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DESIGN VENDORS SALES TOOLING PURCHASING PRODUCTION SERVICE INSPECTION ROUTING PLANNING PRICING
PART PRODUCTION COMMUNICATION MODEL
Three Categories of Dimensioning
Dimensioning can be divided into three categories: •general dimensioning, •geometric dimensioning, and •surface texture.
The following provides information necessary to begin to understand geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T)
Limit Tolerancing Applied To An Angle Block .
Geometric Tolerancing Applied To An Angle Block .
– This allows a drawing to contain a more defined feature more accurately. without increasing tolerances. .Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T) GD&T is a means of dimensioning & tolerancing a drawing which considers the function of the part and how this part functions with related parts.
– Sometimes called feature based dimensioning & tolerancing or true position dimensioning & tolerancing GD&T practices are specified in ANSI Y14. . – ISO 9000 requires not only that something be required.5M-1994. how round does a round feature have to be? GD&T is a system that uses standard symbols to indicate tolerances that are based on the feature‟s geometry. For example.GD&T cont‟d GD&T has increased in practice in last 15 years because of ISO 9000. but how it is to be controlled.
97 to 27. – As the table height is dimensioned.For Example Given Table Height Assume all 4 legs will be cut to length at the same time. . now the height is restricted to 26. or smoothness.03 meaning good tables would be rejected. However. the following table would pass inspection. – However. For example. or If top must be flatter. the surface of a 2 x 4 is much wavier (rough) than the surface of a piece of glass. you could tighten the tolerance to ± 1/32. all surfaces have a degree of waviness.
by using GD&T.Example cont‟d.06 . You can have both.06 . – The table top must be flat within 1/16.06 26 27 28 . (±1/32) . – The table height may any height between 26 and 28 inches.
– Provides “bonus” tolerance Ensures design. and tolerance requirements as they relate to the actual function Ensures interchangeability of mating parts at the assembly Provides uniformity It is a universal understanding of the symbols instead of words .WHY IS GD&T IMPORTANT Saves money – For example. dimension. if large number of parts are being made – GD&T can reduce or eliminate inspection of some features.
WHEN TO USE GD&T When part features are critical to a function or interchangeability When functional gaging is desirable When datum references are desirable to insure consistency between design When standard interpretation or tolerance is not already implied When it allows a better choice of machining processes to be made for production of a part .
I. (Minimum clearance and maximum interference) Basic Dimension: Nominal dimension from which tolerances are derived.e. largest shaft and smallest hole. smallest shaft and largest hole.e. Least Material Condition (LMC): The condition where a size feature contains the least amount of material within the stated limits of size. Tolerance: Difference between MMC and LMC limits of a single dimension. I... .TERMINOLOGY REVIEW Maximum Material Condition (MMC): The condition where a size feature contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size. Allowance: Difference between the MMC of two mating parts.
003 .LIMITS OF SIZE SIZE DIMENSION WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? 2.007 2.
.007) LMC (2. SIZE DIMENSION ENVELOPE PRINCIPLE MMC (2.003) ENVELOPE OF SIZE Envelop Principle defines the size and form relationships between mating parts.LIMITS OF SIZE A variation in form is allowed between the least material condition (LMC) and the maximum material condition (MMC).
LIMITS OF SIZE ENVELOPE PRINCIPLE LMC CLEARANCE MMC ALLOWANCE .
LIMITS OF SIZE The actual size of the feature at any cross section must be within the size boundary. ØMMC ØLMC .
LIMITS OF SIZE No portion of the feature may be outside a perfect form barrier at maximum material condition (MMC). .
Parallel Line Tolerance Zones GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING TOLERANCE ZONES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES CYLINDER ZONE .e..Other Factors I.
GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC CONTROLS 14 characteristics that may be controlled TYPE OF FEATURE TYPE OF CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL TOLERANCE FLATNESS INDIVIDUAL (No Datum Reference) STRAIGHTNESS FORM CIRCULARITY CYLINDRICITY INDIVIDUAL or RELATED FEATURES LINE PROFILE PROFILE SURFACE PROFILE PERPENDICULARITY ORIENTATION ANGULARITY PARALLELISM RELATED FEATURES (Datum Reference Required) CIRCULAR RUNOUT RUNOUT TOTAL RUNOUT CONCENTRICITY LOCATION POSITION SYMMETRY .
Dimension – Datum Feature Symbol – Feature Control Frame . – – – – – Maximum Material Condition MMC Regardless of Feature Size RFS Least Material Condition LMC Projected Tolerance Zone Diametrical (Cylindrical) Tolerance Zone or Feature – Basic. or Exact.Characteristics & Symbols cont‟d.
Feature Control FRAME FEATURE CONTROL Frame GEOMETRIC SYMBOL TOLERANCE INFORMATION DATUM REFERENCES COMPARTMENT VARIABLES THE RELATIVE TO OF THE FEATURE MUST BE WITHIN CONNECTING WORDS .
003 diametrical tolerance zone at maximum material condition relative to datums A. B.Feature Control Frame Uses feature control frames to indicate tolerance Reads as: The position of the feature must be within a . and C. .
003 diametrical tolerance zone at maximum material condition relative to datums A at maximum material condition and B. .Feature Control Frame Uses feature control frames to indicate tolerance Reads as: The position of the feature must be within a .
of the feature must be within a tolerance The tolerance zone at to Datum . The of the feature must be within a zone at relative to Datum .Reading Feature Control Frames The zone. . The of the feature must be within a tolerance zone relative to datums . of the feature must be within a relative The of the feature must be within a tolerance zone relative to Datum .
Applied to surface. end or corner of the symbol box to an extension line. Applied to axis .Placement of Feature Control Frames May be attached to a side.
May be below or closely adjacent to the dimension or note pertaining to that feature. Ø .Placement of Feature Control Frames Cont‟d.005 .500±.
Basic Dimension A theoretically exact size. Most often used with position.000 . or location of a feature or datum target. and profile) Basic dimensions have a rectangle surrounding it. a basic dimension is untoleranced. profile. therefore. orientation. angularity. 1.
.Basic Dimension cont‟d.
Form Features Individual Features No Datum Reference Flatness Straightness Circularity Cylindricity .
005 . .Form Features Examples Flatness as stated on drawing: The flatness of the feature must be within . Straightness applied to a flat surface: The straightness of the feature must be within .003 tolerance zone.003 0.06 tolerance zone.500 ±.003 0.005 .500 ±.
500 0.030 at MMC.030 M .500 0.505 1.003 tolerance zone. 0.505 Straightness of an Axis at MMC: The derived median line straightness of the feature must be within a diametric zone of . .010 0.003 0.990 .Form Features Examples Straightness applied to the surface of a diameter: The straightness of the feature must be within .
Dial Indicator DIAL INDICATOR BEZEL CASE 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 CLAMP PROBE .
Verification of Flatness .
and GD&T 3 – (for GD&T 3 completely dimension. GD&T 2 #1 only. ¼” grid.) .Activity 13 Work on worksheets GD&T 1.
Features that Require Datum Reference Orientation – Perpendicularity – Angularity – Parallelism Runout – Circular Runout – Total Runout Location – Position – Concentricity – Symmetry .
axis.Datum Datums are features (points. manufacturing. – As you know.000 .. tooling. not every GD&T feature requires a datum. and assembling components and subassemblies.e. and planes) on the object that are used as reference surfaces from which other measurements are made. i. Used in designing. inspecting. Flat 1.
Features are identified with respect to a datum. Always start with the letter A Do not use letters I, O, or Q May use double letters AA, BB, etc. This information is located in the feature control frame.
Datums on a drawing of a part are represented using the symbol shown below.
Datum Reference Symbols
The datum feature symbol identifies a surface or feature of size as a datum.
A A ANSI 1982 ASME 1994
Placement of Datums
Datums are generally placed on a feature, a centerline, or a plane depending on how dimensions need to be referenced.
A A OR A
ANSI 1982 ASME 1994
Line up with arrow only when the feature is a feature of size and is being defined as the datum
005 Sometimes a feature has a GD&T and is also a datum A Ø .500±.005 . such as holes A Ø .500±.005 Ø .Placement of Datums Feature sizes.500±.
TWELVE DEGREES OF FREEDOM UP BACK LEFT 6 LINEAR AND 6 ROTATIONAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM FRONT DOWN RIGHT UNRESTRICTED FREE MOVEMENT IN SPACE .
Example Datums Datums must be perpendicular to each other – Primary – Secondary – Tertiary Datum .
– Accessibility » Does anything. accessibility. – Functional Relationships » A standardization of size is desired in the manufacturing of a part.Primary Datum A primary datum is selected to provide functional relationships. such as. shafts. – For example. A primary datum is chosen to reference the location of the mating features. get in the way? . legos are made in a standard size in order to lock into place. » Consideration of how parts are orientated to each other is very important. and repeatability.
For example. castings. » The primary datum chosen must insure precise measurements. The surface established must produce consistent » Measurements when producing many identical parts to meet requirements specified. etc. . sheet metal.Primary Datum – Repeatability cont‟d.
Primary Datum Restricts 6 degrees of freedom FIRST DATUM ESTABLISHED BY THREE POINTS (MIN) CONTACT WITH SIMULATED DATUM A .
– Tertiary Datum » This datum is always perpendicular to both the primary and secondary datums ensuring a fixed position from three related parts. – Secondary Datum » Secondary datums are produced perpendicular to the primary datum so measurements can be referenced from them. . and repeatability.Secondary & Tertiary Datums All dimension may not be capable to reference from the primary datum to ensure functional relationships. accessibility.
SECOND DATUM PLANE ESTABLISHED BY TWO POINTS (MIN) CONTACT WITH SIMULATED DATUM B .Secondary Datum Restricts 10 degrees of freedom.
Tertiary Datum Restricts 12 degrees of freedom. THIRD DATUM PLANE ESTABLISHED BY ONE POINT (MIN) CONTACT WITH SIMULATED DATUM C 90° MEASURING DIRECTIONS FOR RELATED DIMENSIONS .
Coordinate Measuring Machine COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE BRIDGE DESIGN PROBE GRANITE SURFACE PLATE Z DATUM REFERENCE FRAME .
Size Datum (CIRCULAR) THIS ON THE DRAWING A MEANS THIS PART DATUM AXIS SIMULATED DATUMSMALLEST CIRCUMSCRIBED CYLINDER .
Size Datum (CIRCULAR) THIS ON THE DRAWING A MEANS THIS SIMULATED DATUMLARGEST INSCRIBED CYLINDER PART DATUM AXIS A .
and cylindrical .Orientation Tolerances –Perpendicularity –Angularity –Parallelism Controls the orientation of individual features Datums are required Shape of tolerance zone: 2 parallel lines. 2 parallel planes.
They are perpendicular to the datum plane and spaced .005 apart.005 tolerance zone relative to datum A. or axis at a right angle (90°) to a datum plane or axis. . The tolerance zone is the space between the 2 parallel lines. center plane.PERPENDICULARITY: is the condition of a surface. Ex: The perpendicularity of this surface must be within a .
005 tolerance zone to plane 2.Practice Problem Plane 1 must be perpendicular within . BOTTOM SURFACE .
Practice Problem Plane 1 must be perpendicular within .005 tolerance zone to plane 2 BOTTOM PLANE .
01 . But the bottom plane is restricted to the red tolerance zone.Practice Problem 2.005 Tolerance Zone .00±.00±.01 .02 Tolerance Without GD & T this would be acceptable 2.02 Tolerance With GD & T the overall height may end anywhere between the two blue planes. .
PERPENDICULARITY Cont‟d.010 relative to datum A‟ . Location of hole (axis) This means „the hole (axis) must be perpendicular within a diametrical tolerance zone of .
005 tolerance zone relative to datum A. .ANGULARITY: is the condition of a surface. Typically must have a basic dimension. The surface is at a 45º angle with a . axis. or median plane which is at a specific angle (other than 90°) from a datum plane or axis. Can be applied to an axis at MMC.
PARALLELISM: The condition of a surface or center plane equidistant at all points from a datum plane. or an axis. is specified by the geometric tolerance.01 . or surfaces. The distance between the parallel lines. ±0.
Activity 13 Cont‟d. Complete worksheets GD&T2. – ¼” grid . GD&T-4. and GD&T-5 – Completely dimension.
Material Conditions Maximum Material Condition (MMC) Least Material Condition (LMC) Regardless of Feature Size(RFS) .
» MMC of Ø0.240±. pin. . – MMC for a shaft is the largest allowable size. slot.005? – MMC for a hole is the smallest allowable size. » MMC of Ø0.Maximum Material Condition MMC This is when part will weigh the most. hole.005? Permits greater possible tolerance as the part feature sizes vary from their calculated MMC Ensures interchangeability Used – With interrelated features with respect to location – Size. such as.250±. etc.
005? – LMC for a hole is the largest allowable size.250±. » LMC of Ø0. – LMC for a shaft is the smallest allowable size. » LMC of Ø0.240±.005? .Least Material Condition LMC This is when part will weigh the least.
slots.Regardless of Feature Size RFS Requires that the condition of the material NOT be considered. etc. This is used when the size feature does not affect the specified tolerance. . pins. Valid only when applied to features of size. such as holes. with an axis or center plane..
Location Tolerances – Position – Concentricity – Symmetry .
For other features.Position Tolerance A position tolerance is the total permissible variation in the location of a feature about its exact true position. For cylindrical features. . the position tolerance zone is typically a cylinder within which the axis of the feature must lie. Datums are required. The exact position of the feature is located with basic dimensions. the center plane of the feature must fit in the space between two parallel planes. The position tolerance is typically associated with the size tolerance of the feature.
000 . – Total tolerance diagonally is .014. . which may be more than was intended. equidistant from true position may not be accepted.750 2.Coordinate System Position Consider the following hole dimensioned with coordinate dimensions: The tolerance zone for the location of the hole is as follows: Several Problems: – Two points.
4*.Coordinate System Position Consider the following hole dimensioned with coordinate dimensions: The tolerance zone for the location (axis) of the hole is as follows: Center can be anywhere along the diagonal line.4 Xs >. equidistant from true position may not be accepted. . which may be more than was intended.010=.014. (1. – Total tolerance diagonally is . 1.000 Several Problems: – Two points.014) .750 2.
regardless of the direction. The same tolerance is applied. overall tolerance zone is: MMC = . .500 .003 = . but add GD&T: Now.497 The actual center of the hole (axis) must lie in the round tolerance zone..Position Tolerancing Consider the same hole.
Bonus Tolerance Here is the beauty of the system! The specified tolerance was: This means that the tolerance is .010 if the hole size is the MMC size. or . . we get a bonus tolerance equal to the difference between the MMC size and the actual size. If the hole is bigger.497.
497 (MMC) Ø .010 + . If the hole is bigger.503 (LMC) Ø .499 .016 ? Ø .015 .003) Ø .504 This system makes sense… the larger the hole is.500 .502 Ø .013) Φ of Tol..497.010 + .005 .500 (.006 ? (.003 . 0 .Bonus Tolerance Example This means that the tolerance is .002 .003 = . .. we get a bonus tolerance equal to the difference between the MMC size and the actual size.013 . or . the more it can deviate from true position and still fit in the mating condition! .497 = .002 = .499 (.503 Actual Hole Size Ø .497 = .010 if the hole size is the MMC size.002) Bonus Tol.012 .010 . Zone .012) (.
010 Shaft ..Hole .497 = BONUS 0 TOL ZONE .497 = BONUS .499 .012 . ZONE = .002 BONUS + TOL.
497 = BONUS .497 = BONUS .006 BONUS + TOL.014 . ZONE = ..016 .501 . ZONE = ...004 BONUS + TOL.503 .
010 at all times. the tolerance is RFS. GT = GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE . There is no bonus tolerance associated with this specification. What if the tolerance had been specified as: Since there is NO material modifier. which stands for regardless of feature size. VIRTUAL CONDITION: The worst case boundary generated by the collective effects of a size feature‟s specified MMC or LMC material condition and the specified geometric tolerance. This means that the position tolerance is .
Zone . Means “the hole (AXIS) must be perpendicular within a diametrical tolerance zone of .998 1.000 2.997 (MMC) 1.010 at MMC relative to datum A.” Actual Hole Size 1.003 Bonus Tol.PERPENDICULARITY Cont‟d.001 Vc = 2. Ø of Tol.002 2.999 2.
Worksheet GD&T 6 .Activity 13 Cont‟d.
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