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PRESENTING BY, UDAY SHANKAR S. KAVYARANI K.V LAKSHMIDEVI H SHEWTHA J.M
• Components of OD process • Diagnosis of the whole system • The action i.e. Nature of OD interventions & analyzing discrepancies • Phases of OD program
Components of OD process
its processes. .Diagnosis • The diagnostic component represents a continuous collection of data about the total system. & its culture. its subunits.
Focus of clients major concerns • • • • What are strengths? Its problem areas? Its unrealized opportunities? Is there any discrepancy between the vision of desired future & the current situation? (Diagnosis identifies strengths. opportunities & problem areas) .
Action • Action plans are developed to correct problems seize opportunities & maintain areas of strength. .
Program Management • Consists of fact finding about the results of the actions. Focuses on………… • Did the action have desired effects? • Is the problem solved or the opportunities achieved? .
COMPONENTS OF OD PROCESS System Diagnosis Actions directed at problem/opportunity No1 Problem/Opportunity 1 Evaluation of effects of actions Problem solved/Opportunity realized Terminate actions Yielding "Strengths" 1.3. but new. actions are directed at problem 5 Step 4 New actions/ interventions as needed Yielding Problems 1.4 Actions directed at problem/opportunity No 2 Problem/Opportunity 2 Evaluation of effects of actions Problem solved / Opportunity not realized Initiate new actions Yielding Opportunities 1. Redefine problem.3.2.4 Actions directed at problem/opportunity No 4 Problem 4 Evaluation Step 1 Diagnosis of the state of the organization Step 2 Actions to correct problems & realize opportunities Step 3 Evaluation of the effects of Actions/ Interventions . Initiate new actions Problem 4 solved.2. related problem 5 develops.4 Actions directed at problem/opportunity No 3 Problem/Opportunity 3 Evaluation of effects of actions Problem solved / Opportunity not realized.2.3.
.Diagnosis Defined Diagnosis is a collaborative process between organizational members and the OD consultant to collect pertinent information. analyze it. and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention.
Major methods for collecting data • Questionnaires • Interviews • Observations • Unobtrusive methods .
Questionnaires • One of the most efficient ways of collecting data • Contain fixed-response questions about various features • Administered to large numbers of people simultaneously • Can be analyzed quickly • Permit quantitative comparison and evaluation • Data can easily be fed back to employees .
no chance to change – Over interpretation of data possible – Response biases possible .Questionnaires • Major advantages – Responses can be quantified and summarized – Large samples and large quantities of data – Relatively inexpensive • Major potential problems – Predetermined questions .
Interviews Interviews may be highly structured • resembling questionnaires Interviews may be highly unstructured • starting with general questions that allow the respondent to lead the way .
Interviews • Major advantages – Adaptive .allows customization – Source of `rich‟ data – Process builds rapport with subjects • Major potential problems – Relatively expensive – Bias in interviewer responses – Coding and interpretation can be difficult – Self-report bias possible .
Observations • A more direct way of collecting data • Observe organisational behaviors in their functional settings .
Observations • Major advantages – Collect data on actual behaviour. rather than reports of behaviour – Real time. not retrospective – Adaptive • Major potential problems – Coding and interpretation difficulties – Observer bias and questionable reliability – Can be expensive .
quantity and quality of production or service. suppliers or governmental agencies • Helpful in diagnosing the organisation. group and individual outputs .Unobtrusive measures • Data is not collected directly from respondents but from secondary sources • Use records of absenteeism or tardiness. grievances. financial performance and correspondence with key customers.
no response bias – High face validity – Easily quantified • Major potential problems – Access and retrieval difficulties – Validity concerns – Coding and interpretation difficulties .Unobtrusive measures • Major advantages – Non-reactive.
.To know the effects & consequences of actions.Activities designed to provide an account of things as they are needed for 2 reasons • First.Diagnostic activities.To know the state of things • Second.
Diagnosing the System Diagnostic Targets Information sought Methods of Diagnosis Examination of organizational records – rules. regulations. policies Questionnaire survey oInterviews (both group & individual) Questionnaire survey Interviews Observations Organization records Total Q) What is organization‟s culture? Q) Organization Are organizational goals and strategy understood and accepted? Q) What is organization‟s performance? Large complex & heterogeneou s sub-systems Q) What are the unique demands on this subsystem? Q) Are organization structures and processes related to unique demands? Q) What are the major problems confronting this subsystem? .
to-day operations Confrontation meetings.Diagnosing the System Diagnostic Targets Small. Organisation mirroring meetings Interviews of each subsystem followed by „sharing the data‟ Meetings or observations of interactions Intergroup subsystems Q) How does each subsystem see the other? Q) What problems do the two groups have in working together? Q) How can they collaborate to improve performance of both groups? . Simple & relatively homogeneous subsystems Information sought Q) What are major problems of the team? Q) How can team effectiveness be improved? Q) Do individuals know how their jobs relate to organizational goals? Methods of Diagnosis Individual interviews Group meeting to review the interview data Questionnaires Observation of staff meetings And other day.
Diagnosing the System Diagnostic Targets Individuals Information sought Q) Do people perform according to organization‟s expectations? Q) Do they need particular knowledge or skills? Q) What career development opportunities do they have/ want/ need? Q) Is the role defines adequately? Q) What is the „fit‟ between person and role? Q) Is this the right person for this role? Methods of Diagnosis Interviews Information from diagnostic meetings Data available with HR department Role analysis . . MBO Observations Interviews Roles (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization.
The Confrontation Meeting • What is a “confrontation meeting?” • One day meeting of entire management of an organization in which they take a reading of their own organizational health .
(Four-six weeks later) Progress review 120 minutes . Climate setting 45-60 min. 6. 2. 4. Information Collecting 60 min. Action Planning 60-120 minutes Immediate follow-up by top team 60-180 min. 7. Information Sharing 60 min Priority setting and group action planning 75 min. 3. 5.Process 1.
or has recently experienced.When is it appropriate to conduct a confrontation meeting? • Need for the total management group to examine its own workings • Very limited time available for the activity • Top management wishes to improve conditions quickly • Real commitment by top management to resolve the issue • Organization is experiencing . some major change .
Organizational Mirroring • Set of activities in which host group receives feedback about how it is perceived and regarded from reps across organization • Intended to improve inter-group relationships .
Process 1. Reconvene in large group to hear summaries of each sub group and form master task list 6. Action planning. responsible parties. Subgroups of guests and hosts form to address most important changes host group needs to make 5. hosts listen 3. prepare participants and answer their questions At the actual session: 1. ask for clarification from guests 4. Opening remarks by manager of host group to set tone 2.and post interviews by consultant to magnitude of issue(s). completion dates established and agreed. 3. tasks. 2. Follow-up meeting to assess and review progress . Guests use fishbowl discussion to maintain natural flow. concluding mirroring session 7. Host group asks key reps from interface group to meet and provide feedback Pre. Hosts fishbowl discuss.
The Fishbowl Technique What to observe: • communication • power & influence • roles • conflict • norms • decision making • problem solving • leadership • goal clarity • task/maintenance .
Organizational records .Diagnosing the Process Organizational Processes Information sought Methods of Diagnosis Communication Who talks to whom? Who Observations – in meetings patterns & styles initiates? Is there 2 way or 1 Questionnaires . Interviews Observations Decision making. Problem solving & action planning Observations of problem-solving meetings . Interviews and & flows way communication? Is it top discussion with group members down or down-up? Does the information reach right places? Goal setting Q) Do people set goals? Q) Who participates? Q) Do they possess necessary skills for effective goal setting? Q) Who makes decisions? Q) Are they effective? Q) Are additional decision making skills needed? Questionnaires . Analysis of videotaped sessions .
Diagnosing the Process Organizational Processes Conflict resolution & management Information sought Methods of Diagnosis Q) Where does conflict exist? Q) Interviews Who are involved parties? Q) Flowcharting critical processes How is it being managed? Meetings between both groups Superiorsubordinate relations Strategic management & long range planning Q) What are the prevailing Questionnaires leadership styles? Q) What Interviews problems arise between superiors and subordinates? Q) Who is responsible for Interviews of key policy makers „looking ahead‟ and making long Group discussions term decisions? Q) Do they have Examination of historical records adequate tools and support? Q) Have the recent long range decisions been effective? .
According to him. the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box.Diagnosis – • The Marvin Weisbord Six-Box Model identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. This model is still widely used by OD practitioners .
Six-Box Organizational Model Purposes: What Business Are we in? Relationships: How Do we manage conflict Among people? With technologies? Leadership Structure: How do we divide up the work? Helpful Mechanisms: Do we have adequate technologies? Rewards: Do all needed tasks have incentives? Environment .
Third wave consulting • First wave refers to AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION • Second wave refers to INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Third wave refers to the INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION .
& energized people) • Get the whole system in the room • Focus on the future • Structure tasks that people can do themselves . good business opportunities.Weisbord identifies 4 “useful practices" for the third wave consultant • Assess the potential for action (look for situations with committed leadership.
ACTION COMPONENT .
Action Component • Action plans are OD interventions specifically tailored to address issues at individual. . or organizational levels as well as issues related to selected processes. group. inter-group.
Actions – – Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired changes. Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions: • • • • The organisation has a problem ( corrective action – to fix it) Organization sees an unrealized opportunity ( enabling action – to seize the opportunity) Features of organization are out of alignment ( alignment action – to get things back ‘in sync’) Yesterday’s vision is no longer good enough ( action for new vision – actions to build necessary structures. processes and culture to make new vision a reality) .
An educational goal 2. Real set of individuals involved in the group & the group are the problem solvers. The interventions activities have 2 goals 1. executing actions & evaluating the consequences of actions of actions are integral to OD. OD interventions use several learning models not just one . Planning actions.The nature of OD interventions • • • OD interventions focus on real problems rather than hypothetical problems. An accomplishing goal • • • OD problem solving interventions tend to focus on real problems central to the organizational needs.
• Intervention strategies are based on results of the diagnostic process and the specified goals of the client system. .
• Interventions • Human process interventions – Individual – Group based – Inter-group based • Techno structural interventions – – – – Balance score card BPR Outsourcing downsizing .
decision making.• • Example: Team Building (Group based) – – – – – Special teams Diagnostic meetings Team building focused on goal setting. Building & mainitaining effective interpersonal relationships Team building focused on task accomplishment Role negotiation . problem solving etc.
Analyzing discrepancies (gaps) What is happening Where one is What should be happening Where one wants to be .
The Program Management .
Phases of OD program Contracting Diagnosis Feedback Entry WARNER BURKE Evaluation Intervention Planning change .
A model for Managing Change • Program Management Cummings and Worley identified 5 sets of activities required for effective change management: .
Motivating Change Creating a Vision Developing Political Support Managing the Transition Sustaining Momentum Effective Change Management .
Kotter Kotter‟s 8-stage process for managing organizational change: 1.61 . 7. • John P. 6. 3. 4.. Establishing a sense of urgency Creating a guiding coalition Developing a vision and strategy Communicating the change vision Empowering a broad base of people to take action Generating short term wins Consolidating gains and producing even more change Anchoring (institutionalizing) the new approaches into the culture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HBR. 2. 5. p. 8. Mar-Apr 1995.Program Management Contd.
Parallel Learning Structures • A structure (specific division and coordination of labor) is created that operates side-by-side with the formal hierarchy and structure with the goal of increasing organization‟s learning. • These are the devices for introducing & managing change in large bureaucratic organizations .
.• Parallel learning structures are useful when the organization needs to: – Develop and implement organization-wide innovations – Foster innovation and creativity within a bureaucratic system – Capture the organization‟s collective expertise – Support the exchange of knowledge and expertise among performers.
Organization Parallel Structure .
• Phase 1: Initial definition of purpose & scope • Phase 2:Formation of steering committee • Phase 3:Communicating to organization members • Phase 4:Formation & development of study groups • Phase 5: The inquiry process. • Phase 6:Identifying potential changes • Phase 7:Experimental implementation of proposed changes • Phase 8:Systemwide diffusion & evaluation .
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