highway box
girder hridges, All uncrackcd prestressed concrete
strucillre is therefore cOl11pletcl\ safe \\ith respect
to Llligue, regardless of the magnitude of li\T
loads. A limited allloullt of cracking, although (011
sidered unadvisahle frolll a corrosioll poilll of
view, is 110t critical if kept under control.
Tests and experience show that a grouted pre
stressing tendoll can transfer hOlld st I'esses lip to
Stress variation
causing failure
fs Afs
FIGURE 4.80. Resistance to fatigue of prestressing strands.
211 Fatigue in Segmental Bridges
5'00 psi to the surrounding concrete. Taking the
example of a typical (twelve ~ in. diameter strand)
tendon with an outside diameter of 2.5 in. (64
mm), a stress variation of 40,000 psi in the steel
produces a tendon force variation of 73,000 lb (33
mt), and the bond development length across a
crack is then 73,000/(500 x 2.5 x 7T) = 18 in. (0046
m), see Figure 4.81. The corresponding crack
width is equal to the elongation of the pre
stressing steel between points A and B with the
triangular stress diagram-that is, 40 ksi over an
average length of 18 in., or
= E ~ = ~ 0 6 . 0 0 0 x 18 = 0.028 in. (0.7 mm)
A safe crack width limit of 0.015 in. (0.4 mm) can
be accepted to eliminate the danger of fatigue in
the prestressing steel. In fact, instances of fatigue
in segmental structures are extremely few and far
between.
An isolated case has been reported of a bridge in
Dusseldorf, Germany, where failure occurred as a
result of fatigue of prestressing bars. The cast-in
place structure was prestressed with high-strength
bars coupled at every construftion joint. After ten
years of service, ajoint opened up to ~ in. (10 mm)
and caused bar failures at the couplers. All investi
gation revealed that a bearing had frozen and pre
vented the structure from following the longitudi
nal movements due to thermdl variations. This
accidental restraint induced high tensile stresses in
the concrete and caused cracking, which first ap
peared in the construction joints precisely where
bar couplers were located. The live-load stress level
in the prestressing steel increased from 850 psi (6
eFlAe",.
1!ucr
FIGURE 4.81. Fatigue in prestressing steel across a
cracked section.
MPa) for the previously uncracked section to
14,000 psi (96 MPa) for the cracked section and
induced failure in the bars. A recommendation was
made as a result of this fatigue problem that coup
lers should be moved at least 16 in. (0040 m) away
from the construction joints and that reinforcing
steel should be provided through the joints if
practical. Another sensitive factor relating to
fatigue in web reinforcing steel was mentioned in
Section 4.10.2 for reinforced concrete test beams.
No such danger would exist in prestressed con
crete if shear and diagonal stresses were kept
within the limits that control web cracking.
In conclusion, fatigue in prestressed concrete is
not a potential danger if design and practical con
struction take into account a few simple rules:
1. Avoid bending cracks in girders by allowing no
tension or only a limited amount at either top
or bottom fibers for normal maximum loads,
such as the combination of dead loads, pre
stressing, and design live loads including mo
ment redistribution and half the temperature
gradient.
2. Avoid web cracking by keeping diagonal ten
sile stresses within allowable limits by proper
web thickness and possibly vertical prestress.
3. Design and maintain bearings and expansion
joints that allow free volume changes in decks.
Temperature stresses that cannot be COIl
trolled can give rise to enormous forces that
may either tear the deck apart or destroy the
piers and abutments. 111 this respect, elas
tomeric bearings, which work by distortion and
cannot freeze, are safer than friction bearings.
which are more easily affected by dust and
weathering of the contact surfaces.
Insofar as crack control in segmel1lal structures
is concerned. it is usually felt in Europe that exces
sive concrete cover over the reinforcing steel and
prestress tendons does not prevent corrosion but
merely increases the crack width.3 For example.
the typical 2 in. (50 mm) cover commonly used in
bridge decks in the United States is considered ex
treme in Europe. The 4 in. (100 mm) cover for
concrete exposed to sea water would be a complete
surprise to European engineers.
Several examples of common practice in seg
mental bridges are given as a simple comparative
reference in Table 4.2.
212
Design of Segmental Bridges
TABLE 4.2. Concrete Cover to Reinforcing Steel
and Prestress Tendons in Europe
Concrete cover
(in.) Descri ption
Germa.n,'"
H to 2 Reinforcing steel
H
Outside exposure, tendons
H
Inside exposure, tendons
France
Transverse reinforcing steel
Longitudinal reinforcing
steel or tendons
(normal atmosphere)
2 Corrosive atmosphere
(salt water)
IVetherlands
H
Reinforcing steel and tendons
(normal exposure)
H Lightweight concrete
2 to Salt water exposure
4.16 Provisions for Future Prestressing
For larger segmental bridges, it may be necessary
to modify the prestress forces after construction.
An example would be a bridge built using can
tilever construction where positive-moment (con
tinuity) tendons are added after erection. Or, as
discussed in Section 4.8.6, some tendons may be
released to articulate a joint. In addition to these
adjustments immediately after construction, addi-.
tional prestressing may be required at a later date
to correct for unanticipated creep deflection or for
additional loads such as for a new wearing surface.
In Europe on some bridges spare tendon ducts are
provided for this reason. A reasonable assumption
would be to provide for 5 to 10% of the total pre
stress force for possible future addition.
Since the tendon anchorages for the spare ducts
are inside the box girder and generally located at
the web-flange fillet, they are readily accessible. If
future prestressing is needed, it is only necessary to
insert the required tendon in the duct,jack it to its
designed load, anchor and grout it. Since all this
work can be done inside a box girder, it is not nec
essary to interrupt traffic, and the workmen are
fully protected.
3
4.17 Design Example
The Houston Ship Channel Bridge now under
construction in Texas, U.S.A., is an outstanding
example of segmental construction and represents
the longest box girder bridge in the Americas as of
this writing. Typical dimensions were given in Sec
tion 2.14. This section will deal with some design
aspects of this prestressed concrete
bridge.
4.17.1 LONGITUDINAL BESDING
Each of the four identical cantilever arms is made
up of:
Ten segments 8 ft long (maximum weight 415
kips)
Six segments 12 ft long (maximum weight 464
kips)
Thirteen segments 15 ft long (maximum weight
457 kips)
Longitudinal tendons are as follows:
Cantilever tendons: 42 (nineteen 0.6 in. dia
strands) + 50 (twelve 0.6 in. dial. Twelve addi
tional bars used during construction are incorpo
rated in the permanent prestress system.
Continuity tendons in side sfmns: 20 (twelve 0.6 in.
dial.
Continuity tendons in crnter span: 40 (twelve 0.6 in.
dial.
A typical layout of the cross section was given in
Figure 2.82. _
The main loading combinations considered in
the design are summarized in Table 4.3. The lon-
TABLE 4.3. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, Main
Design Load Combinations
Allowable
Load
ing Case Description
Tension on
Extreme
Fiber, Top
or Bottom
(ks!)
(1) (G) + (P) + (E)
(2) (D) + (P) + (L + 1)
(3) (D) + (P) + (L + 1) + H
(4) (D) + (P) + !(L + 1) + (
(5) (D) + (P) + (W)
C!.T) + (T)
C!.T) + (T)
0
0
25
25
25
Notations: (C) girder load, (D) total dead load including
superimposed dead load, (L + I) live load plus impact, (P) pre
stress, (E) construction equipment, (tlT) temperature gradient
of 18"F between {Op and bottom fiber, (Tl temperature and vol
ume changes, (W) wind load on structure.
Concrete strength and stresses: 6000 psi 864 ksf (42.1
MPa).
Basic allowable compressive stress: = 346 ksf (l6.8MPa).
213
Design Example
gitudinal bending of the box girder has been
analyzed using the Be program, which considers
the effects of the creep, shrinkage, and relaxation
at each construction phase. Figure 4.82 shows the
diagram of prestress forces due to cantilever and
continuity tendons at two different dates:
After completion of the structure and opening to
traffic (780 days after start of deck casting)
After relaxation and creep have taken place (4000
days)
Significant values of the prestress forces are given
in Table 4.4. The variation of stresses in the center
and side spans is shown in the following diagrams
for the corresponding loading cases:
Figures 4.83 and 4.84, all dead loads and prestress
at top and bottom fibers
Figures 4.85 and 4.86, live load and temperature
gradient at top and bottom fibers
It is easily shown from these diagrams that all
stresses in the various sectipns are kept within
the allowable values mentioned in Table 4.3. The
!..ONGITUD!p..j.AL PRf5TRE"5SING: A;&:IAl FORCE
(KIP)
GOODO \(;1>
C"''''TIL[VtR PAESiRES!oIIolG(TlHf 7eo D"Y5)

[TIME -4000 OAY!


195 '
375 FT
II
SEGHENT (B'):; 415 K. (ISEI mt)
4b4 K.
l''') , 457 K. ('1.07 mt)
Of ONE" TRA.lJtI..[,R : K. (1.04 mk)
FIGURE 4.82. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, typical
segment layout and longitudinal prestress.
TABLE 4.4. Houston Ship Channel Bridge,
Significant Values of Prestress Forces
Day Day Percent
Prestress Force (kips) 780 4000 Loss
Maximum cantilever 54,710 51,310 6.2
prestress in side
span
Maximum cantilever 54,390 49,280 9.4
prestress in center
span
:Ylaxirnum continuity 9,540 8,760 8.2
prestress in side
span
:'vlaxirnum continuitv 18,130 16,780 7.5
prestress in center
span
maximum compressive stress at the bottom fiber
level appears in the section located 124 ft from the
pier and is equal to 335 ksf under the combined
effect of all dead and live loads and prestress.
4.17.2 REDISTRIBUTION OF l'vlOMENTS
The exceptional size of the structure gives rise to a
moment redistribution of particular importance.
The Be program allows a complete analysis of the
behavior of the structure under the separate and
combined effects of loads and prestress; also the
effect of concrete creep and steel relaxation can be
considered separately.
Figure 4.87 shows the variation of stresses at top
and bottom fibers along the center span between
days 780 and 4000, which correspond to bridge
opening date and the time when materials will have
stabilized (concrete creep and shrinkage having
taken place and prestress having reached its final
value). The magnitude of the variation is remark
able, particularly at bottom flange level where it
exceeds 100 k..\[ (700 psi or 4.90
To isolate the effect of concrete creep on mo
ment and stress redistribution, a section near
midspan may be analyzed where cantilever pre
stress is neglibile. Results for the section located at
a distance of 352 ft from the pier are summarized
in Figure 4.88. The redistribution moment is equal
to 52,000 ft-kips.
It is interesting to compare this result, obtained
through the elaborate analysis of the Be program,
with the result of the approximate method out
lined in Section 4.8.7. Figure 4.89 shows the mo
ments in a typical cantilever under girder load and
final prestress. The prestress moment has been
computed using a reduced eccentricity obtained by
214
Design of Segmental Bridges
.3QQ i<SF
o kSF
". .... "', 4000
I
I \
I \
I \
I \
\
20'
/"
f \
I \
/ \
/ \
/ \
I \
179
108
FIGURE 4.83. HOUSIOIl Ship Channel Bridge. lOp filler (DL) + (p) at tillle'
7S0 days and 4000 davs. Stresses at top fihel of the deck, Dead load at lime 7HO \"hell
lhe bridge is ,illst opened to traffic alld at lim(' 4000 ([a\'s.
transforming the steel area in the concrete section.
Therefore, the prestress moment is equal to:
Pe(l - np)
where e
n
p
geometric eccentricity,
10, transformed coefficient,
= percentage of prestress steel in the sec
tion (varying between 0.5 and 0.7%).
The total midspan moment produced in the con
tinuous span with fixed ends under the combined
effect of girder load and final prestress is equal to
84,000 ft-kips. Therefore, the actual redistribution
moment obtained by the Be program is equal to:
52,000 _
of the total moment
84,000
The recommendation given in Section 4.8.7 to take
a ratio of 2/3 gives a satisfactory approximation.
4.17.'3 STRESSES AT ,HIf)SP.1.Y
Because of the moment redistribution the bottom
fiber near midspan is subjected to increasing ten
sile stresses while the top fiber is always under
compression. 1 t is therefore sufficient to consider
the state of stresses at the bottom fiber after creep
and relaxation.
The results are shown in Table 4.5. It is instruc
tive to compare the relative magnitude of the vari
ous factors influencing the stresses at midspan
(stresses in ksf at bottom fiber):
1. Live load 44
2. Moment redistribution 91
(difference between 250 for
GL and 159 for prestress) .
3. Temperature gradient 48
4. Temperature fall 18
215 Design Example
TABLE 4.5. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, Stresses
at Midspan
Bottolll Fiher
Stresses (ksO Panial CUTllulative
\foment redistribution due +250
(() GL
\[oll1ent red isrribut ion dtie 159
to prestress
.\!oment redistributioll due + 91
to (GL) + (P)
All dead loads and all final
prestress (lhHll Be
gram illcluding Illomellt
redist ributioIl) -66
Live load + impact 44
Temperature gradient, -lH
J"T = 18[
Temperature fall, 18
T -40F
Loadillg combillation (:!)."
(D) + (P) + + I)
Loading c01llbillation (4)," +22 (25)
(I) + (P) + + I) + J.T + T
"See combinations in Ul5,
"Comhination or \Iaximulll ::'1' + T (maximum temperature
differential is improhable in winter),
The influence of the temperature fall (effect 4) is
imputable to the frame action between deck and
piers and would not appear in a conventional deck
resting on its piers with flexible bearings. Consid
ering only the other three factors combined, as in
loading combination (4) of Table 4.3, the
m<lXimUlll tensile stress at the bottom fiber of the
'midspan section is:
48
91+44+ =1 ksf
2
The live-load stress is onl", 44 ksf or 44i 159 = 28
percent of tbe total.
In all good faith, a design engineer would have
com pletely O\'erlooked effects 2 and 3 only a few
vea.rs ago and consequently underdesigned con
siderably the continuity prestress. The situation
has now completely changed, and the knowledge
of materials together with the powerful tool of the
computer allows segmental structures to be de
signed safely and realistically.
It is as well to remember that the Houston Ship
ChaLll1el Bridge is of exceptional size (which tends
to increase the im portance of dead load and mo
ment redistribution) and that American live loads
are light in comparison with those used in other
coulltries, particularh' in France and Great Britain.
These two factors tend to increase the importance
of moment redistribution in relation to the effect
of loads computed in the conventional manner,
4.17.4 SHEAR
The variation of shear stresses along the centel
span under design loads is given in Figure 4,90 to
gether with the corresponding longitudinal com
pressive stress at the centroid.
The most critical section is located 187 ft from
the pier centerline, The numerical values in this
section are as follows:
I. Vertical dead-load shear force: 4:350 kips.
Resal effect: the compressive stress at the cen
terline of the bottom slab is 192 ksf and the
angle with the horizontal is 0.055 radians,
Bottom slab area: 53.5 sq it.
Resal effect: 192 x 53,5 x n.055 570 kips.
i\et dead-load shear: 3780
----'-
2. Live-load shear force: 430 kips.
3. Corresponding shear stresses in this section:
IIQ 14 rr web thickness
b 4 ft
Total shear stress under design load (no load
factor) :
v 3780 + 430 4210 kips
Shear stress:
v=
4210 = 75.2 ks!"
x
4, Longitudinal compressive stress:j.r 160 ksf
5. Vertical prestress. The contract specifications
called for a vertical prestress for the entire
deck giving a minimum compressive stress of:
3VJ;. = 232 psi = 33.S ks!"
6. Verification of allowable shear stress.
Using the formula proposed in Section 4.10.4:
v = + 0,20j.r + 0.40jy
the allowable shear stress is:
V
max
= 0.05 x 864 + 0.20 x
160 + 0.40 x 33.5 = 88.6 ksf
while the actual shear stress is onlv 75.2 ksf
____
216 Design of Segmental Bridges
BOTTOM FleER

C (KSF)
MIOSPAN
,,......-
" -
.,/" ... "
,
r '...
300 KSF
t '
__
\
4000
r--"
I
I
I
I
I
I
r
,
,
lOa KsF
\
\
\
\
TIME dOOO---l.
\
\
\..
..... ,---,
I
I
I
I
FIGURE 4.84. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, bottom fiber jilr (DL) + (P) at
time 780 days and 4000 days. Stresses at bottom hber of the deck. Dead load at time 780
days when the bridge is opened to traffic and at time 400n days.
7. Principal stresses at design loads for the slate
of stress:
v == 75.2, Ix = 160, and 111 33.5 ksf
The two principal stresses are.=..! (tension) and
195 (compression).
The angle of the principal stress with the hori
zontal is given by:
tan f3 = 0.466
I f vertical prestresses were not used, the prin
cipal stresses would become:
(tension) and 190 (compression)
8. Principal stresses at ultimate stage.
For the load factors l.3D + 2.17L, including
the effect of prestress, the ultimate shear force
IS:
vu = 5710 kips
Corresponding shear stress:
Vu = 102 ksf
Principal stress: 23 (tension) and 217 (com
pression).
Direction of the principal stress given by:
tan f3 0.56
Web shear cracking at this level of stress would
be unlikely. Assuming that the concrete carried
none of the ultimate shear across the potential
crack shown in Figure 4.91, the total shear load
should be resisted by the vertical tendons and the
conventional stirrups acting on a length equal to:
25ft
Q tan f3 0.56
The unit force per foot of girder is therefore:
217 Design Example
",..-- .........
/ "
LIVE LOAD MINI
LOAD {MAXI
MINI
TOP FIBER /
/
/
/
LIVE LOAD MAXI
LIVE LOAD MINI
375fT

FIGURE 4.85. Houston Ship Channel Bridge. lOp fiber stresses for (L -i- J) and (fl.T =
18F),
57 10 "')8 k' 'I" I t'
'lpSI mea t
The ultimate capacity of tendons and stirrups is:
Tendons in three webs 220 kips/lineal ft
Stirrups-0.88 in.
2
/1ineal ft 158 kips/lineal ft
per web at 60 ksi
278 kipsllineal ft
The condition V"Ifj> < Vs becomes:
= 268 < 378 kipsllineal ft
and is easily met.
If no vertical prestress had been used. the slope
of the shear crack would be:
tan f3 0.487
Using the limiting value tan f3 = 0.5 instead of the
actual value (as explained in Section 4,10.4), the
shear force per unit length of girder to be carried
across the crack is:
1 5710 0 240 k' II' I t"
0.85 x 0.14 x ,,:) = IpS mea t
The corresponding amount of steel (grade 60)
would be for each web:
1 240
3 x 60 = 1.33 in.2flineal ft
This amount of steel would still be reasonable
(0.7%).
4,17.5 DESIGN OF THE CROSS-SECTION FRAME
Owing to the magnitude of the project, particular
attention was given to this problem. Five finite
element analyses were performed to analyze:
The local effects in the transverse frame,
218 Design of Segmer:tal Bridges
tfcBoTTOM LIVE LOAD
. 40l<SF
,I
liVE LOAD MAXI
LIVE LOAD MA:<.j
MID5PAN
LIVE LOAD MINI
/ z
'20 o
/
/
\
/
\
/
\
I
/
\
\
\
/ TE"MPERAT RE GRADIENI (T ISF
\
\ /
\
\ I
\
"I j' 40 \
I.
' ______..+....______ ....,,1 3=-7.:.-5::......:F_T'--_\._-::_'_-_-_-_-_-_----1
FIGURE 4.86. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, hottom fiher stresses for (L + J) and (!::.T
= IWF).
The possible differential deHections between the
three webs of the box section,
The relative hehavior of sections close 10 the piers
or al midspan,
The effeci of diaphragm restraint near the pier.
The dimensions of the cross section at midspan are
given in Figure 4.92 with the nine critical sections
where moments and axial loads were computed for
as many as fourteen loading combinations.
A typical set of results is shown in Figure 4.93 for
the midspan section. For the section located 187 ft
from the pier centerline (already considered for
maximum shear stresses), the moments and axial
loads are substantially the same as for the midspan
section. Excluding the vertical prestress, the most
critical loading arrangement gives the following
values at the upper section of the outside web (sec
tion e of Figure 4.92).
Moment 11.9 kip-ft/rl
Axial load 5.4 kip/ft
The steel section required at design stage for grade
60 steel stirrups is 0.34 in.
2
/lineal ft. Applying the
recommendations of Section 4. 10.4 for the simple
case of a section without web prestress, the re
quirements for steel on both faces of the web
would be:
For shear of the longitudinal member:
t x 1.33 = 0.67 in.
2
llineal ft
For bending of the transverse member:
0.34 in.
2
/lineal ft
219
Quantities of Materials

,111'''-'' l:::. f TOP GIRDER LOAD

z
o
<fl
<fl
w
100
I:
o
<.)
AT TOP FIBER
Z
<I
a.
<Jl
KSf
STRE55 VARIATION
----______ rl:::.f BOTTOM PRESTRESS
o
1:
....
"'"-- ..... _ STRESS VARIATION
.""':." AT BOTTOM FIBER
...."
... "
Z 100
o
!Il
Z
Lu
I-
l:::. f BOTTOM GIRDER LOAD
700+-____________..._________________
FIGURE 4.87. Ship Channel Bridge, variation of :;!J'esses due to creep and
rel;Lxat ion.
The rwmmlllll area should thus be the higher of
the following values:
0.67 + ! x 0.34 0.84 in.
2
/lineaJ ft
.1 x 0.67 + 0.34 = 0.67 in.
2
/1ineal ft
0.7(0.67 + 0.34) = 0.71 in.
2
/1ineaJ ft
I t1 the actual structure, the stirrups in this section
are #6 bars at 12 in. centers, giving on each face a
steel area of 0,44 in.
2
together with the rllinimum
vertical prestress of 44.2 kips/lineal ft (average
com.pressive stress of 230 psi).
The ultimate capacity of the section reinforce
ment is therefore:
With vertical prestress: 378/3 126 kips/lineal ft
Without vertical prestress: 2 X 0.84 x 60 = 101
kipsllineal ft
4.18 Quantities of Materials
Before closing this chapter, it is interesting to give
some statistical results concerning the quantities of
materials required in segmental box girder
bridges. Unit quantities have been computed by
dividing the total quantities for the bridge
superstructure by the deck area, using the total
width of the prestressed concrete structure. The
220 Design of Segmen!al Bridges
Stresses, Top Fiber (kst) Stresses, Bottom Fiher (ksl)
Loadillg Case 780 Dr/i'.1 4000 Dr!)'s 780 Dms 4()()O Da)'\
Cantilever Prestress
Girder + superimposed
dead load
- 6.36
-56.93

-266.50
-20.20
(j l.H9
-16J.OH
293.50
Total
Variatioll from
780 days 10 4000 days
63.29
72.89
136. J8 41.69
+90.73
132.42
SOil' 1: Tensile stresses are positive.
Soil' 2: This l110melll is the difference between girder load, 142,000 It-kips, alld cantile\er prestress, gO,nOn ft kips.
11 = - 72.89
N
'<t
0::)
II
N
U
12= + 90.73
II
...c::
FIGURE 4.88. Houston Ship Channel Bridge. analy
sis or section at ;152 ft froJn pier.
IAI'.lJUt:INt;
flIJISTRllJt.lTI/)N
Corresponding moment variatioll:
1
.:Hi (11 +/2) II
+ 90.73) 4774
15
AM = 52.000 It-kips
average concrete quantity per span foot varies with
the span length. For each struct ure considered, the
span length used is the average span of the various
two-ann cantilevers. The longitudinal prestressing
steel is given in pounds per cubic yard of deck con
crete versus the same span length. It is assumed
that prestressing tendons are made up of strands
with 270 ksi guaranteed ultimate strength. From
the charts given in Figures 4.94 and 4.95, it may be
seen that the average quantities of materials may
be represented by the following approximate for
mulae:
Concrete (ft
3
/ft
2
) = 1.0 + (L1250)
Longitudinal prestress (lb/ft2) = 1.0 + (L160) (for
spans up to 750 ft)
4.19 Potential Problem Areas
As with any type of construction with any material,
problems arise that require the attention of not
only the designers, but contractors and subcon
tractors as well. No matter how good the design, if
FIGURE 4.89. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, rapid
computation of moment redistribution.
Potential Problem Areas
(11) iIf,,)
COMPRESSIVE
5TRE55
IBO
.......
80 IGO ~ ... '"
~ ~
--
----
140
60 120
100
40 80
l.
60
40
I
20
20 52 1'24 172
.... "
-------:}
;," EFfECT OF '\
202
TOTAL PRESTRESS \
232 292 352
\
\
\
'\
'\
'\
,
WEB SHEAR 5iRE5
11 (KSI')
375 i
FIGURE 4.90.
age compressive stress in center span under design load,
/f
i----,--'-i L"'OI-lR CIRCLE FOR MQNO-A:r,lIU, CCMPRESSION
7AN ~ ~ 0.455
TAN ~ ' , 0.3%
FIG\JRE 4.91. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, shear
and principal web stresses in section 187 ft from Pier
(under design loads),
221
Houston Ship Channel Bridge, variation of web shear stress and aver
the structure is not properly constructed, there will
be problems. Conversely, no matter how diligent
the contractor, if the design details are poor,
problems will result, Obviously, if the design and
the construction are poor, problems are com
pounded.
TRAr..SVERSC TENDONS
(4X,6"01. STRANO)
SPACING J FT
In
I
In ..ili
1"
FIGURE 4.92. Houston Ship Channel Bridge, design
of transverse frame at midspan.
l..
9
222 Design of Segmental Bridges
:\1, Prestressing 16,59 13,22 -0.92 8.01 3.01 0.22 0.08 0 (l.O6
~ 1 . DL + PIT 10.92 6.93 1.45 1.96 4.23 -2.93 2.88 2.14 -'-5.23
1\1, Jive load -5.24 -6.68 5.03 -8.82 5.88 -1.25 -1.25 0.35 -0.78
with
IMi
111aXI
1\1. DL + PIT + LL 4.11 1.75 7,98 -9,51 ]] ,87 -4.55 -4.50 2.59 -6,25
+1
;..;, dead load 0.06 -(),53 -0,65 -0.59 4.24 6.08 0,55 0.66 0,53
:\, transverse 50,75 51.06 51.26 51.35 -0.31 0.31 -0,29 -0,29 -0.29
prestressing
:\.DL+PIT 50.8] 50,53 50,61 50.76 3,93 5.77 (),26 0.37 0,24
',;. live load 1.1 ()
:\. DL - PIT -'- LL 50,81 50.53 50,{) I 50.76 5,36 5.77 0.26 0.37 0,24
+1
SO/I': Web vertical preslress is nOI included.
SIGN CONVENTION
Compressive axial forces arc
positive. Positive bending mo
ments caw,e tension at the
broken linc face,
FIGURE 4.93. HOUSIOIl Ship Channel Bridge, 1110
1IH'IIlS <lnd axial forccs in transverse frame at midspan.
Problems are generally associated with quality
control. poor design details, or a lack of under
standing as to how the structure will behave, either
through ignorance or because a particular phe
nomenon is ullknown to the current state of the
art, or a combination of all these factors. The fol
lowing list of problem areas, as they are known to
the authors, is presented so that those involved in
designing and building segmental bridges may
take adequate measures and precautions to avoid
these problems.
1. Improper performance of epoxy due to mis
handling of mixing and application procedure,
particularly in rain and cold weather. The con
sequences are largely reduced by the use of
adequate shear keys in webs and in both top
and bottom flanges of the box section.
2. Grout leakage between adjoining ducts at
joints between segments, particularly in pre
cast segmental construction. Conformity of the
ducts at the joints is a desirable feature if prac
tical. The use of tendons outside the concrete
eliminates this problem.
3. Tensile cracks behind tendon anchorages,
particularly for high-capacity continuity ten
dons in the bottom flange of box sections. .
4, Transverse cracking or opening of joints, or
adjacent thereto, due to the combination of
several factors such as:
a, Underestimation of moment redistribution
due to concrete creep,
b. Thermal gradients in the box senion,
c. Warping of segments due to improper
curing procedures.
Several such points have been already ad
dressed in this chapter; others are discussed in
Chapter 1 L ShtlUld the recommendations
given be followed both in design and construc
tion methods and in supervision, no more
difficulties of this nature are to be expected.
5, Laminar cracking in deck slab or in bottom
flange due to wobble and improper alignment
of duns at the joints between adjacent seg
ments. Such incidents have been experienced
more often in cast-In-place construction than
in precast construction. However, care should
always be taken insofar as deck alignment is
concerned in all segmental projects.
6. Freezing of water in ducts during construction,
especially those anchored in the deck slab
(vertical prestressing tendons or draped con
tinuity tendons).
7. Excessive friction in ducts due to wobble.
Proper alignment will reduce friction factors in
segmental construction to tbose currently ob
served in conventional cast-in-place post
tensioned construction.
S. Improper survey control in segment man
ufacture for precast segments as well as in the
field for cast-in-place segments.
s.o...
I
,.j ,-...
u.
'-
"'. /.<=
u.
..::!.t
>
': ~ a l
...
J
z
"
a "
... '"
'"
0
'"
:z
0
0
x
u
Cl '"
FIGURE 4.94. Fherage quantities of deck COllnetl'.
15 -:
14 (
! ~ !
I
12 T
-.... '"
II ~
...
i
10';'
~ s 1
w
...
'"
:)
6 f
5
r
3
!
i
2
100 200 300 .loa 500 sao 700 aoo
AVERAGIi ,PAN L Cft)
FIGURE 4.95. Average quantides of longitudinal prestressing steel.
223
224
Design of Segmental Bridges
References
I. F. Leonhardt, "!\'ew Trends in Design and Construc
tion of Long Span Bridges and Viaducts (Skew,
Flat Slabs, Torsion Box)," International Asso
CIation for Bridge and Structural Engineering,
Eighth Congress, New York, September 9-14,
1968.
2. Jean Mnller, "Ten Years of Experience in Precast
Segmental Construction," Journal of the Prestre.lsed
Concrete Instituli', Vol. 20, "0. I. January-February
1975.
3. C. A. Ballinger, W. Podolny,jr., and :VLJ. Abrahams,
"A Report on the Design and Construction of.Seg
mental Prestressed Concrete Bridges in Western
Europe-1977," International Road Federation,
Washington, D.C., June 1978. (Also available from
Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Re
search and Development, Washington, D.C., Report
No. FHWA-RD-78-44.)
4. '"Effets de l'effort tranchant," Federation Inter
nationale de la Precontrainte, London, 1978.
5
Foundations, Piers, and Abutments
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 LOADS APPLIED TO THE PIERS
5.2.1 Loads Applied to the Finished Structure
5.2.2 Loads Applied During Construction
5.3 SUGGESTIONS ON AESTHETICS OF PIERS AND
ABUTMENTS
5.3.1 Structure Layout
5.3.2 Aesthetics of Piers
5.3.3 Aesthetics of Abutments
5.4 MOMENT RESISTING PIERS AND THEIR FOUNDA
TIONS
5.4.1 Main Piers for the Brotonne Viaduct, France
5.4.2 Piers and Foundations for the Sallingsund Bridge,
Denmark
5.4.3 Concept of Precast Bell Pier Foundation for the
1205 Columbia River Bridge, U.S.A.
5.4.4 Main Piers for the Houston Ship Channel Bridge,
U.S.A.
5.5 PIERS WITH DOUBLE ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS
5.5.1 Scope and General Considerations
5.5.2 Description of Structures
Oleron Viaduct, France
Blois Bridge, France
l:pstream Paris Belt Bridge, France
5.5.3 Properties of Neoprene Bearings
Notations
Deformations of Neoprene Bearings
5.5.4 Deformation of Piers with a Double Row of Neop
rene Bearings
5.5.5 Properties of Piers with a Double Row of Neoprene
Bearings
5.5.6 Influence of Thickness and Arrangement of Neo
prene Bearings on the Variation of Force in a
Three-Span Structure
5.6 PIERS WITH TWIN FLEXIBLE LEGS
5.6.1 Introduction
5.1 Introduction
Probably the area most challenging to the civil en
gineer is that of foundation design and construc
tion, presenting the largest potential dangers but
5.6.2 River Piers and Foundations for Choisy.le-Roi,
Coumevoie, and Juvisy Bridges, France
5.6.3 Piers and Foundations of Chillon Viaducts, Switzer
land
5.6.4 Main Piers and Foundations of the Magnan Viaduct,
France
5.6.5 Main Piers and Foundations for the Dauphin Island
Bridge, U.S.A.
5.6.6 Deformation and Properties of Piers with Flexible
Legs
5.6.7 Elastic Stability of Piers with Flexible Legs
5.7 FLEXIBLE PIERS AND THEIR STABILITY DURING
CONSTRUCTION
5.7.1 Scope
5.7.2 Description of Representative Structures with Tem
porary Supports
Downstream Paris Belt Bridge, France
Saint Jean Bridge In Bordeaux, France
5.7.3 Review of the Various Methods of Providing Stabil
ity During Cantilever Construction
5.8 ABUTMENTS
5.8.1 Scope
5.8.2 Combined Abutment/Retaining Wall
5.8.3 Separate End Support and Retaining Wall
5.8.4 Through FiU Abutment
5.8.5 Hollow Box Abutment
5.8.6 Abutments Designed for Uplift
5.8.7 Mini-Abutment
5.9 EFFECT OF DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENTS ON CON
TINUOlJS DECKS
5.9.1 Effect of an Assumed Pier Settlement on the
Stresses in the Superstructure
5.9.2 Practical Measures for Counteracting Differential
Settlements
REFERENCES
also yielding the most significant savings to proper
design concepts or refll1ecl construction methods.
The first industrial application of prestressed con
crete was related to solving an insurmountable
problem of foundation underpinning.
225
226 Foundations, Piers, and Abutments
The transatlantic terminal built in Le Hane
Harbor in France on the English Channel was
opened for operation in 1934 to receive the new
generation of fast passenger ships between Europe
and America. Improper foundation of the rear
bays of the new building caused immediate con
stant settlements at the rate of! in. (12.7 mm) per
momh with no foreseeable limit, except the total
ruin of the Figure 5.1. Eugene Freyssinet
proposed a unique system of underpinning, which
was immediately accepted and implemented,
whereby prestressed concrete piles were man
ufactured in the basement of the existing building
in successive increments and progressively driven
1)\ hydraulic jacks to reach the stable lower soil
strata. found at a depth of more than 100 ft (30.5
Ill), Figure 5.2. This example should certainly
make olle cautious against excessive optimism in
foundation design; at t he same time it exemplifies
the remarkable potential of prestressed concrete in
solving unusual problems.
In concrete bridges. often greater savings may
be expected from optimization of foundation and
pier design than fmlll the superstructure itself.
This chapter will deal with certaill specific aspects
of piers, abutments. and foundations for bridges
built in balanced cantilever. Similar concepts may
be extended to cover other construction methods
(span-by-sp<ln, inuemental launching. and so 011).
Piers with many different shapes have been used
in conjunction with cantilever construction. For
example, single piers, double piers, and moment
resistant piers have all been used. The cantilever
segmental construction method has an important
influence and bearing on the design concept of the
structure. Resistance and elastic stability of piers
during construction require careful investigation.
Temporary piers or temporary strengthening of
permanent piers or a combination of both have
been used. However, the choice of piers that have
adequate stability without temporary aids is highly
desirable. Piers of a box section. or twin flexible
legs. either vertical or inclined, are equally satis
facton-o
The use of full continuity in the superstructure
implies that proper steps have been taken to allow
for volume changes (shrinkage, creep and thermal
expansion) at the supports. Bridges such as the
Choisy-Ie-Roi (Section 3.2), Courbevoie (Section'
3.2), and the Chillon Viaduct (Section 3.6) show
how the use of piers with flexible legs makes it pos
sible to achieve full deck continuity and to build
frame action between deck and piers without im
pairing the free expallsion of the structure. The
com'el'ging pier legs used at Choisy-Ie-Roi reduce
and even cancel the amount of bending trans
ferred to the pier foundations. Vertical parallel
legs such as t hose in the Courbevoie and Chillon
-/6.00to -ZI)OO
5ofLSlf d(a
FIGURE 5.1. Le Ha\Te transatlantic lerminal, typical section.
6
Progressive and Span-by-Span
Construction 0.[ Segmental Bridges
6.1 INTRODt:cnON
6.1.1 Progressive Placement Method
6.1.2 Span.by.Span Method
6.2 PROGRESSIVE CASTINPLACE BRIDGES
6.2.1 Approach Spans to the Bendorf Bridge, Germany
6.2.2 Ounasjoki Bridge, Finland
6.2.3 Vail Pass Bridges, U.S.A.
6.3 PROGRESSIVE PRECAST BRIDGES
6.3.1 Rombas Viaduct. France
6.3.2 Linn Cove Viaduct, U.S.A.
6.4 SPANBYSPAN CASTINPLACE BRIDGES
6.4.1 Kettiger Hang, Gennany
6.4.2 Krahnenberg Bridge. Germany
6.4.3 Pleichach Viaduct, Germany
6.4.4 Elztalbrucke, Germany
6.1 Introduction
Thc concepts or the progressive placel1lellt and
spanh\<spall methods of segment;d cOllstructioll
were introduced in SectiollS l.YA <lnd \.9.3, re
spectiw:h. rItis chapter will explore these concepts
ill grcater detail. rhcse two ll1ethods have not
lllade the cOll\entiollal cast-ill-place 011 ralsc\\ork
ll1ethod obsolete: the cOllventional method is still
applicable ami economical where site, environ
mental, ecological, and economic considerations
permit. \Vhat these two methods do is to open up a
field where prestressed concrete structures were
hitherto !lot practical and where they now can eco
nomicalh compete with structural steeL
The progressive placement and span-bv-span
methods are simiia'r in that construction of the
superstructure st:Jrts al onc clld and proceeds con
tinllouslv to the other, as opposed to the balanced
cantilever mel hod where superstructure is con
structed as counterbalancing half-span cantilevers
6.4.5 Guadiana Viaduct, Portugal
6.4.6 Loisach Bridge. Germany
6.4.7 Rheinbriicke Dusseldorf.Flehe. Germany
6.4.8 Denny Creek Bridge. U.S.A.
6.5 SPAN-BY-SPAN PRECAST BRIDGES
6.5.1 Long Key Bridge, U.S.A.
6.5.2 Seven Mile Bridge. U.S.A.
6.6 DESIGN ASPECTS OF SEGMENTAL PROGRESSIVE
CONSTRUCTION
6.6.1 General
6.6.2 Reactions on Piers During Construction
6.6.3 Tensions in Stays and DeHection Control During
Construction
6.6.4 Layout of Tendons for Progressive Construction
REFERENCES
all each side of the various piers. Also, both
methods are adaptable to either cast-in-place or
precast construction.
6.1.1 PIWGRESSIVE PLACE,HEST ;HETHOD
This method was developed to obviate the con
struction interruption manifested in the balanced
cantilever method, where construction must pro
ceed symmetrically on each side of the various
piers. In progressive placement. the construction
proceeds from one end of the project in continu
ous increments to the other end; segments are
placed in successive cantilevers from the same side
of the various piers. When the superstructure
reaches a pier. permanent bearings are placed and
the superstructure is continued in the direction of
construction.
The first implementation of this method, which
used castin-place segments, was on the Ounasjoki
Bridge near the Arctic Circle in Finland. It was
281
282 Progressil'e and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmental Bridges
later extended to the first lise of preca:;t segments
in the ROlllbas \'iaduct in eastern France,
rhe essential ;)(h'antages of this method are as
follows:
I, The operatiolls are continuolls alld are carried
oUl from that part of the structure already
constructed, Access for personnel ami mate
riab is cOll\'ellienth' accomplished over the sur
face of the structure alI-cad\ cOlllpleted (free
of the existing terrain). This lIla\' be of impor
tance with regard to urban \'iaducts cantile
\'ering Ilumerous obstacles,
ReactiOlls to tlIe piers are \"crlieal and 110t sub
ject to am ullsYlIlmetrical bellding mOlllents,
Ihus ;I\'oiding the llced for telllporan bracing
during COllstruction,
:L Thc lIlethod is adaptable to curved stl'u('\ure
geol1lctn,
rhe following are tile disadvantages:
L it is difficult. il nOI impossihle, to utilize tillS
Illet hod ill 1he COllst ruction of the lirst spalL
Usually the lirst span must be erected on
falsework. In sOll1e rare instances it may he
to cantilever the first span from the
ahut lIIent,
Forces imposed upon the ;;uperstructure. de
pending 011 the method of umstruction. are
cOIllpletcly dilferent (in sign and order of
magnitude) frolll tlIose present in the struc
ture under senice load, COllsequellth', a telll
porary exterIJal support s\'stem is required
during ('ollstructiol1 ill order to maintain the
stresses within reasonable limits and minimize
the cost of' unprodunive temporary pre
stressing. Faisework bents may be used (as in
tile LinIl Cove Viaduct), but the more usual
solution is that of a mobile temporary mast
and cable-stay system (Figure 1.57,). For the
progressive placement method the mast and
cable-stay system is relocated progressively
over the piers as construction advances,
In t his system the piers are subjected to a reac
tion from the self-weight of the superstructure
approximately twice that in the final stalic ar
rangemem of the structure. Hmvever, this is
gellerally lIot critical to the design of the piers
and foundations, as the effect of the dead load
is rarely larger than half the total load includ
ing horizontal forces.
\Vhen cast-in-place segments are used in COIl
jUllctioll with the progressive placemellt method,
the rate of construction is le'is than that for the bal
anced cantilever method. in that t here is 0111", olle
locatioll of construction actiyity, That is, one
segmellt can be cast (at the en'd of the cOIllI;leted
portioll of the structure) rather than two (one at
each end of the balanced cantilevers), This slow
ness may he minimized by the use of longer seg
ments, hut this solution is limited b, the low
I<Illce 01 the \'Ollllg concrete, On the other hand.
the lISe 01 epoxv:.-joined precast segments may
perl1lit an average rapidity of construction comp,;
rable to that of balanced cantilner with a launch
ing girder.
Ii.! ,2 S/JA.\'-/ll'-SP.4S ,HFIHO/)
As indicated ill Chapter I, the span-In-span.
met hod was developed to meet t he need for COlI
SI ruet ing long viaducts wit h relat jyeh short spans
such as to incorporate t he advantages 01 halanced
ca lIt ile\'er COllst runiOll,
Frolll a cOlllpetiti\e ]loillt of \'jew, the capital in
vestlllellt ill the equiplllent lor this type of (Oll
st runion is considerahle. I t has heen suggested I
titat olle-third of t he cost of the equiplllent be de
pl'eciated lor a gi\'en site alld that at least four uses
would be required to achieve lull depreciation, ill
cludillg illterest 011 the capital illvestment. H (}\\'
ever, costly lIlodiliGitions tltat lllay be required
hecause 01 changes ill bridge widths or span limi
tatiollS are not considered in tlte above write-oil
polin'. It would, therefore, be ad\lsahle for a COII
tractor ilJ\'estillg ill tltis t\'pe of eqlliplllellt to con
sider sOllie type of lIIodular plalllling so that
lIlodificatioll for future projects might be kept 10 a
lIlillinlllm, It might he possible to ha\'e a basic piece
01 equipment with illterchangeable clements.
There is. of cour,e, the potelltial of leasing this
equiplllent to others as a means of' l'etirillg the
ca pi tal illYest men!.
Wiufoht l.
2
has categorized stepping segmel1tal
construction into four subgroups:
I, With-on-the ground nontravelillg formwork.
2. With traveling fonnwork or on-the-ground
stepping formwork.
3. With off-the-ground stepping formwork.
4. In opposite directions starting from a pier.
The first category is generally used where there
are a large number of approximately equal spans
283 Progressive Cast-in-Place Bridges
of a low height above existing terrain. It is gener
allv limited to structure lengths of approximately
1000 ft (300 111) and to nonuniform span lengths
that prohibit a forming system of uniform size.
Normally in span-br-span construction the
superstructure is of constant cross section (at least
insofar as external dimensions are concerned), and
the work proceeds from one abutment to the
other. I f a large center span exists, it will be formed
first, possibly to an inflection point in the adjacent
spans. The fonmvork is allocated such that it is
used to cast the spans in the approaches proceed
ing from the center, in both dil'ectiolls, toward the
abutments. Forms and scaffolding are disassem
bled and reerected in an alternating sequence and
in elements that Gill be conveniently handled by a
crane.
In the second category of span-by-span con
struction. for economical justification of equip
ment. the total length of structure must be at least
lOOO ft (300 111), the overall cross senion constant,
the structure of low height, and the terrain
along the longitudinal axis approximately level.
\Iaximuill spall for this category is approximately
165 it (50 Ill). and a large of equal SIXll1S
are required to achieve repetitiveness and thus
eCOIlO1ll"':'
The falsework and for1l1s are general\v a span
length (either I he dimensioll fr0111 pier to pier or
from inflectiol1 poinl to illilection point), Figure
6.1 a The fOrInwork is hxed to the scaffolding and
travels will1 it. The bottom of the formwork is de
signed with a hinge or cOlltinuOlls trap-door device
such that the scaffolding and forms can travel past
and dear the piers. The scaffolding is moved for
wal d on If a found,lIiol1 for the scaffolding,
forms, and weight of superstructure is found to be
too costlv or unsafe. a scheme may be used where
tbe rails GllT\' onlv the load of the scaffolding and
fonmvork. Once in position, the scaffolding is
supported at the piers, or at the forward pier, and
the completed structure at the rear by auxiliary
brackets: thus construction loads are transmitted to
the pier foundations.
Where conditions exist as in the previous cate
gorv. but the structure is high with reference to the
terrain or crosses over difficult terrain or water,
the third category may be used, whereby during
the stepping and casting operations the equipment
is supported bv the piers or bv a pier and the pre
viollsly completed portion of the structure.
Where conseclltive spans in the range of 160 to
500 ft (50 to 150 m) are contemplated and the fac
tors mentioned above prevail, the type of con
r2 rl
i I Form

L2 LI
Scaffolding at concreting position
Construction direction
, Under-carriage
Advancement of Scaffolding
3;JO 9,20 7,80 9,20 3,30
;- --17.00 '":
Hinged bottom plate
Section 1-1 Section 2-2
FIGURE 6.1. Schemalic of procedure for movable
scaffolding, from reCerence 3 (courtesy of Zement und
Beton),
struction indicated bv the fourth category may be
considered. This system uses a gantry rig that has a
length one and one-half rimes that of the span. In
this method segments are cast ill each direction
from a pier, as ill the balanced cantilever method,
except that the form traveler and segment being
cast are supported bv the gantry. This method is
actuallv a balanced cantilever method and not a
span-by-span method of COllst ruction as defined
here.
The advantages of the span-by-span method of
construction, besides those associated with seg
mental construction in general, pertain to the pre
stressing steel requirements. Since the segments
are supported bv the form travelers, there are no
cantilever stresses during construction, and pre
stress requirements are akin to those of conven<
tional construction on falsework or those for the
final condition of the structure,
62 Progressive Cast-in-Place Bridges
6.2.1 APPROACH SPANS TO THE BENDORF
BRIDGE, GERM.-1NY
As discussed in Section 2.2, the Bendorf Bridge
was constructed in two parts. The western portion
284 Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmental Bridges
Flood
Construction in
c , , , '\ Construction
o 0
-------1-
I
sequence
166.45 44.55 57.50 ,
free cantilever
216.50 m Construction m
'Phase 5 by progressive placing, segment length 4.00 m.
FIGURE 6.2. Bendorf Bridge, Part Two (East), construClion procedure, from refer
ence 1 (courtesy of Beton- and Stahlbelonbau). Phase 5 progressive placing, segment
length 4.00 m. .
(pan one), Figure 2.9, consists of a snnmelrical
seven-span continuous girder constructed by the
cast-in-place balanced cantilever method. The
eastern portion (pan two), Figure 2.10, consists of
a lline-span continuous approach struclUre h;'l\'ing
an overall length of 1657 ft (505 111) with spans
ranging from 134.5 ft (41 m) to 308 ft (94 111).
III t he construction of the approach spans, Fig
ure 6.2, the hve spans from the east abutment were
built in a rOlltine manner with the assistance of
falsework bents. The four spans over water were
by the progressive placement method,
using cast-in-place segments and a temporary
cahle-stay arrangement to reduce the cantilever
stresses. The temporary stay system consisted of a
structural steel pylon approximately 65 ft (20 111)
high and stays composed of Dywidag bars.
6.2.2 BRIDGE, F!.,\'LASD
This structure is near the cit\' of Rovaniemi, Fin
land, and crosses the Ounas River jusl above its
junction with the River Kemi near the Arctic Cir
cle. The structural arrangement consists of two 230
ft (i0 Ill) interior spans and end spans of 164 fl (50
m), prestressed longitudinally and transversely.
The first end span and 75 ft (22.75 111) of the
second span were cast-in-place in a conventional
manner on lalsework inside a temporary wind
shielded protective cover, Figure 6.3. Outside
temperature cluring this operation ranged from
-20 10 30C. Subsequent progressive cantilever
constructioll was performed ,,'jth the aid of a tem
porar\' pdon alld stan, Figure 6.4. The same'
stages were repeated in the remaining spans. The
superstruct 11 re was cast-in-place with the assis
tance of one form traveler, Figure 6.5. During
these stages 01 construction, for protection against
low temperatures, form traveler and form were
fully enclosed, Figure 6.5. This enclosure was insu
lated with 4 in. (l00 mm) of fiberglass.
Hardening of the concrete took an average of 76
. hours. Temperature of the concrete was main
tained between 35 and 45C at mixing and between
20 and 25C during casting, Curing inside the
form traveler enclosure was assisted bv warm-air
blowers. Concrete strength was 5000 psi (34.5
MPa). Segment length was 11.5 It (3.5 111), and it
was possible to reach a casting rate of two segments
a week.
Construction slarted in ]966 and was completed
in 1967. Table 6.1 lists the temperatures recorded
during seven months of tbe construction period.
The progressive placement method proved effec
tive and work progressed throughout the year
even during arctic conditions.
FIGURE 6.3. Ounasjoki Bridge, temporary protective
structure (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann).
285 Progressive Cast-in-Place Bridges
TABLE 6.1. Ounasjoki Bridge, Temperature Variations
Month
'remperature .\!arch April :>Vlav June Julv August September
A\eragc 0(: -
9 -
_.:) 0.4 +5.6 + 11.7 + 14.:) + 14.8 -'-8.7
.\Iaximlllll C +5.8 +9,9 +24.6 +24.9 +25.7 +28.5 -'-19.3
.\linimul11 0(: -2!1.4 -16.8 -12.2 -'-0.1 +3.0 +5.8 -4.7
FIGURE 6.4. Ounasjoki Bridge, winterprool' travel
ing form (nmnes\ of Dn;kerholT & Widmann).
6.2.3 VAlL PASS BR[f)CES, C.S.A.
The Vail Pass structures are part of Interstate 1-70
ne;u' Vail, Colorado, in an environmentally sensi
tive area. Of the 21 bridge structures in this p n ~ j .
ect, seventeen were designed and bid on the basis
of alternate designs (Chapter 12). In the segmental
alternative the contractor was allowed the option
to construct as cast-in.place segmental. A group of
four bridges approximately 7 miles (11.3 km)
southeast of Vail were successfully bid as cast-in
place segmental and used the concept of progres
sive placement.
I\\'o of these structures are contained ill a four
span dual structure over Black Gore Creek, Figure
G.t>. The other two structures are a three-spall
T
~ , n
- - - - - . ~ ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - ~ - - - - - - - - - - -
FIGURE 6.5. Ounasjoki Bridge. progressive placing scheme.
286 Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmental Bridges
747'-10
l
... , ____-..:2::.:2"'5:...-_0=- ____+ __ __ ..
I 'I'
6
ft. Pier 3 (. Bridge abut. 2
ft. Pier ..
II .
11....._---'-14.::6,_-....:3=-_'__-+--___ -_0=-'_'----,'t
TYPICAL ELEVATION
42'-0'
Ii Bridge
Symm. obout
excepf os noled
2" ASvhalt (future)
"-8"
9'-6"
MID-SPAN NEAR ft. PIER
TYPICAL SECTION
FIGURE 6.6. Vail Pass Bridges. Black Gore Creek Bridge. typical ele\,nioll alld sectioll.
eastbound bridge and a four-span westbound
bridge. both crossing Miller Creek, Figure 6.7.
Became the structures are relatively short and
the spans small, they were constructed by the
progressive placement method with' temporary
falsework bents. The work and time required to
transport and reassemble the form travelers (as in
the balanced cantilever method) was thereby
minimized. Construction started from both abut
ments and proceeded progressively toward the
center of each bridge.
4
For each of the two structures in the Miller
Creek Bridge, form travelers were assembled atop
30 ft (9. I m) long segments at the abutments. As
segment casting began, the side spans were sup
ported at every second segment by a temporary
hent. Arter reaching the first pier, segment con
strllction proceeded in normal fashion to midspan
of the easthound structure. In tbe westhound
st ruct ure, when midspan of bot h in terior spans was
reached, temporary bents were again used to com
plete the remaining half-spans to the center pier.
After reaching the cellter of the bridge, one form
traveler of each bridge was dismantled, and the
remaining form traveler was used to cast the clo
sure pour. In this manner the form travelers for
each bridge were assembled and dismantled only
once, as opposed to the method of assembling two
forms at each pier and dismantling upon comple
tion of two half-span cantilevers about each pier.
For the Black Gore creek structures, to save criti
cal construction time, both end spans of one
struclure and one end span of the other structure
were built on falsework, while the form travelers
287
Bridge
I.. Symm, about It. except as noled
\'-6"
, 2"
(future)
9' - '3
Progressive Cast in Place Bridges

abut. 2
.J
E. B. ELEVATION
It. Pier 2 It Pier '3
GrO!.W1d line
W, B, ELEVATION
42'-0"
8'-0
i'
TYPICAL SECTION
FIGURE 6.7. Vail Pass Bridges. Creek Bridge. typical eb'ation and section.
were occupied at the Miller Creek Bridges. Upon struction continued in the progressive placement
conlpletion of their work at :\liller Creek, the form manner, Figure 6.8.
travelers were transported o\'er the completed end Because of the limited construction time a
spans of the Black Gore Creek Bridges and con- three-day cycle was required for segment casting.
10'-0
288
Progressive and Span-by-Span Co!,struction of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 6.8. Yail Pass Bridges. Black Gore Creek
Bridge, under construction (courtesy of Dr. Man-Chung
Tallg, DRC Consultants, Inc.).
Construction specifications required a concrete
strength of 3500 psi (24 MPa) at the time of post
tensioning and 5500 psi (38 .MPa) at 28 days. Since
the time required for forming and placing ofrebar
and tendons is somewhat fixed, the only operation
that could be acljusted was the concrete curing
time. This was accomplished b,' using a special
water-reducing agent that allowed the develop
ment of 3500 psi (24 MPa) concrete in 18 hours,
Because of lack of experience with the specific
water reducer, honeycombing was experienced in
the early stages of construction. Eventually a 2 ~ day
cvde was achieved.
ROM8A5
PLAN VIE \.1
(0)
FIGURE 6.9. Rombas Viaduct, plan and sections. (a) Plan. (b) Typical bridge sections.
(e) Typical segment section.
289 Progressive Precast Bridges
Coupe A Coupe C
\___ I_IJl
"'
2.501
Coupe 8 Coupe D
I
Var 680 760
I Variable .,.j
-----i-I-'-' -------- I,
_\-_--0 LT I 1 1 ]
V_.!]l
.i_ -3:00 1 5.50 5.50 I Var : 12.751
I" 'I' 'I' 1"0"" "I
8
(b)
(c)
Figure 6.9. (Colltinued)
6.3 Progressive Precl1:st Bridges
6.3.1 ROAcfBAS VhWUCT. FRA.SCE
The Rombas Viaduct is a constant-depth super
structure, supported on neoprene bearings, with
nine continuous spans ranginj5 from 75 ft (23
111) to 148 ft (45 111). This structure is curved in plan
witq a minimum radius of 900 ft (275 111) and of a
variable width, owing to the presence of an exit
ramp, Figure 6.9. Total length is 1073 ft (327 m),
and the viaduct has two parallel single-cell boxes.
In cross section each single-cell box is 8.2 ft (2.5 m)
deep and has a width of 36 fr (11.0 m). A <:onstruc
tion view of the end of a segment is presented in
Figure 6.10.
Construction of this structure employed the
progressive placing of the precast segments. Tem
porary stability was provided by a cable-stay sys
tem, Figures 1.57 and 6.11, which advanced from
pier to pier as the construction progressed. Seg
ments were progressively placed, starting from one
290
Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 6.10. Rombas Viaduct, end \jew of segment.
FIGURE 6.12. Romba, Viaduct, \'jew of swhel crane.
FIGURE 6.13. Lilln Cove Viaduct, photomolltage.
FIGURE 6.14. Linn Cove Viaduct, artist's rendering.
_ ...
FIGURE 6.11. Romba s Viaduct, \'leW of cable stays
and mast.
abutment, by means of a swiveling hoist, Figure
6.12, advancing along the deck.
6.3.2 Lll\'l',' COVE U.S.A.
A progressive placement scheme is being used for
the Linn Cove Viaduct on the Blue Ridge Parkway
in North Carolina, Figures 6.13 and 6.14. It is a
291 Progressive Precast Bridges
I
o
00
,
- ~
_ P1er 3
o
OJ
~ P i e r 1
Pier 4
Pier 5
/
Pier 7
Brg. Abut. 2
FIGURE 6.15. Linn Cove Viaduct, plan.
1243 ft (378.84 Ill) eight-span continuous structure
with spans of 98.5, 163,4 at 180, 163, and 98.5 ft
(30.02,49.68, four at 54.86,49.68, and 30.02 111)
and sharp-radius curves, Figure 6.15. In cross sec
tion it is a single-cell box ginler with the dimen
sions indicated in Figure 6.16.
Because of the environmental sensitivity of the
area, access to some of the piers is not available.
Therefore, the piers will be constructed from the
tip of a cantilever spall, with men and equipment
being lowered down to construct the foundation
and piers. The piers are precast segments stacked
vertically and post-tensioned to the foundation,
Figure 6.17.
The extreme curvature of the alignment makes
the use of temporary cable stays impractical. Tem
porary bents at midspan will be used to reduce
cantilever and torsional stresses during construc
tion to acceptable levels. The temporary bents are
erected in the same manner as the permanent
N)
Ie
N)
L.
).t;
31('
- ' - - - ~ - - - '
J '
I.'
[1
I
"H_,i(
5a IXloJ! ~ .
I
I
I
(2' tr7l (
HALF SECTION AT POST - TENSIONING BLOCK TYPICAL HALF SECTION THRU SEGMENT
FIGURE 6.16. Linll Con; Viaduct, typical seglllC'llt cross sectioll.
293
.
Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place Bridges
STIFF LEG DERRICK
PLACING PRECAST SEGMENTS
---.l_'--.l..-..I.-...i--,i.<;-..I.-..I.-..I.-.....L-.I..---L--i---J. ____.1 __
:+---90'

..... COMPLETED
PRECAST BOX PIER ..... FUTURE
: TEMPORARY SUPPORT .'"
... f.O
FUTURE PERMANENT ' : 1
PRECAST BOX PIER ...
, ,
" _L
____ ...l
FIGURE 6.18. Linn Cove Viaduct, erection scheme for progressive placement.
Construction
bar tendons
through
segments
not shown
FIGURE 6.17. Linfl CO\'e Viaducr, segmental pier.
piers, llsillt-i a still-leg derrick at the end of the
com pletcd Gltltilc\'ered poni4)11s of t he structure,
Figure 6.18. When the temporary bents are no
longer required, they arc dismantled and removed
bv eqllipment located Oil the cOlTlpleted portioII of
t he bridge deck.
6.4 Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place Bridges
6.4.1 KETrFCER HANC, CEIV,,1ANY
The first application of the off-ground methodol
ogy (category 3). Section 6.1.2. was in 1955 on the
Kettiger Hang structure near Andernach (Federal
Highway 9), Figure 6.19.
3
This system cOllsists of
four scaffolding trusses of slightly more than a
span length and two cantilever girders of about a
two-span length. The scaffolding trusses support
the entire concrete weight during casting. The
cantilever girders serve to transfer or advance the
scaffolding trusses to the next span to be cast. The
concrete form or mold rides with the scaffolding
trusses and is thus repeatedly reused.
6.4.2 KRAHNENBERG BRIDGE, GER1lv1ANY
A variation of the off-the-ground system was used
on the Krahnenbergbrlicke near Andernach COIl
structed from 1961 to 1964, Figure 6.20.
1
.:1 This
structure has a length of 3609 ft (1100 111), a COll
stant depth of 6,56 ft (2.D m), a width of 60.7 ft
(18.5), and spans of 105 ft m). The site is on a
slide-susceptible hillside, requiring difficult foun
dations, and its cun'ed alignment follows the to
f)()t-iraphy, all of which economically the
span-by-span technique.
Roller
Cantilever
Scaffolding
beam
bracket
truss with
steel forms
---.
L.1 1..---1
351,20 ........ !I. 00
Scaffolding truss at concreting position
Section 1-1
I!
1 II il
I
r
2
Cantilever
625 ::
.:
../ ..,
beam
' ..

i
I'
1V1
R

!i,
-
y
b
:
I
Travel
Transverse

direction
adjustment
"
"
., ','
-.; ('. r" / /."
oller
l'
L2
1,aO{1 '7;20
racket
,I
...l.'-.---39,20-----...... 39,20 \------.1
51,00
,'
Advancement of the Scaffolding truss including forms
Section 2-2
3% slope
Forward
I
Rear
i"'" -....,..
crane truck
I crane truck
6,125
Travel
direction
,i
,I
;,'
Advancement of the cantilever beams
FIGURE 6.19. Kettiger Hang. schematic of the constructioll procedure, tWill refer
ellce ;) (('(Junes;, or Zemell{ lIml Beton),
Exterior
scaffold
girder
Interior
scaffold
girder
(11)
m
+
+
JY
3t-3E' :
IUQ -...j.. .-- ,-...... 7ZSQ j ..j
J1.7S - -- --J1.7S -1--- J1,7J .
(c) (b)
294
295
Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place Bridges
In this project four formwork supporting gird
ers were used. Two interior girders were rigidly
connected together by transverse horizontal brac
ing. The formwork was arranged so that the forms
hinged at the bottom and folded down to allow
passage, during advancement, past the piers, Fig
lire 6.20a. The fOllr girders were supported on the
hexagonal piers by transverse support beams at
tached to the pier. I n this manner the four lon
gitudinal formwork support girders were sup
ported on two piers, while an additional set of
transverse support beams were attached to the
forward pier. Figure 6.20b.
Latticework cantilever extensions at both ends of
the longitudinal formwork support girders ex
tended their length to twice the span length, so that
a stable support was provided by the tral1S\erSe
StlppOri girders during advancement. The outside
girders had joints or links at the connectioll with
the cantilever latticework so that the curvature of
the strllcture could be ,lCcOlllmodated during their
adv,lt\cement. The elevatioll of the outside girders
was adjusted bv hnlralllic jacks to accommodate
superclevatioll. During the advanceillent opera
tioll IlIe outside girders were advanced first and
then the center two girders:Figure 6.20c. When
the forward elld of the interior girders reached the
transverse supporting beams, the rear transverse
beams of Ihe previollsiv cast span were no longer
required. Thev were dismantled 1'1'0111 the pier.
These transverse beams were erected on the next
forward pier bv a crane, Figure 6.20b.
The exteriOl' formwork of the two-cell box gird
el' was attached to the longitudinal support gird
el's and only required adjustment for curvature.
The illterior forms of the cells wCI'e dismantled
reasselllbled on the !Iext span after reinforce
ment was placed in the bottom flange and webs.
FIGURE 6.20. (OPpOIile). KI'ahnenherg Bridge. sche
matic of construction, from reference I (courtesv of lhe
American Concrete Institute), (a) Cross section. (b)
Formwork equipment in working position. (c) I: Work
ing position: l'einforcing, and concreting on formwork
equipment: installing the supporting constl'Uction on the
next following pier bv means of derrick and straight-line
trolley. II: After concreting and prestressing: lowering
of equipment; opening of formwork Haps; shifting for
ward of outer girders; dismantling of the first rear sup
porting girder by straight-line trolley; intermediate stor
age at center pier. Ill: Partial pony-roughing of center
girder; dismantling and placing in intermediate for stor
age of second rear girder. IV: Final shifting forward of
cetHer girders: jacking up of equipment; closing of
formwork Haps; new working position.
Average casting rate was 706 ft:l per hr (20 m:l).
FOllrteen days was required for conslruction or a
span.
6.4.3 PLEICHACH VIADUCT, GER,HANY
1 n 1963 construction started on the 1148 ft (350 m)
long Pleichach Viaduct 1.3 carrying a federal high
way between Wurzburg and Fulda; it was the first
use of the span-by-span technique for a dual
structure, Figure 6.21. Span length is 11 9 ft (36.25
Rear crane truck
Forward crane truck
Scaffolding girder at concreting position
Advancement of the scaffolding girder including forms
Construction joint
Advancement of the scaffolding and cantilever girders
R-Scaffolding
girder and forms
RV-Scaffolding
and
can tilever girder

Cross section
FIGURE 6.21. Pleichach Viaduct, schematic of the
construction procedure, from reference 3 (courtesy of
Zement und Beton).
296 PrQgressitle and Span-by-Span CQ7].structiQn Qf Segmental Bridges
m), with each two-cell box girder having a width of
47.2 ft (14.4 m) and a depth of 7.2 ft (2.2 m). The
superstructure construction equipment was
erected behind an abutment in a position to con
struct one superstructure. Upon reaching the op
posite abutment, the equipment was shifted later
alh' for the return trip to construct the other
superstructure. Because of the narrowness, only
one longitudinal support girder was required, as
opposed to the two girders required for the
Krahnenberg Bridge. This girder is slightly longer
than twice the span length. The two outside girders
are approximately one span length.
The outside girders were advanced simultane
ously by a carrier mweling at the front of the cen
tral girder and at the rear by carriers running on
the deck of the previously completed section.
Durillg concreling, the two outside girders are
supported Oil brackets at the forward pier and sus
pended from the completed portion of the
superstructure. The center girder, relieved of the
load of the two outside girders, is then advanced
one span and again connected to the outside gird
ers by the hinged bottom formwork, thus func
tioning as an auxiliary support girder. This se
quence of operations is commonly referred to as
the "slide-rule principle."
The piers have a width of 16.4 ft (5 m) and have
an opening at the top to allow passage of the cen
tral support girder, Figure 6.21. The width of the
pier is determined by the need for sufficient bear
ing area lor the bearings and clearance for the
central support girder. \Vhether the central open
ing at the top of the pier should be concreted in is
one of aesthetics.
0.4.4 ELZTALBRUCKE, GERMANY
The EI7_talbrucke,5.6 Figure 6.22, was constructed
in 1965 at Eifel, West Germany, approximatelv
18.6 miles (30 km) west of Koblenz. I ~ crosses the
deep valley of the Elz River with a total structure
length of 1244 ft (379.3 m), Figure 6.23. The
superstructure has a width of 98.4 ft (30 m) and is
supported on a single row of octagonal piers up to
328 ft (l00 m) in height, Figure 6.24. Owing to the
height of the valley, conventional construction on
falsework would have been economically prohibi
tive. Therefore, a span-by-span system of self
supporting traveling scaffolding was used, Figure
1.53.
The Autobahn between Montabauer and Trier,
which had been in planning before World War II,
FIGURE 6.22. Elztalbriicke, view of completed
structure (courtesy of Dip!. lng. Manfred Bockel).
had to cross two large natural obstacles, the Rhine
River north of Koblenz (see the Bendorf Bridge,
Section 2.2) and the Elz Valle\'. In 1962 tenders
were called for on the Ell, Valley structure. Bidders
were provided with the grade requirements, di
mensions for a single or a dual structure, the loca
tion of the abutments, and the foundation condi
tions.
A consortium of Dyckerhoff & Widmann AG,
Wayss & Freytag KG, and Siemens-Bauunion
GmbH investigated four possible prestressed con
crete construction possibilities
5
:
1. A three-span variable depth structUre similar
to the Bendorf Bridge
2. A six-span constant-depth structure
3. A frame bridge
4. A nine-span "mushroom" construction with a
center row of piers
These four schemes were proposed, as were a large
number of different ones in both steel and con
crete by other firms. The successful low bid was for
scheme 4 above. The nine-span "mushroom" con
struction was approximately 4'7( less costly than an
orthotropic-deck, three-span continuous steel
girder and 7% less costly than a prestressed con
crete girder bridge of six spans.
6
The Elztalbrucke, extending the methodology
used earlier for primarily low-level urban viaducts,
was the first application of the "mushroom" cross
section for a high-level structure crossing a deep
valley. Previously, this type of construction, be
cause of its short, stiff piers, required a number of
expansion joints in the deck to accommodate
thermal forces, elastic shortening, creep, and
shrinkage. In this structure, owing to the flexibility
of the tall piers, only one expansion joint was used,
Koblenz Trier
east abutment west abutment
B
r: 0 E f Ii H I
JI8,65f A 318,910 JIS,.07 Jcl,m Jc2,',7f) m,m 32],969
I!!!I lii!1
30 cm stone
facing
B c o [ F fl H I K
Plan
(b)
FIGURE 6.23. Elztalbriicke, cross seCIlOll a nd plan, frolll Ieference 5
(courtesy of Der Hauingenieur). Longitudinal section. (b) Plan.
III Iii
'I
;11
.. W
Iii
III
7,00 __ II I
Iii
m,zo v ... '" Ii I
/Ii 1
II
/11
Ii!
III ,I
Ii
"
II
5,50 ZJ!J,8J E Ii
7,00 D&W rock anchors i
illJ) - ro
7,00 en
Ii
7,50
i,5{i
Longitudinal cross section
(11)
II
,,[
l,i
ji'
MO -SL,85,.0
1M,"
7,00

7,5IJ
'"
N)
<.0
..:r
298 Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 6.24. Elztalbrucke, cross section at pier E,
from reference 5 (courtesy of Der Bauingenieur).
in the center spall. This joint is located 38 ft (l1.6
111) from pier E. The superstructure is l11onolithi
calh' connected at all piers and the ahutments.
At the center of each span is a 43 It (13d 111)
long, lIl<lssi\e fiat plate, which in cross section has a
thickness \'arying from the centerline (crown oj
road\\';}\) of in. (650 mm) to in. (450111111) at
the outside edges. The "mushroom" ponion or the
span \'aries in thickness, trans\-ersely and lon
gitudinally, to 8 It (2.45 m) at the pier. The
superstruclllre is prestressed longitudinally and
transversely.
The octagonal piers ill cross senion, exter
nal dimensiolls of 15.75 by 19 It (4.R bY 5.H 111) witii
a wall thickness of I H to I in. (300 to 350 111m).
An)' gi\'en pier has a constallt cross section lor its
entire height. The percentage of' \'(Ttical reill
lorcel11elll. with a cOllcrete cover on the outel' aJl(1
interior faces of' 1.5 ill. (40 Illlll). \aries froJll O.H to
1.2
t
lc or the gross cOllcrete area. Piers were (,011'
strllcted by slip-forming. The eight pier shafts
were COllst ructcd in Se\'ell months. The tallest pier,
;) 11.6 rt (95 Ill) ill height. was slip-forllled and cast
at a rate of ahout 2G It (1'1 1lI) per day and thus J'C
quired 12 days to constmcl. The top 4 n (1.2 III)
portioJl of the pier was cast with the superstructure
by the trawling scallolding. On the top or the slip
formed pier lour 7.2 h (2.2 m) high pedestals were
cast to pro\'ide tlte support for the caJltile\'er gir
der i'rom the traveling scaffolding, Figure 6.25:"
The tr,ivelillg sc:tlfolding was asselllhled at
abutment A alter c01Jlpletion of the ai>U1l11CJlt and
the hall-mushroolJl pndectil1g therefrom. This
101'111 traveler, Figure 6.26, aCCOIl1IJ1O(\ales a lull
widt h span-lengt h segment of 12:i It (:i7.5 Ill).
Alter the hrst span. two weeks were required to
complete <t superstructure spall. Tbe first opera-
FIGURE 6.25. ElztalbrLicke, construction \'iew (cour
tesy of Dip!. lng. Manfred Bockel).
Concreting sequence
011 !II (II)
---- 8Z50
'5::00
Hanger
-- IOOIJI)

T /
Side longitudinal girder
Center longitudinal
girder
Side
support
bearing
J75oo-+----------J7500
Lower auxiliary
scaffold
Upper catwalk
Pier
Travel direction
----
Longitudinal cross section
(a)
Plan
(b)
Center longitudinal
girder
Side longitudinal
girder

\>!I---
Formwork at
traveling position
,Formwork at
concreting position position
Scaffolding after
advancement
Section C{)
(d)
concreting position
Section A-B
(c)
FIGURE 6.26. Elltalbrucke, form traveler, from reference 5 (courtesy of Der
Bauingenieur), (a) Longitudinal cross section. (b) Plan. (e) Section A-B. (Ii) Section C-D.
299
300 Progressive and Span-by.Span C-vnstruction of Segmental Bridges
tion was to cast a 42.65 ft (13 Ill) wide center por
tion of the bridge. After hardening and initial
stressing, the two outside edges, each 27 ft (8.25 m)
wiele, were cast. Subsequently the form traveler
was advanced to cast the next span.
5
As mentioned previously, an expansion joint is
located in the center span. During construction this
joint was "locked" until construction reached pier
G; then the joint was released.
5
During concreting the forms are suspended by
steel bars, and during advancement the forms are
carried by the bottom arm of the transverse can
tilevered steel members. The form traveler, Figure
6.26, essentially consists of two approximately] 41
ft (43 m) long longitudinal girders and eight trans
verse frames in a "e" configuration which sur
rounds the deck construction. The tTansverse
frames may be prm'ided with a covering to protect
the workmen and the construction from the
weather. At the forward end an approximately 72
ft (22 m) long cantilever beam, located on the cen
tcrline. is projected to the next pier for support.
6.4.5 GUADIASA VIADUCT, PORTUGAL
This structure is located on national route 260
crossing the Guadiana River between Beja and
Serpa, Portugal. The \'iaduct has a total length of
1115 ft (340 111) and consists of 197 ft (60 m) spans
except for the river spans, which are] 64 ft (50 m).
Trans\'ersely, the superstructure is 53.8 ft (16.4 m)
in width composed of two single-cell box girders.
Each box girder is 19.35 ft (5.9 m) wide, with the
depth varying from 6.5 ft (2.0 m) at midspan to 9.8
ft (3.0 m) at t.he piers. After construction of the box
girders. a longitudinal centerline closure is poured
and cantilevered sidewalks are constructed.
The superstructure is constructed by the span
by-span method. from inflection point to inflection
point, by an overhead self.launching form carrier,
Figure 6.27. The form carrier consists of 279 ft (85
m) long trusses of a depth varying from 9.8 It (;3.0
m) to 16.4 ft (5.0 m). Forms for concreting the
superstructure are supported by two series of sus
penders. One set pierces the concrete flanges and
Forward support --; r End traveler support
-_-7K-I'r':---/,,"-7K"'--.....j, / Rear support
I
3rd Phase
52.00
60.00

Elevation
(a)
Typical cross section
(e)
Section at forward support-forms open
(b)
FIGURE 6,27. Guadiana Viaduct, elevation and sections of form carrier. (a) Elevation.
(b) Section at forward support-forms open. (e) Typical cross section.
Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place Bridges 301
FIGURE 6.28. Loisachbriicke, layout and undersiele view of bridge. from reference 1:1
(COllrtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann).
is 'Iocated inside t he box cell. The other set is ar
ranged outside the box and supports the forms
when stripped and traveling past the piers in an
open position, Figure 6.27.
During concreting of the superstructure the
form carrier is supported on the forward pier by
an arrangement of a telescoping tubular cross
frame, at the rear; it is supported on the
superstructure at a location 26 ft (8.0 m) forward
of the rear pier. When the form carrier is being
launched forward, it moves over a support at the
tip of the completed superstructure cantilever
(near the inflection point), and its rear support
rides on the surface of the completed superstruc
ture. The form carrier (including all equipment)
weighs 209 tons (190 mt).
6./,() LO/S.1ClI BRIDGE. GERMA,VY
The federal autobahn between Munich and Lin
dau has an alignment that transverses the Mur
nauer swamp area near Ohlstadt and thus crosses
the Loisach River and the old federal highway B-2
(Olvmpiastrasse). Figure 6.28. Because of flooding
and poor soil conditions an embankment was not
possible, alld a decision was lllade requiring a dual
viaduct bridge st ructu re wit h a IOtallength of 4314
It (1315 Ill).'
The ft (70.96 111) lIlaill span crossing Ihe
Loisach River is a variable-depth single-cell box
girder constructed by the free cantilever method.
Depl h or the box ),{irder varies from 9.84 ft (:>.0 111)
to 5.58 ft (1.7 m), Figure 6.29. '['he approach spalls
are of a T-beam cross senion, Figure 6.29, COIl
structed by the span-by-span method with the forlll
carriers rUllllillg below the superstructure. Figure
is a longitudinal section of the bridge within
the area of the approach spans. showillg the form
carrier running below the level of the top slab..
ure 6.31 shows the form traveler in action.
Box girder T-beam
):).50
::
:2i_2,5C-;
FIGURE 6.29. Loisachbrucke, cross sections, from
reference 1:1 (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & \Vidrnann).
The dual structure has a total width of 100 ft
(30.5 1l1). Figure 6.29, and each half is supported
Oil two circular piers, excepting the Loisach spall
which is supported Oil wall piers. In the total
lellgth, the dual structures are subdivided illto
three sections by two transverse joints, Figure 6.28.
III plan the structure has a radius of 4265 h (1300
m) at the .vlunich end, allli the curvature reverses
at the Loisach with a radius of 6562 ft (2000 m).H
The completed structure is showll in Figure 6.32.
The circular piers arc 4 ft (1.2 III) ill diameter
and arc supported 011 20 in. (500 mm) driven piles
with an allowable load capacity of 176 tons (160
lIlt). Pile depThs van' frolIl 42 to 72 ft (1:3 to 22 Ill).
A total of 1182 piles were driven for a total length
of piling of 63,650 ft (19.400 m), with an average
length of pile of 53.8 h (16.4 m). Load capacity of
the piles was deterIIlined from eleven load tests
taken to 265 tons (240 mt).
Because of the poor soil conditions ami
gnmlld-water pressure, the substructure was COIl-
Box
302 Progressive and Span-b),-Span of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 6.30. longitudinal and cross section showing form tr;l\-eler
(couneS\' of Dip!. lng. Manfred Bockel).
-
FIGURE 6.31. l.oisachbriicke, \'iew of form traveler
ill aClioll (courtes\ of Dip!. lllg. Manfred Bockel).
FIGURE 6.32. Loisachbrucke, view of completed
structure (courtesy or Dip!. lng. ,Manfred Bockel).
stnKted in pits enclosed by sheet piling. The round
piers \',II'Y in height from 9.8 to 23 ft (3 to 7 m).
Because of the delay in pile driving, resulting from
the soil conditions, the foundation completion was
delayed jmll1 October 1970 to April 1971.
The 73 T-heam spans were constructed with two
span-by-span form travelers whose operations
were synchronized. On the :'vfunich side of the
Loisach four 223 ft (68 m) long and 4.26 ft (1.30 m)
high principal form support girders are supported
in the 100 ft (31 m) spans on cross beams at each
pier, which in turn are supported off the pile caps.
For the longer spans an auxiliary support was re
quired at midspan. The radius and superelevation
in a support length were held constant. Superele
\'ation varies from+5.5 to -4%. For a normal span
88:i0 ft3 (250 m
3
) of concrete were placed in nine
hours.R
Becallse of the tight time schedule, work was
continued through the winter months in defiance
of the extreme harsh weather conditions in the
Loisach Valle\'. A weather enclosure was mounted
OIl the form traveler and heated b\' warlll-air blow
ers. In t his enclosure t he reinforcement and pre'
heated concrete was placed. In addition, the fresh
concrete was protected by heal mats. In this man
lier the work could proceed up to an outside tem
peratllre of 5F ( 15C). Construction cycle per
span was gradually reduced, after
from all original 14 days to se\'en days. Following
completioll of the western roadway up to the
Loisach the form traveler was transfened to the
eastern roadway for the return trip to the Munich
abutmellt. All 38 spans on the :'vlunich side were
completed hy the elld of February 1972, saving
lline weeks in the construction schedule.
On the Garmisch side of the Loisach the movable
scaffold s\'stem cOllsisted of four principal girders
292 ft (89 111) in length and 9.8 ft (3.0 111) deep,
Figure 6.:i3. Superelev<ition varies from +4 to
-5.5% .
Because of the dela\' ill the pile driving, the first
span was started in Decemher 1970 with a 12-week
delav. The last approach span on the left of the
Garmisch side was completed in A ugust of 1971.
The traveler was then transferred to the other
roadway for the return trip and all 35 bridge spans
were completed b\' March 1972. By a gradual re
duction of the work cycle from ]4 days to seven
days, nine weeks were saved in the construction
schedule. Not only was the loss of time resulting
from the foundation work made up, but a time ad
vantage was attained.
The four box girder spans (two in each dual
structure) on either side of the principal span over
the Loisach were cast on stationary falsework. Aux
iliary cross beams to support the falsework girder
were supported on driven piles. The two main
Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place Bridges
303
1
FIGURE 6.33. Loisachbl'licke, cross section of mo\'
ahlc scaffold svstCll1. from reference H (courtesy of
J)vckerllOll& Widlll<lnn).
spalls of ft (70.96 ttl) were collstructed by the
free method. Thirteen segments of 16.4
ft (5 ttl) were required: six segments \vere cast
from one pier and then the cantilever form travel
ers were transferred to the opposite ()Ier for the
remaining seven segments.
H
After a construction time o/" approximately :W
months the bridge was completed in 1972, shortly
before beginning of the Olympic Games.
6.4.7 RHEISBRt'CKf; f)L'SSEU)ORFHEHE,
GER:"U,Vr
This is an asymmetric cable-staved bridge with an
inverted concrete Y-pvlon, Figures 6.34 through
6.37. The overall length from abutment to abut
ment is 3764 ft (1147.25 m). The Rhine River span
is 1205 ft (367.25 111) long and is a rectangular
three-cell steel box girder with outriggers to sup
port a 135 ft (41 111) wide orthotropic deck, Figures
6.36 and 6.37. At the pylon there is a tramition
from the steel box girder to prestressed concrete
box girders, which are used for the thirteen 197ft
(GO til) spans in the approach viaduct. The struc
ture is continuous throughout ils entire length,
having expansioll joints onI: at the abutments.
The approach viaduct has from pier 9 up to pier
U, Figure 6.37, a five-cell box girder cross section
with a width of 96.8 It (29.5 m) and a depth of 12.5
ft (3.8 m). This heavy cross section, Figure 6.36,
resists the anchorage forces from the cable stays.
For the balance of the viaduct length from abut
ment to pier 9 the cross section consists of two
single-cell boxes, a continuation of the exterior
cells of the five-cell box girder cross section. How
ever, the interior webs of each box are of less
FIGURE 6.34. Rheinbriicke Dusseldorf-FIche, artist's rendering (courtesy of Dyck
erhoff & Widmann).
304 Progressive and Span-by-Span Cgnstruction of Segmental Bridges
\
.
-1. \>.
-= :::::: a. .
FIGURE 6.35. Rheinbrucke Dusseldorf-Flehe, VIew
from construction end of approach viaduct looking to
ward the pylon under cOllstruction.
thickness than that of the five-cell cross section.
The width of each box then becomes a constant 23
ft (7.0 m) outside-to-outside of webs. A diaphragm
occurs at each pier.
'rhe approach spans were constructed segmen
tally by the span-by-span method with construction
joints at approximately the one-fifth point of the
span. As described in Section 6.1.2, the method
used here employed movable falsework, Figures
1.54 and 6.38: supported from the ground. The
197 rt (60 m) spans were poured in place in one
unit from construction joint to construction joint.
This required continuous placement of as much as
3200 cubic yards (2500 m
3
) of concrete. After each
section was cast in place and reached sufficient
strength, the prestress tendons were stressed and
the falsework was moved forward to repeat the
cycle.
6.4.8 DENNY CREEK BRIDGE, U.S.A.
The Denny Creek Bridge is the first implementa
tion of the span-by-span method of constr'uction in
the United States. It is located a few miles west of
Snoqualmie Pass in the state of Washington and
will carry the 1-90 westbound traffic down off the
pass. It is a three-lane, 20-span, prestressed con
crete box girder design with a total length of 3620
ft (1103 m) on a 6% grade, Figure 6.39. 'rhe con
tractor. Hensel Phelps Construction Company,
elected a construction method similar to those used
in many German and Swiss designs where the area
is environmentallv sensitive.
Because of ecological and environmental
sensitivity of the' project site, construction of the
piers was carried out under extreme space restric
tions. The contractor was allowed a narrow access
road for the full length 01 the project and addi
tional work and storage area at each pieL
9
The 19 pier shal'ts have a hollow rectangular
cross section with exterior dimensions of 16 by 1 ()
it (4.R8 [)\ 3.05 Ill), a wall thickness of 2 it (0.61 m),
and heiRhts from 35 to 160 ft (10.7 to 48.8
m), Figure 6.40. Twelve piers are supported on rec
tangular footings. The other seven piers are sup
ported on pier shafts sun k through talus and till
and kned illto solid bed rock, Figure 6.41. Pier
shaft diameter is 12 it (3.66 m) with a maximum
depth of shaft below the terrain of 80 ft (24.38 m).
The superstructure was constructed in three
stages, Figure 6.42. In the fil-st stage, bottom flange
and webs were constructed from a 330 it (100 m)
long movable launc,hing truss, Figure 6.43. The
twO trusses used for constructing the "U" portion
of the box section rested on landing wings at the
piers, Figures 6.44 and 6.45, as the launching truss
moved up the valley, sliding from pier top 10 pier
top. The construction schedule called for one span
every two weeks. The entire scaffold system was
supported on six jacks to adjust for proper align
ment, two jacks at the rear of the span or initial
pier and four jacks at the advance section or next
pier.
The launching truss was designed to support the
outside steel forms of the box section, Figure 6.46,
and to facilitate removal of the inside forms,9 Fig
ure 6.42. Track-mounted cranes installed at the
top of t.he truss frame lifted and moved the inside
forms from the web, hanging them on the truss so
that they were moved forward with the advance
ment of the launching truss. Figure 6.47 is an
interior view of the working area between trusses.
Visible are the overhead track for the 15 ton (13.6
mt) cranes located near each web. Also visible are
the cable hangars from the roof frame for the
bottom slab support during casting.
The steel trapezoidal box form used for con
i






P)-Ion
17U\t'lh,J"
Steel Superstructure
41"'"
__ __ __ __ __ _ "-.,,.,:::::_-- --". .. 1I.1SO - --if m
: mo ! pso I mo I "") lOt) , -
,,, " " :t' ': I

T:lOoo
I - -' - I I
Reinforced Concrete Superstructure
Heavy Section
It. "" .k'...,
.".
llhC!J 4
'lj 0[8..1.
0
IJ!JI t!
11<>;1 s"a L ..""
: I r;ao I """ pax! 'l7'5 - 11*
Reinforced Concrete Supeniitructure
Normal Section
.0
j I D
dt!ll
.., : ..... ! l!!9''It)Q I ,.. mo MiG mo '"OS I .100!!! I. '"" I PSO
"lQQ
FIGURE 6.36. Rheinbriicke de\atioll of and cross sections.
<.>0
o
Vl
w
o
O"J
Eleval
i
""
lrhWl 10 12 13 rrhWl
"
13.60.0, '80.0 367.25 151!
110.25
Plan
Bearing Condilions
\
\
'"
1;
\ ~
1+1
+ Unrestrained
:: Wind bearing
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Unrestrained
~
FIGURE 6.37. Rhei1lhriid.e Dusseldorf-Fiche, plall and eie\";\tion.
307 Span-by-Span Cast-in-Place Bridges
FIGURE 6.38. Rheinbrucke Dusseldorf-Fiehe, end
view 0[' girder.
was insulated with styrofoam, Figure
G.48, and had heat cables installed (<Inuated if
need be) to help llIailltain the temperature and
rate of cure. Also, heat blankets were available to
go ()\er the senion to reduce heat loss and main
tain a COllstant temperature ill cold weather.
COllcrete was hatched hOJll a plant erected near
the west alHltl1lellt lIslng the highway right-or-wav.
The cOl1traC1or lIsed three H C.lI \<1 (Ii. I Ill;]) ready-
mix trucks for mixing the concrete, which was then
pumped to the proper location. Superstructure
pours were about 300 cu yd (229.4 ma) and took
about nine hours, using two concrete pumps and
the track-mounted cranes installed in the truss
frame. Concrete strength required was 5000 psi
(34.47 YfPa). The contractor obtained 3500 psi
(24.13 :\IPa) in three days using tin. (19 mill)
aggregate. The 28-day strength ranged from 6100
to 6600 psi (42.06 to 45.5l MPa).
In stage two the top Hange between the webs was
placed. \-1etal forms, Figure 6.49, were supported
from the bortom flange and webs, Figure 6.42.9
In stage three the two top flange cantilevers were
placed, Figure 6.42, bv a movable GIITiage that
rode on top of the box cast ill stage two, Figure
6.42. Upon completion of stage three, the trans
verse prestressing of the top (lange was accolll
plished. The completed section is 52 ft (15.08 Ill)
wide, providing three traffic lanes.
The Washingtoll DOT sponsored the design.
Three alternatives were prepared for bidding
purposes. One was an in-house state design; tile
ot ber two were prepared bv olltside consultants.
The Dyckerhofl & Widmanll design proved to be
;.1,1
-,,
\. ..t' .. rl\.,.,.t-"" l
, to
.
., I
1,
",1
1
'.
' ......."
tlJL
,
""
"l.


'-I
5'
FIGURE 6.39. Denny Creek Bridge, perspecri\e sketch.
308 Progressive and Span-by-Span of Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 6.40. Denny Creek BI-irige, new of piers
under construction (courtesy of J. L Vatshell, Wash
ington DOT).
the most economical. VSL Corporation was the
subcontl-actor proyiding the prestressing expertise.
6.5 Span-by-Span Precast Bridges
0.5.1 LOSG KEY BRIDGE, U ..S.A.
Long Key Bridge in the Florida Keys carries U.S.
Highway I across Long Key south to Conch Key.
The existing bridge consists of 215 reinforced con
crete arch spans, ranging in length from 43 to 59 ft
(\3.1 10 18 m) for a total bridge length of 11,960 ft
(3645 Ill).
The new bridge, presently under construction, is
50 ft (15.2 111) between centerlines and just north
and parallel to the existing structure. It is a precast
segmental box girder constructed by the span-by
span method and consisting of 101 spans of 118 ft
(36 m) and end spans of 113 ft (34.4 m'} for a total
length of 12,144 ft (3701 m). The roadway width
between barrier curbs is 36 ft (11 m), Figure 6.50,
to accommodate a 12 ft (3.66 m) roadway and a 6 ft
(1.83 Ill) in each direction. Figure 6.51 is
FIGURE 6.41. Delli1\" Creek Bridge, substructure
types.
an artist's rendering showing the precast V -piers
with the 7 ft (2m) deep box girder segments.
In the preliminary design stage three methods of
segmelltal construction were considered: balanced
cantilever, span-by-span, and progressive place
ment. The progressive placement method was dis
carded because it was felt (at the time) to be too
new {or acceptance in U.S. practice. It was later
introduced on the Linn Cove Viaduct in :\orth
Carolina (see Section 6.3.2).
This is the first use of a precast span-by-span
method in the United States. The segments are
transported from the casting yard to their location
in the structure by barge. The segments are then
placed with a barge crane on an erection truss,
which is supported by a steel grillage at the V-piers.
Each span has a 6 in. closure pour after all the
segments have been placed on the erection truss
and properly aligned. The essential operations are
indicated in Figure 6.52.
Segment weight is approximately 65 tons (59
mt). Each segment is placed on the erection truss
on a three-point support and brought into its final
position. It takes approximately four to six hours
Schematic of movable scaffolding
Overhead
dollies
Stage three
FIGURE 6.42. Denm Creek Bridge. schematic of construction stages. from reference 9
(counes\ of the Portland Cement Association).
Jacks for grade,
superelevation and camber
o
...
Truss jacks
Stage one
Stripped position ..,
I
I
Stage two
70'
Rollers and jacks
'. ---Jacks
FIGURE 6.43. Dennv Creek Bridge, view of launch
ing truss.
FIGURE 6.44. Denny Creek Bridge, view of landing
wings at piers (courtesv of J. L Vatshell, Washington
DOT).
309
310 Pro.gressive and Span-by-Span Co.nstructio.n o.f Segmental Bridges
FIGURE 6.46. Denn\ Cn'ck Bridg-e. \ in,' of' outside
steel fonm (courtesy of J. L Yatshell. Washington
DOn.
FIGURE 6.45. Denny Creek Bridge, close-up vic\\' of
landing wing (counes\, of J. L. Vatshe11. Washingto1l
DOT).
to place the seglllents required for one spall. The
contractor has placed as malJl' as three spans per
week for a t(>lal or :154 ft (lOS Ill) of completed
superstructure per week and has <l\'eraged 2.25
spalls per week.
Allother major deviation from United States
practice ill this p n ~ e c t was the use of external pre
stressing tendons (located inside the box girder
cell). This requires that the tendons be considered
as ullbonded for ultimate-strength analysis. Plac
ing the tendons inside the box girder void allows
the web thickness to be minimized. Tendon
geometry is controlled by deviation blocks cast
mOllolithically with the segments at the proper lo
cation in the span, Figure 6.53. These blocks per
form the same function as hold-down devices in a
pretensioning bed. The tendon ducts between de
viation blocks or anchorage locations or both are
composed of polyethylene pipe, which is then
grout-injected upon completion of stressing
operations-a corrosion protection system similar
to that used for the cable stays on some cable-stay
bridges. HI.11
FIGURE 6.47. Denll\ Creek Bridge, \'iew of interior
working area between trusses (courtes\ of Herb Schell.
FH\\,A Region 10).
"-'-- 1:11;4.
FIGURE 6.48. Denny Creek Bridge, insulation on
exterior steel forms with installed heat cables (courtesy
of Herb Schell, FH\\,A Region 10).
311 Span.by-SpGn Precast Bridges
. -,;.
FIGURE 6.49. Denl1v Creek Bridge, \"in\ of l11l'\al
form wied /()I' stage-two construnion (courtes\ or J L.
Valshell, Washington DOT),
FIGURE 6.51. Long Kev Bridge. artist".; rendering,
The external tendollS overlap at the pier seg
ment to develop continuity, The bridge is cotltitlll
OllS betweetl expansion joims for eight spans, 94-l
t't (2HH \11). After the closure pOllr reaches the re
quired strength, the post-tensioning is accol1l
plished and the span is complete. A :30 in. (7liO
mIll) diameter waterline is installed inside the void
of the box girder. The erection tl'llSS is then low
ered and llloved awa\, from the completed span,
l'he erection truss is handled at a one-point
pick-up location bv a C>shaped lifting hook, Figure
6 . 5 ~ , The truss is sllpported against the barge
crane and lIloved pamllel to the Ilew bridge ulltil it
Section at pier Section at midspan
FIGURE 6.50. Long Ke\' Bridge, typical cross section of superstructure,
312 Progressive and Span-by-Span c..onstruction of Segmental Bridges
The span by span erection concept utilizes a temporary steel assembly truss
in conjunction with a barge mounted crane as shown. The steel truss
spanning between the piers is equipped with post-tensioning tendons along
the bottom chord to facilitate adjustments for deflectiOns and lowering the
truss upon completion of the span.
Iii
I
FIGURE 6.52. Long Key Bridge, span-by-span erection scheme.
reaches the position for a new span, and the cycle is
repealed.
6.5.2 SEVEN AlILE BRIDGE, U.S.A.
The Seven Mile Bridge, Figure 6.54, in the Florida
Keys carries U.S. Highway 1 across Seven Mile
Channel and Moser Channel from Knights Key
west and southwest across Pigeon Key to Little
Duck Key.
The existing structure consists of 209 masonry
arch spans, 300 spans of steel girders resting on
masonry piers, and a swing span over Moser
Channel. The spans range in length from 42 ft
in. (I3 m) to 47 ft 4t in. (14.4 m) for the masonry
arches and from 59 ft 9 in. (18.2 m) to 80 ft (24.4
m) for the steel girders resting on masonry piers,
which along with the 256 ft 10 in. (78.3 m) swing
span, produce a total bridge length of 35,716 ft 3
in. (10,886 m).
313 Span-by-Span Precast Bridges
DETAIL 1
$CoiJlr'
PERSPEC TlVE VIEw
ELEVATION
FIGURE 6.53. Long Key Bridge, typical tendon lay
out.
'.
FIGURE 6.54. Seven Mile Bridge, anist's rendering.
The new bridge, presently under construction, is
located to the south of the existing bridge. It is a
precast segmental box girder constructed by the
span-by-span method with 264 spans at 135 ft
(41.15 m), a west-end span of 81 ft in. (24.88 m),
and an east-end span of 141 ft 9 in. (43.2 m) for a
total length of 35,863 ft in. (l0,931 m). The
roadway requirements are the same as for the
Long Key Bridge and the cross section is almost
identical, Figure 6.50. Seven Mile Bridge crosses
the Intracoastal Waterwav with 65 ft (19.8 m) verti
cal clearance, and its alignment has both vertical
and horizontal curvature.
DETAIL 2
SuII!"
The consultants, Figg and \Iuller Engineers,
I nc., used the same concepts as had been used for
the Long Key Bridge. except they omitted the
V-pier alternative in favor of a rectangular hollow
box-pier scheme that is precast in segments and
post-tensioned vertically to the foundation system.
As mentioned in Section 1.9.3, the contractor
elecred to alter the constru<:tion scheme ill this
bridge from that of the Long Kev Bridge bv sus
pending the segments from an overhead truss
rather than placing them on an underslung truss.
The essential operations for construction of a typi
cal span are as follows:
1. Transportation of all segments by barge to the
erection site.
2. Assembly of all segments in a span (with the
exception of the pier segment) on a structural
steel frame supported by a barge.
3. Placing the pier segment on the pier adjacent
to the previously completed portion of tbe
deck with the overhead truss working in can
tilever.
4. Launching the overhead truss onto this newly
placed pier segment.
314 Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction oj Segmental Bridges
5. Lifting in place the entire assembl\' of tvpical
segments with four winches supported bv the
truss.
6. Post-tensioning the entire span after the clo
sure joiIll has been poured between the
finished span and the new span.
7. Launching the overhead truss to repeat a new
cycle of operations.
Arter a period of adjustment, the method has
allowed a speed 01 construction equal to that for
the assembly truss scheme used for the Long Key
Bridge. One complete span rna\ be constructed in
olle da\", and as Ill;\m' as six 135 ft spans have been
placed ill a single week. Figure 6.55 shows the as
semhl\" of segments being erected in a "'pical span.
6.6 Design Aspects of Segmental Progressive
Construction
6.6. J (; J;;,\'EIUL
The use of temporary to earn the weight of
segmellts during construction induces onlj' a nor
tllal compression load ill the deck ami a very lim
ited <t11l0UIJl of bending. COllsequclllh', the static
scheme of t he st ruct ure during const ruction is very
close 10 that of the finished struClUle. This is a
advantage the conventional can
tilen:'r construction scheme, where continuity of
the sliccessive cantilc\er arms results ill two static
schelllcs significantly different het ween const ruc
tion and sen'ice.
Because of this similarit\ of static scheme
throughout erection and service, it is expected that
I he lanllI1 of prestress tendons fOllnd in cast-in
place strtlctures or in span-In-spall construction
-
should be applicable to progressive construction,
with the added advantage that the tendons can be
regularly stressed and anchored at the successive
joints between segments in a simple manner. .
On the other hand, progressive construction dif
fers in several aspects such. as pier design and
deflection control during construction, calling for a
more detailed examination.
6.6.2 REACT/aSS as PIERS DCRISC
CO.\'STRllCT/OS
Construction of a tvpical span proceeds in two
stages, as shown in Figure 6.56: (I) pure cantilever
erection, of a length (l from the pier, and (2) con
struction with temporan staYs on the remaining
length (L - (f). Length (f should be selected (within
the nearest number of segments being placed) such
as 10 keep t he girder load moments O\'er the pier
within allowable limits.
Assuming that this moment is of exactly the
same magnit ude as t he fixed end moment of a
t\'pical span tInder the same unit load W, OIle may
write:
H'(l2 WL2
12
J
_pH
1
FIGURE 6.55. Sc\'C1l Mile erection of a typical FIGURE 6.56. Progressiye construction, deck reac
span.
tions on piers.
315 Design Aspects of Segmental Progressive Construction
for a constant-depth girder, which is the general
case for progressive construction. Thus:
a = 0.408L 0.40 L
Fora = 0.40L the moment over the piel' is equal to
AI = 0.08WL2. The moment over the preceding
pier, for a structure with a large number of identi
cal spans, is equal to O.268AJ. Therefore, the reac
tion over the pier at the end of this first stage of
cOllstruction can be easily computed as:
R = O.4()WL + 1.268 x O.08WL = O.50WL
During the second construction stage the weight
of the remaining part of the span is supported bv
the tempOl'arv stavs, which are anchored in the
rear span as close as possible to the previous pier so
as not to induce undesirable variations of moments
in the lasl completed span. Consequentlv, the
weight of that part of the span induces in the pier a
react.ioll eq lIal to:
O.hWL + l.!O 1.02/;VL
l.U()
The total reaction <lUI'ing construction applied to
the pier is thus:
R = O.30WL + 1.02WL
as opposed to R = WL for cast-in-place or span
In.-span cOl1struction. This temporary increase of
girder load re,lCtioll of 62% will evelltuallv vanish
whell construction proceeds. It is importallt to
verify how critical this pier temporan overload
may he lor the design of the substructure. Taking
the example of a 130 to 200 It span, the average
loads as follows for a 40 ft wide bridge de
signed for three of traffic:
Girder load 8.0 ksf
Superimposed load 1.3 ksf
Equivalent live load including impact 2.6 ksf
The maximum reaction during construction COIIl
pares with that after completion as tollows (values
gl',:en are the ratio between reaction and span
length):
l. During construction, l.62 x 8.0 = 1:3 ksf
2. Compkredsrruaure:
<). Girder load 8.0
,b. Superimposed load 1.5
c. Live load, including
provision for continuity
over the support
(15%),2.6 x l.lS
l2.5 ks!"
The difference is small and usually more than
offset bv the fact that horizontal loads during con
struction are smaller than during service.
6.6.3 TENSIO,vS IN STAYS AN/) /)EFLlc'CT/O,v
CONTROL DL'RI.\'C COXSTRL'CTION
As shown previously, progressive construction of a
tvpical span entails two successive stages:
Cantilever construction on a !engt h 1/
Temporarv sllspension by Slays 011 the relllalllll1g
part of the span (L a)
This second stage induces small deflectiolls and
rotation, provided that the vertical cOll1ponent of
the slav loads balances t he total deck weight. On
the other hand, the ti rst-stage cons! rtlction not
only creates slIbstantial deflections but also changes
t he geometric position of the entire spall, as lI1av be
seen in Figure 6.57.
The weight (Wa) of the deck section produces:
A rotation of the previous span, w,, which will
at the following pier and create a vertical
deflection, YI
a deflection of the cantilever proper, Y2
a rotation at the end of the cantilever, W2, which
will project again at the following pier imo a
deflectioll (L (/)
Altogether the total dellection is:
H! '.
('>L2 ' 17; + ,I L ")
24EI- v,} W
If we let Il = af L. the del1ection can then be written
as:
vVL I "(2' 1--;:; + 4
24EI u- v J . II
With II 0.4 as assumed before, the total deHec
lion is:
- WL4
Y = 0. . 032 I
where W unit deck load,
L = span length,
316 Progressive and Span-by-Span of Segmental Bridges
}:' = concrete modullls,
I section inertia.
A simple parallletric analysis will reveal the im
pOrlance of this problem. If tV is the specific gravity
of concrete and A the cross-sectional area, then
= ,vA. It was shown in Chapter 4 that the efficiencv
factor of a box section is:
p = = 0.60 to 0.63
If the section is symmetricaL {, = (2 0.5 h (II =
section depth). and I = 0.157 Ah2 max. If (;1 =
0.33 Ii and (2 0.6711, which is the practical dis
sym melr), of a box seelion. I = 0.133,411
2
111i n. For
all practical purposes, assume I = O.14Ah2. The de
flection then becomes:
Because the construction proceeds rapidly, E
shollld be taken lor short-duratioll loading: that is,
E = 800.000 ksf; t.he specific gravity of concrete is w
= 0.15 kef. The slcndcmess ratio Llh varies be
tW('CI1 18 and 22. Results are shown in Figure 6.58.
Constructioll of a 200 ft span, for exalllple, with
a slenderness ratio 0120 wiI1 he accompanied a
deflection under girder load (without prestress) at
the next pier of 8.3 inches. The construction
method is therefore ven sensitive \() concrete
dc!lcCliolls. which are b\' the great lever
arm of the first-stage construction of the spall
projecting its intrinsic deformation to the follow
lIlg lHer.
Fortunately, prestress will give a helping hand
and contribute to substantially decreasing the
girder load deflection. The minimum prestress re
quired at this stage is to balance the tensile stresses
induced by the girder load moments. "Vith the
same notations as above, one may compute the
prestress force and the corresponding moment for
three positions of the neutral axis:
(lilt 0.5
(2/11 = O.S
Efficiency factor
Distance from
centroid or prestress to top fiber
Eccentricity of prestress
Lower central core
Lever arm 01 prestress
Prestress moment
(ratio of girder load moment)
p = 0.60
d O.OSh
e = 0.45h
r
2
1c
1
= 0.30h
0.75h
= 0.60
0.75 __
t:,
--=-L----t-!
I
! yTI1TAL " 01/15 'y/ I.' I
, lUI I
FIGURE 6.57. Pmgrcssiv{' (()llSlrunioll. def(Jrlll<l
lIons,
For an efliciency factor p = 0.65 thc corresponding
\,tlues would be:
0.58 0.47 0.39
The prestress will therefore reduce the deflections
by the same amoulll-that is, approximately half
the total girder loud deflections. The resultant
deflection (girder load + prestress) still remains
very sigIlificant as SOOI1 as the span length is above
J50 /'t. These deflections must be taken into full
account to compute the camber diagram (for seg
ment precasting).
The next important point to consider here is the
second-stage construction of a tvpical span when
the remaining part of the girder is suspended from
the temporary sla\,s. The concrete girder and the
group of stays form an elastic svstem that supports
the applied loads: girder load for the segments al
ready in place, swivel crane and new segment
(lilt 0.4 (11h = 0.33
(21h = 0.6 czlh = 0.67
p = 0.60 p = 0.60
d 0.05h d O.OSh
e = 0.3Sh e = 0.28h
r
2
1c
1
0.36h r21c
I
= 0.40h
0.7 Jh 0.68h
= 0,49 0.28 = 0.41
0.71 = 0.68 =
317 Design Aspects of Segmental Progressive Construction
:sp.. .., (flJ
o so 100 ISD 100
FIGURE 6.58. Progressive c(ll1strllctioll, deflenions.
traveling the bridge with the trailer and trac
tor. Two examples ha\'e been considered to show
the relative response or the variolls componellts of
this elastic s,"stem toward the application of' a load.
l. f08 /1 (33m) sjJan This was one tvpicd span
of the Rombas Viaduct. The spall has heell as
sumed to be completed except for the pier segment
over the next pier. For this construction stage, the
swivel crane and the new segment applv to the
staved cantilever a load of 88 tons (80 mt). In view
of the great stiffness of the concrete girder com
pared to the group of stavs, the total moment in
duced bv the load remains alinost entirely in the
coilcrete girder and there is only a small spontane
ous increase of the stay loads, as shown in Figure
6.59. The magnitude of temporary prestress in the
deck must be designed accordingly to keep all
joints under compression for all intermediate
loading cases.
2: 260 ji (80 m) span This example is taken
from a recent design for a large project in Europe
where progressive construction was cOlltelllpblcd
for a viaduct with a large number of identkal 260
ft (80 m) spans all made up of 26 segments lOft C)
m) long. Figures 6.60 and 6.61 show the distribu
tion of moments between concrete girder and
temporary stays at three successive stages of seg
ment placing: segments IS, 20, and 25, respec
tively. The first nine segments are placed ill can
tilever; the following 15 segments are suspellded
from temporary stays, while the last typical seg
ment and the acUacent pier segment are placed
without stavs.
The proportion of the load (alld corresponding
moment) (aken by the stavs increases as the can
tilever length increases ancl, when the last segment
is placed, more than half the load is supported b\'
the stavs. For very-long-spa n stayed bridges, this
distrihution of load between stavs and concrete
girder reaches the situation where the load is al
most entirely supported by the stays and the COll
crete girder is subjected onlv to an axial force, ex
cept in the area of the longest
The consideration of' distributioll of loads and
mOll1ents between stays and concrete girder has an
important aspect during construction-that is, the
accuracv of the tension in the stays ami cOl1Se
quences of an accidental deviaLion between com
puted values of stressing loads in the stavs and
their actual values in the held. For example, take
the simple case of a span L with 4O<Ic huilt in pure
cantilever and the remaining 60o/c suspended bv
stays (see Figure 6.56). The moment over the pier
due to the second-stage construction load is .'1.1
Assume that an accidental deviation took
place of 5% between the design loads for the Slavs
and the actual values obtained in the field (owing to
friction in the jacks, in the pressme
gauges, and so on), As a result, an additional mo
ment will appear over the pier of LlM .fo 0.42 WL 2
=. 0.021 WU. The corresponding tensile stress
the top fiber (assuming the error in stay loads was
to reduce the theoretical values by 5%) can be eas
ily computed b\':
0.02liiJAUc j
ApCIC2
0.02IwP
With IV 0.15 kef, p = 0.60, and C2 0.6011:
2
tlf = 0.0088 Lh
318 Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmentai Bridges
FIGURE 6.59. I'rogressi\'l' constructioll. illcrease of st<l\ loading,
The stress ill ksl 1'01' 20 (slcndcrIlcss ratio) is
tht' following lor s(,\'eraJ span lengths:
::00
This stress is !lot critical for short spans but 111<1\'
becolll(' significant for Jong ones. The simple deri
\,;ttiolJ gi\'Cll abO\e shows that control of the st<l\'
l<:nsiolling operatiolls ;11 the site should always he
Oil the safe side with due allowance fOT inaccuracy.
A de\'iatioll ill the tension of the sta\'s will also
affee! t he deflect ions during const ruction. Without
t he presence of the stays the total deflection ()\'er
the next pier due to the load on the length (L - a)
would be:
y
which gives for u = 0.4 as before:
, = 0 <)'166 4
) "
Assu me I hat the ill<lCClI ran' of the sla\ loads leaves
ill the concrcte girder 01 its own weight to be
carried \)\ bending: the resulting deflection over
the pier would he:
WL4
O,OllH E1
This value should be compared to the effect or the
constmctiol1, which \\"as previously given
as:
y 0.0327
In summary, a SO/C deviar.ion of the stay tension
loads will increase the call1ilever deflection due to
girder load by 36%. Considering the benefJcial ef
fect of prestressing for the latter, we see that ap
proximately 7% deviation of the stay load produces
the same deflection as the first-stage construction
loads including prestressing. This shows that the
deflections are important, particularly for long
spans built in progressive construction, but that
proper deHection control is an excellent tool to
;--'TJTAl 110/'1tNT
I
110"un BY
References 319
(usr.)
t5!J()(J '.
IS SUlfurs
rOTAl
!1Ol!fllT CARRlfD
illY CONCRETE QlltDER
Iii CANTrU:lItll
no F1 51'A1t

TOTAL I!O/'llJiT

r
. /
IwfOI'fEltT CAMICD &)f
t
(43.1 r.) CONC1tI'l'l GrrtDcJt
T
CO/ol,MU ilRIIDl
FIGURE 6.61. Pro14re;.siH' CO IlS I ruct iOll, disl riblll ion
or 1ll0lllCI1I bCIIH'l'1l ;.1;l\S and deL
tl5lXJ'A .... __
FIGURE 6.60.
0111101111'111 b('II\'(,CI1 al1d 14irder.
I'erih I hal slresses ill rile COllcrele girder are alw;t\s
kepi within allowable limits,
()JLI I..llf}{F OF //:',\/)()SS F()!{ J>/wr;I?ESSIlE
(;()SSIRL'CTI()X
Beculse the sialic scheme al the end or each COll
.SIl'lIC1ioll slep is identical to Ihat of a cast-in-place
structure, Ihe permanent tendons Gill he installed
in the strtlctllre immediately, without the transi
tion situations required by other construction
methodologies such ,IS incremental laullching.
.\ tvpical prestress lavow for progressiv'e COIl
structioll \\ill rhus include:
,\ hrst family of tendons located in the top Hange
()\er the v;lriolls piers, with anchors symmetricallv
locHed ill blisters, the purpose of which is to resist
negative lllornelltS over rhe supports.
A second f;lll1iiv of tendons located along the span
ill the bottom Hallgeand also anchored in blisters
inside the box section. LJsually the top and bottom
blisters are joined to a web rib, allowing temporary
preslress hal'S 10 he anchored during segment
placing.
Possihh a third familv of' tendons made of internal
SI<lVS with a draped profile and anchored over the
ill the diaphragm. Ihe purpose of which is 10
supplelllelli hoth olher families vdlile reducing Ihc
net shear stresses ill the webs hecause of the \'erti
ed componcllt of prest ress,
References
I. H, Willfoill. "PH'st rcssed Concrete l)ridg-e Con
strunioll lI'ith Forllll\'ork EquiIIIl1CI1I,"
First IlIIcrn;tlional SnnposiulIl COII{TCtC Bridge De
sign, Papcr SP AU Publication Sl'-:!:l,
American Concrete Institllte, DCTroit, 19!JY.
,) H. Win!()ill, "Die Vel"\\TIHlullg \'on Vorschllriis
Iungell biem Briickellbau" (The l'se of (,ravcling
Formwork ill Bridge Construction), Intcrnalional
Associatioll and Structural
"inlh COllgress. ;\lI1sterdal1l. :'>!av H-13. 197:.!,
:1, H. rilul, "Spannbelon iIll Briickenbau," Zi'II/fIIllIl/d
Edoll. Heft 4::, Dezelllber 1962'1.
4. :-.rall-Chung Tang, "Recent De\eloplllent of Con
strunioll Techniques in Concrete Bridges," Trans
portation Research Record 665, Bridge Engineer
ing'. Vol. 2, Proceniill{!,s of the Transportatioll Resl'flrc/t
Board COlljt'fl'lIl'1'. September 2.')-27. 1978,51. Louis,
:'>10. "alional .\eadem\" of Sciences, \VashinglOn,
D,C.
320 Progressive and Span-by-Span Construction of Segmental Bridges
:), l', FillSterw<\lder <lnd H. Sch<lll1heck, "Die EI/.lal
hriicke," DI'I' BrIll/l/grllll'ln, Heft (i, JlIIle J96(i, and
Heft 1, Jallllan 1967.
Ii. 1-1. Thill. "Brilckenbau," Betoll und Stahlbl'lOllbau,
I left ;1, \1a\ 19G6.
I. :\11011., "Ball del' Loisachbriicke bei Ohlstadt,"
DYil'idag-Brrirh/1' 1971-3, Dn:kerholl & Widmann,
AG. \lunith.
H. :\l]on.. "Bau<lllshihrullg der Autobahnbriicke tiber
die Loisach hei Ohlstadt." Dnlidllg-Berichtt 1972-5,
IhckerhofT 8.: Widmann, AG. \1ullich.
, 9, Allon" "Denny Creek-Franklin Fans Viaduct,
'''''ashingtoll,'' Bridge Repon SR 202.01 E, Portland
Cement Association, Skokie, 111., 1978.
10. Anoll" "Florida's Long Key Bridge to Utilize Pl:ecast
Segillental Box Girder Span-hy-Span Construction,"
Bridge Repon, Post Tensioning Institute, Phoenix,
Arizona, January 1979.
11. ';"alter Podolny. Jr., "An Overview or Precast Ple
stressed Segmental Bridges,"Journal oflhl' Pres/res.lN/
COII(1('/1' Jl1slilulr, Vol. 24, :'\0. I, January-February
1979.
7
Incrementally Launched Bridges
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 RIO CARONI, VENEZUELA
7.3 VAL RESTEL VIADUCT, ITALY
7.4 RA VENSBOSCH VALLEY BRIDGE, HOLLAND
7.5 OUFANT'S RIVER BRIDGE. SOUTH AFRICA
7.6 VARIOUS BRIDGES IN FRANCE
7.6.1 Luc Viaduct
7.6.2 Creil Viaduct
7.6.3 Oli Viaduct
7.7 WABASH RIVER BRIDGE, U ... S.A.
7.8 OTHER NOTABLE STRUCTURES
7.8.1 Muhlbachtalbrucke, Gennany
7.8.2 Shepherds House Bridge. England
7.1 Introduction
The cOllcept of incrementallv launched segmental
prestressed concrete bridges was described in Sec
tioll 1.9.5. This chapter will describe the im
plementation of this innovative concept in several
'representative projects.
Since the implementation of the incremelltal
launching technique on the Rio Caroni Bridge,
some eightv bridge superstructures have been con
structed bv this method through 1976. with
gradual refinements and improvements in the
method.
l
Bv concentrating the casting of segments
behind an abutment with a tel'}1porary shelter, if
required, this method can provide the sallie qualitv
control procedures and quality of concrete that can
be achieved in a concrete precasting plant. It
minimizes temporary falsework, extensive form
ing, and other temporary expedients required
during construction bv the conventional cast-in
place on falsework method. Basically the method
e n t a ~ l s incremental fabrication of the superstruc
ture at a stationary location, longitudinal move
ment of the fabricated segment an incremental
7.9 DESIGN OF INCREMENTALLY LAUNCHED BRIDGES
7.9.1 Bridge Alignment Requirements
7.9.2 Type, Shape. and Dimensions of Superstructure
7.9.3 Span Arrangement and Related Principle of Con
struction
7.9.4 Design of Longitudinal Members for Flexure and
Tendon Profile
7.9.5 Casting Area and Launching Methods
7.9.6 Launching Nose and Temporary Stays
7.9.7 Piers and Foundations
7.10 DEMOUTION OF A STRUCTURE BY INCREMEN
T AL LAUNCHING
REFERENCES
length, and casting of a new segment onto the one
previoush cast. In other words. the procedllre call
be considered as a horizontal slip-form technique,
except that the fabrication and casting occur at a
stationan' location, Stringent dimensional control,
however, is an absolute necessitv at the stationan'
casting site, since errors are verv difficult to correct
and result in additional costs in launching. I
Straight superstructures are the easiest to ac
commodate; however, curvature (either vertical or
horizontal) can be accomplished if a constant rate
of curvature is maintained. If the grade of the
structure is 011 an incline, it is preferred to launch
the structure, wherever possible, downward.
Where the fall is 2%, the superstructure has to be
pushed or held back, depending upon the
coefficient of friction. Where the fall is in excess of
4%, special provisions are required to prevent a
"runawav" superstructure during launching. I To
the authors' knowledge, this situation has never oc
curred. Piers, either temporary or permanent,
should be designed to resist the lateral force pro
duced by the launching operation. A friction force
varying from 4 to 7% has been considered for de
321
322 Incrementally Launched Bridges
sign purposes, although values of only 2 to
have been observed in the field.
At presellt, it is felt that this system can be used
lor superstructures up to 2000 ft (610 m) in length;
for longer structures incremental launching is ac
complished from both abutmelHs toward the
center of the structure. The technique has been
applied for spans up 10 200 It (60 m) without the
use of temporary supporting bents and for spans
lip to 330 ft (100 111) with such bents. Girders usu
ally have a depth-to-span ratio ranging from
one-twelfth to one-sixteenth of the longest span
a1Jd are of a constant depth. The launching nose
has a length of appnlximately 60% of the longest
span.
The principal ad\'antages of the incremental
bunching Illcthod are the ro\lO\....
I. \:0 Ldsc\\'ork is required for the construction
of the superstruct ure ut her than possibly
falsework bems to reduce span length during
cOllstructioll. 111 this mallner camilever stresses
dUI'ing launching can be mainrained wilhin
allowable lilllits. If falsework bents should
pro\'(' to he impractical. then a system of tempo
raJ'\' slaVs can be used as indicated ill Figure
] .6:t Obviously, depending on site conditions,
any or all comhinations of temporary bents,
'Iauncbing nose, and temporary stays may be
used, the point being Ihat conventional use of
falsework is greatly minimized. Tbis is par
ticularly interesting for projects in urban areas
or spanning over water, bighways, or railnmds.
2. Depending on the size of the project there can
be a substalltial reduction in form investment.
Because casting of tbe segments is centralized
at a location behind the abutment, tbe eco
nomic advantages of mass production and a
precasting plant operation can be duplicated.
3. The method eliminates transportation costs of
segments cast at a fixed plant and transported
to the site.
4. It eliminates heavy cranes or launching trusses
and associated erection costs.
5. It eliminates epoxy joints. Since epoxy is not
involved, construction can continue at lower
temperatures.
6. Camber control and other geometry controls
are easily obtained.
Disadvantages are as follows:
1. As mentioned in Section 1.9.5, bridge align
ment for this type of construction must be
either straight or curved; however, curvature,
either vertical or horizontal, must be of a con
stant radius.
2. As mentioned above, strict dimensional control
during casting is required. Any mistakes in
casting are difficult and expensive to correct,
especially if they are not discovered until after
some length of bridge has been launched.
3. The superstructure must be of a constant sec
tion and depth. This is a disadvantage in long
spans, where a val-iable-depth section would
provide a better economy of materials_
4. Considerable area is required behind the
abutment(s) for casting the segments. In sOllie
project sites this lllay llot be feasible.
In the present state of the art of illcreme11lalh
launched hridges there appear to he basically two
llJcthods of cOllstructioll, which we shall call roll:
lirwou.s {(lsling and balalLled wslillg. They are dif
ferent in mode of execution and in their areas
of lltilizatiOlL The cOlllinuous casting mcthod is
sOJl1ewhat analogous ro the span-by-span methud,
and balallced casting is similar to the cantilever
method.
The cOlltinuous casting method is generally used
for long viaduct-t\pe structures with numerous
equal (or nearly equal) spans. Its principal charac
teristics are the following:
I. Entil-e spans, or portions of spans, are COll
ereted ill fixed forms. The forms are reused, as
in the span-by-span llIethod, except that the
forms are fixed instead of mobile and are
moved from span to span. Subsequent spans
(or portions of a span) are cast and joined to
the one previousl\' cast, and the superstructure
is progressiveI\' launched.
2_ Csually the casting area behind the abutment
is long enough to accommodate either a span
length plus launching-nose length or some
multiple of span segment length plus launch
ing-nose length.
3. Operations involve successive concreting and
launching. The principal phases are: forming;
placing of reinforcing and tendons; concreting
and curing; tensioning and launching.
4. The two types of superstructure cross section
used have been box girder and double T.
5. Longitudinal prestressing consists of two
families of tendons: tendons concentricallv
. .
placed and tensioned before launching, and
tendons placed and tensioned after launch
323 Rio Caroni, Venezuela
ing-that is, negative-moment tendons over
the supports and positive-moment tendons
in the bottom of the section in the central por
tion of the span.
The balanced casting method is used for smaller
projects up to a total length of 650 ft (200 m). It is
used for symmetric three-span structures where
the central span is twice the end span. Its principal
characteristics are:
1. Concreting of segments is accomplished sym
metrically with respect to a temporary support
located in the embankment behind the abut
ments. This method is similar to the balanced
cantilever except that the forms are supported
on the embankment fill.
')
Two areas of casting are required, one behind
each abutment. The half-superstructures are
constructed at opposite ends of the project.
The distance between the abutment and the
axis of the temporary massive support is gen
erally slightly less than one-fourth tbe length
of the project.
3. Al'ter the two half-supt;rstructures have been
cOllcreted on the access fill, the two halves are
lallllched over the piers andjoined at midspan
of the central span bv a closure pour, which
usuallv has a length of 3 ft (1 111).
4. Longitudinal prestressing consists of three
families: cantilever tendons for each segment,
located ill the upper portion of the cross sec
tion and stressed before launching; continuitv
tendolls, tensioned after closure and situated
in {he lower flange; and provisiollal tendons,
located ill the lower flange, tensioned before
launching, and opposing (he calHilever ten
dOllS.
There are two methods of launching. The
method used on the Rio Caroni Bridge, Figure
1.67, has the jacks bearing on an abutment face
and pulling on a steel rod, which is attached by
launching shoes to the last segment cast. The sec
ond, and more Cll rrent, method is essentially a
lift-and-push operation using a combination of
horizontal and vertical jacks, Figure 7.1. The verti
cal jacks slide 011 teHon and stainless steel plates.
Friction elements at the top of the jacks engage
the superstructure. The vertical jacks lift the
superstructure approximately in. (5 mm) for
1au!lching. The horizontal jacks then move the
superstructure longitudinally. After the super
structure has been pushed the length of the hor-
FIGURE 7.1. Incremental launching-jacking mech
anism (courtesy of Prof. Fritz Leonhardt).
izontal jack stroke, the vertical jacks are low
ered and the horizontal jacks retracted to restart
the cycle.
l
Figure 7.2 is a schematic depiction of
this cycle.
To allow the superstructure to move forward,
special temporary sliding bearings of reinforced
rubber pads coated with teHon, which slide on
chrome-nickel steel plates, are provided at the
permanent piers and temporary bents, Figures 7.3
and 7.4. A sequence of operations showing the
bearing-pad movement 011 the temporary
is depicted in Figure 7.5. A temporary bearing with
a lateral guide bearing is shown ill Figure 7.6.
7.2 Rio Caroni, Venezuela
The design for this structure was proposed by con
sulting engineers Dr. Fritz Leonhardt and Willi
Ballr or the firm Leonhardt and Andra, Stuttgart,
West Germanv, ill an international competition.
Design and plannitlg occurred in 1961 and con
struction in 1962 and 1963. This structure, Figme
7.7, consists of a two-lane bridge with end spans of
157.5 ft (48 m) and four in terior spans of 315 ft (96
m), for a total length of 1575 ft (480 m).1 The site
provided some formidable construction problems.
The Rio Caroni River during Hoocl stage reaches a
depth of 40 ft m) with velocities of 13 to 16
fUsec (4 to 5 Ill/sec), thus eliminating the consider
ation of a cast-in-place concrete superstructure on
falsework. Balanced cantilever segmental con
struction was considered; however, the interrup
tions during high-water periods would require an
extensive construction period with attendant high
costS.3
The proposed method consisted of assembling
and prestressing the entire length of bridge on
324 Incrementally Lflunched Bridges
(a)
(bi
FIGURE 7.2. Schematic of launching jack operation.
lafLift. (b) Push. (r) Lowcr. (iI) Rctract.
land adjaccllt to thc bridge sile, using precast seg
ments, and launching ill a longitudinal direction,
mer the piers. into final position. Temporary piers
were used al midspan of each interior span to pro
duce ten equal spans of 157.5 ft (48 m) during the
launching of the superstructure. Accommodation
of on-site assembly of the total superstructure re
quired a 1600 f't (500 m) long fabrication bed to the
rear of one abulment, which was partly excavated
ill rock and had to be backfilled and compacted
UpOll completion of the project. At the far end of
FIGURE 7.3. I ncrclI1ental launching-longitudinal
section of launching bearing. from reference 3 (courtesy
of the American Concrete Institute).
--.--..
FIGURE 7.4. Laullching h<:arillg. Wabash Riyer
Bridge. Il!diana.
this f'abrication beel stationary steel forms were in
stalled to cast the precast box segments, which were
18 It 4 in. (5.6 lll) high and cast in 30 ft (9.2 m)
lengths.
After the precast segments attained suf'ficient
strength they were stripped from the form and po
:-.itioned in the fahdcation bed to correspond with
their locatiolJ ill the final structure. The segments
were mmed from t he form 011 wooden rails accu
rately positioned in the assembly bed, employing
formica sheets and a petroleum-base lubricant
between the hOUOlll or the segment and the top of
the wood rails, Figure 7.8. A space of I ft 4 in. (40
cm) was left between tbe precast segments for an in
situ joint. Accurate positioning of the segments in
the assemblv bed was required before casting of
Lhe joints. To avoid shrinkage damage, the joints
wel-e cast dUl'ing the second half of the night so
that the temperature expansion of the precast
segments during the heat of the day would com
pensate for the shrinkage in the cast-in-placejoint.
3
After the joints were cast, concentric prestress
ing located inside the box and passing through
openings in the web stiffening ribs, Figure 7.9, was
prestressed with a force of' 5000 tons in one opera
--
325
Rio Caroni, Venezuela
-
II u
-
FIGURE 7.5. Telllporan ,liding be<]ring. sequence of
operations.
FIGURE 7.6. Incremental launching-temporary
bearing and lateral guide bearing (courtesy of Prof. Fritz
Leonhardt).
FIGURE 7'.7. Completed Rio Caroni Bridge. from
reference 3 (courtesy of the American Concrete Insti
tute).
FIGURE 7.8. Precast segments In assembly bed
(courtesv of Arvid Grant).
tion. The prestress tendons were continuous
around a large half-round concrete block at one
end of the structure, Figure 7.10.' This block
reacted against a number ofjacks and a 10ft (3 m)
thick concrete bulkhead wall. By activating the
jacks between the block and the bulkhead and
causing a movement of 9 ft (2.8 m) in the stress
block, the initial prestress force was induced into
the tendons. The prestressing tendons were not
attached to the webs. To reduce the hazard of any
accidental elastic instabilitv condition, temporary
steel bracing frames were installed at 60 ft (20 m)
intervals.:! The 3:3 ft 10 in. (10.3 m) top flange of
the box girder section was transversely prestressed,
Figure 7.9.
Upon completion of the prestressing operations
the superstructure was readv for launching over
the temporary and permanent piers to its final po
sition. To maintain acceptable levels of concrete
stresses, as the girder was launched over the 157.5
ft (48 m) spans, a 56 ft (17111) tapered structural
steel launching nose was attached to the leading
326 Incrementally Launched Bridges
FIGURE 7.10. Rio Caroni. prestressing block (cour
lesY or ..\)'yid Cralll),
elld of the superstructure, Figure 7.1 1. Two dou
hlejacks with a tOlal capacil\' of ROO tons, Illoullleci
against the bridge abutment and pulling on steel
rods fastened to t he girder, proyided the horizon
tal force required for the longitudinal launching
mOYCmClll. To accommodate movement o\,er the
piers, two sliding bearings were pl'Ovided at each
temporary and permanent pier LOp. These bear
ings collSisted oj chrome, polished steel plates
which supported teflon covered bridge bearings
which were placed ill all illverted position such that
they bore agailIst the underside of the girder and
slid OIl the stcel plates. After a launching move
lllCllt of ;) It (96 CIll) ill the longitudinal direction
FIGURE 7.11. Rio Camlli, launching nose, from ref
erence :) (courteS\' of the Aillerican Concrete Institute).
the operation was halted to allow the entire
superstructure to be jacked \'erticall\', simultane
ously al all piers. The teflon plates were then
moved back to their original position (the one they
occupied whell the launching operation started)
and rotated 180 degrees, with respect to a vertical
axis, to compensate for anyone-directional mo\'e
ment of the teHon coating. Longitudinal launching
11100'emenl OCCUlTed at a rate of in.!min (6 COl!
min); thus, olle 3 ft (6 cm) increment of movement
took 16 minutes. A total cycle of operation, after
subsequenl synchronization, which included the
simultaneous jacking at 22 locations and reposi
tioning of 22 tefloll bearings, required 30 minutes
10"-------------_
.. -------i_----13'-II"---.'2'.rI',
! v'l
Stress steel
/ :
'""
l!II-71--Longitudinol
stress steel
"','"
--16'- 5"-----.. ....,... ----16'-
FIGURE 7.9. Rio Caroni. girder sectioll. fmlll rcic)'cll(c :\ (oUrl('s\
or the Amcricall COllcrele IIl,tituIC).
; \
, ,
1'-0"
327
Val Restel Viaduct, Italy
for each 3 ft (96 cm) of movement. In this manner,
a daily movement of 63 ft (19.2 m) could be ac
complished. The required initial jacking force for
launching was 220 tons; this gradually increased to
400 tons for the total girder weight of 10,000 tons,
which indicates a friction of 2 to 4%.3
After the launching operation was completed,
the initial concentric prestressing tendon profile
was changed to accommodate the loading condi
tion in the superstructure after temporary piers
were removed. To accomplish the change in ten
don profile, special V-shaped rods were installed
so that they projected upward through the top
flange or downward through the bottom flange,
the tendons being cradled in the V rods. The rods
were then jacked simultaneously at 24 points up
ward or downward, depending on their location.
During this operation the half-round stress block,
Figure 7.10, was gradually released such that upon
final positioning of the tendons it had retracted 8 ft
6 in. (2.6 m). After the tendons had been relocated,
thev were attached to the web and concreted for
corrosion protection.:;
The procedure used for the construction of the
Rio Caron! Bridge, although technically adequate,
is prohibitively expensive. The methodology has
since been refined such that segments are cast di
rectly behind the abutment in lengths of 33 to 100
ft (10 to 30 111) and incrememally launchecl after
curing of the last segment cast. l
7.3 Val Restel Viaduct, Italy
Because of rugged mountain terrain the alignment
of a 1050 ft (320 m) portion of this viaduct re-
Plan
(a)
quired a sharp horizontal curvature of 492 ft (150
m) radius, and a vertical curvature of approxi
mately 8860 ft (2700 m) radius, Figure 7.12.
Maximum pier height is 212 ft (64.61 m). Site con
ditions and alignment precluded construction by
the balanced cantilever method or conventional
cast-in-place on falsework, leading to the decision
to construct by the incremental launching method.
The curved 1050 ft (320 m) length of this via
duct consists of 52.5 ft (16 m) long segments, which
were fabricated in an enclosed shed behind an
abutment. The bottom flange and bottom stubs of
the webs of the first segments were cast first, Figure
7.13a, b, ina 52.5 ft (16 m) length, and approxi
mately 118 ft (36 m) behind the first abutment.
After curing and stressing of the partial segment it
was jacked forward an increment of 52.5 ft (16 Ill)
toward the abutment, where the balance at" the
section was cast, Figure 7.13a, c. At the same time
the [armwork vacated by the first-segment bottom
flange was reused for the castiug of the bottom
flange of the second segment, monolithically with
the previous segment. After launching another
52.5 ft (16 m) increment the cycle was repeated
until the superstructure was completed.
4
Placement of the bottom flange mild steel rein
forcement is shown in Figure 7.14, with the web
forms in the background. The side forms for the
webs and underside of the top flange cantilever,
and the hydraulic jacking arrangement for strip
ping, are illustrated in Figure 7.15. Reinforcement
in the top flange is shown in Figure 7.16 and the
completed top flange with the following segment ill
the background in Figure 7.17. The completed
segment with rails in place as it emerges from the
casting shed is shown in Figure 1.61.
Elevation
(b)
.FIGURE 7.12. Plan (a) and longitudinal profile (b) of the Val Reslel Viaduct, showing:
A. shed for the construction of the deck segmems; B. hydraulic equipment used for
launching. From reference 4.
(a)
(b)
(c) (d)
FIGURE 7.13. Construction stages Val Resiel Viaducl. from referellce 4.
E
g
N
FIGURE 7.14. Val Rcstel. placement ofbollOIll flange
)einfill'CCIllCtll. rrom reference 4.
FIGURE 7.16. Val Reslel, lOp flange reinforcement,
from reference 4.
FIGURE 7.15. Val Restel, side form stripping mecha
n i ~ J l ) , from ref'crence 4,
FIGURE 7.]7. Val Resrel, completed top flange, with
reinforcement for next segment in background, from
reference 4.
328
329 Ravensbosch Valley Bridge, Holland
The superstructure cross section is shown in
Figure 7.18a. Widt h of the segment is 29.5 ft (9.0
m). Total depth of segment is 8.13 ft (2.48 m), for a
depth-to-span ratio of 1113. The top nange has a
thi<.:kness of 9.8 in. (250 mm) and the bottom
flange a thickness of 5.9 in. (I50 mm). Figure 7.ISb
is a longitudinal section of the superstructure
showing a lavoUl of the second-stage prestressing
tendons required after launching to accommodate
loads 011 the final structure. Figures 7.19 and 7.20
show the interior anchorage blocks for the
second-stage prestressing before and after con
creting, respectively .
.-\ complete ode of fabricating and launching a
5:2.5 ft (16 m) segment was in four
nine-hour working da\'s. Actuailaullching time for
one segment was {)O to 65 minutes.
l
Figures 7.21
and 7.22 show the laull<.:hing nose approaching
and landing on a pier. Views of the <.:ompleted
structure are ShOWIl in Figul'cs 7.23 and 7.24. COIl
struction of this bridge was accomplished ill ten
months. frolll JanuaI'\' 1972 through October'
1972.
7.4 Ravensbosch Valley' Bridge, Holland
The 1378 ft (4:?O Ill) long Ravensbosch Valley
Bridge ncar Valkcnburg represents the first bridge
in Holland built by ;he incremental launching
method of segmental construction. Figure 7.25.
This dual structure has end spans of ft (42
111) ;ll1d six interior spans of 183.73 ft (36 111). Hol
low rectangular piers van' in height from 21 ft (6.5
111) to 77 ft (23.5 Ill) and have exterior ciimensions
n

ia)
of6 it (1.8111) bv 19 ft (5.8111) with wall thickness 01
1.3 ft (0.4 m). Figure 7.26.
The superstructure consists of two single-cell
trapezoidal box girders connected at the i11lerior
upper flange tips bv a 8.3 ft (2.3 Ill) slab and pre
stressed transversely, Figures 7.26 and 7.27. Ea<.:h
box has a width of 56.S ft (17.32 m) and a constant
depth of 10.8 ft (3.3 111) for a depth-to-span rat io of
1/17. The top flange has a thickness of9.8 in. (250
mm) and the bottom flange a thickness of 7.9 ill.
(200 mm). Top flange cantilever is 13 ft (4.01 m).
Each dual structure consists of 22 segments ap
proximately 62 ft 4 in. (19 111) in length. The C011
''',:' ,
if', e -'1
--'" ----,--,::.,
,
FIGURE 7.19. Val Restel. second-stage
anchorage block hefore from ref'crence 4.
,I
I'
FIGURE 7.20. Val Restel. second-stage prestressing
anchorage block after concreting. from reference -I:.
- Ca/JleltU7mm
(h)
FIGURE 7.18. Val Restel. (a) Cross section of deck. (b) Longitudinal section of deck.
From reference 4.
330 Incrementally Launched Bridges
FIGURE 7.21. Val Restel, launching nose approach
ing pier, from reference 4.
FIGURE 7.22. Val Restcl. launching nose landing on
pier. from referellce 4.
FIGURE 7.24. Val Restel, completed Viaduct. from
refercllce 4.
FIGURE 7.25. Ravembosch Valley Bridge, general
\iew (courtesy of Brice Bender, BV:\/STS).
struction of the superstructure was based upon a
cycle of one segment per week.
To accommodate bending mornents during
launching operations a 52.5 ft (16 m) long launch
ing nose was used, Figure 7.28, in conjunction with
a concentric first-stage prestressing consisting of26
It in. (32 mm) diameter Dywidag bars per box
girder. In addition, temporary piers were used at
midspan, Figure 7.28. During launching, friction
amounted to 2 to 4%, equivalent to a maximum
pushing force of 430 tons for a completed box
girder.
FIGURE 7.23. Val Restel, \"iew of incrementally
launched cUl'ved viaduct after launching, from refer
ence 4.
iii
1'1
331 Olifant's River Bridge, South Africa
FIGURE i.26. Valley Bridge. dual structure cross section (courtesy of
Brice Bender. BV:\!STS).
FIGURE i.27. Ra\cllsl)()sch Vallcy Brid).\c. girder
cross section (courtcsv of Brice Bender. BV:-;!STS).
FIGURE 7.28. Ravensbosch Valley Bridge. view of
launching nose (courtesy of Brice Bender. BV:\/STS).
After completion of the launching, second-stage
prestressing following a parabolic profile and COI1
sisting of 12-0.62 in. (16 mm) diameter strands was
installed and stressed. This structure was com
pleted in 1975.
7.5 Olifant's River Bridge, South Africa
This railroad structure, upon completion, held the
world's record for t.he longest bridge accomplished
by incremental launching. It has a total length of
3395 ft (1035 m), consisting of 23 equal spans of
147.6 ft (45 m). The final structural arrangement
consists of 11 continuous spans on each side fixed
at the abutment and one simply supported center
span-that is, an expansion joint on either side of
the center span. With this structural arrangement
the braking force of the trains (transporting iron
ore) is transmitted to the abutments (10% of live
load). In this manner the flexible piers can be lIsed,
resulting in an economy in the foundations by
comparison with the classical solution, where the
longitudinal force is transmitted through the piers
to the foundations.
All 23 spans were incrementally launched as 23
continuous spans from one abutment, Figure 7.29.
During launching the two expansion joints were
made temporarily continuous by temporary pre
stressing. The joints were released after the struc
ture was in place and before it was rested on its
permanent bearings. A launching nose, 59 ft (i8
m) long, was prestressed to the first segment to
maintain the cantilever stresses, during launching,
in the concrete within allowable limits. The tip or
332 Incrementally l;aunched Bridges
END BENT P 1

,


1<
FIGURE 7.29. Olifant's Rin'f Bridge. increlllelltal
1""llchillg arrallgement.
the laulJching 110se had a jacking arrallgement to
acc(lIIl1llodate denection of the nose as it ap
proached lite pier.
III cross section, Figure 730, the superstructure
is a cOllstant-depth rectangular single-cell box
girder. Depth is 12.5 It (3.BO 111); the top flange
is IH I't (5.50111) wide and the bottom flange 10 h
(3, I 0 Ill) wiele. The webs and Itll1ges are of a con
stant thickness throughout the structure. Web
thickness is 13.75 in. (0.35 111) and contains verti
cal iJ;lr prestressing tendons to carry shear. Longi
tudinal prestressing is straight and contained in
the flanges. Anchorage blocks for the longitudinal
tcndons arc continuolls across the width of both
flanges (interior buttresses) to asslIre a 1I10re favor
able distribution throughout the section. There
arc no diaphragms at the piers; the interior cor
ner fillets are such as to permit the effect of tOl'
sion to be accommodated by a transverse box
frame.
I. 3.10 ./
FIGURE 7.30. Olifalll's Rh'cr Bridge, cross section.
Construction of the superstructure was accom
plished in nine 1110mhs. Segments were span
length, with the theoretical cvcle per span of ten
hours attained in the tenth operation and 'gradu
ally reduced to seven hours at the conclusion of
casting operations. Reinforcing cages were prefab
ricated in templates at the side of the forms. A
cycle of operations consisted of the following:
Cleaning and adjustment of forms
Placemel1l of r.einforcing and tendons for the
lower flange and webs
Concreting of this first phase
Placelllent of reinforcing and tendons for the
upper Bange
Concreting of this phase
Tensioning of tendons in second phase of previous
span cast
Tensioning of tendons in first phase of span in
forms
Stripping of forllls
Launching
After launching, and before placing the structure
on its final bearings. it was necessary to adjust the
joints wit bin in. (10 ml1l). The principal difficul
ties in accomplishing this operation were:
Temperature differential between night and day,
which produced a variation in length of the
superstructure of 9.8 in. (250 mm)
Age of concrete at time of adjustment, which var
ied from !line months to ten hours
Jacking operations, which could not retract the
structure in case of an error in pushing forward
The solution of the temperature problem was to
quickly accomplish the adjustment early in the
mornillg. Because of the constant temperature
during the night the temperature of the super
structure was known, and its length was deter
minable in spite of the thermal inertia of the
concrete.
The superstructure was then jacked into its
theoretical position on the abutment and firmly
maintained by a system of blockage. The temporary
tendons that had fixed the first joint were released
and jacks were placed into the joint to push the
remaining 12 spans and place the central simple
span in its exact position. The second joint was
then opened, and jacks at the other abutment po
I,
! '
Various Bridges in France 333
sitioned the last II-span portion of the super
structure.
When the superstructure had thus been placed
in position, it was jacked lip 011 the piers, and the
temporary sliding bearings were replaced by the
permanent bearings.
7.6 Various Bridges in France
7.6.1 UiC VIADL'CT
This is a dual structure 912 ft (278 m) long on a
curve of a 3280 ft (1000 m) radius. The super
structure was constructed by incremental launch
ing of complete spans on sliding bearings. Resis
tance of the structure to its dead load during
launching was accommodated by a temporary
cable-stay system in which the tension was acuusted
as construction proceeded, Figure 7.31. ~ o
supplementary prestressing was provided during
t he launching phases. A 26 ft 111) launching nose
was provided at the leading end in order to reduce
the weight of the cantilevered structure.
It is a continuous strllctlll'e supported on neo
prene bearings and has a double-T cross section,
as indicated in Figure 732. Roadway width is 46 It
(14.0 m), and depth of superstructure is a constant
10.3 ft (3.15 111). Spans are 1:33.5 ft (40.7 111).
7.6.2 CRElL VL1lJCCT
This structure consists of eight continuous spans
having a total length of 1102 ft (336 m), crossing a
railroad and the Oise River. The project is of inter
est in that it was launched from both abutments
without the use of a launching nose or a temporary
cable-stay svstem. However, temporary bents were
used to control the cantilever stresses. In cross sec
tion the superstructure is a single-cell box, Figure
7.33.
Segments for each of the two half-super
structures were from 65.6 to 98.4 ft (20 to 30 m)
in length. A launching was effected upon com
pletion of each segment. After the t\1!0 half
superstructures had been launched to their final
position, a closure pour of 3.3 ft (1 m) in length was
consummated to provide continuity.
Longitudinal prestress consists of six sets:
Cantilever tendons, tensioned before launching,
located in the top flange and anchored in fillets at
the intersection with the web
Concentric tendons from one end to the of her of
each half-superstructure, coupled together at each
phase of concreting of segments
Straight, short tendons in the top flange over the
piers and in the bottom flange, centered in thc
span and tensioned after launching
Continuity tendons, tensioned after laullchillg,
situated in webs and anchoring at the upper flange
Short parabolic tendons, located in the webs and
anchoring in the top Range, tensioned after
launching
Temporarv tendons in the upper Hange, having
the same effect as the cantilever tcndolls
7.6.3 OLl Vl.-lDL'CT
This viaduct spans the vallev of Oli ill 15 spalls of
l34.5 it (41111) for a totallellgth 01'2017 ft (GIS Ill)
at a height of 197 ft (60 m). The structure has
a grade of 5.355% and a horizontal cun'C \\ilh a
radius of 6700 ft (2046 m). Total weight of the
superstructure is IG,500 tons (I5,nOO I11t).
Incremental launching in this structure, rather
than pushing the superstructure out mer t he piers,
was accomplished b\' a restrained lowering down
the grade. The force required in braking the
structure was approximately 660 tons (tWO IIlf) as
compared to the estimated force of 1540 10m
(1400 mt) to push the structure uphill.
In its hnal configuration, because it was difficult
to accommodate horizontal forces due to braking
and seismic effects in the tall flexible piers, the
superstructure is anchored in the terrain in the
area of the abutments by a tie of a large stiffncss.
All of this longitudinal global force is aCCOIll1110
dated in the large stiff tie. the abutments, and the
relatively short stiff piers in each bank. <c\ central
joint divicles the structure into two independcllI
structures.
Cpon completion of launching and before plac
ing the superstructure on its permanent bearings.
it was necessary to "unlock" the joint that held the
two half-superstructures together during COIl
struction and to adjust its position within approxi
mately ~ in. (10 mm). This operation was COIl
d ucted as follows:
The superstructure was restrained at the upper
abutment until the distance between its theoretical
position and the end of the lower abutment was
approximately 8 in. (200 mm).
334 Incrementally L:.aunched Bridges
PHASE 1

placing of the launching nose
concreting and prestressing of the first span
launching of the first span
PHASE 2
e:
concreting and prestressing of the second
erecting the cable-stay system
launching of the first two spans
PHASE 3
concreting and prestressing of the third span
launching of the first three spans
PHASE t.,

concreting and of the fourth span
launching of the first four spans
PHASE 7
__ __" ____j9_!2.... ___
1.------ =. ,. .. !-, ......... ;;>-"
; - "---. 'i .. .1 ......
I, -;-.

,!, : ,. '" completion of launching operations
disassembling of the launching nose and
cable-sLay <;,y';,Lt::1ll
placing on permenant bearings
placing and tensioning of phase 2 prestressing
FIGURE 7.31. Luc Viaduct. incrememallaunching phases. (0) Placing of the launching
nme. concreting and prestressing of the first span, launching of the first span. (h) COIl
creting and prestressing of the second span, erecting of the system, launching
of the first t\,'O spans. (c) Concreting and prestressing of the third span, launching of the
fIrst three spans. (d) Concreting and Prestressing of the fourth span, launching of the first
four spans. (e) Completion of launching operations, disassembling of the launching no.'>e
and cable-stay system, placing on permanent bearings, placing and tensioning of
phase-two prestressing.
The temporary tendons connecting the two half system of prestress bars and complementary
superstructures were successively detensioned. reinforcement installed in the upper abutment.
However, two temporary tendons restrained the
The t\\'o temporary tendons restraining the lower
lower half-superstructure. The upper half-super
half-superstructure were detensioned in incre
structure was fixed to the upper abutment by a
ments, allowing the lower half-superstructure to
335 Wabash River Bridge, U.S.A.
FIGURE 7.32. Luc Viaduct, cross section.
11.00
.. --. --_. ------j
5.50_----"
!
23%
I
. 0
'
I;:::
50

2.75
FIGURE 7.33. Creil Viaducl. cross sectioll.
descelld to a blockillg svstelll in,the lower abutment.
Fixillg of t he lower hal f-su perst ructll re to the
lower abulillellt was thell accolllplished.
The superstrllcture W;IS positioned Oll its filIal
bearings.
7.7 Wabash River Bridge, U.S.A.
This structlIre. the hl'st ilIcreIllelltally launched
seglllental bridge constructed in the Ullited States,
carries two lanes of C.S. 136 over the Wabash
Rjver Ilear Covington, Indiana. It is a six-span
structure with end 'pans of 93ft 6 in. (28.5 Ill) and
four interior spans of 187ft (57 m), Figure 7.34.
Roadway width is 44 ft (13.4 m). Pier heights are
approximateh' 40 ft (12 111): average river depth is
11ft (3.35 Ill) with low water at 8 ft CZ.4 Ill) and
high water at ft (7.3 nl). The superstructure is a
two-cell hox girder with a constant depth of 8 h
111). The project was awarded in September of
197t) with a completion date of October 1978. The
entire superstructure was completed in ","ovel11ber
of 1977.
Original design plans prepared by American
Consulting Engineers, Inc., of Indianapolis for the
State Highway Commission called for a precast
segmental balanced GlI1tilever design: however,
the bid documents permitted alternative methods
of constructing the superstructure. The successful
contractor, a joint venture of Weddle Bros. Con
struction Co., Inc., and the Ralph Rodgers Con
struction Co., both of Bloomington, Indiana, in
vestigated three alternatives for thc superstructure
construction. These alternates included cast-in
place segments supported on falsework, incre
mental launching, and the cast-in-place segmental
balanced cantilever method. Incremental launch
ing was the successful method and reportedly
saved $100,000 over the other precast segmental
method:-' The V.S.L. Corporation of Las Gatos,
California, was the subcontractor for prestressing
and launching.
A 140 ft (42.7 rn) casting beel was located behind
the west abutment of the bridge alld could accolll
Illodate three 46 ft 9 in. (14.25 m) segll1ents. The
forms for casting were supported on I beall1s .
which were supported on steel piling to provide a
solid foundation and prevent any settlell1ent of the
casting bed, Figure 7.35. The bottol11 third of the
two-cell box superstructure was cast at the 1l10st
westerlv end of the casti ng bed, Figu re 7.35. I twas
thell advanced 46 ft 9 in. (14.25 111), where forIlls
for the balallce of the sectioll were positioned, Illild
steel reinforcelnellt and prestressing tendons
placed, and the babnce of the seglnent cast. Figure
7.36. After the segIllent had been poured alld
cured, the 20-ton j;lcks that held the forll1s in posi
tion, Figure 7.37. were released to break the bond
and rcmove the forl1ls. The large ll1etal fOrIm
stayed in place and were simplv swung in and out
as needed. The segl1lellt was thell advanced to the
forward third of the castillg bed for slIrLIce
fillishing by a collvelltional Bidwell screed. Figure
before Iaunchillg over the abutment. In this
mannel' a production-lille ll1ethodologv was
l1laintained. Three segIllents were always in vari
ous st;lges of fabricarioll, with reinforceIllent and
prestressing telldolls continuous between seg
ments.
The first-stage pour required approxill1ateh'
vd:
l
(40.5 m:J) alld the second pour required frolll
101 to 130 vel:J (77.2 to 99.4 m:l). It took approxi
mately four hours for each pour. Twenty-eight-day
design strength was 4800 psi (3.37 and
6000 to 7000 psi concrete strengths were actually
attained (4.2 to 4.9 kg/mm2). A 3500 psi (2.46 kg/
mm
2
) strength was required before stressing, and
this was normally achieved in 24 to 30 hours. As
segments were com pleted, each was stressed to its
predecessor by first-stage prestressing consisting of
eight tendons of tweh'e in. (12.7 mm) diameter 27
ksi (190 kg/mm2) strands, Figure 7.39. Initially the
contractor was able to complete one cycle of seg
ment fabrication and launching in two weeks:
336 Incrementally Launched Bridges
AT M::::>SPAN A"f PIERS
ELEVATION
8-0
..Of MOVEMfNJ )100
CONSTRUCTION ELEVATION
CONSTRUCTION PLAN
FIGURE 7.34. Wabash River Bridge: cross section of girder, from reference 6; COJ1
details, from reference 2,
however, as experience was gained, two cycles per
week were attained.
To accommodate the launching stresses a 56 ft
(17 111) launching nose was attached to the lead
segment, Figures 7,34 and 7.40. In addition, the
four interior spans had temporary steel bents at
midspan, Figures 7.34 and 7.41. In this manner
the total structure length was divided into ten
equal spans of 93 ft 6 in, (28.5 m) during the
launching procedure.
Because of the longitudinal force on the piers
during launching, the permanent piers were tied
back to tbe abutment with four prestressing
strands each, These strands were stressed to 96
kips (43,545 kg) before launching commenced.
Each temporary pier was tied back to the preced
FIGURE 7.35. Wabash Rh'er Bridge, casting-bed FIGURE 7.37. Wabash River Bridge, side form jacks,
support.
FIGURE 7.36. Wabash Ri\'er Bridge, casting bed.
FIGURE 7.38. ""'abash Ri\er BI'idge, surface finishing
top flange.
FIGURE 7.39. Wabash Ri\er Bridge, first-stage pre
stressing.
337
338
Incrementally Launched Bridges
FIGURE 7040. Wabash Ri\'er Bridge, launching nose.
J

FIGURE 7041. Wabash Ri\cr Bridge, temporary steel
bellI.
illg permanent pier bv two stavs or lOin. hy lOin.
IIlIll hy 111m) stl'llctllral sleel tubing. Fig'
ures 7.:14 and 7.42.
The jackillg procedure during launching used
t ht' two-jack S\'stelll (one \'ertical and one horizon
Ld) and teflon pads, as described in Figure 7.2. The
vCltical had a 2 in. (50 llllll) stroke and the
horizontal jacks an 18 in. (457 mm) stroke. The
vertical jacks lifted the superstructure ahout in.
( 13 mm) and the horizolltaljack pushed it forward
17 in. (432 mm). Each jacking o'cle required'about
fJ\e minutes, and the entire launching of a 46 rt 9
in. (14.25 m) segment required about three hours.
Temporan' bearings. Figure 7.4, were located at
each temporary bent and permanent pier. During
the launching operation workmen were stationed
at each bearing location to insert the teflon pads as
the superstructure slid over the bearings: To
maintain lateral alignment or the superstructure,
lateral guide Figure 7.43, were also 10
clIed at each temporary bearing and also used
teflon pads. Workmen would tighten bolts on one
side of the superstructure and loosen them on the
opposite side to push the superstructure lateralh.
Fillal positioning of the superstructure on the east
abutment was withinh in. (0.8 111m) or its pre
location. .
7.8 Other Notable Structures
Allot her example of this I\Ve of constructioll is the
\1iihlbachtalbnkke ahout 30 llliles (50 km) south
west or Stuttgart, West Germany, Figure 7.44. This
structure has an overall length of 1903 it (580111)
with 141 It (43 111) spallS. The far-side trapezoidal
box girder is shown in Figure 7.44 cOlllpleted from
abutment 10 abutment: the near-side trapezoidal
box girder has heen launched frolll the lefl abut
ment and the launching nose has reached the first
pier. A general view or the SI ruct ure is presented ill
Figu re 7.45.
FIGURE 7.43. Wabash River Bridge, lateral guide
bearing.
FIGURE 7042. Wabash Rh'cr Bridge, structural steel
tuhing lie.
!
339
Other Notable Structures
l
.(
!
FIGURE 7.47. \Ilihlhachtalhrticke, first-stage pre
stressing tendoll anchorage.
FIGURE 7.44. \llihlbachtalhrllCke, aerial \'iew.
FIGURE 7.45. \fiihlbachtalbriicke, general \'iew.
Some ide;1 of the size of the box girder IlW\ be
obtained frol1l Figure 7.46, showing the intelior of'
the fornnvork at the rear of the abutment. First
stage prestressing telldon anchorage at the lOp or
lhe web I1l<lV be seen in Figllre 7,47. The ;lIlchor
age block for the second-stage prest ressing is lo
cated inside the completed box, Figure 7..tH.
FIGURE 7.46. \liihlbachtalbrucke, segment 111 sta
tiollarv forms.
FIGURE 7.48. \fiihlbachtalhriicke, second-stage pre
;mchorage block.
7.8.2 SHEPflJ:'IWS HOlJSE BRIf)(;E, F.S(;LA.Yf)
The Shepherds House Bridge is the hI'S!
mentalh' launched bridge constructed in Englalld.
This highway structure crosses four railroad tracks
at. Sonning Cutting, Ileal' Reading, about 30
(48 km) west of London. The new structure COII
trasts sharply with an existing brick arch srrUC[Ul'C
huilt in 1838 bv Brunei, a famolls English en
gineer. The existing structure consists of three cir
cular brick arches supported on tall brick piers
with the abutments founded in the sides of the
cutting.' A general plan showing the existing
bridge, railroad tracks, and alignment of the new
structure is presented in Figure 7.49.
H
340 Incrementally Bridges
FIGURE 7.49. Shepherds House Bridge. general plan, from reference 8 (courtesv of
JnstilUtion or Civil Engineers).
III 1971 the north abutment settled and the
bridge was temporarily closed for repairs.
III \larch of ]972, hecause the life expectancy of
tile existing structure was in question and because
it did not comply with current highway standards,
the !l.finistry of Transport instructed consulting
engineers, Bullen and Partners, to prepare a study
to determine the type and method of construction
lor a new structure. The new bridge provides a
dllalillg of the existing road, and in the future the
existing bridge will be replaced by a parallel struc
tllre.
Because British Rail was engaged in extensive
lIlaintenance and upgrading of the tracks prior to
introduction of high-speed trains, there would be
limitations on track possession. Further, it
was dictated that piers between tracks were to be
avoided and that fOllndations on the north slope of
the ctltting were not to disturb the foundations of
the existing bridge abutment. Construction work
ing area was restricted because traffic was to be
maintained on a residential street at one end and a
trunk road at the other end. Soil conditions re
quired that any temporary conditions that would
load or disturb the slopes was to be avoided, thus
requiring pile foundations with the pile caps at the
surface to avoid extensive excavation in the slopes.
s
The consultants initially studied five possible
schemes for construction of a bridge. Schemes
using cast-in-place construction on falsework had
earlier been rejected.
An incremental launching scheme was recom
mended, even though there were no accurate cost
data for construction in the C.K. The consultants
concluded that this scheme, although of shorter
lengt h than customary for this type of construc
tion, would solve the problems of restricted work
ing space and interference with residential streets
and would require the least track downtime.
The west elevation of the bridge is shown in Fig
ure 7.50. Span lengths, determined by track loca
tion, are 75.5 ft (23 m), 121.4 ft (37 m), and 82 ft
(25 m), The bridge is fixed at the south abutment
with an expansion joint at the north abutment. The
casting hed for the production of 31.5 ft (9.6 m)
segments was located to the rear of the south
abutment. The south abutment was located to pro
vide maximum work space for the casting bed and
lO clear a large number of Post Office communica
tion cables. Interior piers band c were designed to
withstand the friction forces exerted during
launching operations. In addition, pier c, located
close to the railroad tracks, was subject to damage
or complete demolishment in the event of a de
railment. Therefore, the superstructure was de
signed lO withstand the removal of pier c by an ac
cident. Six untensioned but anchored Macalloy
tendons in certain segments were added so as to
preclude ultimate collapse with no live load on the
bridge and pier c removed.
7

s
Normally, in this type of construction, the cast
ing bed is of sufficient length to accommodate at
least two and sometimes three segment lengths,
such that the bottom flange may be cast separately
in advance of the webs and top flange. In this proj
ect, with restricted space for the casting bed, it was
decided to cast one complete segment in one pour.
II
Other Notable Structures 341
_______ 3 ' . ~ O O ~ O ____________________~ 2 ~ . O O O ~ ____~
levels in molre& 00.
Dtm.naiQnlI in miUuneltU
FIGURE 7.50. Shepherds House Bridge, we!it elevation, from reference 7 (courtesy of
The Concrete Society, London).
A maXl!l1UI11 of three weeks was allowed for con
struction and launching of a segment. This time
was later reduced to two weeks except for those
segments with a diaphraglll.
7
A typical cross section
of the box girder segment is shown in Figure 7.51.
The launching sequence is shown in Figure 7.52.
The steel launching truss nose was first erected
using a temporarv intermediate support. The first
segment was cast against the launching nose and
post-tensioned bv Macalloy bars, some of which
were llsed to COllnect the launching nose to the first
segment. The launching nose, in position, before
the launching of the first segment is shown in Fig
ure 7.53. After the first segment had been
laullched forward, the next segment was cast and
post-tensioned to t he previous one. This proce
dure was repeated until the completed bridge was
launched to the north abutment. The launching
nose passing over pier c is shown in Figure 7.54.
Arrival of the launching nose at pier b is shown in
Figure 7.55. The launching nose was removed
after the concrete superstructure arrived at pier b,
Figure 7.56.
The superstructure was launched over tempo
rary bearings, which consisted of high-grade con
crete pads with a *in. (1 mm) thick stainless steel
plate damped and tensioned across the top sur
face. Lateral guide bearings were also provided to
keep the superstructure on line. Cpon completion
of launching the superstructure was jacked in a
predetermined sequence and the temporar\,
bearings were replaced with permanent bearings.
H
The jacking force for launching was provided by
two jacks pulling on a set of nine 0.6 in. (I5 mm)
IOlOOmm
I'
E
E
~
lOOO mm .1
FIGURE 7.51. Shepherds House Bridge, girder cross section, from refer
ence 8 (courtesy of The Institution of Civil Engineers).
342 Incrementally L!,lunched Bridges
Stage 1; Cast first unit and
connect to launching nose
Stage 2. Launch to piet C
Stages 3-5: Launch over tracks
FIGURE 7.54. HOllse Bridge, launching
nose passing O\'er pier c, from reference 7 (courtesy of
The Concrete Sociel\, London).
Stage 6 Launch to pier B
Stage 7 Continue launch
Stage 8: Reach pier B and remove nose
Slage, 9 and 10: Complete launch
FIGURE 7.52. Shepherds HOllse Bridge, of
increlllcntal launching. 1'1'0111 reference 8 of
'"he InSI illli ion 01" Ci\"il Engineers).
FIGURE 7.53. Shepherds House Bridge, launching
110;,(' ill position before launching, fron; reference 7
(collrlesy oj The Concrete Societ\', London).
di<lnleter cables passing under the casting bed and
anchored to I he front of the abutment. The load
was applied to a fabt'icated bracket secured to the
rear of the se"ment bv bolts coupling with the
L
projecting ends of the MacalJoy bar tendons in
tlte top and hottom Ranges of the segment, Fig
ure 7.57. The two jacks were operated in tandem
by a single pUlllp. This system required 30 seconds
for jackillg and 30 seconds for retracting for each
10 in. (254 mIll) stroke.
H
FIGURE 7.55. Shepherds House Bridge, launching
nose at pier b, from reference 7 (courtesy of 'rhe Con
crete Societv, London).
FIGURE 7.56. Shepherds House Bridge, superstruc
ture launched to pier b and launching nose removed,
from reference 7 (courtesy of The lA.lnCrete Society,
London).
343 Design of Incrementally Launched Bridges
FIGURE 7.57. Shepherds House Bridge, segment
being bU!lched from fOl!l1work, frolll reference 7
(courles\ of lhe CO!lcrete Sociel;-, LO!ldon),
7.9 Design of Incrementally Launched Bridges
The desi),!;ller must ;Llw;L\'s remeillher ill order
to cOllStrllct increlllelltalh I:lllllched I)ridges, the
horizontal alld \'e!lical aliglllllent must he either
straight or consLmt h cllned or twisted. This is
gelleralh Ilot the case, road not
bridge builders..\s a or fact, it is the SOn]! of
the bridge deck that has to be desiglled with a COII
stan! radius or curvature: the traIlS\'el'se canlilc\er
of the deck Ibllge Clli be \';tried to accoIlllllodate
possible small
/,9.2 ITPI:', .111.11'[<; .IS/) f)f.H/:',\Sf(),\S OF
S L P F. H.SrraCfL'N,I:'
This method of construction requires a cross sec
tion with a constant depth, since the designer has
to insure the resistance of the superstructure,
under its 0\\,11 weight, at all sections as the launch
ing proceeds. Economic cOllsiderations dictate a
constant IllOll1ent of inertia.
Two tvpes of cross section have been lIsed to
date: the box girder and the double T. The box
girder prm'ides a better stillness and resistance to
torsion and at the same time <In easier placement of
the prestressing tendons in the cross section. The
depth of the box is llslIallv one-twelfth to one
sixteenth of the longest span, the first value ap
plving to larger and the second to smaller spans.
Table 7.1 su I1ll11arizes the characteristics of several
incremenralh' launched bridges.
The dimensiolls for typical cross sections pre
sented in Section 4.5.4 remain valid for the web
I hickness, but the top flange and bottom /lange
thickness may ha\'e to be increased, depending on
the l\-pe or prestressing iayou t adopted (see Sect ion
7.9.4).
7.9.3 SP/L\' ARR,/X(;E.HEST AX/) RI:LITEI)
PRIXClPU:' Of" COXS1RL'CT/OS
The constant-depth requirement limits the eco
nomical lise or this const ruction Illet hod 10 spans
not longer than 150 to 200 ft (50 to 50 Ill). II is
advanlage()lIs if all the spans are equal ill length.
However, much 101l(!;er spans have been built 1)\
utilizint; special techniques ill conjullction with the
basic principle of incremelltal laullching-.
A three-span const ruct lOll ll1av be lallllched
from both sides. In this way the center can be
twice I he h of t he edge spans wit hou t increase
of the stresses in the deck. TiIe span configuration
then becomes: L-'.!.L-L (see Figure 7,5H),
Champig-Il\ Bridge ne;lr Paris was the fil'st stnlc
Ilire of this t\pe. Longer bridges are often
launched from one side onh (Ihe record leng-tlt is
Ihat of Olilant's Ri\er Bridge ill South Africa, ill
excess of 3:H)() ft), A.llxiiiarv temporan' devices are
llsed to reduce the hending tllotnellls in the trollt
portion of the deck (launching Ilose or lower stars)
FIGURE 7.58. Three-span sYmmetrical incremelllaliv
laullched bridge.
TABLE 7.1. Characteristics of IncrementaIly Launched Bridges
I\pical rotal Launched Vertical Horizolltal
:\alllc Year Cross Sect ion Sp<m Length Weight (t) Curve Curve
(It) (It)
:\uel Viaduct,
41'
IE
France 1976 "I
135 807 6,000 Slope 6% R = 2,460 ft
13
BOlTigliolle
Viaduct, 1976 135 807 6,000 Slope 5.5o/c R 2,460 ft
France ~
y
31.3'
Kimonkro
Bridge, 1978
IE
"I
lIS 709 3,600 Straight
I\'01'\' Coast
I ~
39'
Tet Viaduct,
IE: ~ I
141 ()60
Ft'<I 11 ce
13
Lue Viaduct,
Franfe 1% 915 7,900 Slope 3.Ho/c, Straight
34'
l'aillon
! '
'I
Bridge, 1976 l.l51 Slope 1.3Vc Curve
France
40,5'
Oli Viaduct, f---......
France 1976
~ 1
135 2.018 15,000 Slope 5.85o/c R = 6,712 it
13
29.5'
:vla rolles
Bridge, 1972
I" 'I 131 345
France
I ~
36'
Crcil Bridge,
'I
I'
194 1,102 France 197H
344
345 Design of Incrementally Launched Bridges
TABLE 7.1. (Continued)
Tvpical
.rotal Launched VenicaJ Hori/.ontai
:\ame Year C ross Sect iOIl S p ~ 1 I 1 Length Weight (t) Curve Curve
(It ) (It)
46.3'
Gronachtal
I'
Bridge. 1978 1 262 1,732 13,000 Slope 0.7% R 7,217 ft
Germany
\ I ~
I ~ 175' .1
Val' Viaduct.
I'
32'
'1
France
1976
138 1,10,7 9,700 Straight
\ I ~ r
Inn Bridge.
Kufstein, 1965 335 1,476
Germanv
Koehes Vallev
169 1.562
Hridge,
Germanv
Querlin Guen 138 1.398
Bridge.
~ t
'LJ
;;J
Germany
I
19'
'I
.
Ahcou
Aqueduct, 1967 108 469
.....
OJ France
1
---L
62'
Ingolstadt
""._M_ JOt
Bridge. 1978 6 spans
I I
,--:r:::
2 x
Danube
0 =
Bridge.
t 8
197 to
1.246
377
as. previously indicated in some of the examples de
scribed in this chapter.
When the spans become too large, intermediate
temporary bents are used. This was done for the
first bridge over the Caroni River in Venezuela,
The record span length for incrementally
launched bridges was obtained by a structure over
the. Danube River designed by Prof. Leonhardt,
the originator of the method, Figure 7.59. The cost
of the temporary bents depends greatly ort the
foundation conditions; it may be prohibitive if the
bent height is greater than 100 ft (30 01) and soil
conditions require deep piling.
For very long bridges, intermediate expansion
joints are needed, much the same as for cantilever
bridges. The expansion joints are temporarily
fixed by prestressing during launching and are re
leased at the end of construction to allow for ther
mal expansion iIi the structure during service. A
very ingenious variation of this principle was de
346 Incrementally Launched Bridges
FIGURE 7.59. Danllile RiH'1 Bridge, :\lIst ria.
\'(,Ioped for the Basra Bridge in haq, where a COIl
nete swillg spall was laullched IOgether with the
approach spans as a single unit alld later arr;lllged
to SCI'\(' its purpose as a lllo\'able hridge mer the
11;[\ Igation channel, Figllre 7.()O.
;. (j./ f)j'-'S!(;.\' OF !.o.\'G!Tl '/)/.\..11..\IF.\1!1FRS FOR
nISl'ln ..IX/) 'IF.\'f)()X j'IWFlLI:'
During laullchillg-. the SIlperstructure is subjected
to cOlltinllalh ailcrnalillg bcnding IllOlllellts, so
t ha t a 11\' OIlC sect iOll is SII hjected to a conlin ual
\';ll'iatioll 01 bellding mOlllellts, hoth positi\e and
neg-alive, as shown in Figures 7.61 and 7.62. These
hendillg moments are balanced by internal uni
form axial prestressing.
In the final stage, additional tendons are re
(juired to supplelllent the uniform axial prestress
ing- in order to carry the service loads. Conven
tiollal solutions are applied \0 this problem, and in
t he discllssion we need ollly enlarg-e UpOIl
the specific problem of the axial prestressing. For
t his prestressing-, tendons are arranged that the
cOlllpressi\e stresses are the sallle over the entire
cross-section;ll area. The required telldons are
placed in the top and bOIlOl1l flang-es of the box
section. The\ an' usualh' straig-ht. tClISioned be/ore
launching-, so couplers are needed at each joint
between slIccessive seglllents.
Seg-II 1<:'11 t lengt h Illa\ \,ar\, f'rolll 50 1t (15 Ill) to
/()() It (;)() Ill). As Ilotecl ill ollr discllssioll of the
progressive constnlCtioll Illethod, then' lilllita
tiolls to IIIe deck's ctpacitv 10 its own weight'
dlllillg bunchillg when the Irollt part is in can
tilever hnolld a t\picaJ pier. To keep hending
mOIlK'llts and stresses withill allowahle values, it
IIsllally nccessan to lise a \;lIlllching nose, a light
steel IlH':lllher placed ill frollt of the cOllcrete
structure to allow Sllpport frolll the Ilext pier,
rather thall launching the cOllcrete deck allthe wa\,
with no support. \:lIllHTical values are given ill
Figures 7.61 and 7.62 for the critical maximum
positi\'{:, and negative Illoments during Iaullching.
AssUllling the unit \\'eig-III of the launching lIose
10 he I WI( of t he weight of I hc connete deck (a
vallie sOlllewhat lower than ;l\'crage), the critical
FIGURE 7.60. Basra Bridge, Iraq.
I
FIGCRE 7.61. Critical negati\'c moments during launching with !lose, ;VI"
-i- 6')1(i 0:
2
)]. '\Iultiplier: WL2/12. For ')I = 0,10:
a /3 )d
o
0,20 0.80 0,82
0,30 0.70 1.09
OAO 0,60 1.46
0.50 0.50 1.95
1.00 0.00 6.00
o
L -!sp-'I> ",.>1,""'/
. in fJ'l"c./ S'j>Jh
FIGURE 7.62.
(WC'1l2)(0.933
Critical positive moment during launching with
2.96')1/3
2
). '\Iultiplier WC'1l2. For ')I 0.10:
a
/3
,\'1,
nose. Ml
0.20
0.30 .
0.40
0.50
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.74
0.79
0.83
0.86
1.00 0.00 0.93
347
348 Incrementally La,;nched Bridges
ll10ments are as follows for \'arious lengths of the
launching nose:
:'\ose Length,
:'faximulIl l'.foIl1ellts
I'erccnt or
hpi"ll Spall Support (lHo) Span (M ,) iHo/Jl,
50 1.95
60 1.46
7ll 1.09
~ ( ) 0.82
0.86
0.83
0.79
0.74
') ')
_._1
1.76
1.38
l.J1
:\!olllent factor is J-FL
2
/l2
(W wC'ight of concrete per unit length and L =
span length)
Technologically, the uniform axial prestress may
be illStalled in the superstructure in several differ
(,Il! ways:
I. Straight tendons rUllning through the top and
bottolll flange of each segment, joined by
couplers at the joillls between segments.
<)
Straight tendons running through the top and
hOIlOlll flanges. anchored ill hlod.-outs inside
the box girder. Figure 7.63.
TCIIl))()ran' curved tendons may be used to
b;dance the final continuity tendons during
construction. These tendons are outside the
concrete sectioll between supports. Figure
7.64. This met hod has been used for several
large pndects.
Figure 7.65 sho\\'s the Sat horn Bridge in Bangkok.
Thailand. with the temporary tendons illstalled
FIGURE 7.63. Lapped prestressing tendons.
FIGURE 7.64. Temporary external prestressing sys
tem.
FIGURE i .65. Sat horn Bridge, Thailand.
above the concrete deck with steel deviation sad
dles at intermediate joints.
The three solutions above h:l\c their relative
merits and disadvantages:
1. The first solution lIlay require local thick
elling of the concrete flanges for placemenl of
the couplers. However, it is often preferred to in
crease the thickness 01 the flanges over the entire
bridge length lO simplifv casting of the segments.
Axial prestressing tendons are permanent and
cannot he removed. They must he incorporated in
the hnal prestressing layout. The joints between
segments have to be carefully designed. owing to
the presence of couplers and concrete voids that
may significantly we<.tken the section.
2. The main ach'<lntage of the second solution
pertains to the removal and reuse of those tendons
not required in the final prestressing layout. How
ever, the cost and difficulty of pnl"iding a large
number of block-outs offsets a significant pan of
the advantage of removing the temporary tendons.
1n order to obtain a satisfactory shear resistance
from the webs, particularly during launching with
alternating shear and bending stresses, the
configuration of the box section and location of the
upper and lower blisters must be carefully consid
ered. This problem was mentioned in Chapter 4 as
presenting potential difficulties. A satisfactory so
lution is shown in Figure 7.66. where upper and
lower blisters are not in the same vertical plane. A
sufficient amount of vertical prestress will insure
the resistance of webs against shear during all con
struction stages.
3. The third solution is theoretically a satisfac
tory one, allowing the permanent prestress to be
installed during construction and the temporary
prestress to be designed only to counteract the un
349 Design of Incrementally Launched Bridges
FIGURE 7.66. Offset lapped prestressing tendons.
desired efFects of the former during moment re
versals created bv the successive launching stages.
In practice, inst'allation of the tendons passing
from the inside to the outside of the box section is
not particularh simple. An attempt should be
made to reuse these temporary tendons to reduce
the investment in nonproductive materials.
A comparati\'e analysis between the first two
methods of temporarv prestressing has been made
for a typical railway bridge, Solution 2 requires
19% more conventional reinforcement than solu
tioll 1 because of the many blisters and more elabo
rate tendon layout. The total cost of materials
(concrete prestress and reinforcement) is 9%
higher for solution 2 than for solution I, These re
SUIIS Illay be signifkantlv different for highway
bridges, where the ratio between girder load and
superimposed dead and live loads is ven different.
1.9,) ClSTlXG .1REA ,1ND
LI exCi II.\'G .\.1ETHODS
The precasting area is located behind one abut
ment and has a length usually equal to that of two
or three segments. There are two different
launching methods:
L The bunching force is transmitted Froll1 the
jacks bearing against the abutment face to the
bridge by pulling tendons or steel rods an
chored in the bridge soffit.
2. A launching device consisting of horizontal
ancl vertical jacks is placed over the abutment.
The vertical jack rests on a sliding surface and
has a special friction gripping element at the
top. The vertical jack lifts the superstructure
for launching, and the horizontal jack pushes it
horizontally.
The designer should be concerned with the fol
lowing items:
The first launching method applies high local
forces to the concrete soffit where the pulling de
vice is anchored. Careful design of the passive
reinforcement must be made Ifl an area already
densely prestressed.
The second launching method requires sufficient
vertical reaction on the vertical jack. This could be
critical at the end of launching, when the required
launchinD' force reaches its maximum with a corre
o
sponding small vertical reaction.
A very precise geometry control is required during
launching. The possibility of foundation settle
ment must be considereel in the design. Whichever
launching method is used, after completion of the
launching procedure the deck must be raised suc
cessively at each pier so that the permanent bear
inD's may be installed. This phase also calls for care-
o ,
ful analysis.
1.9,6 L1USCHING NOSE /l1','D
TE.HPORARY STAfS
The large cantilever moments occurring in the
front part of the superstructure that is being
launched from pier to pier inevitably call for spe
cial provisions to keep the bending stresses and the
temporary prestress within allowable and eco
nomically acceptable limits. Two methods have
been used together and separately, as previously
mentioned:
Launching nose: :\ steel member made either of
plate girders or of t.russes is temporarily pre
stressed into the end diaphragm of the concrete
bridge, which is the front section of the deck dur
ing launching.
Tower and sta}'s: This method was described ill
Chapter 6 for progressive construction, Its appli
cation to incremental launching, however, needs a
special approach, because the relative position of
the tower and the Slavs changes constantly with re
gard to the permanent piers.
The advantage of the launching nose to reduce
cantilever momems in t.he concrete superstructure
was discussed in Section 7.9.4. It is important not
onlv to select the proper dimensions of the
launching nose but also to take into proper account
the actual Aexibilitv of the steel nose in comparison
to that of the concrete span. This relative Aexibilitv
may be characterized by the following dimension
less coefficie 11 t:
K = ..1.,
,./"
350 Incrementally Launched Bridges
where E, and Ec refer to steel and concrete moduli,
and fs and f" are the moments of inertia of the steel
nose and concrete superstructure. Figure 7.67 pre
sents the results of a study analyzing the variation
of the maximum support moment in the concrete
deck for different launching stages with the rela
tive stiffness K. This chart conf1rms the obvious
fact that a flexible nose has only a limited efficiency
in reducing the moments in the concrete deck. The
following table gives the characteristics of several
structures using a launching nose and serves as a
reference for preliminary investigations of the op
timum launching method.
Launching \\'('i),(l1! of'
:\os(' Lenglh Launclling
Brid),(' lit (111)] :\os(' (!ons) Slavs
Wabash Ri\'(T iifi ( 17) :10 :\0
Oil Rin-r (I X) :-16 Yes
Saolit' 93,5 (2X.:i ) ()!1 :\0
Roche 12-l.!'l 90 :\0
For longer spans the launchillg nose is not neces
sarily the optimum solution, while Icmporan bellts
lll<l\' also he expensive, A tower-and-stay sYstem
has been successfully used either alone or in COIl
jUIl('(ion with a laullching nose to reduce the call
tilc\'er mOlllents ill the front part of the super
structure,
To allow the method to be effective in all
launching stages, it is necessary to constantly coJ)
trol the reaction of the tower applied to the con
crete deck. When the tower is above one pier; it is
totally efficient. When launching has proceeded
for another half-span length, the tower and stays
produce additional positive moments at midspan,
exactly contrary to the desired effect. For this rea
son the tower may be equipped with jacks between
the concrete deck and the tower legs, and the tower
reaction may be constantly adjusted to optimize the
stresses in the concrete superstructure. Figure 7.68
shows a device being successfully used for the first
time in the construction of the Boin'e Viaduct,
near Poitiers, France,
/,9,/ PIERS ASD FOUSDATIOXS
The loads applied to Ihe piers and foundatiom
during the incremental launching procedure are'
\'er\' difIerelll from those appearing during ser
vice, The static configuratioll of the piers is also
FIGURE 7.68. Boivre Viaduct, near Poitiers, France,
1
t.. ...
/./
",$
".8 (),'
FIGURE 7.67. Variation of the maximum support
lllOlllClll ,
351 Design of Incrementally Launched Bridges
different. During construction, the bridge slides
over the pier tops and the buckling length of the
piel- is larger than that during service. The hori
zontal force applied to the pier top is also higher
than during service, thus requiring a close study of
this construction phase.
Load, Acting on the Piers The various systems of
horizontal forces that may act on the piers depend
on the followillg:
Longitudinal profile of the superstructure
Direction of launching
______i'Eiction coefficient of sliding bearings
Notation:
() angle of hridge superstructure with respect to
the horizontal; tall I:J r
= angle of friction of sliding bearings: tan <p p
R = total reaction of the superstructure on the
pier: vertical and horizontal components V
and H, normal and tangential components N
and T
The following rom cases will be considered (see
Figure 7.69):
I. 8 > 4>, upward lalillching: Sliding starts on the
bearings when the inclinar.ion of the reaction R
with respect to the vertical is:
a II <p, H //tan(II+4
For smail values of I} and <1>:
H (r + p)V
2. II <p, downward launching: Sliding starts
when a I:J - (p. The horizontal force on the
pier acts in the direction opposite to that of
movement with a value:
H
. For small values of the angles:
H=(r p)V
Because p varies with environmental condi
tions (cleanness of the plates in particular), the
launching equipment and the pier will be de
sjgned for H = rV. The downward movement
of the bridge is controlled by a restraining
jacking force:
(h)
FIGURE 7.69. Reactions on piers during launching.
(a) upward launching. (b) downward launching.
F = N(tan () tan 4 or F N(r - p)
For the same reasons as above. the safe value
of F is equal to Sr.
3. I} < 4>, upward launching: As above, the hori
zontalload applied to the pier is:
I-I (r + p)V
4. 8 < 4>, downward launchiug: In this case the
horizontal load on the pier is applied in the di
rection of the movement with a value of:
H=(r-p)V
Because of the possible variation in the angle
of friction, it is safer to provide a braking sys
tem to control the movement of the bridge.
Pier Cap Detailing The pier caps must be care
fully detailed in order to provide room for the fol
lowing devices:
Temporary sliding bearings
Vertical jacks to lift the bridge after launching to
install the permanent bearings
Horizontal guiding devices during launching
-- --- --
352 Incrementally Launched Bridges
Adjusting jacks for correction of the relative dis
placements piers and deck
/
Moreover, to {educe the pier bending moments
induced by launching, the sliding bearings are
often eccentric. However, it is possible to reduce or
balance this horizontal force b\ installing ties an
chored in the ground. If the piers are verv high,
the horizontal force can be eliminated bv using
jacking equipment directh' installed on the piers.
7.10 Demolition of a Structure by
Incremental Launching
\\'e close this chapter with an unusual application
showing the interesting potential of incremental
lallnching. An overpass structure over the A-I
!l1otorwa\' non h o/' Paris needed to he demolished
{()I' replacement by another structure as part of a
highway relocation program. The limited head
room hetween the existing bridge soffit and the
clearance diagram. IOget her with the considerable
Iraflic on 1he major I1lOlOrw<\v providing pcrrna
nenl access from Paris to Charles de Gaulle Air
port, made all conventional methods of demolition
extremely diITicult and unadapted.
A very simple scheme was devised whereby the
deck was launched awa\, from the traffic onto the
approach embankment to be conventionallv de
molished at leisure. The dimensions of the bridge
LAUHQlING
-
II
+-----'4""b"-'---+-t __"",55"-'__-+__-""5,,,,,5_'
REAR
_-+.............. __+-
LATERAl.
;UIDE5
TOTAL WlGIlT 900 t
PROCEDURE
SCHEDULE TOTAL 51('2 WEEKS
1/ lI!'T TOTAL BRIO(O[
_ DESIGN 8, CONTRACT: '2
2} PLACE 0\1"'1 PIERS
_Moe. PURCHASES 2
and the principle of the method are shown in Fig
ure 7.70. The 900-ton st.ruct.ure had a width of 26
ft and the following spans: 46, 46 ft.
The existing reinforcing did not provide th'e nec
essary strength to resist superstructure dead load
during launching. Therefore, a rear launching-out
tail 26 ft long was installed at the end opposite the
direction of launching, while exterior post-ten
sioning tendons were placed above the deck \0
strengthen the structure.
The bridge was lifted off its hearings 7 in. to in
stall sliding bearings and lateral guiding devices in
preparation for the operation. The whole opera
tion was performed in weeks as fol\ows:
Design and preparation of the contract 2
Mobilization and purchase of equipment 2
Launching g
Traffic was interrupted for onl\' fOllr nights be
tween 101'.\1. and 6 ."o.:V1. The operation turned out
to he a complete success in of its originality.
References
I. \",'illi Baur, "Bridge Erection b\ Launching b Fast,
Safe, and Efhcienr," Cillit ElIgilll'l'1'illg-ASCE, Vol.
47, :\0. 3, ;"1arch 19i7
NOSE {TAil
3) IN$,ALL APPROACI4 !'ILL AND
CONCRE,E
4) PLACt[ PROVI510.. Al.. PIT AND
A REAR ..ost: '26 FT. LONQ
FIGURE 7.70,
_ LAUNCHING
,RAFFIC IN,f:RRUP'TlOH :
(10 P.M. TO 6 ,...M.) 4 1,i!(OI-!.'T!I
Bridge over A-I, launching out.
References 353
2. Anon., "First I ncrementally Launched Post-Ten
sioned Box Girder Bridge to Be Built in the enited
States," Bridge Report, 1976, Post-Ten
sioning Illstitute, Phoenix, Ariz.
3. Arvid Grant, "Incremental Launching of Concrete
Structures," Journal oj thl' A //Iaican COllcrl'te Institute,
Vol. 72, :'\0.8, August 1975.
.t. Anon., "Val Restel Viaduct for the Provincial Road
:'\0. 89 :-.lear Rovereto, Trenro," Pre.I'/rl'ssf'd Concrele
Structures ill Italy 1970/197.J., ;\ssociazione Italian<l
Ct'lllento Armato E (.\\CAP) and
Associaziollt' Iwli,m<l Ecollonica Del Cemento
(AITEC), Rome 1974.
5. Anoll., "Segmental Box Girder Bridges \fake the Hig
Time in C.S.," Engiuntiflg Sl'w\-Rurml, \larch 2,
197H.
6. Anon., "Wabash River Bridge, Covington, Indiana,"
Portland Cement Association, Bridge Report,
SR201.01E, 1978, Skokie, Ill.
7. M. Maddison, "Crossing the Cutting willl Segmenrs ar
Sonning," Concrele, The Journal of Ihe Comrl'te S()cil'ly
(London), Vol. 12, :'\0. 2, Februarv 197H.
8. K. H. Best, R. H. Kingston, and \1. J. Whatley, "lll
cremental Launching at Shepherds House Bridge,"
Proceeding-r, Insiliululli oj Civil Ellg/llnn, Vol. ()4, Part
I, February 1978.
8
ConcTete Segmental Arches,
Rigid FTatnes, and BTidges
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8 ') SEGMENTAL PRECAST BRIDGES OVER THE
MARNE RIVER, FRANCE
8.3 CARACAS VIADUCTS, VENEZUELA
8.4 GLADESVILLE BRIDGE, AUSTRALIA
8.5 ARCHES BUILT IN CANTILEVER
8.5.1 Review of Summary of Structures with
Temporary Stays
8.5.2 Neckarburg Bridge, Germany
8.5.3 Niesenbach Bridge, Austria
8.5.4 Kirk Bridges, Yugoslavia
8.1 Introduction
All arch hridge, in a pnlpcr setting, is an eleganl
and graccful structurc with acsthetic appcal. IIl
... tiJl(tin.-h', a lannan relales to all arch hridge as a
forlll Ihat follows ils function. Long before pre
sl ressed concrete was devcloped as a tech Ilolog\',
COlHTcte arches were lIsed for long spans, taking
advantage of the compressivc stress induced bv
gravitatiollal forces into a ctIned member Illuch as
earlicr gClJcrations of huilders had done with
Ill;tSOlJn' arches.
Three bridges designed and built bv Eugene
Fre\'ssinel het ween 1907 aml 19 lOin central
Frallce were 10 become a major landmark in the
dc\'cloplllcI1I of concrele struci ures. I n the Veur
<Ire lhidge, Figure H. I, the three hinged rein
forced concrete arches had a dear span of 238 ft
(72.50 m) alld an unusual rise-to-span ratio of] 115
diclated by the topography of the site and the sud
den floods of' Ihe Allier River. The \'enture was an
unqualifled success both during load testing and
aher opellillg 10 traffle. As Freyssinet wrote in his
memoirs:
354
8.6 RIGIDFRAME BRIDGES
8.6.1 Saint Michel Bridge in Toulouse. France
8.6.2 Briesle Maas Bridge. Netherlands
8.6.3 Bonhomme Bridge, France
8.6.4 Motorway Overpasses in the Middle East
8.7 TRuSS BRIDGES
8.7.1 Retrospect on Concepts for Concrete Truss
Bridges
8.7.2 MangfalJ Bridge, Austria
8.7.3 Rip Bridge, Australia
8.7.4 Concept for a of the English Channel
REFERENCES
Load If,llillK ,JI(I,I a Iriu'lIIjlh. Oil Ihl' riKlil b(III1i, (I hill
{)lwrlou/iIlIK lli(' hridK(' ,lilt was ottlljlir't/ liv Sf'l'fral
Ihow(JJu/ stHr/alon 11,110 had lalil'lI (ht'lr plate alrNu'.)' al
dawlI 10 11'{1Ith llif' failurl' o/the liridW' !,ret/ictcd Ii) (J
lowl //f'Uls/m/H" ,101d 10 sOllie /II/haN))' (olll/Hlilor. Thesl'
hopI'S WIT!' d(,(l'iZ'nl, (!lui wc Iwd a COli Ii IIUOU5 Iml!' of
/iNn'v ,,[mill rolln,l tra;'diIlK till' bridK(' bark and Jorth
quilf ullabl!' 10 prodllte (/l)vlhillK //lure tho II Ilu rompuled
{'{wi" rlff/I'(lio/l.1.
Belweell 1907 and 1911, howe\'er. fears de
veloped in Frevssinel's mind. II seemed thai the
hand rails, which had been properly aligned al the
lime of Ihe load lest, were showing some convexity
IOwaI'd Ihe sky II the Ilodes of Ihe crown hinges. By
the spring of 1911 the crown had moved down
ward as much as 5 in. (0.13 m), and corre
spondingly the springings had raised appreciably.
Without telling Freyssinet mobilized a
team of four devoted men and placed hydraulic
rams at the arch crowllS to raise the bridge spans to
their original profile; he then replaced the hinge
by a rigid concrete connection between the two
abutting half-arches. This near-disaster was the
- - --- - -
Introduction 355
FIGURE 8.1.
first consefluence seen in a 'itructure of a phenom
enon t heretofore completel v ignored: long-term
concrete creep.
Other beautiful concrete arches were also con
structed in the same period. The Villeneuve
Bridge over the Lot River in southwestern France,
Figure H.2, is an interesting example. The twin
arch ribs are of plain concrete with a clear span of
316 ft (96 m) and a rise of 47 ft 4 in. (14.5 Ill). Each
rib has a solid sectioll 10ft ct m) wide 4 ft 9 ill.
(1.45 m) deep built in at both ellds illto the con
crete abutments. The reinforced concrete deck
rests upon the arch ribs through a series of thin
spalldrel columns, faced with red brick.
Construction began shortlv before World War I
and was interrupted for four year'i, fortunately not
before the concrete arch ribs could be GIst on a
wooden falsework, Figure H.3. Inllllediateh' upon
completion, hydraulic rams were used at the
midspan section to lift the concrete arches off the
Ldsework and acti\'ely create the compressive stress
in them, a techniqlle from Fre\ssillet's fertile mind
that already contained the germ of the idea of pre
stressing.
FIGURE 8.2. Villeneuve Bridge m'er the Lot River.
\'curdlc Bridgc.
The bridge was completed in 1919 and kept the
world's record for long-span concrete .'itructllre.'i
for several years. The photograph appearing in
Figure 8.2 was taken bv olle of the authors in the
summer of 1980; it shows that beautiful structure
in a rell1arkable state after sixty vears of contillu
ous operation under constallt urban traffic.
Another Freyssinet design, the TOlllleills Bridge
over the Garonne Ri\'er, was built at the sallle time,
he considered it to be one of his nicest bridge
structures, Figure 8.4.
The Plougastel Bridge in Brittal1\, Figure
reached for longer spans with concrete arches. For
t he first time a box section was emploved, calling
on an ingenious method of construction in which ,I
wooden falsework was floated into position and re
used se\Tral tillles for the \'arious arch ribs. Di
mensions of the structure and t\'pical details of the
arches are shown in Figure 8.5, which is a bcsilllile
of a document published in 1930.
The three arches ha\'e a span length 01611 ft
(186.40 m) and GIlTV a single-track railroad ;lI1d a
two-lane highwa\'. The reinforced concrete trussed
double deck ,ICcoIllIllodates the train track Oil its
lower level and the highway on the upper. ;\Tear
the arch crown in each span, the train passes
through the arch rib.
The arch ribs were onlv slightlv reinforced and
the quantity of steel was 39 Ib/\'d:l kg/Ill:I), in
spite of the relati\'ely thin walls used for the box
section.
The three arch ribs were constructed one after
the other on a temporary wooden arch built on
shore and Aoated into position for each of the
three concrete arches, Figures 8.6 and 8.7. This
wooden arch was 490 ft (ISO \11) long and weighed
550 tons (500 mtl, including the two reinforced
concrete end sections, which allowed the thrust
created by the concrete arch ribs to be transferred
---
1.>0
c.n
O'l
LE GENIE CIVIL
Fill, 2.
Dem.] cli:val.Jon
!'iffl>- Dcml-coope du tabhm', a clef
-
i "
Fin,1
Fin'.! 11;) 1) ail::;
FIGURE 8.3. ViIlCIlClI\'L'
, '.
Fin:\
. \ Il
flfj
Fi(I8
ell
Tdrtiel1p rill tablw['

rhl
.1.
357 Segmental Precast Bridges Over the Marne River, France
FIGURE 8.4. Tonneins Bridge over the Garonne
River, France.
to the arch spnl1gll1gs completed earlier on the
foundation caissons.
Two barges and a temporarv steel tie slightlv
above the water level, with the help of the large
tidal range, allowed the tral!sfer of this faisework
from the construction area to the three positions of
use and its final return after completion of the con
crete structure.
As this outstanding ulldertaking neared COIII
pletion in 1930 after live veal'S of uninterrupted
effort, Frevssinet expressed his thoughts as fol
lows:
In B riitan.v light is lihe a fail)' who cunsta Iltf.y plays at
cOl'aillg nature with [many! changing coats, now of
Ifad, nuw ofsifl'l'T or o//Jear/s, or of something immllte
. rial and radiant.
Toward the fe'ming 0/ the load testing of lhe bridge. she
had spread her most sumptuous treasures on the roadstead
and each line 11' lhe work, changl'd into a lung rosary
unreal light, added another tOl/ch of beaut)' to till' mar
vellous whole, proving in this way tltat the Fair.v of the
Roadstead had already adopted the child that men had
im/J()sed Oil her and had known how to weave for him
garments magnijiant enough to hide all the imperji'ctiolls
of the worh.
8.2 Segmental Precast Bridges over the
Marne River, France
Located some 30 miles (50 km) east of Paris, the
Luzancy Bridge represents probably the first ap
plication of truly segmental construction as we
know it today. It incorporated so many innovations
in a single structure that it would not be out of
place in today's modern bridge technology.
The single-span structure, Figure 8.8, is a
double-hinged arch with a distance between hinges
of 180 ft (55 m) and a very tight clearance diagram
for river navigation that allowed only 4 ft 3 in.
(1.30 m) below the finished grade of the roadway.
Consequently, not only is the bridge structure very
shallow, 4.16 ft (1.27 m), at midspan, but the rise
to-span ratio of the arch is unusual: 1123. The
bridge consists of three parallel box sections made
up of p r e ~ a s t segments 8 ft (2.44 m) long, con
nected after placement in the structure by precast
slab sections at both top and bottom Hanges, Figure
8.9.
The bridge is prestressed in three directions:
The 4 in. (0.10 m) webs are vertically prestressed to
resist shear.
The longitudinal box girders are then prestressed
to connect the precast segments and resist bending.
The negative-moment prestressing tendons at the
top flange level over the arch springings are lo
cated in grooves provided at the top surface of the
precast segment upper flange and are ultimateh
embedded in a 2 in. (50 mm) concrete topping.
This dense, high-quality concrete pavement pro
vides the sole protection for the high-tensile steel
wires and also sen'es as the sole roadway wearing
course. In spite of the excellent behavior of this
structure after more than 34 years of operation, it
would probably be difficult to envisage duplicating
it todav.
Transverse cOllllection between the box girders
and the connecting slabs is achieved by prestress
Ing.
There was no cOllventional reinforcing steel in
the bridge superstructure except in local areas.
such as the Freyssinet concrete hinges at the arch
springings. The erection was just as remarkable as
the conception of the bridge. Each box girder con
sisted of 22 segments, which were cast in a central
yard at the rate of one a dav (little progress has
been achieved after thirty years). Afterward thev
were carefully aligned on concrete blocks to take
the profile of the finished structure with proper
provision for camber. The tin. (20 mm) wide joints
were dry packed to allow segment assembly by pre
stressing. In fact, the 22 segments of each box
girder were assembled at this stage in three units:
two side units made up of three segments each. and
the center unit incorporating the remaining 16
<:;0
CJl
00
LE GENIE CIVIL
,EN ETO AETvlE, SUR EL ORN, PRES DE PL 0 GAS L ( NIS ) ONT
'ad.. tUl MI
"'I'r'M,/In"IN/iV!

.FIGURE 8.5. Plougastcl Bridge. dimensiolls of the st rurt II Ie alld details or the arches. a
facsilllile of a docllmcllt ill I!1:30.
359 Segmental Precast Bridges Over the Marne River, France
FIGURE 8.7. Plougastel Bridge, wooden falsework.
FIGURE 8.6. Plougastel Bridge, wooden falsework.
segments with a length of 170 it (52 rn) and a
maximum weight of 134 tons (122 mt). All three
units were assembled on the bridge centerline im
mediately behind one abutment, while the delta
shaped sections representing the arch springings
were GIst ill place over the abutment in their final
location in the structure.
A special aerial cableway made up of two steel
towers resting on both batiks and properly an
.j
, ,
chored to the rear, a svstem of suspended winches,
ane! a unique elliptical drum aHowed the transfer
of the precast girder units from their assembly po- FIGURE 8.8. LuzaIlCV Bridge.
foulre median/] - Dem! coupe dans (axe
Oemt coupe a /a eM Dem! coupe a211 "'00 de la eli
FIGURE 8.9. Luzancy Bridge, concrete dimensions.
360 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
51110n on the banks to their final location in ~ <
structure. In spite of a seemingly involved concept,
the operations were carried out safely and rapidly;
a center beam was placed in only eight hours and a
complete arch including all preparatory and
finishing operations was assembled in 120 hours,
Figure 8.] O.
Another interesting feature of this structure was
the incorporation at both arch springings of Freys
sinet fiat jacks and reinforced concrete wedges
between the arch inclined legs and the abutment
sills, to adjust and control the arch thrust and the
bending moments at midspan.
'The bridge was opened to traffic in May 1946
after successfullY proving its structural adequacy
through a comprehensive series of static and
d\namic load tests, following a custom still in use
today in several European countries. Figure 8.11
gives a view of the finished structure.
This first precast segmental arch bridge was fol
lowed a few years later bv a series of five other
structures, all of the same type and in the same
geographical area, the valley of the Yfarne River,
FIGURE 8.10. Luzanc" Bridge, erection of central
section.
FIGURE 8.ll. Luzaney Bridge, view showing flat arch
rise.
FIGURE 8.12. One of the five Marne River Bridges:
Esbly, Anet, Changis. Trilbardou, and lJssv.
Figure 8.12, at the following locations: Esblv, Anet,
Changis, Trilbardou, and Ussy. All five bridges
have the geometric dimensions shown in Figure
8.13:
Distance between hinges: 243 it (74 m)
Rise of the central axis at the crown over the abut
ment hinge: 16.3 ft (4.96 m)
Depth at crown: 2.82 ft (0.86 111)
Deck width: 27.5 ft (8.40 m)
The deck structure is made up of six precast gir
ders, each consisting of:
Two precast delta-shaped sections at the
spnngmgs
Thirty-two precast' segments 6.8 ft (2.07 111) long
and weighing from 2 to 4.2 tom (1,8 to 3.8 mI).
The same design and construction principles
used at the Luzancy Bridge were repeated for this
series of five bridges, except for some improve
ments commensurate to the experience gained
from the first structure and taking into account the
importance of the project. Precasting of the 960
segments was achieved in a factory completely en
closed and using the most modern concrete man
ufacturing techniques of that period.
Each segment was fabricated in two stages in
heavy steel forms. Top and bottom flanges were
cast first, with high-strength steel stirrups em
bedded in both units. After strength was achieved,
a set of steel forms equipped with jacks was placed
between the flanges, which were jacked apart to
stress the web pretensioned stirrups. Then the web
was cast between the flanges. There was no need
for any conventional reinforcing steel in the pre
cast segments.
The concrete was vibrated with high-frequency
external vibrators, then compressed for maximum
"
t::! :


,
"
>}.
,

;
,

I
t

C'll
t
j
f
::!\

.e

,.;

"

.


or,
or.

;..
:..,

.,
-

]

8'
:it
S
]


361
362 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
compaction and steam cured for a fast reuse of the
forms. The equivalent 28-day cylinder strength
was in excess of 6500 psi.
l\:ear the precast factory, an assembly yard al
lowed the segments to be carefully aligned and as
sembled by temporary prestressing into sections,
which were transferred into barges to be floated to
t he various bridge sites. Each longitudinal girder
was thus made up of six sections:
The two delta springing sections
Two illtermediate five-segment sections
Two center ten-segment senions
Halldling or these various sections was perforl1led
In the Llizalln cahle-way properl\' rearranged for
the purpose.
The stahility oj the side scctiol!s, at both ends,
was ohtaillcd 1)\ temporan' calltilcHT cables <lll
rlwred ill the ahUltllents, while the two cenler sec
liolls wcre sllspellded to Ihe cableway uIHil casting
01 tlte wet joinls was completed and longitudinal
prestressillg illslalled to allow the an:hes to support
their OWlI weight. Figures I:U4 through 8.16 show
Ihe various sequellces of the an'l1 cOllstructioll,
while Olle 01 the finished hridges is shown ill Figure
H.li,
The qu,llltities of malerials for the superslI'uc
ture were ven low, considering the span length
alld the slenderlless or the stnlcture:
Precast ronCl-ete: :lS:I y<1'I (2iO m:')
Reinforcillg' steel: 13.2 tOllS (12 ml)
Prestressing steel: 13.2 tOllS (12 mt)
For a deck area of 6540 it 2, the quantities per
square foot were:
FIGURE 8.16. \larne Ri\'er Bridges, erection of C(,I1
t ral senion .
Precast concrete: 1.46 ft 31ft 2
Reinforcing steel: 4.0 Ib/ft
2
Prestressing steel: 4.0 Ib/ft 2
As in the Luzancy Bridge, the high-density con
crete placed over the exposed longitudinal pre
stressing tendons was also used for the roadway
FIGURE 8.15. Marne River Bridges. ereclioll of cell
tral se('lioll.
FIGURE 8.14. 1\larne River Bridges, erened end sec
Ii 011.
363 Caracas Viaducts, Venezuela
FIGURE 8.17. \larne Ri\'er Bridges, cOllJpleted struc
ture.
we;lrillg course. The behavior of these bridges has
been excellent for thirty years,
8.3 Caracas Viaducts, Venezuela
In Venezuela in 1952 a highway was being con
structed between Caracas and La GlIaira airport.
Alignmem of' this highwav necessitated crossing a
gorge at thrt'e locatiolls :vith relativel\ large
bridges. These structures were designed and con
structed LInder the direction or Eugene Frevssinet. I
,\lthollgh the three bridges aI'e similar in ap
pearance, Figures 8.18 and 8,19, thev vary In
FIGURE 8.18. Caracas Viadtlcts, Bridge I.
Caracas Viaducts. Bridg('s '2 and :1.
length as shown in Table 8.1. Preliminary investi
gations indicated that adequate soillllaterial would
probably be found irregularly at great depths.
Construction of abutments to resist large bending
moments under these conditiolls would be difficult
if not impossible. The decision was therefore lIlade
that the abutments would resist olllv the centered
thrust or the arches alld that the hending moments
applied to the abutment would be reduced, as far
as practical, to zero. This required that hinges be
located as Ileal' as possible to the points of origin of
the ;ll\:hes. Because of consideration of long-term
creep deformation Oil bllckling of tlte arch and
possible conscqlIences of abut llIent displacemcnt
as might be caused bv an earthquake, the decision
was made to eliminate a crown hinge, thlls result
ing ill t\,'O hinged arches,'
Although rhe bridges consider;lbl; in di
l1lensions. thev are quite similar ill appearance, Be
calise of lhe vallev prohle, it was possible to use the
same basic desigll for all three structures. All were
designed for A:\SHO H20-44 loading. Wherever
possible, the elements were standardized ill order to
minimize design and maximize precasting and pre
fabI-icat ion.
Pilasters were placed at each end or the arch in
Bridge 1 so as to avoid an unpleasant appearance
of a change without transition from the main
structllre 1.0 the approach viaducts.
TABLE 8.1. Caracas Viaduct Arches
Hciuht lrom
Bridge Total Length Bed
"
of Gorge \lain Span
10 U It C)08.0 111) 230 It (70.1 Ill) 190 It (151.H Ill)
IBO It m) 2..t0 It (73.2 lll) 4:70 ft (14:5.7 111)
700 ft (2I3 ...t m) 170 It (51.0 tIl) 4;"):3 It (131:\.1 Ill)
364 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
", I,
Piers of the access \ltaduct.
hIOged a! the h:(l!
Caracas S.1e
FIGURE 8.20. Caracas Viaducts, cleYUlioll of Bridge 1, from reference 1 (courtesv of
Ciyil Enginecring-ASCE).
An elevation of Bridge 1, Figure 8,20, shows the
principal dimensions and foundations of the arch.
The three hridges have identical cross sections,
Figure 8.2l. The poured-in-place concrete deck
topping varies in thickness from 2 in. (50 mm) at
the edges to in. (190 mm) at the center to pro
\'ide a trallsverse slope of l.57c for drainage. Each
deck span, except at the crown, consists of eight
precast prestressed I girders. Variations in span
lengt h of the deck girders are accommodated by
adding or rcmoving standard form units. 1dentical
transvcrsely prestressed precast stay-in-place deck
slahs span transversely between the deck girders.
Continuity of the deck girders is accomplished by
longitudinal tendons placed in a groove in the top
of the top flange of the girders.
2
Approach piers alld spandrel columns over the
arches consist of three I-shaped columns of a
standard cross section shown in Figure 8.21. A
five-segment precast cap beam on the columIls re
:"1",
"'
~ > o ' ~ i I~ " t , ~
*--10'6
11
--
, Cross section of pier A-A
ceives the eight deck I girders. A perspective of the
deck over the piers is shown in Figure 8,22. The
precast deck girders, cap beams, and slab are sup
ported on the cast-in-place piers, and the whole as
sembly is prestressed vertically, transversely, aI1d
longitudinally.
The center span consists of three parallel
double-hinged arch ribs 27 ft 6 in, (8,4 m) on
center, Figure 8,21. Each arch rib is a box with a
width of 10 ft 6 in. (3.2 m) and a slightly varying
depth fmm 9 ft 6 in, (2,9 m) to lOft (3,05 m) at the
supporting points of the deck. To provide in
creased capacity to resist end moments developed
by horizontal loads, the width of the ribs is in
creased to 17 ft (5.18 m) at the spring lines. The 5
in. by 5 in. (127 mn) x 127 mm) fillets provided at
each inside corner of the box are to reduce the
concentration of torsion stresses. Thickness of the
bottom flange of the box rib was kept to a
minimum to reduce weight on the falsework. The
~ standard cross section through arch
FIGURE 8.21. Caracas Viaducts, typical cross section, from reference 1 (courtesy
of Civil Engineering-ASCE).
365 Caracas Viaducts, Venezuela
FIGURE 8.22. Caracas Viaducts. perspective of deck over piers, from reference
1 (courtesy of Civil Engineering-ASCE).
thicker top flange provides the box rib with the re
quired area and moment of inertia for resisting
t hrllst and live-load llIoments.
Design of these structures considered a design
wind pressure of 50 psf (2.4 The arch ribs
carry part of the wind pressure to which they are
directly subjected: the remainder is transmitted to
the deck structure bv bending of the spandrel col
umns and the connection of the arch rib to the
deck at the crown. The arches were assumed to be
transverselv fixed in the foundations, the end mo
ment developed in the springings resulting in a
slight transverse displacement of the pressure

Thus, the deck structure was chosen as the prin
cipal member to resist wind loads, requiring the
exclusion of all Joints in the deck from abutment to
abutment. The condition of deck continuitv leel to
the attachment of the deck to the arch on both
sides of the arch crown. This was aCCO!1l plished by
prestressing the continuous cables provided over
the top flange of the girders and anchoring them
into the arch. Six girders were connected to the
arch in this manner; the two intermediate girders
that 'do not rest directly on the arch were
lengthened to the crown, Figure 8.21.
2
During construction, an open joint was provided
at the crown. In this joint Freyssinet Hat jacks
staggered with concrete wedges were inserted,
acting as a hinge for the arches to adjust the pres
sure line during different phases of construction.
Expansion and contraction of the deck due to
temperature, creep. and shrinkage take place over
an approximate length of IDOO ft (305 m),
veloping approximatelv symmetrically on both
sides of the arch crown. Free movement 0[' the
deck structure over the pilasters was accommo
dated bv providing two concrete rockers over each
transverse wall of a pilaster. The rockers consisted
of a 3 ft 6 in. (1.07 m) high continuous wall
throughout the width or the bridge with a continu
ous Frf'vssinet-tvpe concrete hinge at both the top
and bottom. Approach piers were fixed in the deck
at the top and hinged at their footings. Because of
their height, these piers have sufficient flexibility to
allow movement of the deck without developing
appreciable bending moments, the exception being
the short stiff piers next to the abutment, which
were hingetl both top and bottom.
2
We shall describe the construction procedure for
the superstructure of Bridge I, which was also
used for the other two bridges. Because the cable
way did not have the capacity to transport the deck
girders across the canvon, precasting operations
were established at both ends of the bridge. During
construction of the foundations, precasting opera
tions were started at both sites at either end of the
bridge.
When the foundations for the approach piers
were completed, the cableway transported and po
sitioned the precast Fre\'ssinet pier hinges to their
respective locations, where they were grouted to
their respective foundations. Pouring of the piers
then commenced, lIsing special steel forms at
tached to the hinge blocks. Two sets of forms were
used in leap-frog fashion to maintain a pouring
366 Concrete SegmentalArches, /ligtdFrames, anoTruss Bridges
rate of 5 ft (1.52 m) per cia\. Because olthe hinge
al I he base of each pier column, Ihe piers required
Icmporarv support unlillhe deck girders could he
placed. The firsl 25 ft (7.62 Ill) lift of each column
in each pier was supported bv a light sleel scar
folding Ihal surmunded each colul11 n; the scaf
foldings, in \Urn, were braced logel her. Succeed
ing 25 ft (7.62 111) lifts were braced 10 the previous
lift hy light timher trusses. :\s t lie colul11ns in the
piers rose, steel reinforcement was placed; at the
sallie tiI1le, holes for vertical prestressing tendons
were cast in the concrete by the insertion of H in.
t:1H III 111) steel tuhes, which were withdrawn H
hours after concrete placemellt.
L' pon completion of t he three colu m ns of an ap
proach pier, precast segments of the cap beam
were placed atop the columns and prestressed
HTticallv to them ,IS indicated ill Figure 8.22. The
\1\0 intermediate cap beam seglllents were placed
1)\ the cablcw,1\ and lemporarily held ill position
hI' steel brackets. Four prestressing tendolls were
then placed through t he cap beaJll segmcnts and
the fOllr \crtical I i ill. llllll) joillls between the
segmcnts wcre packed with a rich mortar. At'ter
eight to ten hOlils the longitudillal tendom in the
cap healll \\'('re strcssed and allchored to cOlllplete
a pier bent. which was then reach \0 receive the
deck girders and slabs. The 1:17 It (41.75 111) high
pilasters at each end or the arch are four-celled
hollow boxes 20 b\' HO ft (6.1 x 24.4 111) in plan with
all walls 41 in. (120.65 111111) thick. They were ("011
stmeted in lifts with special steel forl11s that were
Icap-frogged. Ten \'Crtical prestressing tendons
<lllchored into t he foundation provided stability
against wind forces.:l
Upon completion of the abutments and the first
approach piers, erection of the bridge deck girders
and slabs cOlllmenced. It was accomplished with a
126 ft (3H.4 m) long structural steel lattice girder
galltr\', 60 It (IH.3 m) of which extended as a can
t i lever. One 4 H It (14.6 111) span, COil sisting of eight
precast beams alld 112 precast slabs, required nine
working days ami a crew of 16 l11el1. When the ap
proach yiaduct c1ecks werc in place, they were pre
stressed longitudinally b\ prcstressing tendons
placed ill the grooves of the top flange of the deck
girdns, which wel'e anchored at one end il1lo the
abutmellt ami at the other end o\'er the arch pilas
ters.
The three arch ribs of the main span were cast in
place on a light wooden falscwork, which was re
used almost in its entiret\' for the two other
bridges. Basically, the system adopted was to erect
the timber lormwork for casting the arch ribs by
the cantile\'er method, this formwork being placed
by the merhead cablew;n alld held in place b\ a
system of cable stalS.-;Phus, the arch rib was essen
tially constructed to the quarter-point s. The -center
half-span formwork was constructed as a light
wooden trussed arch assembled at the bottom of
the camOI1 and winched into position from the
ends of the quarter-span cantileyers. The timber
falsework t russ was wedged against the concrete
arch ribs already erected. It acted as an arch under
the weight of the bottom flange concrete, t1'an5
mitt ing it s t hrust.to the cantile\'cred arch sections
pre\iously erected. Later the timber falsework
acted compositeh \"it h t he hardened bottom flange
concrete to support the webs and top flange of the
hollow box arch rihs when t hey were placed.'
The following discussion describes the erection
sequellce or the cellter-spall arch ribs.:! The fIrst
falscwork unit ill the quarter-span (or each arch
rih consisted of a tilllber platforlll ;) I ft (9.45 Ill) ill
length with" width of 27 f't Hill. (H.43 Ill) at the
spring lille and a widt h of 17 It 2 in. (5.23 m) at the
opposite end, Figure (Phase I). This platform
was C0I1S\J1IC\cd of g x lOin. (76.2 x 254 111m) tim
hers 011 edge at in. (267 mill) centers covered
OIl Ihe uppel' face with tin. (12.7 III Ill) thick
plywood. It provided the form for the bO\lolTt of
the arch rib. For the first section or the quarter
span, three of these units (one for each rib) were
placed In the cablewa\', supported by cable staYs A
and B. and their position adjusted by hydraulic
jacks at Ihe ends of the anchor cable stays.
tOllr precast Freyssinet hinge blocks were posi
tiolled ,It the spring line and assembled into one
hinge block hy prestressing thelll together. Forms
were then erected 011 the ralsework for the webs of
t he arch rib, ami placement of concrete com
menced, Figure 8.23 (Phase As the weight of
each increment of concrete came onto t he forms,
the cable stays elongated and the geometry of the
arch-rib soffit had to be carefully adjusted bv the
hydraulic jacks.
C pOll completion of the cOllcreting for the first
section of the quarter-span, falsework section 2 was
attached to it and supported by two more cable
stavs, C amI D. After geometry adjustment, con
creting continued, Figures 8.23 (Phase 3) and 8.24.
As a result of the position of the cable stays and the
concreting sequence, angular deformations were
possible between falsework sections I and 2.
Thereforc, a temporary concrete hinge was placed
in the lower flange of the arch rib, which would
allow angular deformation but transmit the thrust
to maintain equilibrium. When the concreting of
/
/
/
/
/
/
FIGURE 8.23. Caracas Viaducts, erection and construction sequcnce. from reference ~ ~
((DUnCS\ of Ci\'il Engineering-A5CE).
367
368 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
.'f 1
.;
FIGURE 8.24. Caracas Viaducts. constructioll of arch
sprillgillgs ()ll suspellded scdloldillg,
the second portion of arch rib was completed and
adjustment made, the temporary hinge
was blocked and the two sections were prestressed
In the same manner. temporan'
were lIsed lor the remaining sectiolls of the
quaner-span arch rib am! at each end of the cen
Iral half-span arch sectioll,
The firsl Iwo secliollS of arch rib thus became a
COI1liIlUOUS member supporled at the ouler end by
cable SlaYS, and during conslruction of the resl of
the arch its posilion was adjusted by
cable slay l),
The next operalion was Ihe erection of the third
lalsework ullit consisting of a Irusswork. Its weight
was slIch that it could not be accommodated by the
cahleway. Therefore, it was assembled al the bot
tom of the canyon below its position in the arch.
The OllIeI' end was lifted by the cab!ewa\' and the
inner end by a winch located at the end of the pre
viollsly concreled section of the alch. Stay cables E
passing over Ihe pilaster were attached, and the
bottom flange of the new arch rib section was cast,
Figures 8.23 (Phase 4) and 8.25.
In like manner the next section of trussed
falsework was positioned and supported by cable
stav F. l\"ext, concrete lor the bottom flange of the
rib was placed, including small concrete brackets

which protruded below the bottom flange totake
the Ihrust of the 267 fl (81.4 m) central falsework
after its positioning, Figure 8.23 (Phase 5).
In Ihe last phase of the quarter-span concreting,
the vertical webs were fOnlled and concreted, as
well as a few narrow strips across the top to provide
stiffness to the arch-rib members, which at this
slage had a C-shaped cross section, Figure 8.23
(Phase 6). The anchor stay cables were again ad
justed 10 bring the 125 ft (38 m) quarter-span into
its proper position.
The central 267 ft (81.4 m) falsework span had
been assembled at the bottom of the canvon below
its final position in the arch, Figure 8.26. The ends
of the timber falsework arches were lied logether
by sleel cables acting as lies to keep the arch
falsework rigid. The whole central falsework was
hoisted inlo positioll by winches localed at the ends
of Ihe cll1tile\'erecl quarter-span unils, Figure 8.27.
Ollce the cenlral falsework was ill place and tl\e
location of the crown exactly positioned, cement
mortar was packed in the g-ap bet ween the ends
01 Ihe cenlral falsework and Ihe quarter-span
falsework, and eXIra-flat sand boxes were em
bedded in the joint for subsequent slripping of the
celllral falsework.
After two days, the steel tie cables on the central
falsework were released and the winches support-
FIGURE 8.25. Caracas Viaducts. lifting one wooden
truss.
GENERAL ELEVATloti OF FALse WORK
x
"-- -- P. .::>..
_J_
"'.. - --- --
,,<J L41 i

JoIAf!D SUEt
OF &4 HARD 51EEl "IJlE3 ,S...... ;PU '.11

'"
/;:::;;:: .X
,/
7je-, :
liFTING or
SECTION wn::i.mtlG :
!o!
fALSfWOltK
2:61 ifET
;l'4fEfT
220 tOMS
I10! DETAIL OF JOINT OF LOWER MEMBER
AND DIAGONALS
DETAIL OF JOINT OF TOP MEMBER
AND DIAGONALS

80TTOtA MEt.
",.:iF o!h. TOP MEMBER OF FALSf. WOMI(

.. .
--_.--,
4x"" I>IAGOtiAlS , >
CROSS SECTION OF FALSE WORK
51l0'Mi'IoG T\o! 5.l'A.UTE TIMBER ARCI-IES FORMH'I(i FALse WORK IHOt'PENDAflT ARCHES
ARE. A55EM8LEO INTO ONE. COMPLETE RIOH) -LIMIT Ely Mt:AI'tS Of' VARIOUS 8RAClHGS
0.48'"
018"

0"-
-=. 171_ ...... 1".

___ ': II 11.11 II ,F

jJrPLYWOOO bDTTOM WfW&tR
. .!
. IT !;:
II
'. 'I DETAIL OF COtlCRETE END Of FALSEV\OIlIC
WHif': M U UIlJ 1f U DETAIL Of END JOINT OVER SUPPORT A AHCHOI:IACiE OF liARD 5lEtL W(RES Of TIES
lL.IL.ll!Li.JI .
FIGURE 8.26. ,'j;ldllCb, ('i'CCIiOIl of c('Iller of an h fabcwork.
vo
c::r>
I.C
370 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
.'
FIGURE 8.27. Carac;t, Viaducts. lifting c(,lIter
ing the section were loosened. At this point the
cOlllbination of the central trussed falsework and
the cOllcreted quarter-span units acted as a com
pletc arch frOlll abutment to abutmellt.
:'\ cxt, t he bottom Aa nges of the arch ribs were
cOllcreted, in a previousl\' arrallged sequence, IIp
to the crown Oil each side, and temporary crown
hillge blocks were placed. The other temporal'\'
hctweell clements of the quarter span were
hlocked alld the cable stays up to stay D removed.
The cOlllbillation of timber falsework and partly
huilt concrete arch ribs contillued to be held in po
sition Iw sta\'s D, E, and F, with a temporar\' hinge
at F onlv.
Thc vert ical webs of the arch ribs over the cen
tral sectioll were then concreted lip to the crown
Ilillge; cable st,l\' D was released; crown concrete
was cOlllpleted; the remaining construction joints
were tied with prestressing tendons; and the last
cable stays E alld F were released. At this point the

<'IF..
/'.

.
."... .r. '.
;
FIGURE 8.28. Caracas Viaducts. lowering center
f'aJsc\\'ork.
concrete arch ribs, less the top Aange over the
center 260 ft (79.25 m) section, carried themsehes
as well as the dead load of the entire falsework.
I\:ext, the cement joints at the ends of the
falsework were destroyed, sand boxes emptied,
and, after the steel cable ties had been retightened,
the central section of falsework was lowered, Fig
ure 8.28. Falsework elements in the quarter-spans
were lowered by hand winches.
Spandrel columns were constructed next. Then,
following a carefull, \\'orked out sequellce, the top
flanges of arch ribs over the central section were
concreted. Upon completion of the arch ribs the
deck beams and slabs were placed, ill the manner
previoush' described for the approach viaducts, in
a s\'ll1metrical and simultaneous manlier on both
sidcs of the crown...\fter the deck had bcen pre
st ressed transverseh', it was prest ressed longit udi
lIall, ill the same lllallncr as the approach \'iaducts.
Finishcd Viaduct I is shown in Figure 8.29. .
In 1973, twellt\'-one \,ears after the construction
of arches, t he\' were reevaluated to see how
they \\'Oldd IIOW be desiglled and cOllstructed. Fig
ures tl.30 alld 8.31 compare the actual project COII
structed ill 1952 with the structure as it wmIld have
been designcd in 1970 (two boxes) and in 1973
(single box). The three-arch-rib and eight-bealll
su perst ruct u re would be replaced by a variable
depth box section (cantilever construction using
precast segments) supported on slip-formed piers.
The arch remains an appealing and aesthetic
structure and might still prove to be competitive;
but perhaps the construction technique suggested
in the :'\ecbrburg Bridgc (Section 8.5.2) might
be lllore appropriate today, either cast in place or
precast.
FIGURE 8.29. Caracas Viaducts, finished Viaduct 1.
371 Gladesville Bridge, Australia

As constructed in 1952
I
so 00 '
r----165 ft I
264 ft
Possible alternative in 1973
FIGURE 8.30. Caracas \,iacluCls. cOlllparisoll of sl'CliollS.
8.4 Gladesville Bridge, Australia
This precast segmental arch bridge, cOlllpleted in
19G4, spans the Parramatta River between Glades
ville and DrunI111()\'lle and selTes a large seuioll of
the northern of the Snlnev Metropolis, Fig
ure H.:12.
A fter award of con tract the cont ractors submit
ted ,Ill alternative desi.!.{ll. Thev proposed that the
arch be built 011 fixed falsework. whereas in the
original design part of I he arch was to be built on
floating falsework and lOwed illto positioll. The
original design called for an arch span of 910 ft
(277.4 III). The alternate design increased the dear
SP;llI of the arch to 1000 ft (305 m) and eliminated
the necessitv for deep-water excavation for the
arch foundations on the Gladesville, or nonhern,
side of the river.!
Total bridge length between 'lbulinents is 1901
ft 6. in. (579.6 m). The 1000 ft (305 111) clear span
arch consists of four arch ribs, Figure 8.33, sup
ported on massive concrete blocks. known as
"thrust blocks," founded on sandstone on each side
of the river. Roadwav width is 7'-2 ft (22111) with 6 ft
(l.8 m) wide sidewalks on each side. The roadway
has a grade of at each end, and the grades are
In' a vertical curve 300 it (91.4 m) in
of 134 ft (40.8 111) above the water and not less than
1'-20 ft (36.6 Ill) above water level for a width of 20(]
ft (61 Ill) in the center of the river.
COllstruction of the bridgc involvcd t hc follow
ing main opcrations
4
:
I. Excavation for fOllndation of:
a. Arch Il1mst blocks 011 each of t he rivcr
at the shoreline and partly below wat.er.
b. Abutments at the ends of the bridge.
c. Shore pier columns of the approach spans
on eaLh sidc of the river.
<) Concreting of the arch thrust blocks, the
abutments and columns.
3. Driving of falsework piles in the river amI
erection of steel falsework to support the hol
low COllcrete blocks and diaphragms forming
each of the four arch ribs.
4. Casting of the box-section segl1lents of the arch
and diaphragms and the erection of the fOllr
arch ribs one at a time.
5. Jacking each rib to raise and lift it off the
falsework.
6. Casting of concrete deck beams on each side of
[he river.
7. Erection of the deck beams to form the road
wav over the arch.
length over the center portion of the structure.
8. Paving of the concrete roadwav and final com
The arch has a maximum clearance. at the crown, pletion of the structure.
____
! If!
I
I
I
,
I
c:.

I
I
..,
="
,
j I' I ;il
t
I



r
!
!
i
i
l
'0
l
' .
As constructed in 1952
_____ h __ _
i
...
I'
't
..
,\
I
-------.,-,,"i..----.-
I
Possible alternative In 1970
Possible alternative in 1973
FIGURE 8.31. Caracas Viaducts, comparison of cross sections.
20.50
372
373 Gladesville Bridge, Australia
FIGURE 8.32. Gladcs\'ille Bridg-e, aerial view, from
reference 4.
The roadway deck is supported on pairs of pre
stressed concrete columlls, Figure 8.33. The wall
thickness is 2 ft (0.6 m), except ill the tal! colullllls
above the arch foulldation where the wall thickness
is increased Iw 6 in. (152 ll11l1). At the top of each
pair of c o l u l l l n ~ there is a reinforced COllcrete cap
beam to support the deck giJ:!lers.
During construction it was necessarv to provide
blsework to support the box segments ami dia
phragms tlmt make lip cadi of the four arch ribs
in the arch. The falsework was made up of steel
tubuh\r columns 011 steel tubular pile trestles car
ning spans of steel beams 60 ft (18.3 Ill) long and a
steel tl'lISS spall of 220 ft (67 Ill) over a navigation
opening in the Gbdesville (Ilonhel'll) half of the
FIGURE 8.34. Gladesville Bridge, arch rib Ctlscwork
and positioning of arch rib SCg:I11CIH, from refcrcllceL
falsework. These falsework units were tied to
gether and anchored at each end to the thrust
blocks, Figure 8.3-L Piling was taken down to rock
ill the river bed.
Steel columns, braced together, forllled a tower
extending transverseh the full width of the bridge
at the center of the falsev/Ork. rranwerse lIlell1
FIGURE 8.33. Gladesville Bridge, schematic of four arch ribs, col
umns. and deck. from reference 4.
374
Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
hel'S, extending the full width of the bridge. above
the waterline connected the pile trestles, Figure
R.34. The balance of the falsework was of sufficient
width to support one arch rib. Upon completion of
erection of an arch rib, the falsework was moved
transversely on rails on the transverse members of
the pile to a position to enable erection of
the adjacent arch rib, until all arch ribs were
erected.
Equipment installed 011 the central tower lifted
the arch box segments and diaphragms from water
level and positioned them. The tower also sened
as a lateral bent to stabilize the individual arch ribs
alter they were self-supporting alld until thn were
tied t oget her. 4
The hollow-box segments and diaphragms were
cast;) lIliles (4.8 kl1l) dowllstream h'om the bridge
site. The casting \anl was laid out to accommodate
the lllallilfacture of one arch rib at a time. Each
arch rib consists of 108 box segments amI 19 dia
phragms. Each arch-rib box segment is 20 rt (6 m)
wide, with depths decreasing from 23 ft (7 Ill) at
the thrust block to 14 It (4,3 Ill) at t he crown of the
arch. measlIred at right angles to the axis of the
arch. The lengt h 01 t he box segments along
the arch varies from 7 It 9 in, 111) to 9 It :) ill.
(:1.1-12 III). After the box ullits were llI<llluractured,
lilt'\' were loaded Oil harges and transported to the
hridge site. The box segments and diaphragms
were lifted from the barges to the crOWIJ or the
arch lals('work and winched down to their proper
positioll, Figure Diaphragms are spared at
IIltervals of :>0 ft (15.24 III). sen-ing not olliv to
support the slender columns that support the
roadwa\' abO\'(' hut also to tie the four arch ribs to
gcther.
\,\'hen the units were located in position on the
a ;) in. (76 111m) joinl belween lhe pre
cast segnlcllls was Gist in place. At two points in
elch rib, four la\'ers or Fre\ssinet Hat-jacks were
inserted. with 5G jacks ill each layer. The rib was
thCl1 jacked IOllgitllClinalh by inflating the jacks
with oil Olle laver at a time, the oil being replaced
In grout and ;t1J()\\'ed to set before the 'nexl layer
was inflated. Inflation of the jacks increased the
distance between the edges of lhe segments adja
CCllt to the jacks and lhus lhe overall length of the
arch along its centerline. In this manner a camber
was induced into the arch rib, causing it to lift off
tlte supporting falsework. The faisework was then
shifted laterally into posilion to support lhe adja
cellt arch rib and repeal the cycle. Figure 8.35 is a
view of the completed four arch ribs, and Figure
8.36 shows t he completed bridge.
FIGURE 8.35. Glades\ille Bridge. C'OInpleled liHIl'
arcli rihs. frolll reference ..t.
8.5 Arches Built in Cantilever
Cntil the appearance of the concrete cable-stay
bridge starting in 1962 (see Chapter 9), long-span
concrete bridges were t he domain or the arch
type 01 structure. Clitil 1977, with lhe (()mplelion
01 the Brotonne Cable-Stay Bridge ill France with a
span of 1050 It (320 m), the record length for a
concrete hridge had alwavs been held by an arch
tq)e bridge. When the Kirk Bridges in Yugoslavia
were completed in 1980, the larger arch with a
span of 1280 ft (390 Ill) once again regained for the
arch the record of longest concrete span.
FIGURE 8.36. Glades\'ille Bricl!J;e, vicw of compleled
bridge.
375 Arches Built in Cantilever
Here is a brief chronology of record concrete
arch spans up to 1964:
1930, Plougastel Bridge, France: three spallS of
611.5 ft (186.40 m)
1939, Rio Esla, Spain: 631 ft (192.4 111) span
1943, Sando, Sweden: 866 ft (264 m) span
1963, Arrabida. Portugal: 886 ft (270 m) span
1964, 19uacu, River Parana, Brazil: 951 ft (290 111)
span
1964, Gladesville, Sydney, Australia: 1000 It (305
m) span
The concrete arch bridge does not enjov the
favor it once did. \Iodern methods of bridge con
struction utilizillg prestressing, cable stays, and
segmental construction have all but eliminated it
from contention as a economical bridge type.
However, with the application of these modern
methods to the older form, and givell the proper
site conditions, concrete arches may regain some of
their lost popularity.
8.5.1 REVIEW OF CO.\'CEPT; SU.H.\URY OF
STRUCTLRES WITH TEJliJOR."IR'( STAYS
The use of temporary staYs to facilitate the con
struction of arch bridges begall. perhaps, with the
Plollgastel Bridge. Temporarv prest ress tendons
were used to provide stabilitv to the short arch
cantilever sections emanating from the arch foull
dations (see Figure 8.5). Prestressing telldolls \'.;ere
used to support the falsework of the Rio Esla
Bridge and were incorporated into the structure,
However. the l)1ore novel Illethod, which is the
birth of today's technology, was emploved in the
construction of the Saint Clair Viaduct at Lvon,
France, by ),1. Esquillan. The stabilitv of precast
segments was obtained bv the use of temporary
stays.
In the construction of the Caracas Viaduct,
Freyssinet extended this concept bv using tempo
rary stays to support the falsework and construct a
mu<;h longer cantilever section of the arch. This
same stay system was then used to accommodate
the forces produced by lifting the center arch sec
tion falsework (see Section 8.3). This concept was
partially recaptured for the construction of the
Iguacu Bridge in Brazil, where the falsework of the
central portion of the arch was supported by tem
poraI;y stays.
The first arch bridge to be constructed using the
concept of supporting segmental sections of the
(aJ
(b)
(d
FIGURE 8.37. COllcrCIC arches built in calli ilc\cr v,il II
teillporar\' slavs. (0) With SlaVS alld pvlOIlS. (ii) With slays .
.'palldrel COIUIIlIlS, alld P\"IOllS. (I") Wil h spalldrel col
1l1l1llS. lie diagonals and ,ta\s.
arch bv temporary sta\"S is the Sibellik Bridge in
Yugoslavia. Falsework for an approxilllate lellgth
of 88.6 ft (27 Ill) was supported on Bailev trusses.
which were in turn supported bv temporary suys.
Figure 8.37b, consisting of a combination of cables
and structural steel rolled shapes. This arch was
constructed in nine sections. f(Hlr on each side and
the central closure sectiolJ. A llIodificatiotl of this
concept was used for a secotld Yugoslav bridg'e at
Pag with a 634 ft (193.2 111) span constructed ill
seven sections. A further modiflcatiotl was used for
the Van Staden Bridge in Somh Africa, Figure
8.37a, with a span of 656 ft (200 m).
A somewhat different concept is wher'e, with the
assistance of spandrel columns, the stays act as
temporary diagonals during construction, Figure
8.37c. In this manner, the structure is built as a
variable-depth Pratt truss. This concept was used
for the Kirk Bridges in Yugoslavia. 111 some in
stances these temporary diagonal stays may be in
corporated into permanent diagonals such that in
the final configuration the structure is a truss and
not an arch (see Section 8.7.3).
In summarizing the construction methods using
temporary cable stavs. we find two basic categories:
I
I
I
-Sluftr,r](!
A ~ I
I
! I
"l
I
6IJ5'(J7
"'
I
~ I
~
A4
I
I I
I
a!5% 217%
I
I
I
I
Longitudinal section
(a)
I I I
I
I
I"
I
@ (J)
CD
(])
CD CD
(j)

@

, ,
Erection scheme
(b)
a-a
at approaches
b-b
at arch
Cross-sections
(c)
376
377 Arches Built in Cantilever
FIGURE 8.38. (Opposite) :-':eckarburg Bridge. erec
tion scheme and sections. from referellce 5. (a) LOIl
gitudinal section. (h) Erection scheme. (e) Cross section.
Where the arch is supported directly by the tempo
rarv stavs
Where the temporary slavs act as diagonals of a
Pratt truss during construction
Characteristics of the arch bridges using this con
cept of temporary stays during construction are
presented in Table 8.2.
8.5.2 .YECKARBLRG BRIDGE. GERHLVY
This unique and contemporary arch-supported
structure, some 50 miles (80 kl1l) southwest of
Stuttgart, crosses the Neckar River near Rottweil,
Germany. It is a part of the federal expressway
:\-81 from Stuttgart to the west of Bodensee with a
connection to Zurich, Switzerland.
The original scheme proposed bv German au
thorities cOllsisted of a steel girder structure sup
ported on tall piers. Designer-contractor Ed. Zub
lin. Stuttgart, developed an alternative design
consistillg of twin concrete arches to support the
roadway. The proposal was to construct the arches
segmentallv b ~ the cantilever method and con
strllct the twin single-cell trapezoidal box girders
for the roadway by the incremental launching
lechni<lue (see Chapter 7). The :\ustrian method
called the .\laucder system was used to construct
the arches without scaffolding.;;f;
The roadway of this 1197 ft (364.98 m) long
structure is approximately 310ft (94.7 m) above the
~ e c k a r River, Figure 8.38. The 507 ft (154.4 m)
arch span, Figure 8.39, has a rise of 164 ft (49.85
Ill). Total roadwav width is 102 ft (31.0 mi. The
FIGURE 8.39. i\;eckarburg Bridge, completed arch
(courtesy of Willhelm Zellner).
FIGURE 8'.40. :-':eckarburg Bridge, arch just belm'e
closure (COl! rtesv of \Villhell11 Zellner).
structure is constructed as two independent paral
lel slructures with a 1.8 ft (0.54 m) gap in the me
dian. Roadway spans are 98 ft (30 m) in the ap
proach sections and 72.6 ft (22.14 m) over the arch.
Each independent arch rib is a two-cell box. The
arch ribs were constructed in symmetrical halves,
Figure 8.40. The curved form work was 43 ft (13. I
111) long, the first 23.3 ft (7.1 Ill) of the form
clamped to the previously constructed arch seg
ment and the remaining 19.7 ft (6 m) remained to
cast the next segment incremellt. The first 2:3.3 ft
(7.1 m) of arch segment at the arch foundation was
constructed by' conventional forming methods.
There are 14 segments on each side of an arch rib
and a closure segment at the crown of each arch.
The exterior dimensions of each two-cell arch rib
are 21.3 ft (6.5 m) wide by 9.8 ft (:3.0 m) deep. Ex
terior webs vary in thickness from 10 to 11 in. (260
.to 280 mm). and the interior web is 6.3 in. (160
mm) thick. The arch rib was cast in two operatiolls
-fi rst the bottom Hange and seconcl the webs and
top Hanges.;'
Piers supported by the arch or independent
foundations are of a constant section and slip
formed by conventional methods. Sliding bearings
are used at the abutments and the short stiff piers 1
and 13. The remaining piers are hinged to the
superstructure deck such that the elastic piers can
follow the superstructure movement. 5.6
During construction, as each half-rib was can
tilevered out from its foundation, it was supported
by a temporary system of Dvwidag bar stays, Fig
ures 8.38, 8.41, and 8.42. After completion of the
arch, the temporary stavs were removed, except
those required to stabilize the arch during the in
cremental launching of the superstructure deck.
Dywidag bar stavs were anchored either to a pier
foundation or to Dywidag rock anchors in the side
of the vaIley.5
1
.>
0

-
.
J

T
A
B
L
E

8
.
2

C
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s

o
f

A
r
d
l

B
r
i
d
g
e
s

C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d

w
i
t
h

C
a
b
l
e

S
t
a
y
s
0
0

Y
f
'
;
t
r

o
f

S
p
.
I
I
l
,
I
L

..\
1
(

h

S
i
a
l
i
c

{
:
o
u
n
U
\

(
:
O
I
1
f
"
t
l
'l
H

t
l
(
)
l
l

I
m
l

C
O
l
l
s
t
t
w
t
i
[
)
1
1

,
\
r
c
h
l
\
1
'''
D
(
'
c
k

'
1
\
1
'(
'
A
,

"
I
t

S
c
h
e
m
e

R
e
m
a
r
k
s

S
,
h
e
n
i
k

Y
l
I
g
o
:
-
.
I
<
I
\
I
.
j

1
%

I
,
o
n

H
i
l
i

h
H
I
t

\
t
.
n
"

f
o
r
m
e
d

"
'
(
'
(
l
i
o
n
"

O
J
l

I

I
I
I

(
'C
-
i

(1
1

r
n

1
.1
1
1
-
S
i
m
p
h
'

p
n
'
t
a
....'
P
o
t
;
s
i
b
l
i
J
t
y
o
f

(
,
0
[
,

1
2
1
1
;
)

I
,
o
m

!
"
O
i
l
e
d

"
t
c
e
l

I
.
,
J
,
(
'\
\

0
1

k

0
1

H
:
"
U
;

g
u
l
.
l
I

h
o
\
.

g
i
l

d
(
T
'

0
1

7
f
i
,

t

I
t

n
'
(

l
i
n
g

t
h
e

t
h
r
l
l
s
l

,
h
.
,
p
c
s

a
n
d
,
a
h
l
e
s
,

a
n
d

I
t

a
n
d

1
2
:
1
:
1
0

"
"

'1
';
1
1
1

;
J
(

l
h
e

n
o
'\
'\
.
'n

h
)

"

s
o
p
p
o
n
l
l
l
g

d
;


:
!
1
I
I
I

i
l
l
d
d
c

(
I
H
l
l
l
r
l
t
l
I
H
l
"
;

h
a
t
t
e
r
y

o
f

'T
'
,
1
\

I
h
e

'
l
l
c
h

.
i
l
a
,
,
)
i
,

.
l
a
c
k
s

\
\
i
t
i
l

a
l
l

t
l
l
I
:
x
i
l
h
,
1
I

\

1
'1
"
1
,,,,
P
.
l
g

"
l
l
g
o
... l
;
"

1
;1

I

.
i
l
7

n
:
H

r
i
l
l

(
'C

'
I
a
\
'
,

S
n
'
C
l
l

\
(
'(

l
i
o
n
,

o
n

l
'
l
l
i
(
'
(
'
-
I

e
l
l

n
'
.
1
.
I
I
I
-
S
i
m
p
l
!
'

p
r
t

(

.
I
S
t

i
'
o
s
...i
h
i
h
l
y

o
f

c
o
r

(
I
!
I
:
U
!
)

/
o
l
I
H
c
d

t
r
o
l
H

f
a
!
.
,
(
'\
\
O
l

k

g
l
l
b
l

h
o
x

g
l
n
l
n
"

0
1

7
1
)
"
.

i
t

J
T
(

l
i
n
f
.
{

t
h
e

t
h
r
u
'
\
t

,
o
l
l
c

d

"
"
d

1
2
:
\
'\
1
1

I
l
l
)

'
p
.
I
l
l

a
t

I
h
e

c
n
n
n
t

h
y

a

s
l
"
,
p
"
s

a
n
d

"
a
h
l
,
'
s
,

m
a
d
e

(
O
l
1
t
i
n
U
O
l
I
';

h
a
l
l
"
)
"
)
,

o
f

h
r
'

p
y
l
o
1
l
.

.
I
I
"

.
.
l
i
e

t
h
e

l
o
n
,
g
t
'l
'
...f
a
v

h
e
i
n
g

.
l
<
l
d
i
l
i
(
)
n
,
d
l
)

.
.
;
u
p
p
o
r
t
c
d

o
u

(
0
1

I
1
I
H
U
"

\
'
a
l
l

S
l
a
d
e
n

S
o
"
l
h

,
\
h
i
..
a

A
b
,
,
"
1

I

i
i
!
H
l

l
O
t
l
r

'lta
y
<
;;.
r
d
o

S
q
;
l
l
W
1
l
1
"

)
!
U
l

r
i
l
l
c
e

,
e
l
l

'
C
\

I
H
'(
,
{

a
s
t

F
i
x
e
d

C
!
O
O
)

(
.
\
l
e
d

g
l
a
<
l
l
l
a
i
l
l

'
"

(
2
0

I
l
l
)

1
0
1
1
l-
(

g
u
l
a
t

b
o
x

',
',

n

(
'O
l
1
s
t
r
U
t
l
i
o
n

p
r
o

c
{
,
(
,
t
l
"
.

S
t
I
P
P
/
H
'
l
(
'
d

a

t
e
m
p
o
!
'
a
n

p
)
l
o
n

N
l
C
-
S
C
I
l
h
a
c
h
b
r
i
i
c
k
c

A
u
s
t
r
i
:
1

I

:
l
!
l
l

,
I
;
\
\
''\

f
o
r

1
"
\
\
0

p
a
r
a
l
l
c
l
1
\
n
l

(
:
o
I
l
t
i
I
l
U
O
U
S

F
i
"
'
d

(
o
r
i
l
l
H
l
t
a
l

(
u
t
v
a

(
1
2
0
)

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

I
h
e

I
w
r
m
i
l
t
i
l
1
i
{

(
e
l
f

h
o
x
{
'\
.

d
o
n
h
l
(
'
-
'
j

"
p
a
n

0
1

1
0
'.
.

o
f

d
e
c
k

i
s

R

a
,
c
h

d
i
,
n

I
l
v

"
,
n
h

"
1
l
(
'{

e
"
';
;
j\
,
c

(
O
t
l

1
)
'
'
'
(
i
l
l
,
:
!
I
J
I
I
l
)

1
0
9
2

I
t

(
:
1
:
l2
,
H

I
I
I
)

I
l
l
e

a
i
d

o
f

a
n

a
l
l
'"

"
U
I
I
c
f
i
o
n

o
f

2
1

I
I

v

p
d
q
n

H
i
.:
')

I
l
l
)

l
o
n
g

I\C
;';'
m
e
n
t
"

I
l
n
k
a
w
a
/
H

.
l
a
p
,
1
I
l

1
'1
7
:
1

7
1

I
,
i
\
(
'

:-:i a
Y
"

t
l
l
'e
d

c
t...
F
o
n
l
/
\
'
,
o
t

k

p
a
r
-
l
{
(
'
c
L
m
g
u
l
.
1
l

l
\
\
0
-
I
i
o
l
l
o
w

,
I
.
,
,
,

0
1
2

I
t

I
l
i
l
l
g
e
d

;)
1

I
h
(
'

I
W
O

(
I

i
O
)

t
e
m
p
o
f
.
l
!
'
)

1
1
,,1
1
,
'
'
'
p
}
"
,
r
l
"
d

I
I
I

,1
1

h
o
x
,

:
\
c
a
,

t
h
"

I
I
U
i
O

I
l
l
)

I
h
i
d
.

"
p
t
'
i
l
l
g
i
n
g
s

0
1

(
h
e

d
i
a
g
o
l
l
,
t
l
..
"

s
l
a
v

1
0
1

l
i
l
e

f
i
,
s
l

"
p
t

t
h
e

"
"
S
<
:

'
,
0

I
I

(
F
J

m
)

a
r
c
h

s
{
'(
"
t
i
o
l
l

b
e
t
w
(
'
e
n

w
i
d
t
h

1
m

1
C
<
I
S
e
'''
c
l
I
l
l
l
i
n
u
(
)
l
I
"

5
p
a
l
l
s

t
i
l
(
'
a
h
u
t
m
e
l
l
t

a
n
d

I
I
I
1
(
'a
1
"
h
-
I
r
o
m

2
{
)

t
o

(
,
o
n
"
,
n
l
<

l
e
d

i
n

a

I
h
e

(
I
I

"
I

I
\
p
'
I
I
H
l
r
d

:
',
2
1
1

i
l
l

1
0

I
f
>

I
l
l
)

1
0

...

(
o
l
u
m
n
.
.
\
r
t
e
r


I
I
l
l
I
n
o
\
{
'

'
h
e

h
I
,

l
I
\
(
)
\
;
,
h
l
c

L
1
I
s
c
"
o
r
k

w
a
r
d
.

(
O
t
l
\
t
I
'
l
U

(
,
T
.
d

t
i
o
l
1

I
n

"
'I
(

(
(
'
"
"
i
\
(
'

(
a
l
l
t
i
k
\
'
C
P
,
l
)
\

s
e
g
m
(
,
l1
1
>

"
I
'

I

I

I
t

I
l
l
)

I
c
l
l
g
l
h
.

- -
~
7. 1: ,g
' ~

- ...,.. ~
~ - y
:;... u: !.I
; _ ~ : ~ i
& : ~ -; '"
"
~
.. .:::
,:;:
\:; ~
,.,:,.. ..:
;:: 1
~ sc r-...:
;;;
:... :::;
r; "r;
.", :::c
C,;:!
-::-:::
::: r. ,",:
:5.,:":_
:: ~ ~
.:... r;
379
380
Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
'" ..
FIGURE 8.41. Bridge, temporal): Dywi
dag bar stays supporting cantilevered arch rib (cour
tesY of Willhelm Zellner).
FIGURE 8.43. Neckarburg Bridge. launching of deck
girder.
FIGURE 8.42. :":eckarburg Bridge, temporary Dywi
dag bar stays supporting cantilevered arch rib (cour
tes\' of' Willhelm Zellner).
The trapezoidal box girders of the superstruc
ture deck were constructed behind the Singen
abunnent and incrementally launched "downhill"
toward the Stuttgart abutment, Figure 8.43. A
close-up of the launching nose is shown in Figure
8.44. Overall girder width is 48.8 ft (14.9 m) with a
constant depth of 7.5 it (2.3 m). Girder segments
were cast in lengths of 65.6 fl (20 m). The lift and
push combination of hydraulic jacks (see Chapter
7) launched the girder in lOin. (0.25 m) incre
ments. To maintain deformations of the arch and
FIGURE 8.44. :":eckarburg Bridge, dose-up 01
launching nose.
piers. resulting from the horizontal forces of the
incremental launching operations. within allowable
limits, the tops of the piers were tied back to the
abutments and the arch was tied back bv the tem
porary stays used during the arch construction. An
inno\'ation introduced bv Zublin on this project
was the use of bearings for the incremental
launching that remained as permanent bearings.
Prior procedure had employed a system of' tempo
rary bearings for the incremental launching and
then a transfer to permanent bearings.
s
8.5.3 NIESENBACK BRIDGE, AUSTRIA
This is a two-rib arch structure utilizing the free
cantilever construction method for each half-arch,
Figure 8.45. The arch has a span of 394 ft (120 m)
with a rise of 123 ft (37.5 m). Each arch rib is a
two-cell box with exterior dimensions of 16.4 ft (5
m) wide by 8.2 ft (2.5 m) deep. The roadway con
sists of a concrete slab and girder system with an
overall width of 57.7 ft (17.6 m). Although the lon
gitudinal axis of the arch is in a straight line, the
381
Arches Built in Cantilet'er
Structure during construction Final structure
Hllfspylon
17.60
9.90
lSJO
FIGURE 8.45. :-;iesenback Bridge. ele\3.tion. plan. and cross section. from reference 7.
roadway it supports has a centerline radius. in
plan. of l092 it (332.8 m).
The curved roadway structure has spans of 65.6
ft (20 m) over the arch and is supported by two 3.3
ft (1.0 m) square piers, one on each arch rib. At
the arch foundations, roadway support is by a wall
pier with dimensions of 4.6 ft (l.4 m) by 33.8 ft
(10.3 m). '
Each two-cell box arch rib is constructed r.v the
cantilever method. using a 41 ft (l2.5 m. long
traveling form. The form clamps to the prec--::ding
construction such that a 19,7 ft (6.0 m) s e ~ ~ . m e n t
can be cast. A crew of seven men was able to ':ast a
segment on a weekly cycle.
To keep moments in the cantilevering arcC1 to a
minimum during construction, the cantik-,ered
382 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
portion of the arch was supported by a S\'stem of
Dvwidag bar stays, Figure 8.45. Stay stresses are
monitored at each stage of construction to main
tain a nearly moment-free condition in the arch.
Dywidag bal's used in the stays were 1 in. (26.5
111m) diameter and were used because they were
easily coupled and could be reused.
7
8.5.4 KIRK BRIDGES, rUGOSLAVIA
These structures connect the mainland with the
Island of Kirk in the Adriatic Sea. In between is a
small rocky olllcropping known as St. Mark, such
that from the mainland 10 SI. i\1ark is the world's
longest concrete arch with a span of 1280 ft (390
m) and from SI. Mark to Kirk is the seventh longest
concrete arch with a span of 800 ft (244 Ill), Figures
lAO amI H.4G.
Because the distallce between the shores of the
mainland and St. Mark is 1509 ft (460 m), the arch
support is partially founded in the sea, Figure 8.17.
The arch reaction of approximately 15,400 LOllS
(14,000 mt) is accoIllmodated by the inclined pier
in the sea, which takes 9900 tons (9000 mt) to the
rock, while the nearly horizontal box structure
:
. --+
I . co
+ --1 I
LW
above sea level takes the other reaction component
of 6600 tons (6000 mt).
A system of temporary stays was used to s.upport
the arch as it was progressively cantilevered out
from the springings, Figure 8.48. These temporary
stays were used as the top chord and diagonals of a
temporary variable-depth Pratt truss during con
struction, Figures 8.48 and 8.49. The arch rib con
sists of a three-cell rectangular precast box, which
was cast in segment lengths of 16.4 ft (5 m) and
assembled with <;:ast-in-place joints, Figure 8.48. A
view of the completed arch with spandrel columns
is given in Figure 8.50.
8.6 Rigid-Frame Bridges
Another bridge type thai lends itself to the con
temporary segmental concept is t he rigid-frame
bridge. Cnfortunately, segmental construction has
not often heen applied to this type of structure.
The reason is probably that the segmental concept
is associated with the conventional girder type
bridge, and designers have gin:n little considera
tion to applying this method 10 the rigid-frame
bridge. Hopefully, the few examples that follow
will stimulate thinking about this t)'pe of structure.

: !

I" .. "1',1
Section 1 Section 2
2t'
ELEVATION
FIGURE 8.46. Kirk Bridges, ele\'ation and sections.
KERK
I
Jeo I
300 I
1
L:::;
I i
! - 6. ~ O
T -1<;1.00
.000
I
U
I
,
J J. 50
FIGURE 8.47. Kirk Bridge. foundation detail.
383
384 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigfd Frames, and Truss Bridges
FIGURE 8.48: Kirk Bridge, erection of first arch sec-
FIGURE 8.50. Kirk Bridge, completed arch.
tion.
~ ~ .. -1" _"'0: _ '" '_
.-........... - - . . . . . . : . ~ - - " , .
FIGURE 8.49. Kirk Bridge. erection approaching FIGURE 8.51. SainI l\1ichael Bridge. \iew of the COITI
(TOWll. pleted structure.
Ja;n'
FIGURE 8.52. Saint Michael Bridge, partial longitudinal sectioll.
8.6.1 SAI.\'"/' ,H/CHEL BRIf)GE IN TOULOUSE,
FRANCE
This beautiful structure, Figure 8.5 L appears as a
sliccession of arches with inclined legs, crossing the
two branches of the Garonne River in the southern
city of Toulouse, France. Typical dimensions of a
rigid frame are presented in Figures 8.52 and 8.53.
Because the bridge replaced an obsolete struc
ture resting on masonry piers, it was possible to
construct the inclined legs on suspended scaffold
ing using temporary ties anchored to the masonry
piers before they were demolished, Figure 8.54.
The longitudinal girders were cast in place be
tween the legs to complete the rigid frame. Over
each pier an expansion joint with laminated bear
ings is provided in the roadway slab, Figure 8.54.
Another view of the finished bridge is pre
sented in Figure 8.55.
13:'1'"
I
I
FIGURE 8.53. Saint :Vlichael Bridge, typical section.
N e o p r ~ n ~ b<torlns
FIGURE 8.54. Saint :Vlichael Bridge, constructioll sequence at tvpical pier.
FIGURE 8.55. Saim \'[ichael Bridge. finished struc
ture.
\
I
.
385
386 Concrete Segmental Arches, Frames, and Truss Bridges
(1.6.2 BRIESLE MAAS BRIDGE, NETHERLAl'lDS
The Briesle Maas Bridge near Rotterdam, com
pleted in 1969, is a distinctive structure with its
V-shaped piers, Figure 8.56. This bridge, crossing
the Meuse River, is situated in an area reserved for
pleasure boating and recreational purposes. It was
therefore considered essential to maintain a high
degree of bridge aesthetics. Although the design is
perhaps not the most economical, it was chosen to
meet t he aesthetic requirements.
The three-span superstructure consists of a 369
f'l \ 112.5 m) center span with end spans of 264 ft
(!-iO.5 111). Trans\'erselv, the superstructure consists
of three precast singie-cell boxes, joined at iheir
flange tips by a longitudinal closure pour and
transverselv prestressed, Figure 8.57. The hollow
inclined legs of the V piers are structurally con
llccted to the deck strllcture by post-tensioning, and
the V pier is snpported at its base through neo
prene hearing pads on the pile cap foundation. Fig
nres H.5H and !-i.59. 'rhe superstructure, with the
exception of a few cast-in-place closure joints, is
CO III posed of precast segments.
Shear forces, mainly concentrated in the webs,
Ilormally are transferred to piers or columns by a
diaphragm. Prefabrication prevented this solution
in this project, however, as the additional weight in
the pier segments would have increased intolera
bly. Shear stresses were maintained at an accept
able le\'el by increased web thickness and by u-iaxial
prestressing.
At the moment that the midspan closure pour of
the center span is consummated, the bending mo
ment at this joint is zero. With time this moment
increases, as a result of creep, to a significant per
centage of what would occur if the bridge were
built as a continuous structure on falsework. 'Pre
stressing to accommodate both conditions cannot
be gi\'ell maximum eccentricit\, and it becomes
both difficult to execute and expemive. A consid
erable amount of prestressing was saved b\'
eliminating the condition of zero stress at closure
and therefore preventillg creep. This was accol1I
plished by inducing an upward reaction under
segmelli s 7 and 72. Figme H.59, ancr joi I1t closure.
Simultaneously with the increase of these reactio;1
forces, prestressing tendons in the central span
were stressed. Upon completion of the end spans
the illduced forces were released automatically by
prestressing the end spans.
Segmellts were produced at an existillg castillg
vanl 68 miles (1 IO kill) from the bridge site. A
long-line precasling bed (see Figure 11.37) was
I

ospholl
prtrtrtuod (p!af!t;.}
123

prtslrtilled CXltlcntt: (ill liholi
EZl
.._1
CJ
rltnf{\f't.Wd conerell
CROSS SECTION
FIGURE 8.57. Briesle Maas Bridge, Irans\'el'se cross section.
LONGITUDINAL SECTION WITH CABLE PROFILE
FIGURE 8.58. Briesle Maas Bridge, longitudinal section with tendon profile.
387 Rigid-Frame Bridges
_D_
A Steel frame
B Jacks F= Joint
C Rubber beanng pads G=
Temporary SUflPort
D Joints H""
Scaffol di ng
E Counter weight J
=
Joint
FIGURE 8.59. Briesle \la;ls Bridge, erectioll sequence.
lIsed witl! a Ie!l(.ith equal to a half-spall-that is,
Olle cantilevcr. Three sets of sC(.illlent forllls were
elllploved to cast a total of 2:H segll1ents, avcragill(.i
7R reuses. Seg-ments were transported to the
bridge site b\' barge.
The variolls stages of erection are indicated in
Figure R.59..\ special structural steel frame was
used to position the inclined precast hollow-box
legs of t he piers and to su ppon t he seven precast
roadW;IV girder sCgll1ClltS hefore cast ing the joillts
at t he corners of the delta pier portion of the
structure. This frame was also utilizcd to balance
the pier during- erection of the remainder of the
roadway g-irder seglllcnts amI to adjust, by means
of jacks, thc loads ill the inclincd legs of the pier
during various stages of erection.
CpOIl cO!l1pletion of the balanced cantilever
erection about both piers, tcmporarv supports
were placed under segments 7 and 72 (the extreme
end seglllcnts of the partiall\ completed end spans)
so that thc temjJoran' steel frames under the piers
could be remmec/o At this point"both hahes of the
stnicture were in an unstable equilibrium condition,
therefore, counterweights were placed over the
supported segments, Figure 8.59, to prevent the
half-structures from toppling over.
Jacks atop the temporar\" suppOrts were used to
adjust the position of the bridge halves with respect
to olle another and to induce the upward vertical
reaction forces previollslv discussed. Also, dif
ferences in elevation between the three box girders
were adjusted by these jacks. Arter castinJ4 Ihc
center-span closure joint and stressinJ4 in the
center spall, the remaining segments in the end
spans were placed Oil falsework, FiJ4llre H.GO; do
SUI'C Joints were cast: and longitudinal and
verse prest ressing was completed.
All segments in the balanced call!ilever portion
of the structure were placed In a !loating crane.
Because of the crane's small reach, it could not
place the last five segments needcd to complete the
end Spall. Therefore, it placed thcm on a 'illlail
doll v installed 011 top of the falsework, which
would roll them into their final positions. To
dismantling the falsework after cOll1pleting (Jilt'
girder and reinstallillJ4 it under the lIext, II was
constructed so that it could bc lowered m()\cd
transverselv into position, Figure R.60.
A close-up of tlte piers of the flnished
is shown in Figure 8.61.
8.6.3 BOXflO.H.HE BRIDGE. FR./SCE
The Bonhomme Bridge over the 81;1\'et River ill
Brittany, France, was designed and built between
1972 and 1974, Figure 8.62. This three-spall
slant-leg portal-frame bridge has a center span of
481 ft (146.7 111) and end spans of223 ft (6i.95m),
Figure 8.63. The span between the foundations of
the slant legs is 611 ft (186.25111). A tubular steel
framewOI'k was used to support the slant legs tem
porarilv until closure at midspan, Figures 8.64 and
388 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid.frames, and Truss Bridges
-
FIGURE 8.60. Briesle :V{aas Bridge, erection falsework for hlst fi\'e segments ill the end
span.
8.65. This structure was huilt h:' the cast-in-place
balanced cantilever method.
For adjusting the geometry of the bridge, flat
jacks were placed under the legs and at midspan. A
detail of the ;tCUustillg jacks placed on top of thl:;
temporary support is shown in Figure 8.66. Flat
jacks and sand boxes were used both to adjust
the geometry of the bridge before closure was
achieved at midspan and later to release the energy
stored in the legs of t he temporary supports, which
were loaded with the full weight of the bridge.
FIGURE 8.61. Briesle Maas Bridge, close-up \'iew of
\' piers.
FIGURE 8.62. Bonhomme Bridge over Blavet Ri\'er.
KERVIGNAC,..
______________________________ ________________________________
____ ____ ______________ ________________T-______ __
FIGURE 8.63. Bonhomme Bridge, eie\'ation.
FIGURE 8.64. Bonhomme Bridge. construction stages .
..
+ + . ~ +
GRANI T E
+
+ + +
FIGURE 8.65. Bonbomme Bridge, temporary support.
389
390 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
The scheme is a ven satisfactory one in terms of
both the aesthetics of the finished structure and
simplicity of construction. However, it may be used
only when site conditions allow the foundations of
the temporary supports to be established safely at a
reasonable cost. Figure 8.67 shows the temporary
FIGURE 8.65. (Continued)
supports during the balanced cantilever construc
tion of the bridge.
8.6.4 MOTORWA}' OVERPASSES iiI,' THE
MIDDLE EAST
The use of precast segmental construction for the
Alpine Motorways in southern France was de
scribed in Section : ~ . 1 5 . It was shown how mass
production could be applied to the construction of
a large number of similar overpasses.
This experience was repeated recentlv in a mid
dle eastern country for the cOllstruction of 17
overpass structures over an existing freeway, Fig
ure R.6R, To minimize disturbance of freeway
trafflc, it was fdt that a three-span rigid-frame
structure with inclined legs would be an attractive
solution.
Dimensions are shown in Figures R.69 and 8.70.
The total deck length of 252 ft 3 in. (77 m) is di
vided into 32 precast segments for each of the twin
box girders. Deck wjdth of the overpasses is either
36 ft (II m) or 46 ft (14 m). The same box section is
used for all structures, and the cast-in-place lon
gitudinal closure strip varies as required.
The slant legs are precast in the same plant
where the deck segments are produced. The typi
cal erection sequence is shown in Figure 8.71. A
temporary bent founded at the edge line of the
new freeway is used to place and adjust the precast
legs on either side of the bridge. Segments are
placed in balanced cantilever from the special seg
ment located atop the slant legs. A light temporary
bent in the short side spans is used to reduce the
bending moment in the slant legs during construc
tion.
After completion of the cleck and removal of all
temporary supports, the structure is in effect a
two-hinged arch with vertical restraints at both
ends. The bridges were analyzed for earthquake
and large thermal variation loads (seasonal varia
tion of 120F and temperature gradient between
top and bottom flange of 18F).
Figure 8.72 shows a detailed view of the inclined
legs and the temporary support during construc
tion.
ra
iO!
I 1
I 1
10----
1
I I
I I
I
1
1
I
-+-----1
1

1
I
I ,
I '
10
1
I !
4-_.____1
1
~
FIGURE 8.66. Bonhomme Bridge,
details of bearing of concrete can
tilever on temporary support.
AND 'SAND BOX
rOI
IOi
L ____J'
391
392 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
FIGURE 8.67. BOllhomme Bridge, during call1ile\'er
cOIlSlnIC{ion.
FIGURE 8.68. \1otorw;1\ O\'el'jl<lss Frames, gellend
new.
8.7 Truss Bridges
As with rigid frames, segmental construction has
seldom been applied to truss bridges. Once again
the designer must realize that the principles of
segmental construction, together with imagination,
can be applied to bridge structures other than the
mllventionaJ girder bridge.
149.3
Plain
19'-0" 19'-0"
FIGURE 8.70. Motorwav O\'erpass Frames, cross sec
tioll and elevation of inclined legs.
8.7.1 RETROSPECT ON CONCEPTS FOR CONCRETE
TIWSS BRIDGES
Trusses were used in all long-span cantilever steel
bridges, and it was logical to conceive of the appli
cation of this type of structure to prestressed con
crete. An interesting example of such an approach
is presented in Figure 8.73, in which an origi
nal sketch made in 1948 by Eugene Freyssinet for
the design of a precast prestressed concrete truss
is reproduced. The studies were applied to two
specific exampIes:
FIGURE 8.69. Mowrway Overpass Frames, longitudinal section.
Truss Bridges 393
(a) '-______---.l
(b) L____
(c) '---:::______-.-::J
FIGURE 8.72. Motorway Overpass Frames, detail of
inclined leg and temporary support.
(d) ____ ....____.J
FIGURE 8.71. O\'erpass Frames, erection sequence,
(tI) Stage L (b) Stage 2, (e) Stage (il) Stage 4.
A bridge over the Hanach River near Algiers.
Algeria, with a clear span of 400 ft (123 m), Figures
8.14 and 8.75.
A major crossing of the Rhine River at Pfaffen
dorf, Germany, with a main span of 600 ft (180 m)
These studies were very encouraging from the
viewpoints of both economy of materials and
simplicity of construction. The deck was to be en
tirely precast, with members assembled by pre
stressing. Construction would proceed in balanced
cantilever from the main piers until reaching
midspan closure, where adjustment of the deck
geometry and loads in the members was provided
by jacks.
'-
'"

!
J
:
)
.
.
.

/
'

-
-
>

J
I
'
j
J
\

F
I
G
U
R
E

8
.
7
3
.

,
k
e
t
c
h

o
f

E
.

f
o
r

a

c
O
l
l
c
e
p
t

o
r

p
r
c
s
t
r
c
"
c
d

p
r
e
c
a
s
t

C
O
l
l
c
r
e
t
e

t
r
u
s
s

(
1

\
H
H
)
.

_
_

E
L
E
V
A
T
I
O
N

A

-
-
=

J.. B

5
1

e

1
%

L
?

v
r
S
l
S
I
O
>
'

S
I

$
1

,

:
s
c
=
-

i
z

'A

,
e

4
0
,
0
0

1
2
3
0
0

t.O
.(J
Q

f
'
I
G
U
R
E

8
.
7
4
.

C
o
n
c
e
p
t

o
r

a

t
r
u
s
s

Truss Bridges 395
112 COUPE B_ B
..------9-0-0-----.. .. ..----9-00..-.___ ..... ____.. I 150 t
) (
, , , .. :." q,,,.,", .. '", ..
'.' .
-
." .0, ' 1
-+
J(
J
,
J (
J
J ( J ( Jl J
7.
I
I
I[
i
i i I I II
I
J L J 1 J L J L J I
I
i i
!
I
j
I
FIGURE 8.75. Concept of a truss bridge.
The use of I girders at 7 ft (2 m) spacing for the
precast deck would not be considered today as the
optimum design. One of the authors, who was in
volved in the studies with E. Fr-eyssinet, remembers
also that many technological problems such as the
connection details between diagonals ,and chords
were not completely solved.
Neither of these two designs reached the con
struction stage, and the concept was rapidly for
gotten before its potential could be objectively as
certained.
Oddly enough, the designers of steel structures
followed a similar path. Abandoning prematurely
the concept of truss structures, which had allowed
st,lch outstanding structures as the Firth of Forth
Bridge to be built all over the world, they turned to
web girder structures and closed box sections with
all the critical problems they entailed, such as elas
tic stability. Perhaps it is time to reassess some
major design approaches in both steel and concrete
for very long spans.
8.7.2 lHANGFALL BRIDGE; AUSTRIA
The Mangfallbrucke in Austria, Figure 8.76, on
the autobahn between Munich and Salzburg was
constructed in 1959. This structure is perhaps best
described as a large box girder with the webs being
a trusswork. Total length is 945 ft (288 m) from
abutment to abutment; the center span is 354 ft
(108 m) with side spans of 295.5 ft (90 m). It was
constructed as cast-in-place segmental using the
free cantilever method. However, it was not bal
anced cantilever, as construction started at one
abutment and proceeded to the opposite abutment
by progressive placement. Temporary interme
diate piers were used as required to reduce the
cantilever stresses.
Figure 8.77 shows an interior view. The lower
flange is used as a walkway for pedestrians and for
bicycles. The railing in the center surrounds an
opening in the bottom flange where stress condi
tions do not require the concrete area. Figure 8.78
is an interior view looking through one of the floor
openings, and Figure 8.79 is another interior view.
8.7.3 RIP BRIDGE, AUSTRALIA
The recently completed Rip Bridge, Figure 8.80,
north of Sydney, Australia, has a center span of
FIGURE 8.76. Mangfallbrucke, general view.
396 Concrete Segmental Arches, Rigid Frames, and Truss Bridges
I
~
FIGURE 8.77. Mangfalllwiicke, illterior "lew showing
Iruss\\'orL
FIGURE 8.78. MangfalJbriicke, interior "iew looking
through 1I00r opening.
FIGURE 8.79. :'-.1angfallbriicke, general interior view,
FIGURE 8.80. Rip Bridge, general \iew.
600 ft (182.88 m). The identical cantilever trusses,
which sit symmetrically on either side of the cross
ing, reach out 240 ft (i3.56 m) toward each other
to support a 122 ft (3i 01) drop-in simple span at
their extremities, Figure 8.81.
The erection scheme is illustrated in Figure 8.82.
Note that cable stays were used as diagonal mem
bers during construction to support the arch seg
ments. Temporary falsework bents were used at
each panel point of the truss on the landward side
of the main piers. Precast concrete elements were
delivered from a precasting plant some 80 miles
(130 km) from the site.
Each panel of the lower chords of the truss was
assembled from five precast I-shaped elements
with a 1 ft (0.3 m) longitudinal pour strip between
the flange tips. Similarly, the upper chord was as
sembled from five rectangular two-cell precast
members. Erection of one of the lower chord
members is shown in Figure 8.83. The exterior two
I-shaped lower chord members are supported by
the diagonal stays, while the interior three ele
ments of the lower chord are supported by a trans
verse beam arrangement from the exterior two
during construction.
Each diagonal member was assembled from lon
gitudinally split halves, which, when brought to
gether, encase the diagonal prestress tendon stays,
incorporating them into the structure by concrete
poured in place between the two halves. The upper
chord or deck members are erected after the verti
cal members along with temporary falsework to
support the deck panels, while the cast-in-place
concrete is placed between the deck elements and
transversely prestressed.
Truss Bridges 397
aa cc
6
AA
1
FIGURE 8.81. Rip Bridge, eic\;uiol1 and cross sections.
Prestress cable to
support lower member
r In-situ panel
. r Abutment
Location of
temporary
hinges for
shape correction
flat jack
FIGURE 8.83. Rip Bridge, erectioll of lower chord.
The deck performs as a prestressed concrete
tension member. As construction proceeds, addi
tional prestress is progressively added to ensure
that the deck remains in compression.
H.7.-I- CO.VCEPT FOR.i CROSSlXC OF THE
ENGLISH CHANNEL
Certain projects rOt, crossings, such as of the Eng
lish Channel between France and Great Britain.
the Straits of Messina, and even the Straits of Gi
braltar. have exerted a powerful fascination on the
minds of the great engineers of this century.
FIGURE 8.82. Rip Bridge. erection sequence,
, ~
"&
t...;
:::
~
'::;'
;!;
:;
.
.
;..
;;
':
'-'
~
-
ri:
~
~
-
"
398
References 399
Eugene Frevssinet was no exception, and he
spent the last vears of his long professional career
studying the crossing of the English Channel with a
series of 2000 ft (612 m) long prestressed concrete
spans. The many worthwhile ideas contained in
this COIKept are not likely to be developed soon, or
even bv the lUrn of the centurv.
, '
Figure 8.84 presents all elevation of a typical
2000 ft (612 Ill) span, which was contemplated as a
prestressed concrete composite truss. :'1ajor mem
bers of the truss were not of conventional pre
stressed concrete, because such high stresses had to
be accepted to keep the weight of the span within
acceptable limits. A new material to be used for
that purpose had occupied Freyssinet's mind for
several years and had even beel! laboratorv t.ested
for confirmation of the concept. \Vhen a concrete
member is cOlllpletely confined in an envelope that
creates perlllanently biaxial transverse compressive
stress, it will resist safelv much higher stress than if
subjected to a lTlonoaxiai stress or reillforced COII
ventionall\' with ulltensioned transverse reinforc
ing (such as spirals in a circular column).
From a tecllllolo){ical point of view, the perrna
llent active restraint creating tt1e biaxialt ransverse
compressio:1 is easilv achieved in a Illelllber that
h<IS a circular cross section bv continin){ it ill a
steel pipe or within a contillllOllS spi
ral of steel wires, \V"hich are pre
stressed at the time the concrete is cast.
This IHateria!' which could be called "pre
confilled cOllcrete," has extraordinarv properties
such as total absence of brittleness and a capabilit\
to sustain several times as much longit udinal COIll
pressive stress as a reinforced concrete member
without excessive strains, provided it is initiaIlv
loaded to ofTset the initial strain