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— The — — Influence — of the Civic Elements on Romans raise 1012.. . Tusculum and its Counts Sergius IV. CHAPTER 1. in Rome His underRise of Pisa and Genoa takings against the Saracens Southern Italy Rebellion of Melus against Byzantium First — — — Norman Horde (1017)— Unhappy Fate of Melus —Benedict VIII.. Position of the City of Rome in the Eleventh Century in page Universal History the Papacy Lombards elect Arduin King the John Crescentius to the Patriciate Death of Sylvester. where hereditary Counts have arisen The Roman Nobility as Senate Romanus.... . elected Pope. 24 . History of the City of Rome in the Eleventh Century. BOOK VII. and XVHI. to Apulia (1022). . is — — — I Gregory. (1014) Territory. . — — — c 14 Vigorous Rule of Benedict VIII.. 3. the — — National King. I. 2. dict VIII. expelled by Theophylact or Bene- Henry decides in favour of the Tusculan Pope Journey to Rome and Imperial Coronation of Condition of Rome and Roman Henry II. Senator of all — — — — the the Romans Imperial Tribunal Suppressed Revolt of Romans — Return of Henry II. End of Arduin.. 1003 John XVH. End of John Crescentius.— CONTENTS.. summons the Emperor to undertake a Campaign — Expedition of Henry II...

in Rome — He goes to South Italy — His Death. 54 Beginning of the Reform of the Church— Henry III. — Death of Damasus—Bruno .. — Benedict comes — Sylvester driven forth by the Sacred Chair to Gregory Rome— A Roman Rome Synod . II. — Boniface (1047)— Benedict IX.. of Toul appointed to the 68 .— — — — vi CONTENTS. concerning Roman Law in Papal — His glorious Expedition to Southern Italy — Benedict IX. 1029. CHAPTER 1. II. The Romans Benedict drive Benedict IX. seizes the of Tuscany Henry raises — Damasus Papacy. 1024 Condition of Italy ^John 4. II. Death of Beginning of the Reform under Benedict VIII. summons Conrad offered of Germany to by the Expeditions — 5. Death of Henry II. out of the City and raise in his stead sells Sylvester III. 47 2.. Coronation (1027) Furious Insurrection of the King Canute in Rome. . goes to South Italy returns to Germany by way of Rome . (1046) — of the Patriciate to 3. escapes to the Emperor — Social Revolution in Lombardy Heribert of Milan — The Emperor establishes Benedict IX. .. III. the Papacy — His dissolute Life— Terrible condition of the World at large — The Treuga Dei Benedict IX.. 1024 His Brother Romanus as John XIX. Henry to Italy — Council at Sutri raises Abdication of Gregory VI. VI. to as Deliverer. . Benedict. Death of Clement Sacred Chair II. resolves . . — — Spectacle Rome of the time— Imperial to — Rome Romans . ..38 His return is raised to re- . summon Henry III. a Boy of the Tusculan House.30 Rescript of Conrad Territoiy II. to the Papal Chair— End of Benedict IX.. . — — page — XIX. to — Three Popes in III.. to the Clement crowns Henry Emperor Description of the Imperial Coronation Transference Papacy —Clement Henry — Henry III. . andhis Successors.

74 CHAPTER 1. Imperial — — — — Powerful — 92 Stephen IX. III.. Cardinals. Men . around him as ... Leo IX. — Godfrey of Lorraine Henry III.— — — CONTENTS.101 — Stephen IX. goes to Italy Rome as of the Regent Circus and on the Cadalus conquers the Leonine City goes to Tusculum Godfrey of Tuscany dictates a Truce Revolution in Germany Alexander Capitol — — Benzo comes to — Parliament in the — IL recognised as Pope (1062) — — He enters Rome. . vii — — — page — — — — . . Pope. — Cadalus Envoy . . .. .124 CHAPTER Alexander II. The Hermits and Peter Damiani — Penitential Discipline Vicar in Italy Frederick position of Godfrey II. 132 . Pope (1049) His efforts for Reform— Corruption of the Church Simony Hildebrand Poverty of the Pope Macbeth in Rome South Italy —Acquisition of Benevento by Leo IX. His Wars with the Normans His Defeat at Civita Vecchia His Death (1054).. Hildebrand receives aid from the Normans The new Decree of Election Progress of the Normans — — — They take the Oath of Allegiance Benedict X. . 4. 3. comes to Tuscany Italy Victor IL. — Cardinal — Death of Victor — Stephen IX. to the — Pope — Fall of Iio Indignation in Rome against the Decree of Election of Nicholas.. Pope Death of the Emperor (1056) Regency of the Empress Agnes Victor IL.. Nicholas II. . . — . collects distinguished . IV. 106 1 — summon King Henry to elect a Pope — Pataria The Cottas and Ariald The Followers of Hildebrand elect Anselm of Lucca as Pope The German —The Romans and the Death Lombards Milan The — — — — Court elevates Cadalus of Parma. His Plans and Death Benedict X.. Hildebrand's marries Programme of — The — Emperor nominates Geb- hard of Eichstädt to the Papacy Beatrix 2.

. . Death of Alexander II.. of Cadalus is 2. . 155 CHAPTER 1. Growing Power of Hildebrand Efforts for Reform The Richard's Revolt and March to Rome Normans Godfrey and the Pope lead an Army against him Fresh Treaty The Empress Agnes takes the Veil in Rome Fighting in Milan Herlembald Cotta Miles of S. Hildebrand ascends the Papal Chair His Career his Aims His Ordination on June — 29.147 — — — — — — — . . . 1073. .. 141 3.. Roman Cencius against Gregory. . Head of of the Church Death Cinthius.194 . Reform. 2. Prefect of the City the Malcontents of Godfrey of Tuscany Death of Peter Damiani Festival of the Dedication of the Monte Casino — — — — — — — Basilica rebuilt by Desiderius (107 1 ). . . Peter— Death of Ariald. . . Cadalus returns to overthrown in Germany Fall Civil \Yar concerning the Papacy Final Recognition of Alexander II... Hanno — page Rome — Second — — .173 State of things in Ravenna Rome — Gregory's Opponents —Wibert of — Henry IV. . — — — .. 184 Breach between Gregory and Henr}' The King deposes the Pope at Worms His Letter to Gregor}' Henry is ex- — — — communicated and deposed in Rome Consternation aroused by the step Relations between the two Opponents Gregory's Twenty-seven Articles. . — 167 Gregoiy VII. — Gregory's Council Rome his Decree of to first in . Weakness of the Pope in Rome Dissolution of the State City Prefecture Cencius. . receives the Oath of Fealty from the Princes It is refused by Robert Guisof Benevento and Capua card their — — Gregory's Scheme of making the Princes Vassals Dominions Fiefs of the Roman Church — His and summons a General Ci"usade — Matilda and Gregory VII. . 4. . V. . — Resistance Germany to Gregory's Decrees — Decision against Lay Investiture in Attempt of the 4.— — — viii CONTENTS. 3.

rival King Henry returns to Germany. He divests himself of the Regal Power— He seeks Absolution from the Ban Canossa (1077) Moral Greatness of the King He makes Overtures to them— Death of Cencius Death of Cinthius Death of the Empress Agnes in Rome. elected in his stead Henry IV. 2.229 Henry's Retreat to Campania —They surrender the City —The Romans desert Gregory (1084) — Gregory shuts is is himself up in S.. . Gregory to Rome Fall of the last Lombard Dynasties in South Italy Retrospective view of the Lombard Nation Robert tenders Gregory the Oath of Vassalage William the Conqueror and Gregory The Pope recognises Rudolf and excommunicates Henry a second time Wibert of Ravenna AntiPope Turning point in the History of Henry and — — — — — — — Gregory.. Angelo Henry negotiates with the Romans Firmness of the Pope ^Jordan of Capua does Homage to the King Desiderius effects a Peace Henry's Treaty with — the — — Romans — His to the Retreat to Tuscany of Gregory's November Synod King. IX Revolt of the Estates of the Empire from Henry IV..— — CONTENTS. — — — — Failure . their Oath 3. — page Gregory VH. Henry IV. in S. Henry regains Courage Rudolf of Swabia. 223 Henry IV.. advances the City — Second Farfa Rome Siege in the First Siege of Spring of 1082 He — — retires to III. Angelo — He deposed by a Roman Parliament.. is crowned by the Anti-Pope takes the Septizonium and the Capitol by storm Romans besiege the Pope in S. marches to Tivoli. — — —The Lombards renounce — — — ... CHAPTER VI. (1081) against — 212 1. 204 6. . . and Clement HI. where Clement takes up his abode He lays waste the Property of — He — the great Countess.. —The . Romans break .. 5. . — The Emperor — The Angelo — Gregory's . besieges Rome for the third time (1082-1083) Capture of the Leonine City Gregory VII.

293 . who conduct him to Rome His disconsolate Position in the City— Matilda's Marriage with Guelf V.. of the . 248 Departure of Gregory VII. his relief page Rome . Terrible Destruction of the City. of Italy take the Cross —The . II. 5. seizes rad 3. Desiderius III.. — Clement III. . into Exile His Fall His Death in Salerno— His Figure in Universal History. . Urban II. to the Head of the General — — — — . noi of Henry IV. — The Duke of the Normans comes to Retreat — Robert Guiscard takes . VII. Army drives 4. Henry IV. City in the time of Gregory VII. . in possession of Rome — Urban II. — Return of Urban first Attitude of places himself at the Crusade— The Pope Movement Guelf V. summon Clement youthful Con- 269 The Phenomenon Papacy through of the this Universal — Strengthening of the Movement — Urban II. .X Distress CONTENTS.. is raised by force to the Papal Chair as Victor : — He escapes to Monte Casino Papal Dignity in 1 087 Is consecrated in Rome Condition of the City Victor HI. escapes to Monte Election and Ordination Casino. — The Romans Rome. where he dies (1087) of Otto of Ostia as Urban II. . Hildebert's 237 Lament over the Fall of Rome— Ruin . — — he resumes the — . preaches the Crusade in Piacenza and in Clermont (1095) Relations of the City of Rome to the Crusades and to — Chivalry —The Normans Henry IV. 1106. Crusades — back to the City II. of French Crusaders marches through Rome and 280 away Clement III. separates from Matilda The Guelfs desert to Henry's Camp Henry IV.. returns to Germany (1097) End of his Tragic Struggles Death of Urban II. . — — 254 CHAPTER 1. (1088). — returns to Italy (1090) III. — Urban — Rebellion of the .. throws himself into the arms of the Normans. 1099— Death of Conrad. — Henry's 4...261 2. .

5. XI Guido of Arezzo page Culture of Rome in the Eleventh Century invents Musical Notes —Monte Casino — Farfa— Gregory of Catino — Subiaco — Beginning of the collection of Roman Regesta — Deusdedit — Defective continuation of the Pomposa History of the Popes The Regesta of Gregory VII. 300 . . Peter Damiani Bonizo Anselm of Lucca Polemical — Condition of the Libraries—The — — — — Writings concerning the Investiture. .CONTENTS. .




IV. forms one of the most important epochs in the annals of the Papacy. and XVIII. 1003 John XVII. I. A eleventh The century A . Position of the City of Century in Universal History — Influence of the Civic Elements on the Papacy — The Lombards ELECT ArDUIN KiNG THE ROMANS RAISE John Crescentius to the Patriciate — Death of Sylvester. CHAPTER I. while the city exerted itself to obtain its final emancipation VOL. The papal power sank both morally and politically. house of Otto was succeeded by conditions which resembled the conditions that had followed the extinction of the Carolingian Empire. End Tusculum and . greater contrast between the utter decay and the sudden revival of the same power is nowhere else The extinction of the encountered in history. Counts — Sergius IV. Rome in the Eleventh its OF John Crescentius. 10 12.HISTORY OF THE CITY OF ROME IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

cessful. its opposition the difficulty in the civic nobility. with marvellous rapidity. followed. was always able to recover its In Rome no burgher class existed ascendency. Its existing the emperors and the popes. even the dominion. principle hostile the powerful noble families. and the Papacy fell into a condition of such utter barbarism that the times of the most infamous emperors as patricians in the . this result . and vigilance in which they were kept. and which. through the aid of foreign powers. the permanent condition of indigence. sufficiently strong to form a firm foundation for a There still remained merely secular constitution.2 HISTORY OF ROME Its from the papal yoke. of antiquity seemed to have been renewed. since the efforts proved unsucindestructible Papacy remained an to civic development. first half of the eleventh century they appointed popes from amongst their relatives. self-defence. raised the Roman Church Civic affairs contributed very materially to into a cosmopolitan power. which the popes were placed through to the spiritual events which occurred within the narrow circuit of its walls. to quarrel These men ruled Rome for it among themselves. a principle which could only be temporarily repressed but could never be removed. who snatched the power from the Pope. the captains or great feudal vassals of the Church in city and country. however. all these causes contributed to produce . causes for relations to work the city itself providing the immediate far-reaching movements. and made the Sacred Chair a family possession. that Then memorable reaction which.

The great conflict concerning investiture governed city in the history of the the latter half of the to eleventh century. — — Neither creatures of the nobility. the history of the Papacy would not have followed the course which it took both before We may opposition and after Gregory VII. It Roman patriciate eleventh century onwards became nobility of from the world-wide invested the German kings. and the creation of the College of Cardinals. Rome his in continued strife be its source and the scene of on which Hildehis brand displayed activity. were to be appointed to the Papacy the : papal election must be free and the independent work of the clergy. The Church had scarcely entered on the path of inward reform when she strove with all her power to throw off the yoke of the Patricius. less remote and wide-spread assert that. nor creatures of the king. who snatched their and allied it to crown. not only genius and marvellous founding a new ecclesiastical . The patriciate of the city thus called forth the celebrated statute of election of Nicholas II. with power over the city and the right it from the Roman of nomination to the Sacred Chair. and the struggle of the popes against the patriciate at length developed into a struggle against the right of investiture in general. It therefore became the foremost object of the struggle between the Church struggling to obtain her emancipation and the State.IN THE MIDDLE AGES effects 3 political more or results. of the The conception importance. without the constant of the city of Rome to the spiritual government.

and ^ The Romans placed Sam. Tedious civil wars and into an all-ruling power. North Italy immediately transferred the crown of the Lombards to a native prince. Margrave of Ivrea. A favourable opportunity had arisen for the Italians to pronounce the German royal and imperial power over their country extinguished and to attain independence. Rome from her pope. until the city itself issues from these great convulsions during the period of the rising city republics of Italy.^ the patrician diadem on the head of the son of the celebrated Crescentius. No heir could claim the title of the first Otto. Arduin made i royal progress through the country. '^^11' . after its emancipation from the patriciate. Such of the Lombard bishops as adhered to the German monarchy made strenuous resistance.. a powerful noble whom Otto III. Bishop of Vercelli. had placed under the ban of the Empire. itself in the self new form the freed of a republic. Leo of Vercelli.. and among these prelates Leo.4 state with HISTORY OF ROME feudal territories. Löwenfeld. was Arduin's most formidable opponent. Italy found her- from her king. and even cherished hopes of the imperial crown. but in forming the Papacy. a favourite of Otto III. was elected King in Pavia iS early as February 15. terrible misfortunes overtook unhappy Rome in con- sequence of the great struggle between the Church and the Empire. As in the time of Berengar. and we shall see these struggles prolonged into the twelfth century. After death of Otto III. and Arduin. 1002.

620. et Ven. it had made for the freedom of the city. Urbis R. et Dni. 7931. owing to the sacrifices Patridus The popu. niagnif. Oddonis et Crescentii incl. since in this case Marinus would . and Octavian. ^ Stephen was still prefect in the year 1002 (Docum.^ ^ Lombard duke in the Mortno vero ipso Imp.Romans. In documents Crescentius appears as office holding the calls from 1003. renouncing the Counts turned to the Crescentii. filios prced. 504 (Oct.^ John His family was hostile to the German monarchy. Patricius. p. sons of Benedict and Theodoranda. . 30). germani mei et Senioris nostri. Jokes. Rogatam Joseph^ seu et . a Sabina. Crescentii b. et pro an. Tusculum. 1036. gerjnano meo. of lace. The Prefect Crescentius was not the brother of the Patricius John. 1007).IN THE MIDDLE AGES. comitis {Betiedicti) ut dilectos conscm- guineos a?7iare He appears 2& Patricius ccepit. Octavianum Vir. 523.. ruled as Counts in the Sabina John even called himself duke and margrave. Johis. p. erroneously him «il? Turre . Crescentii genitoris mei. et D. ordinatus est patricius^ qui Joh. : Ind. cujusd. Comitum Territ. et XVIII. n. Theodore genitricis niee supte Rogate. Sabine. ^ Two celebrated documents in the Reg. . n. 523 (Oct... . therefore.. D. 15 Nov. now Senatrix of the Romans. fil. et Crescent. —proanima Dni. was beloved by the Romans. Constat nos dorn. Vatican. S.^ and effected a marriage between his sister own Rogata. Contelor. Mscr. 541. m. The first Temporib. PP. P.. Farf. in 1003 {Reg. Urb. an appellation which belonged to his brother: Marinus qui vocor de Ttirre Crescentio olim pref.f n. In n. Rogatum ilhist. Far/. have been proud of being brother to the Patricius.. The Patricius also made another Crescentius Prefect of the city. Far/. 1013). Reg. jugalem filia77i cujusd. Johannis Patricii Ro??ianor. Rainerii Epi. 649). D. de Praf. . Cosma. perhaps because he also ruled over Spoleto and Camerino. The relations of the new John and Crescentius. but cJi^Uus. of S. Octbr. Chron. Patricii Romanor. A. Johis. n. Crescentii ßl. son of Joseph. Far/... 5 John entered on a ten years' rule as lord of the city. Octavian names D. V. In M. et D.

Joseph. iv. Octavianus I = Rogata. 1093. however. until a violent death finally released His third successor erected a monument to his memory in S. Martin Polonus. married to Doda. Oddo. married Theodora. J Johannes. . William of Malmesbury.1 I . Dist. Comes Campaniae. Patricius. married to Gregory. 1060. Guido. him on May 1003. Iste locus Ventura mundi Domino Sylvestri 7ne?uh7-a sepulti conferet ad sonitum. . the county remained in the family until the beginning of the twelfth century. Crescentius. Crescentius. died 998 = Theodora. it is p. 131) is inaccurate. . Dux. I . . died 1012. 1003. Cencius. : Accord- ing to documents.6 Death of HISTORY OF ROME The aged j^g Sylvester meanwhile bewailed his loneli- iL.^ The epitaph laments that peace vanished from the Oddo and Crescentius. A. Octavianus. and we may still read the eulogy on the celebrated Pope and recall the various legends with which the Middle Ages adorned the life of this " Magician " on the 12. John's. Siegbert (who died in 1 113) believed that he had been carried off by the devil. ii) relate legends concerning Sylvester. Joh. Senatricem conjugem meam. throne of Peter. have found solace in his beloved parchments. 1049. Johannes. to Maroza. A. Walter Map {De nugis curialium. c. Crescentius. where may. Stephania or Theodora was said to have poisoned him as well as Otto III. ^^ss for another year in the deserted Lateran.^May 12. Crescentius. son of Amatus. widow. 1022. more probably as follows Dux in the Sabina. I I. Comes. Orderich Vitalis. . ^ Oddo. were counts in the Sabina about 1024 . the sons of Octavian. The genealogical tree in Sperandio {Sabina sacra.

therefore 1009. VI. m. madius Ind. The first year of John given by an instrument from S.y 3764 : Joks. relatives or creatures of the Patricius who had raised them.. II. quivoc. ^ year XVIII Ind.. Vat. The R. 1004. die XI. however. The Bavarian had overcome. Henry's coronation. from in the German .^ During his pontificate of more than five years.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. .. V. corrected by the Cod. and that the Church sank into confusion. King at all Alpine heights..—Johs. Vat. This party was now led by the Counts of Tusculum. Cosma in Mica Aurea {Mscr. therefore 1004. Johis odabidecimi pape in His last sede is anno primo m. 1003. V. and John XVIII. Johis m. 7 world on his death. who had there succeeded to the throne as Henry II. Both were Romans. scarcely ventured to turn his timid glance towards the distant Kings of Germany. Sacred Chair on December 25. however. is be found in Regio Montium. VII. Fasanus de regione secus porta metrovi sed. Arduin's defeat. de regione biber- aticased. The reigns of the two popes who succeeded him are. Sublac. John XVII. a. The Duke of Bavaria. a. Vat. and had assumed the crown of Italy in rebellious Pavia. Sico died in the course of John seven months. Anno Pont. Dn. qui vocatur Sicco nat. stood between him and the imperial crown. 1437. John XVIII. Rom. but nevertheless had returned to Germany. 88. XXV. combined to give the German party in the city a fresh access of power. wrapped in complete obscurity. is d. ascended the xviii.. fol.. Januar. his rival. feigned a sympathy for the German monarchy. /. to p. on May 14. desired to revive the Imperium nation Arduin. and the expectation of his journey to Rome. events in his hatred to the Crescentii. Biberatica XVIII. mentioned by the i?^^. ^ Cod. if not removed. to a. who. 33) : 7931.

and by Telegonus. Its ruler. M. v. conspicuous during the prime of Roman learning. from Rome still the ruins of ancient and mediaeval heights above Tusculum stand on the Rome. for this gloomy fortress had also been the cradle of the Catos. ^ fol.^ name Monte 15 1. the delightful successor of Tusculum which the Middle Ages long before Tusculum covered with the beautiful nobility at the present day. Albitii Vatican. itself perished. there gave shelter to his father-in-law. the last Tarquinius. by it its whom long was older than myths of Odysseus. Mattei in the {Me?n. the Fonteiani. the Juventii origin to — the Mamilii.^ Many figures. Analisi. 357). Bishops of Tusculum appear from the middle of 1st. Hortensius. LucuUus and Crassus. Caesar. 1711) repeats all the fictions of Zazzera. He there discovers the site of Cicero's Academy and the villa in which he wrote the Tusculan Disputations. Roma. the son of Circe. ii. and himself fell in the battle of Lake Regillus. Kircher. meet the traveller amid the ruins of Tusculum. Pojruli^ 1 document of the year 1151. Mamilius Octavius.8 Fifteen Tuscuium. and the later emperors owned villas at Tusculum . is villas of the ^ Roman Montem In the Nevertheless the Porzio is probably derived from swine. Arnold Vion. Brutus. — owed their Tusculum. but greater than any of these were the Porcii. deir aniico Tusculo. the fertile slope being covered with luxurious country houses in arose in Roman times. HISTORY OF ROME miles distant Frascati. As a seat of Latin power. Cod. And as early as 1074 (Nibby. Concerning Tusculum . it was city The origin being lost in the said to have been founded. 3057. ssec. made war on Rome. even as Frascati. Metellus. 6:c. Various illustrious families the Fulvii.

as a favourite of the Emperor and undoubtedly as Count of Tusculum. claim to this descent. 1886). appears for the first time in history during the reign of Otto III. xii. bearing the title de Tusculana. Petri Diaconi (n. which they preserved. xii. ix. consul excell. as even Tomassetti. "Campagna Romana" {Archivio Rom. in his attempt at a genealogical tree. Petr. see G. may possibly have inherited Tusculum from his mother no document. 257 in M. Val. Maria Nova [Afscr. Gregorius Romanor.^ The life of Middle Ages. Ptolemceus Julia Alberic laid stirpe progenitus romanorq.IN tenth THE MIDDLE AGES. 8043). did we not hesitate to trifle with genealogical trees which lead us back to Mamilius Octavius. The oldest deed concerning Tusculum contains the lease of a mill from the Count Palatine Alberic in 1028 from S. ^ First mentioned as Dom. : : .^ Gregory. xi. ancient filled The owner of the fortress ruled over the Latin mountains and a part of the Campagna. hold in Roman territory to possess. maintains. Casino) a Count of Tusculum writes in the beginning of ssec. ^ The family cannot be historically traced beyond Theodora and Theophylact. however. 9 century the Tusculan municipium was an with the ruins of almost impregnable town. in Albinus and Cencius. and the family name of Theophylact. Senator . Senator A. Diac. Alberic. gives any information on the subject. in the Reg. Soc. and consequently gave his son the name of Octavian. 986 d. counts of i"scuium. \ from ssec. We might boldly trace the Tusculan family to Theophylact.. the son of Marozia. of the Romans. Tomassetti. and its site gave Tusculum a greater importance than it was possible for any other strongmagnificence.. Then documents from the middle of ssec. family The resident family of counts {de Tnsculana) were The descended from Marozia and Theodora. In the Reg. Petro nepoti. shows " the Senator of Rome " to have been an ancestor of the house.

327) is a fiction. On the death of John XVIII. Romanus. Aurea progenies iacä hie vocitataJOHS. son or grandson of Alberic. An inscription . Petri. The : successor to the excell.. where John Crescentius now ruled as Patricius. 999 Gregorio viro. celebrated monastery. like birds of prey. Colonn. and a favourable opportunity soon occurred. in June 1009. vol. 1884 Tomassetti. had married Maria and became the father of three sons.^ Gregory. ^ Mscr. died before 1012). Romana. Alberic his father Gregory. Eccardi : Phasianus Card. Coppi {Mem.. post annas V. in S. Romanor. d. Alberic. qui et Joh. according to documents. The child .lO S. Nilo HISTORY OF ROME depicts him as a rich. others make him the son of Deusdedit. Concerning this 'Rocc\n. Farf. 470). however. R.La Badia di Grotta Ferrata. crafty and violent to despot. s. and where Alberic fifty years before had reigned with royal power. 1885. Then A. 8042. see inspired Galletti with the idea of writing the history of the Conti di Tusculo the materials for which are to be found in the Vatican . library. Vat." Arch.^ n. . . et dimid.. . qui de tusculana. 8042). the Tusculans apparently succeeded in obtaining a papal election favourable to their cause. Albericus given by Sperandio {Sabina S. viii. p. Soc. ) represents Gregory as son of the celebrated Alberic. was great-uncle to the child.. These lawless barons. "Camp. 2 Catalog. Rome. looked down from the heights of Tusculum upon Rome. and relates that on coming Rome in a piece of land on 1 002 he presented the saint with which the Basilian Monastery of Grotta Ferrata was founded.^ {Mscr. Vat. de pat re Urso Presbytero. atque prcefecto navali {Reg. John XIX. They aimed at making Rome a family possession. 487 f. and Theophylact. matre Stephania. . The will of a Patricius p. who died in 1030 is called the ne^os of the great Prince was grandson of Gregory of Tusculum (who.

II vacant throne was Sergius IV. judicum atque nobilium Senatorum.. et Johis patricii Romanor. 115: Temporib. Bticcacane. fol. Sublac. cognom. under whose pontificate the Crescentii gradually lost ground.^ They show him as supreme judge of Rome and the territory belonging to the city. himself perhaps a Tusculan. Ind. all this . and the Acts of the time show his term of rule as Senator of the Romans and Patricius officially registered in loii. m. c. Buccamola^ Buccabella. 649 the Patricius commands A memoratorium was drawn up the Prefect to summon the parties. first signs himself. et judices Romanorum. was troubled by recollections of in Patilo monachus discessit. ^ Reg. Buccapiscis. nostrty i. prefectus. . Rom. patricii. Reg. 690. qui vocabatur buccaporci.e.y of the ^ Thietmar. Urbis rome The judices are the ordinarii. In n. domum domino prefecto. Biicca frequently appears in Roman names of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In n. . Buccafnazza. Had he been thrust into a convent cell from the Sacred Chair ? ^ Jaffe shows that he was consecrated between June 20 and August His family name in the Catalog. who called themselves senators. 689. holding Placita in his palace. Buccazonca. Dni gra. dutn resideret intra . as Alberic had done former days. however. Bishop of Albano. Buccalupo. 649. per patricialem preceptionem . 61 : Sergius.. and alongside of Crescentius Prefect of the city. Aug. IX. 689. Far/. cum eis optimates patricius tma cum. Bucca porca. then Crescentius Dni gra. Eccardi : ex patre Petro^ 24. n.y et Crescentii et Ottonis insimul coniitum rectorumq. patricii ei then counts and nobilizs» assistants. inatre Stephania. Sccbin. territor. atque Benedictus. Biiccafusco. n. . 651 Temporib. Domni Johis Senat. dorn. Far/. per. to them are added the dativi.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ John. surrounded by his judges. inpres. Sergii IV. vi. ambo preclari et consolidatores German : party. . d.^ John Crescentius meanwhile continued to administer the government. Romanor. si?nulque Jak. patricius. suam predic. Pp.. Bucca di pecora. and Reg.

51) relates that he sent the King {seniori suo) miraculous oil. restored civic freedom to the Romans. loii {Reg. . Peter's and appropriated property belonging to the Church.12 HISTORY OF ROME he also dreaded the II. his stead. Berlin. is solely due to the defective for twelve years retained the chroniclers. The Patricius John is mentioned on July i. possible in interval Death Crescentius. in the beginning of the year 1012. completed by Herrn.^ While John ruled in Rome. Far/.y 649). .^ 689). Roman the expedition of a distance.. Henry The Pope desired King's presence. however. while at the same time it smoothed the path of the German King to Rome. Farf. withheld the temporal power from the popes. during the same length of time. and his death restored a measure of freedom to the Papacy. and presents. plundered S. he flattered lord King Henry as his over- by letters to hinder his coronation. but the Prefect and his brother Marinus appear (probably) in . character. his unfortunate father. 690). p. and who. before Henry's arrival. Far/. papa securitas^ regi nostra amplior potestas asseritur. and for the last time on December ii. sedis destructor qui cum non lotige post obiret . He calls him apost. . The son been a of the celebrated Crescentius must have ^ man of vigorous . "^ Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich IL by Siegfried ii. the Patricius strove to keep him at John's envoys held negotiations with Arduin and even with Boleslaw of Poland with the object of detaining the King on the other side of the Alps. 383. but strove in every way His rule. which was only the absence of an emperor. . 1864. loii {Reg. 1012.. . vol. There is no mention of him on March 27. Pabst. Hirsch. 1012 {Reg.^ That we know so little of a Patricius who until government of the city. He died. Thietmar (vii. c. filled the the next imperial coronation.

which was soon followed by death the of Pope Sergius. in S.. ^ The epitaph of Sergius IV. long tyrannised over Rome. and transformed the Chair of Peter into a hereditary possession. is the playful antithesis to it The Magnus "Parvus". 2 There are several epitaphs of the Crescentii of this period. . not mentioned elsewhere. where for vived in the Sabina. III. which shines in the barbarism of the Middle Ages like some family of barbarous Gracchi or Bruti. long surIn Rome. 1 although of his measures in the city we are entirelyignorant. 272). however. y Nerini. Sedis. Dominii Temp. Aprilis A. n. another in Araceli Crescentius antro. 325. His death. &c. p. One. i. Kal. Diplom..^ This family. erected in 1028 to the dead by his mother in the Lateran. we need not necessarily Horatius Crescentius is is suppose that refers to the city prefect.3 IN THE MIDDLE AGES. S. who immediately arose. p. Alessio given . of the 6th April looo (Galletti. upwards of a century the name Crescentius is of frequent occurrence. 271).. : A Mizina. The epitaph of Mizina in S. and which courageously made war against popes and emperors. caused the overthrow of the Crescentii. shows that even under the rule of the Patricius the popes continued to administer the Church property. Hie jacet in parvo magnus Inscr. which bears no date. the family never attained any It left the field further degree of importance. MX.^ vacant for the Counts of Tusculum. wife of the Consul Horatius (Casimiri.y iii. Cosma and Dam. in Theiner's Cod. for instance. is still to be read document of the same Pope (Grant of the Castrum Scurice) dat. vi.

and comforted him with the promise that on his arrival in Rome he would cause the dispute to be ^11 .^ Thietmar. and. WHERE HEREDITARY CoUNTS HAVE ARISEN Romanus. c. . The party of the Crescentii. vi. to the papal chair. from the condition of layman. Vin. Condition of Rome and Roman Terri(1014) tory. son of Gregory of Tusculum. is expelled by TheophylHenry decides in ACT or Benedict VIII. The Roman Nobility as Senate Senator of all the Romans Imperial Tribunal Suppressed Revolt of the Romans Return of Henry IL End of Arduin. the National — — — — — — — King. however. with his brothers forced a way into the city the two factions fought for the possession of the tiara and the civic power until Theophylact : expelled his Benedict rival. Theophylact. but the new Pope was immediately overthrown by his Tusculan opponent. Gregory.14 HISTORY OF ROME 2. a Roman. elected Pope. it is true. Pope from 1012 until 1024. FAVOUR OF THE TUSCULAN POPE JOURNEY TO Rome and Imperial Coronation of Henry II. investigated in canonical form. These events May 1012. raised Gregory. hastened to the King in Germany Henry took his papal insignia to demand his rights. 61. took place m Tx/ jj^ ^j^g absence of any emperor the Roman nobility had resumed the right of election the banished Gregory. caused himself to be consecrated Pope as Benedict VIII. forcibly seized the Lateran. The make between Benedict and ^ confusion which Baronius and Muratori the üigitive Gregory has already been .

a 537). dni gr. dict VIII. a foh. or nat. ordinatus 1013 Chron. JafFe's was consecrated on June 22. abandoned the perhaps canonically elected Gregory to his fate. qui contrarius exstiiit . XIV. 10 12 In the Acts of Subiaco. is dated June 16. Madio die V.. catalogues designate Benedict VIII.'s.. V. . installed in the office the most influential posts fell into the hands of the Tusculan party . Eccardi also calls BeneTheophylacti {i. n. VIII. ccxvii. 23. Madio die XXI. Urbis Rome prcefectus On August appears beside the Consul Alberic {Reg. In the Reg. however. although a diploma of Sergius IV.frater The papal : Alberici Benno. Prefect {Reg. Theophylact A document of August 2. patruus 83 Catal. {Cod. .). as reappears Crescentius Farf. Theophylactus qui et Benedictus ex patre nob. VIII. Far/. p. 263).5 . {Reg. : . had the arrived at Tusculan Pope hastened to secure the Chair of Peter. 525). 2 On December 4. Bened. n.. m.. the Prefect of the city bearing the name was dismissed. est mortuo. Vita Hildebr. of Benedict IX. also 1 Envoys of Benedict VIII. Sede II. while he gained the dreaded King to his side. Benedicti comiiis. Farf. Ind. Beiied. : : Sessor. Bened. his second year is VIII. p. VIII. is not tenable. XXIII. I do not take him to have been the brother of Marinus. Farf. A. appears as Pope (in Baronius). n. Benedictus papa. 1014 Gregorio tusculano. supported by the power of his house. z. that Benedict VIII. 20. says Patricio dorn. I m..^ Benedict VIII. m.. rectified . 1015. Pape in S. tusculanus ex Patre Gregorio.. Maß filiis ^ on May d. laicus frater Albrici Tusculanensis. 542. German the . is signed Thfpfklbetke qui Benedicttis papa vocor interfeciet subscripsi : Muratori rightly reads " Theophylactus " out of jtiajoris. another Roman. Benedict VIII. Bened. 1017. and as early as May 1012 A. Pagi and Mansi have also corrected the chronology.^ But no one ventured . Ind. n. established himself in the pontificate he banished the Crescourt . matre Maria. Henry II. 670.e. : mentioned XI. centii . IN THE MIDDLE AGES. : these letters. 1016 opinion.. Farf. and permitted a Tusculan count to remain Pope. On . and John. 535).

n. however. 1013. 'jt^) : more appears as Prefect of the city {Reg. i. however. n. Marinus german. 1036. (Mittarelli. while on November 15. There were innumerable Crescentii at this period. 620). . June 9.1 HISTORY OF ROME which was to usurp the dignity of the patriciate. Farfa. 1019. says: dni 557). Consulis et Ducis jtixta Ss. namely. while a document of November 23. when the beautiful country was actually united under the sceptre of the Goths all kings. placed his brother at the head of the administration and of justice. Reg. and having received in return the promise of his coronation as emperor. ^ Crescentio olim prefecto germano vieo {Reg. Marinus says precisely as in 1019 Farf. and forced Arduin to retire to his march of Ivrea. . Crescentii olim urbis rome pre- fecti {Reg. Sublac. adjudged to the German King the Pope. The " most illustrious Consul and Dux" Alberic.y n. n. Henry set forth on his journey to Rome. 1019. already under Otto III. dwelt in his ancestral palace near Santi Apostoli and here held courts of justice as the Patricius John had done in former days. . civ. gr. magister of the Imperial Palatinate.^ Meanwhile. 670. a Crescentius once fol. the bold Piedmontese still wore the purple of the King of Italy. While the national party in Rome was weakened by the death of a Patricius. This great title only once corresponded to its signification. Trial in favour of Farfa of May 23. who called nothing his own but a possess. On June 17. intra domum Alberici eminent.. after having assured Benedict through an envoy of his recognition.. tirbis rome prcef. Cresc. bore it in virtue of a kingdom which they did not entirely Arduin. Farf. 1036. who henceforward adorned themselves with the title. He celebrated the Christmas of 1013 at Pavia. Apostolus (where the Palazzo Colonna now stands). .).






few towns and mountain territories, may, nevertheless, claim the glory of having been the last King of Italy before the days of Victor Emmanuel. He made the attempt to exclude the foreigner from Italy, but saw the German King march to Rome and was powerless to interrupt his progress. Henry met the Pope in Ravenna then departed Roman for Rome, whither Benedict had preceded him.Hem'yii.

Here the faction of the Crescentii was still numerous and was headed by John and Crescentius, nephews Agents of Arduin, in alliance with of the Patricius. these two men, stirred up the people to oppose the restoration of the Imperium, which they had banished from Rome fifteen years before. But the sight of
Henry's mail-clad troops quelled the efforts of the National party, and the German King was greeted on his entrance by the people with hymns of praise, according to ancient custom.^ He and his wife Kunigunde were received at the gate of the Leonina by Twelve Senators surrounded them, six the Scholae. of whom wore long beards, the rest were beardless,



in their

hands and



walked onwards.

possible that these twelve


represented the regions of the

with the

exception of Trastevere and the Leonina, both of which quarters stood under papal administration.^ On February 14, 1014, the coronation took place
in S.

Peter's according to the traditionary forms.

The new Emperor dedicated

the royal crown which

"Annal. Quedlinb. A. 1014 " {Mon. Germ.,



Senatoribus duodechn vallatus^

quorum sex




prolixa mistice incedebant



vii. c, i.






he had hitherto worn to the Prince of the Apostles, and a symbol of his imperial power, with which he had been presented by the Pope, namely a gold imperial globe surmounted by a cross, to the monasAccording to the interpretation of tery of Cluny. the time the globe denoted the world, its fourfold jewels the cardinal virtues, the cross the duty of the Emperor towards Christ, or to the Pope, who, as
his representative, arrogated to himself the

power of

banquet in the Lateran closed the solemnity, and both parties may well have been content Henry had restored the Imperium to his nation Benedict awaited the restoration of the State of the Church. During the disturbed years of Otto III.'s reign the estates of S. Peter, as many as yet remained to the Church, were exposed to fresh raids, and the rule of the Patricius John had finally deprived the popes of all political power. Hereditary counts had sprung up on both sides of the Tiber.^ The
exalting kings into emperors.^




Rodolphus, Historiar.,









already to be seen on the seals of the Ottos.

had long

been in use in Byzantium. 2 Almost every place of consideration had its counts at this time. Here and there the count was also called Consul et Dux ; Roffredo Consul et Dux Campanie—habitatori de Civitate Berulana (Veroli) A. 1012 {Reg. Petri Diaconi, n. 273). A. 1013, Ubertus CofisuletDux and j4 matus Comes Campanie. A. \oi<),Ubberto Comes, Ibid., n. 331, n. 268. In Leo of Ostia, ii. c, 32 A, 1015, Landuhto et Raterio consulibus Campanie. The title of Consul survived in Gaeta beside that of Dux, and even in Fundi. The deeds from Ceccano, Veroli, Feren:

tino, Posi,

Ceperano, in the possession of Monte Casino, show


Lombard's names, such as Umbert, Rofred, Lando, Landulf, Grimo,
remaining even in the eleventh century.






Tusculans ruled in the Latin mountains, the lords of Ceccano or of Segni, preferably called Counts of Campania, in the Campagna the Crescentii bore The sway in the Sabina the family of the Counts of in the Galeria spread over Tuscany; the Frankish race of *^^"^p^S"^'

Thrasmundus, Berardus, and


had thus

early advanced from the Marsian territory as far as

system was shattering the ancient State of the Church, the bishops had acquired the rights of counts, and of the dominion founded for them by the Carolingians the popes possessed little beyond the yellowed deeds of gift in their archives. Benedict VIII. added to these parchments a ratification of the Emperor, known in the series of privilegia as Henry's Diploma. This deed entirely resembles Otto's charter, with the exception of some codicils concerning Fulda and


document is not forthcoming, the doubtful copy bears no date, and various reasons


the original





Chronicle of Farfa frequently mentions the Marsian Counts xi. onwards. They professed to trace their descent from
the grandson of Charles the Great.

King Bernard,

on a

Neapoli, 1678

Their arms were 6 Mutius Phöbonius, Historic Marsorum^ Corsignani, Reggia Marsicana^ Nap., 1737 (lib. ii.
of gold.

The 262) ; Antinori, Mem, storiche degli Abruzzi, Napoli, 1781. country of the Mar si, at first Valeria, then Abruzzo, belonged to the

duchy of Spoleto. The Cotnites Campanice date from the time of Amato was Comes Campanice about loio {Reg. Far/,, n. His family intermarried with the Crescentii, his son Gregory 649). marrying Maroza, daughter of Octavian and Rogata (Maroza's will of November 1056, in which she bequeaths her estates positas in cofnitatti campanie to Farfa, Reg. Far/., n. 960). There were Counts of Tuscany, Civita Vecchia, Civita Castellana, of Galeria, where Joh. Tocco was Comes in 1027 (Marini, n. 45).


to render


probable that the diploma does

not belong to the year 1014,^

More important

to us

would be the knowledge of

the Constitution of the city, the temporal possession of which Benedict VIII. had again seized. But
thick darkness veils the inner



at this

The appearance

of senators


not singly at

events collectively, the solemn

greeting which


from twelve


go to prove that the recollection of the ancient Senate had become increasingly vivid from the time of Otto III. until it led to the
bearing the

august institution. The nobility who continued to bear an illustrious title meanwhile formed a close senatorial body and possessed the magistracy and judicial power in the
restoration of the

claimed the right of the imperial election as also the right of the papal election, and its consent had doubtless been obtained and heard before the coronation of Henry II. We have no knowledge of the Comitia or of the political nature of this rude nobility, which in the beginning of the eleventh century walked as senators amid the ruins of the city. Their names have occasionally come down to us in documents, in which we encounter well-known families of the time of the Ottos, but

The diploma Ego Henricus



Albinus, Cencius,

Theiner, Cod.

been correctly by Cenni to the year 1020. See also Mon. Germ. Leges, ii. Bonizo (in Oefele, p. 800) says Romano: Eccl, privilegia 173. multa concessit et dona amplissima dedit.
n. vii.) has

Dominii Temp,,





we meet no
" Senator."

Roman who





still endured it remained similar to those of the tenth century. Secular Rome, whether the popes owned dominion therein or not, was a republic of nobles under the presidency of a head, whoj according to circumstances, was either chosen by the Romans, or was given them by the pope. Benedict VIII. made his brother Romanus head Romamis of this republic, as Senator of all the Romans, or of all the perhaps the Emperor flattered the Tusculans in Romans. awarding him this dignity, while he himself was Patricius of Rome, without, however, assuming the title.^ The Senator was Prince of the nobility, whom he assembled, whose votes he either led or ruled at the papal election. He was also probably head of the militia, but above all was chief of the In 1013 we saw Alberic the Consul civil court. and Dux holding courts of justice as president of the civil tribunal two years afterwards, however,

universal Senator of the


shows that the

civic institutions



brother reappears



of the


magistracy as Senator of


Romans, Alberic

on the other hand simply as consul, and later again For the ancient titles of Consul as Count Palatine.^



at the




honore suscipitur^

advocatus S.

m. Febr. in Urbe Rotnulea cum inThis Petri meruit fieri.

undoubtedly is equivalent to Patricius. * Alberic appears as Count Palatine in 1027 (Marini, n. xlv.) and 1028 (Instrument of S. Maria Nova, Mscr. Vat., 8043, without enumeration of pages). The Graphia says, not without foundation Comes autem Cesariani palatii dictator Tusculanensis est. The

Tusculans usurped

this office

from the time of Otto


On Decem-




Dux survived Rome and Roman

some time longer both
established his



The Emperor, moreover,

bunal as his predecessors had done. Farfa here brought an action against the Count Crescentius, who still continued to harass the abbey

own triHugo of

Otto III.'s time. During the rule of the Patricius he had again wrested some fortresses from the convent, and his brother John laughed the Pope to scorn from his stronghold of Palestrina, to which the troops of Benedict VIII. laid siege





Emperor now






presenting the

accusing abbot with a

awarded him the

to unite his militia with the imperial troops

he summoned the Pope and to


to the Sabina.


revolt in

drove both parties from the of the Romans, who were in league with Arduin and the Margrave of Este, broke forth with violence

Rome, however, tribunal.^ The hatred

days after the coronation. They hoped to overpower the Germans in a sudden onslaught, and the bridge of Hadrian became the scene of wild After carnage, which found the accustomed issue. the time of Otto I. these tumults were repeated at almost every coronation, and consequently may be regarded as the closing scene of the solemnity. As often as the emperors-designate entered Rome,
ber 4, 1015, in the trial between the Abbot Hugo ef Dom. Romanum Cons, et Ducem, et omn, Rom. Senatorem atque germanum Dom.
pontificis^ are present

Albericns Consul and Johes dni, gr.




Statement of the Abbot Hugo,

Chron, Far/.,

p. 519.

and the Emperors of Rome frequently left with the haste of fugitives. opened and these vassals vindictively drew their swords to fight with Arduin against the foreign Emperor. attacked by counts ^ Thietmar. ßrunsvicar. whither men had they had come invited to the imperial coronation but scarcely had he departed when the prisons were : . It is. and Ezzelino. after having trailed their new purple through deep streams of blood. Three Lombard brothers in the imperial army. . . or with the property of which he had deprived his enemies. Azzo. since North Italy. counties. He caused several counts of Central and Northern many of these Italy to be arrested as hostages been taken into custody in Rome. an opinion already accepted by Leibnitz {Rer. the infuriated populace arose to drive forth the foreigners from the city. no longer possessed the strength it had possessed in the time ofBerengar. divided into greater and lesser margravates. laden with curses as with the treasures of Italian cities. of Este. Esten. and immune bishoprics. doubtful. 61. and does not accord with Muratori {Antick. 14). Provana tries to prove that they were the sons of Oberto II. f c. The last national King of Italy saw himself restricted to a small Piedmontese territory. Peter's or from the Lateran table. but on their withdrawal from S.^ Henry caused the authors of the revolt to be carried in chains across the Alps he himself departed on his return to Germany. were the promoters of the tumult. 26). Hugo. 23 they were greeted with the official hymns. vi. however. 13.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. i. Meanwhile the exertions of a party among the Italians to throw off the German imperial power remained unsuccessful. iii.

his father sovra la Storia (T Italia ä Reichs. Romanus. The talented young man found a hero's death before Metz. for a long time head of the civic government. — — — — — — — — Within the city itself Benedict VIII.^ The Crescentii in the Sabina sub^ Arduin's presumably Frankish genealogy does not reach beyond Dado. Herman Pabst continued the history of Henry II. Vigorous Rule of Benedict VIII. ii. he succeeded in subjugating the Roman nobles and the captains or feudal vassals in the Campagna.24 HISTORY or ROME . was strengthened and secured by his now dominant party. by Siegfried Hirsch contained in this collection. he at length threw aside his sword and hid himself in the cowl of ^- Arduin Benedict to die in the monastery of Fructuaria (loisV 3. app. . iv. a petty count in Piedmont. End of and bishops of the German party and. in the Jahrb. . Harry Breszlau then wrote a third volume to complete the history of Henry IL. Provana. helped his brother to retain the papal chair. and added the section treating of Henry's expedition to Rome. Turin. deserted by his vassals and despised by the Emperor. ^ Mabillon {Annal. ) quotes a letter of the Abbot Haly. While the Pope divided the civic power with his own family. des deutsch. summons the Emperor to undertake a Campaign Expedition of Henry II. 1875. Sttidj critici Tempi del Re Ardoino. in Rome His UNDERTAKINGS AGAINST THE SaRACENS RiSE OF Pisa and Genoa Southern Italy Rebellion OF Melus against Byzantium First Norman Horde (1017) Unhappy Fate of Melus Benedict VIII. to Apulia (1022). 458. 1844 and excursus on Arduin's family by Pabst.

where they burnt Pisa they made themselves masters of Luni. ^ Amari. to Arab sources Mogehid (a Christian renegade) iii. by Christian Musettus) having.. to the level of an Italian power. which soon after itself became a Pisan colony. who inherited the warlike inLike John VIII. the brother of the Pope. palatii vestarario primo senatori nee non Romanorum Duci Equivoco^ somewhere about 1030. . Storia de Musulmanni in Sicilia. escaped to Sardinia after the battle of Luni. had been banished from Sardinia in June ioi6i . Benedict exerted himself to form an allied fleet in 1016 and A himself led an army against the unbelievers. and John X.^ nard of Dijon unico Domno illo s. was a man intellect stincts of his house. however. 25 mitted to the Pope. moreover. Neither the writer. . and power. the island.IN THE MIDDLE who AGES. . in led his troops against them of person. p. Vestararius of the Palace. vestar. In Southern Italy they harassed Salerno they landed in Tuscany. Benedict. The leader of the Moslem (called by Arab historians Abu Hosein Mogehid. which his predecessors had restricted to the narrowest limits of activity. The letter is addressed to Romanus. the Pope effected an alliance with the seaMogehid was driven from ports of Pisa and Genoa. great victory and valuable spoils were the result. The Saracens had again appeared to inspire fresh The ^^""^c^"^terror. According 2. head of the republic of nobles in Rome. possessed the sufficient political he to also raise shrewdness Papacy. and Galletti {Del up a Vestararius Equivocus. 54) boldly sets recognises the meaning of who thus expresses the name Romanus {cequivoeum Romani). Curtius : consequently believes that an Equivocus was the successor of the Senator Romanus.

and the ruins of the Lombard duchy. Capua. The oldest chronicle of Pisa {Bernardi Stor. were to be removed.. After the defeat of Otto II. and Salerno. l) says : Marangonis vetus Chron.26 HISTORY OF ROME In earlier times. Their Katapan dwelt in Bari. the Cronaca Pisana of Sardo.. was to be finally extinguished. who united these fair provinces for the first time in a political whole. Naples. vi. a vampire of those provinces. however. Dei vicerunt ilium. the Greeks had regained possession of Calabria and Apulia. . Pisan. the heir of Belisarius and Justinian. the popes had formed a league with the southern republics of Amalfi. A. in order to make way for a kingdom founded by brigand adventurers. and the warfare incessantly waged between them. p. edited by Bonaini {Archiv. with the Genoa suddenly emerge out of the long darkness of childhood as flourishing cities. Compare Tronci. when menaced by the Saracens. the Greeks. Nothing is said of the Pope. which if not yet entirely free. vi. Benevento. the Lombards. and Roncioni. stor. 31. The Lombard 1 race in Southern Italy made a vii. . and had advanced into Campania. and the city republics of sea-ports.. 1016 fecerunt Pisatii et Januenses bellutn cum Mugieto in Sardiniam^ et gr. Thietmar. 2). eleventh century. Archiv. nevertheless inaugurated the glorious period of the Northern Italy/ At the same time events in the South were in process of development which were destined to have a profound influence on the Papacy and on Rome. c. i. With the greatest accuracy. which languished in the deepest misery under the constant raids of the Saracens. Annali Pisani. The ancient rule of the Greek Emperor. Pisa and and Gaeta.

he was utterly routed at the ancient Cannae by the Katapan Bugianus he left Italy. under the leadership of Giselbert. 147 seq. so zealously furthered native land. Thus it came to pass that Melus was enabled to take the field against the Greeks at the head of a newly acquired body of Normans. and Harry Breszlau. . La In- surrezione Fuglzese e la conquista Normanna nel secolo XI. hastened to Bamberg to . a knight who had quitted his country under a charge of murder. with his brother-in-law man : -South of under re. 2/ Revolt of Italy sudden effort. had been accorded an honourable reception in Rome by Benedict VIII. Melus himself had no idea that in these valiant mercenaries he was introducing conquerors into his His rebellion. The Prince of Salerno. . Heinrich II. however. Thus a chance encounter led to the alliance between Rome and the Normans which was to be followed later by such eventful issues. failed in spite of all its heroic valour. ^ Concerning this memorable rebellion.. a city which had been delivered from its Saracen besiegers by forty Norman heroes. to throw off the Greek yoke. a distinguished nobleman of Bari. by the Pope. IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 1864.. p. . see De Blasiis.and^Meius Dattus allies volted as early as loio. expressed the like wishes. a lofty character..^ Mel us sought pilgrims from at loio- Mons Garganus he found invited Normandy he pointed out the condition of the country and them or their compatriots to take service under his rebel standard. These adventurers. Napoli. In the beginning of October 1019. who further encouraged them in the design of serving under Melus against the Greeks. Melus. 3rd vol.

which threatened the independence of the Papacy and its aims in Southern Italy. c. Archivii^ however.^ He also went to Bamberg at Eastertide 1020 he demanded that Henry should drive the Greeks from feared He the strengthening of the . to whose side Pandulf IV.. et .^ Lupus Protospata ad A. see Rodolfus Glaber. in Regit Neapol. The Pope goes to Bamberg. consecration of his favourite and after a sojourn in company with the Pope at Fulda. of the After the magnifi- cent festival cathedral. 3. A Crescentius had been Prefect of the city since 1017. 17 seq. iv. terrified the Pope. and there died in April 1 020 as " Duke of Italy. Momim. ii. Henry dismissed his guest with the Progress of the Byzantines in South Italy. According to the document. iii. since Campania ^ 1008 : Normans had been settled Sansguala dominus pianist qui sum ex See the genere normafinorum. Reichs- und Rechtsgeschichte^ 362 H. . The Katapan already threatened to march into Roman territory.^ Benedict called with increasing urgency on the Emperor. and to punish the Pope who had ^ so zealously furthered Melus's rebellion. 168. . but above all Aimi r Ystoire de H Normant. Heinrich IL. 279 in vol. of Capua had now seceded. the frontiers of Rome and restore the imperial power in Southern Lombardy. promise of his speedy arrival and a diploma wherein he confirmed the Church in her possessions. Concerning the Normans. vindrent ä Capue. Giselbert came with four : brothers. &c. et n. Byzantine power. Barens. they came at the passerent la citd Rome. 1019. As^ligime. c. Forsch. see . invitation of the Prince of Salerno et Loftdde . i. ^ On document." ^ The progress of the Greeks. Breszlau. Ficker. Raynolfe. this note to page 15.28 HISTORY OF ROME seek aid from the Emperor. zur ital. while the Crescentii had regained their influence in Rome. Osmude . arrival of the Annal.

Even Henry South ii. They even built a fortified town in the neighbourhood of Benevento. where Pandulf V. Heros. halted irresolute on the Garigliano. 38. 37. recorded lord or signor. 29 Supported by Athenulf. By a bold march the Byzantines might have reached Rome the Greek general. The Turris de Garigliano was built by Pandulf of Capua after the defeat of the Saracens. as the inscription Princeps hanc turrim. c. He dragged this captain a prisoner to Bari and there had him thrown into the sea.^ The rule of the Greeks in Apulia seemed secured. other forces were led by Pilgrim of Cologne and Poppo of Aquileja past Rome and through the Marsian territory to Campania Greek . would itself fall under their sway. in which the Pope had placed the remainder of the Norman legion under the command of Dattus. since the Lombard princes acknowledged themselves as vassals of the Byzantine Emperor. . His rapid march to the South in the beginning of the following year was crowned with victory. coming from Augsburg. Pandulf of Capua was banished to Germany and Pandulf of Teano appointed in his Troja. as well as Lombard fortresses surrendered. appeared in Verona. ^ ^ : ^^^^^' '°^^* . Abbot of Monte Casino and brother of Pandulf of Capua.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. capitulated. however. which the Emperor himself laid siege. in June 102 1. He himself pushed through the Marches with the main body of his troops. ruled. to which they gave the immortal name of Troy. is often used in South Italian chronicles. and in December Henry. and it appeared as if Benevento. Pandulfus condidit heros. to Leo of Ostia ii. he surprised the tower on the Garigliano.

ii. A. the Abbey of Monte Casino was awarded to Theobald.30 place . while the nephews of Duke Melus were appointed After Henry had restored vassals of the Empire. he marched to Rome. Contr. HISTORY OF ROME after death while flying to the sea.^ 4. He held a Council with the Pope in Pavia. Death of Benedict. Balbus. 1022 Leo of Ostia. . — — — — — Benedict showed himself a Pope of no common energy. his Athenulf had met Torstayn were rewarded with estates in Campania. Breszlau. 28. summons Conrad of Germany to Rome Spectacle offered by the Expeditions to Rome of the time Imperial Coronation (1027) Furious Insurrection of the Romans King Canute in Rome. and thence returned to Germany in the summer with the remains of an army which fever and pestilence had almost annihilated. Twenty-four Normans still remained under their captains. c. 1024 His Brother Romanus Death of Henry IL. where he merely lingered a few days in July. Torstain. dition OF Italy John XIX. the imperial power in a part of Apulia and had prayed as a pilgrim on Mount Garganus. 39. 1024 ConAS John XIX. . Gosman (Guzman). Walter of Canosa. Contrary to the traditions of his house he had re-established a close alliance with the Empire ^ Herrn. and advanced homewards through North Italy. The Abbot Athenulf was drowned near Hydruntum.. an adherent of the German The remainder of the Norman horde under party. i. see the paragraphs in Giesebrecht and H. and Hugo Fallucca. Beginning of the Reform under Benedict VIII. Amatus. Stigand. Concerning respecting it this military expedition of Henry II.

His brother Romanus. i : Papa. 167. Jafife places his consecration between June 24 and July 25. 562. Imp. 3 maintain himself in possession of Rome.^ Nevertheless the vigour which he infused into the . p. Gregorit patricii. to whom the ought now to have passed. p. Leges ^ ^ Council of Pa via. y?/. iv. and after his death both the Church and the Papacy sank into a condition of the most utter barbarism. 1032 anno/ok. ex laicali ordine neophytus constitutus prcesul. I know of a document which mentions his ninth year as early as May i. Almost all the catalogues call John XIX. : or frater Alberici majoris. On his death in June 1024. He was ordained as John XIX. XV.1 IN in order to THE MIDDLE AGES. hostile and his to subdue the powers in Italy. and strove to regain its the national churches. as one of the earliest reformers of Church discipline since he already opposed the marriage of the clergy and the sale of spiritual dignities. The Synod of Nicea had already condemned the .2 as Pope. . Glaber.. prafedus fuit et Bonizo ad amic.. largitione pecunice repente^ . in sede IX. 12. boldly assumed the papal vestments. is never mentioned at the ii. n. Romuald Salernit. lOiSor F022. Mansi. relations to the lost influence We may even extol Benedict VIII. Princ. Uno eod. XIX. Chuonrado a. title ^ po"^^j^"^' xix. Thus Germ. in the spring of 1024. : laicus fuit et Pontifex The prcefectus is erroneous. the papal chair remained in the possession of his family. 801 uno eodemque die die et c. xix. m.. 323 Mon. ^^^"^ ^°^^* Once in the possession of the it senatorial dignity he seems to have retained even His brother Alberic at least. 24). its Through over means the Papacy recovered world. after having acquired the votes of the electors either by purchase or by force. concubinage of priests. Caps. hitherto Senator of all the Romans. Ind. {Monte Casino^ Ex dipt. VI. madia die I. Church was merely a personal one.

(1024) at licet pro regina queat appellari^ in Romanis tarnen : inexplebile cubile locavit. and the congregation of Cluny violently opposed the bestowal of the title. 1026. whose marriage with Agnes. for Silva . In the : instrument already quoted of January Cofnes s. to John XIX. 487. grand-daughter of Adalbert. Palatii. I. Mansi.^ The new Pope was apparently anxious to ally himself with Byzantium. Duke of Aquitaine. like his father Gregory. The A. but is merely called. a nobles. a powerful prince. Marini. 8. Eull of John XIX.. as hitherto. the German crown should Italy for his death roused the hopes of however. Notwithstanding. whom July 13. son of King Robert of France.^ Death of the The Emperor Henry 1024. c. see Rudolf Glaber. the greatest man of the Macedonian dynasty. was ready to bestow the title of an oecumenical bishop on the Greek patriarch. however. and had had but little opportunity for studying the history of the Church. Candida Alberico Coniite Palatii. 1 moment. In vain they offered the crown to Hugo.. sent him handsome presents. Abbot of S. Count Palatine and Consul. Benignus in Dijon. xix. and when the Emperor Basil II. Glaber also gives the letter of William. and only now apparently did its significance become clear to the Pope. Dfw. II. The Italian bishops. tempoj-e Philargyria mundi iv. fratre nro. and even to William. Lateran. et dar. the papal catalogues incorrectly call ^ him Patricius. . Concerning this. July 1024. 1028 : Albericus ill. In the uncertainty as to fall. died on Emperor Henry II. no longer ventured to elect a national king from among themselves. In his blissful ignorance the Senator of all the Romans was scarcely acquainted even by name with the PseudoIsidorian decretals. xlv. n.32 as Senator in HISTORY OF ROME any document. 13.

soon afterwards received the homage of the Lombard bishops. also added his invitation. The The Salic Conrad II. the VOL. above all of the powerful Heribert of Milan. The Pope's letters also assured Conrad of the peaceful possession of the imperial crown which awaited him. John XIX. was supported by the bishops. which he was to bear in the Hungarian war. He revenged himself on the spirited city of Pavia. C . The German where it faction also remained strong in Lombardy. Romanus de is given in documents as Berizo or Belize. He thence went principle in ^ name Bonizo. 801 Belittzo nobiliss. cities. IV. took the Iron Crown from the hands of Heribert at Milan in the spring of 1026. a Conrad ii. elected King by the Germans on September 8.. by laying waste its territory. SS the former King of Italy.. which he was supported by the German bishops. He steadily upheld the principle that every German king was also ruler of Italy and Emperor-designate of the Romans. sending the Bishop of Portus and the Roman Berizo of the Marmorata with the banner of S. as were also the now rising or favourites of the emperors. had given him a semblance of legitimacy. whom the emperors had weakened by the increase of the episcopal power.^ Conrad II. Peter. p. which had destroyed the palace of Henry II. Italy was divided into so many governments and parties that it was impossible for her to pursue any common national interest.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. nobles. : Marmorata . and had shut its gates against Conrad himself. creatures. Germans ^o^^ns 1024. on the other hand. were at variance among themselves.

and the forfeited estates of hundreds of rebels. although the cause of the expeditions. the sweat of the coloni. even of Slavic countries. the Italians asked themselves in sullen rage why their country should be condemned to the eternal yoke of the foreigner. terrified the sober Italians. revolts constantly took place in the cities through which the procession passed on its way to Rome.34 to HISTORY OF ROME Ravenna. accompanied by their armies and glittering retinues. until the outbreak of hatred in was quenched streams of blood. at the sight of the excesses of these troops. down-trodden — . had to endure them for upwards of three hundred years. What wonder if. who regarded Italy simply as an enslaved province of their king. In our century we cannot contemplate the spectacle of these Roman journeys of our ancestors with entire satisfaction. endowed by their southern temperament with a greater refinement a people which in every age has surpassed all others in courtesy of manners. The imperial army. Into the empty coffers of the emperor flowed as to feed gifts or extortions the treasures of the cities. which. When the German kings descended the Alps. in their savage indignation. where the people rose to slay the foreigners. composed of rude soldiers of northern. oppressed alike by spiritual and secular vassals. and even the ordinary jurisdiction was suspended on the arrival of the supreme judge. and if. and to maintain the imperial court. But the iron majesty of an emperor in the Middle Ages scarcely bestowed a glance of pity on smoking towns. but are forced to commiserate Italy. the cities were condemned and lodge these hosts.

Breszlau.^ Leipzig.^ ^ CInionradi. Wipo. the sight of the noblest citizens of a municipality prostrating themselves trembling and with naked feet before his throne.. Germ. omitted a chance dispute between a Roman and a — . crowned him and his wife Gisela with great splendour in S. .IN fields. of Burgundy The and Canute of England and Denmark. After awful carnage. d. Jahrb. . The quarrel between these arrogant prelates was shared by their retinues Rome was terrified by a fight between the Milanese and Ravennese in the streets. c. but nevertheless the customary closing scene of the coronation had not yet taken place. as an accompaniment to his progress. each of whom claimed precedence. For this visit to Rome. It was not. Giesebrecht. The hostile cities. xiii. Vüa Meinwerei^ Ep. vol. an unsheathed sword at their necks. Vita and note 70 Moil. is S. Arnulf. streets THE MIDDLE AGES. Peter's. : German concerning 1 a miserable ox-hide. sufficed to rouse the populace to fury. . deutsch. John XIX. ii. x. however. Gesta A7xhiep. see H. The bas. He re. and their pallid faces illumined by the flames of the still burning town. ii. i. 153 . Reichs unter Conrad 11.^ solemnities were disturbed by the childish ambition of the Archbishops of Milan and Ravenna. and entered Rome unopposed. which was dedicated to the two apostles. 1879. 1027. n. apostolorum where Conrad was crowned. Gei-ffi. 16 . even Pavia. He accepted. in the presence of two kings Rudolf HI. 12. MedioL. Peter's on March 26. Mon.of Conrad ^^" ^°^7" duced the Margraves of Este. at length yielded imperial before the weapons of the brave Conrad. p. vol... 35 covered with corpses. especially excursus v. or prisons filled with traitors. of Susa and Tuscany to obedience. 3.

not because his civili- him above the level of his age.^ The sight of these horrors might have appalled the devout heart of King Canute. sation raised should have presented. and instead of the asylum of love and peace which. but because a beautiful dream was thus dispelled. the noblest burghers of the city. he found a tumultuous arena for the play of all factions and passions. a naked sword hanging at their necks. and consequently it was of great avail to have an advocate with the Lord in the bearer of the keys of heaven. to the sacred city. Chtionr. In pursuance of a long-cherished desire and a pious vow. and King In Rome. a naive memorial of his He all informed his subjects that the he had worshipped at Roman shrines and was to say. trembling. Berengar. Peter. sojourn in the terrible caricature of an In his letter to the English people left dated thence. implored pardon at his feet. Canute city. to fell fight. The Emperor caused him be buried beside Otto . as a pilgrim with wallet and staff. son of Count Liutbold. He recounted with childlike joy that he had received an honourable welcome from the illustrious assembly of all the princes who gathered round the Pope and that Peter ^ the priests) had taught him Wipo. i6.^ n.36 HISTORY OF ROME "innumerable" Romans again stood before the throne of the Emperor in the palace of S. according to the ideal conception. therefore the happier. it must be admitted. since the sages (that is had received power from the Lord to bind and to loose. he had come. barefooted. The city of Rome. was during the Rome Middle Ages merely the exalted idea. Vifa in the II.

c.^ Even the scenes of terror. De gest. ii. 37 Emperor from Garganus him for all the Tuscan sea. Pence to of which he had been a witness. and that a journey free of imposts had been accorded Angles and Danes. Aiiglor. The present financial distress of the Pope has revived the tax and the name of Peter's Pence in the form of small contributions. had vowed to God in Rome to rule his people justly and to atone for the errors of his youth by the judgment of his riper years. quos Roinam ad s. The historian surveys the tenacity of ecclesiastical traditions with astonish- ment. xi). It is an excellent letter and a striking testimony to the incalculable moral power of the faith which the sanctity subjects that he of Rome inspired at this period. ^ Et denarii. Peter's kingdom from the heavy tax but promised the just payment of Rome. . failed to lessen the reverence of the barbarian monarch for the sacred In the fulness of his heart he explained to his city. The intelligent prince further released the archbishops of his for the pallium.IN THE MIDDLE to AGES. The com- mission appointed to collect these alms in Rome was raised to the dignity of an Archiconfraternitas by Pius IX. in November i860.. pilgrims as well as merchants. Reg. Petrum debetis (Letter of Cnuto Rex in William of Malmesbury.

. where Lombard law had hitherto been employed. in His Death. and Roman law became virtually exalted into territorial law. Incarn. the Privilegium.38 HISTORY OF ROME Rescript of Conrad II. is raised to the Terrible condiHis dissolute Life Papacy tion OF the World at large The Treuga Dei Benedict IX.^ To this time probably belongs an imperial rescript. escapes to the Emperor Social Revolution in Lombardv Heribert of Milan The Emperor re-establishes Benedict IX. p. III. Amiatimis. should henceforward be adjudicated according to the Code of Justinian. civitate Chuonradi secundi regfiantis Leonina Non. all cases in Rome and Roman territory. D. Conrad's brief sojourn in the city was not merely restricted to the bestowal of the customary privileges on monasteries of which we read. X. Acta in in MXXVII. Peter's. concerning Roman Law in Papal Territory His glorious Expedition to Southern Italy His return Benedict IX. He therefore lived in the palace beside S. a Boy of the Tusculan House. in which it is decreed that. while the old Roman In the Cod. on account of the constant disputes between Lombard and Roman judges. Amiata is dated ann. 646(Sessonana for M. — — — — — — — — — — — — 1029. April Rome). Among these elements a general process of disruption set in at time throughout Italy. The Constitution of Lothar of the year 827 thus expired. Imperii ejus prima Ind. Rome He goes to South Italy 5.. Regni vero Dom. a complete victory of the Roman nationality over the German elements which had forced their this ^ way into the country.

a vobis dumtaxat Romanis — legibus terminentur. must have been appalled by the sight of a boy. His warlike and experienced arm. and was set on the throne of the apostle as the representative of Christ. which after his death was able to place one of its members on the Sacred Chair. notorious ^ : at eighteen. The John XII. The Lombard still 2 judges. Germ. We may notice here also that the Emperor exercised complete sovereign authority over the State of the Church. 40 Chuonradus Aug. where he strengthened the prestige of the empire. exacted from the Italians fear Conrad's "^ from^ ^°"^6- and respect for the ruler whose rapid march had been the triumph of a Caesar. Romanis Judicious Audita controversia quce hactenus inter vos et Langobardos judices versabatur sancimus.^ John XIX. Contractus subactaque Italia tola reversus. and counts upheld Frankish law here and there in the country.: IN municipal forms. clad by his father in the papal vestments. Leges. Herm. His own people received him with the proud consciousness that this unsettled Italy had become a submissive province of the empire. quam etiam de /oris in ro7nanis pertinentiis^ actore Langobardo vel reo. revived and supplanted the foreign institutions. his justice.^ Conrad left Rome in the beginning of April for Southern Italy. ut quczcumque admodum negotia motafuerini. was solemnly crowned by the cardinal bishops. tam inter Romance urbis menia. however. did not yet disappear. henceforward ruled peacefully in Rome. : . who belonged Mon. returning through the Marches of Spoleto and Camerino. Christianity. The Papacy as well as the city remained in the power of his family. nevertheless. his commanding severity. 39 under annually elected consuls. who. Then. found himself in Verona on May 24. THE MIDDLE AGES.. ii. however. became Pope Theophylact or Benedict IX.

all A and boy was . If in earlier times Christ had slumbered in His temple. and where. c. arms and money proved effectual aids in Rome. 5) even calls adds that the rulers of the time were undoubtedly made Archbishop of Rheims. Bonizo. Pontif. and son of the Count Palatine and Consul Alberic. in Cencius. in January 1033 his father hastened to secure the two highest offices to his family. and to have surrendered it into the hands of the insolent Simon Magus. the Catalogues.. of twelve. Victor III. in de Cod. where everything was venal. He now seemed to have completely abandoned His desecrated sanctuary. speak of his parentage in the same Rudolf Glaber (iv. A. of ^ a later pope. Temp. The youthful Theophylact was the nephew of his two predecessors. What when nations submissively accepted a child as ruler of the Church.40 to HISTORY OF ROME the same family. and occasionally even mere children» A moral darkness fell upon the Church. : the clergy lived S. according to the dictum to be transformed into the seat of a count. P. 1036 Alberico. had scarcely attained the age a condition of society. children. when kings acknowledged him.^ After the death of John XIX. Amiatin. the episcopal chair of Peter seemed Nothing at least any longer distinguished it from the narrowed conception of the bishoprics of this age in every country. 652. and when bishops were not ashamed to receive consecration and the symbols of their dignities or bulls at The Papacy appeared to have lost hands ! his its ecclesiastical ideal. \i\vci piicr fere decenms. to the seats of which powerful princes and noble families raised their relatives or their creatures.y p. The CroJiica Ro7nanor. Benedidi jiati Tusadana ex patre terms.

18 seq. Mittarelli. entered One of his on a career of shameless profligacy. probable that Benedict IX. robbed and murdered in Rome . Cum sticcessisset ei (sc. successors in the pontificate. 80 1. His brother Gregory was consequently placed at the head of although. seated on the chair of Peter. however.^ He had three brothers. ap.. Victor III. which a child pope was unable to uphold. but merely called himself Consul and apparently Senator of all the Romans. 4 Benedict 1033-1048. Pope in March by document IX. from fear of the the civic government Emperor. f rater ejus nomen sibi vendicabat Patriciatus. already is shown a was Benedict 1033 from Fabriano ii. Johanni XIX.) Theophylacttis title — Gregorius Coppi. documents call him simply Consul Romanor. 1 1 1 • /« -r. Bonizo. The boy Benedict IX. summum sibi sacerdotmm vendicavit. ^ Victor III. Memor. It is probable that the Romans were more willing to tolerate a child in the capacity of bishop This than as head of their secular government.^ lib. related that Benedict IX.^ With the development of his physical powers the „ young Pope. barbarism. also lateranensis et tusculanensis comes. on the part of the Counts of Tusculum overthrew the power of their house. . ad Ani. the first of whom (since he immediately seized the patrician power) must have been older than himself We may consequently ask ourselves why Gregory did not cause himself to be elected pope. Peter.^ p.* took possession of the Lateran unopposed at the beginning of 1033. Colonn. 1 Profligate career of Benedict . {anno deo propiciu pontificatu Jaffe thinks it Do^nno Tufelato. he did not adopt the title of Patricius. : He could scarcely have borne this .1 IN utter THE MIDDLE AGES. xxii. iii. 1033. insolence. 48). p. Gregory. ) says : non parva a patre in populum That profligata pecunza. was Pope before January 2 27. and Octavian. {Dialog..

we must read the chronicles of the time. has painted the hideous form of this monster against the background of his time. again plunged into every vice. A moral as well as a physical epidemic had attacked the world. Histor. the Treuga Dei.42 he admitted HISTORY OF ROME that he shuddered to confess howAnprofligate and vicious his Hfe had been. soon caused the people to forget their afflictions. however. when pestilence and famine devastated the whole of Europe. having narrowly escaped the punishment of God.^ In Benedict IX. would be found to surpass in wickedness the later times of the Borgias. c. showing. Rudolf Glaber. did we minutely compare one time with the other. Only an ^ Glaber. The abundant harvests. and the pious monk bewails the weakness of human nature which. 5. promulgated by the bishops of Southern France. the Papacy reached the utmost depth of moral degradation. In order to form an idea of its horrors. that even amid such terrible conditions the sacred flame of love was not entirely extinguished on its altar. other contemporary. however. or. a monk of Cluny. the nobles and the Pope leading the way.. This act of beneficence. iv.^ lasted from sunset The Treuga Dei. first these horrors. sprang the From humane law of the divine peace. The existing conditions of Rome were apparently such as would cause us to modify our opinion even of the period of John XII. . than which that time affords none more pleasing. which accidentally followed. redounds to the glory of the Church. established in 1041. on Wednesday evening until daybreak on Monday. as it does.

to place himself under Conrad's protection. . but how and where he had spent the interval is unknown. but probably from Rome Studi e Docum. iii. Crescentius and others of his kinsfolk ceded Castrum ApoUoni (Empulum near Tivoli) to the monastery of Subiaco. V. c. more criminal than Heliogabalus.^ Conrad had marched to Italy in the winter of Revolution 1036. 9) on June 29. 2. Ind. The feudal system was suffering an jfj^ According to Glaber (iv.^ The faction of the Crescentii may have been the most active in this tumult. Stiblac. Mur. We dimly see the captains of Rome conspiring to strangle the youthful delinquent at the altar on the feast of the Apostles. falls 43 glimmer. . Terror. summoned by a very remarkable movement vavasours in Lombardy. 5. Astronomical calculations prove that a ring-shaped solar eclipse took place on June 29.. As sons of Crescentius there are ^ named in Documents viense maio. however. from the year 10 17 on^ fused. Rome. Giesebrecht assumes 1035 to have been the year of the Pope's flight . : He May Regetellus and Raino or Rainuccius {Reg. On June 17.^ but the design failed. ^ I have already observed how documents. and allowed Benedict time to escape. locality unknown 1037. on these days when the Vicar of Christ was a Pope more boyish than Caligula. He went later (in 1037) to the Emperor at Cremona. however. 340. 1033. I obtained this information from the astronomer Herr Oppolzer of Vienna. p. perhaps prevented the deed. show the rise of the Crescentii. The dates are conVita Benedicti ex A^nal. assumes an expulsion post promotionem. which was seen very clearly in Rome soon after mid-day. Auger.IN uncertain THE MIDDLE AGES. and the eclipse of the by an Pope was destined fortune of to live for many years to the mis- Rome and the disgrace of the Church. wards. produced sun. ceded estates near Albano to the monastery of Grotta Ferrata 1886. di storia e diritto. 1036. 73). Löwenfeld (new edition by Jaffe) 1036.

The smaller vassals or vavasours. Heribert refused to obey Conrad's decision at the court of Pavia. and the Emperor caused him and and whose liberty three other bishops to be imprisoned without a trial. With the disaffected were allied held their land in fief who the proprietors who possessed the land free of service. The movement soon spread among all classes and the German empire was involved in the strife. that of other ^ The prisoners escaped to Milan. was continually threatened by the The Lombard Heribert. 1864. from the dukes. was the cause of this long prepared crisis coming to a head. and Conrad had probably long desired an opportunity of humbling the great bishop. ment of property. the most powerful prince of North Italy. rose against the tyranny of their They demanded a permanent arrangeoverlords. feudal lord over many towns and vassals. De Ariberto II. y Mediolanensi primisque medii (Em motibus popularibus Berlin. counts.44 HISTORY OF ROME internal revolution. Heribert at length called on the Emperor. . since 1018 Archbishops. as also cities. the hatred of which. who now appeared to the Italians in the light of a despotic tyrant. Pabst.^ The freemen and the feudal knights rose in revolt against the archbishop. to the German imperial power H. bishop of Milan. who possessed a power in Lombardy which might prove more formidable to the empire than that of the national King Arduin had been. an imperious and powerful man. and abbots. and formed a Lombard union. The sudden arrest of the greatest prelate in Italy provoked an incredible sensation and bitter indignation against the Emperor. bishops.

Conrad. ^ Herrn.. whether he sought the Emperor as an exile. Contr. after having left Cremona. that Conrad brought or sent . where the Prince of Capua. desired by Conrad.i The chief monarch of the West was obliged to stoop to do honour to a profligate boy. that Benedict IX. of the proscribed Archbishop of Milan. because the boy was pope. started for the South in the Conrad's winter of 1037. returned to Rome. Conrad had issued the feudal law which in confirmed the vassals in the inheritance of their property. now restored to the throne. sacked the imperial convent of Monte Casino. first Thus began the city of successful national war of the Milan and its allies It German kings. was during this movement against the and after North Italy. Benedict or his adviser demanded that Conrad should come to Rome and In return for reinstate him on the papal throne.. or already awaited him as a fugitive. Pandulf IV. oppressed towns far and wide. . From revolted Parma. 45 allowed the archbishop to appear as the representative of the Italian national cause. 1037. Suffice it. he marched to Perugia 1038. this request Benedict pronounced the excommunication. therefore. appeared before the Emperor in Cremona. and celebrated Easter at Spello with the Pope..IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Vita Conradi. and Wipo. It was not only the affairs of Rome which demanded the Emperor's presence it was also rendered necessary by the disturbances in Apulia. It is uncertain whether Benedict IX. and the Emperor required a pope. and threatened the Roman Campagna. which he to Rome" left a smoking heap of ruins.

founded in 1030 by the leader of the Norman band in the service of Duke Sergius of Naples. in : i Emperor Thus R. for his own advantage to uphold the Tusculans. Pestilence broke out in Conrad's army and drove him back in the summer. laughed at the and Conrad. behind the hundred towers of Milan. His aims were entirely political it was. propricE sedi restituit. advanced to Monte Casino. c. 1039. who. he must have hesitated before him back ear to Rome. make use of the papal puppet for his own ends. Imper. and at the three . . from which Pandulf had fled he gave the duchy to Prince Waimar of Salerno. The grateful Benedict hurled an excommunication head of the proud Heribert.46 HISTORY OF ROME to Emperor had given which the Romans raised against Benedict IX.^ If the the complaints lending his support to this youthful criminal but the idea of delivering the Roman Church from conditions so disastrous lay far from his mind.. who had perhaps left childish effort a garrison behind him with the wretched boy in Rome. (Wipo. This town. conspiracy of the Romans a sede tarnen propria exptderuut. He himself carried death with him to Germany. It is uncertain whether the Emperor was — himself in Romej 37. where he speaks of the Conrad II. and to . ilhic proficiscens zoqo. On May 13 he entered Capua. who were supporters of the German interest.) his wife Gisela had made a pilgrimage to the cit)-. invested the Norman Rainulf with Aversa. . in power. . Sed ^^^ P^^ ^^^^ '^^i qtiain aliis insolenter patratis. Glaber seems to represent it. became the nucleus of the rising Norman kingdom Death of the Southern Italy. moreover. where he breathed his last on June 4.

out of the City AND RAISE Sylvester III. 387. For the Papacy had been still further dishonoured by Benedict IX. Henry iii. all family filled Rome with robbery and murder lawful conditions had ceased. who ruled the city as Senator of the Romans. ^ A Roman document of August 22.^ Towards the end of . successor of Conrad. Benedict IX. occupied the chair of Peter and profaned the sacred mysteries of the Great. 1043. The Romans drive Benedict IX.. Many fearing years passed to King came . It seemed as if a demon from hell. and God- a noble prince called. restored in 1038. away before the new German Italy. vigorous.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 4/ CHAPTER I. protected by his brother Gregory. and to reform the almost annihilated Church. to restore deliver it Rome. like Charles and Otto from tyrants.. . the son and EmpSor. in the disguise of a priest. p. II. led unchecked the life of a Turkish He and his sultan in the palace of the Lateran. is signed : Gregorius Consul^ frater supradicti Dni. Pope. Nerini. Henry III. to Rome as deliverer. to religion by his insolent courses. . in his stead Sylvester Benedict sells driven forth by Benedict the Sacred Chair to Gregory VI. Three Popes in Rome A Roman Synod resolves to summon — — — Henry III. was young. interfui.

Romani infugam versi suntpropter comites qui veniebantper montanam sc. Girardo de Saxo another person.lol and adherents Count Gerard of Galeria advanced with a numerous body of horse to the Saxon gate. however.a marriage to the Pope. {Dialog. The drive but his vassals defended the Leonina against the attacks of the Romans. iii. ii.^ p. Another conjecture of Tomassetti's : .^ John. qui era^it fideles dicti pont.48 HISTORY OF ROME 1044. p. SeT^e. A Frankish family in the Sabina.. Vat. who represents inter — —orta est the election of Sylvester III. Germ. and he summoned friends fled. 2 Leo of Ostia. An earthquake added to . ?4"ü!.^ : Cum Romanos et Transtiberinos grandis seditio VII. The events are also given in Herrn. die m. or in the beginning of the following year. Codex itself. Contr. her 20\. In the time of Sylvester II. A. refused 1984. This powerful Roman had first promised his daughter afterwards ^ in ^ . Girardo rainerii et ceteri cum multis equitibus. Jan. fol. 79. but merely relates that the Romans unaniThey elect ^yveser mously renounced j^j^j^ Benedict. The important notices of this Codex have been edited by I quote from the Pertz {iMon. Gerardus Rainerii was Count of Galeria. the horrors in the revolted city. as due to Girardo de Saxo and other captains. and for the Pope had not ejecissent pontißceju Cod. the populace at length rose in furious revolt the Pope . Bonizo {ad Amic. The Trasteverines remained faithful to Benedict. The ancient chronicle which relates these events does not tell us whether Trastevere was taken by assault after a three days' struggle. Girardo de Saxo. 253) Rainerius and Crescentius were Counts and Rectors of the Sabina (Ibid. p. 1044. c. vii.) as Annales Romani. 801). 254) and Gerard must have been son of the former. ).. also owed his elevation to the gold with which he bribed the rebels and their leader. and repulsed the Romans. Victor HI. a Rainer was Bishop and a in 1003 Gerard Count of the Sabina (Fatteschi. of the Sabina to and elected Bishop the Papacy as Sylvester III.

He promise during the revolt of was mastered by the demon of was reported by the superstitious that he associated with devils in the woods. that Gerard may possibly have been a Tusculan. and anger at Gerard's treacherous conduct proved a further incentive to revenge. burning with fulfilled his passion. D . His numerous adherents still held S. Angelo. The Pope. who had been the pupil of Sylvester II.^ His banishment meanwhile aroused the haughty spirit of his house. 49 seriousness to sue for the a Roman lady.^ 1882. Gregorius Patricius et Petrus gerniani Theophylactum.jiii. Rom. VOL.. I A "Delia Campagna Romana" {Arch. gives him as teacher in the magic Archbishop Lawrence of Amalfi.IN hesitated in all THE MIDDLE AGES. a relative of his own. accept. Sylvester HI. and attracted women by means of spells. hand of Her father lured him on with the hope of winning first her. reduxerunt in 801 : Bonizo. while within some some Sabine fortress. 341.. but do not arts the Benno. quo ejedo benedictum pont. Gregory VII. After a forty-nine days' reign. Soc. XL VIII. s^e conjugis deceptum ad Pontificalia iter urn sublevant fastigia. ruled for some time either in found in safety monument the city or in call d. v. IV. con- sented and sensuality the Romans. Vita Hildebrandi^ p. It was asserted that books of magic with which he had conjured demons had been found in the Lateran. and his gold acquired him new friends. . but re- quired that Benedict should in the place resign the tiara. 82. 76).^ it Sylvester expelled. 2 Murat. Vaf. igS/^. Cod. and continued to himself Pope. p. was driven from the apostolic chair. Rome. ^°'^^' Benedict Sylvester fortified now III. 2. which the Tusculan reascended in March 1045. says o( Sylvester III. also learnt magic from these two men.: oötmuü pontificatum diebits sede sua. ^ mention.

Gregory VI. but he unblushingly sold the Papacy for money like a piece of merchandise.^ Could the holiest office in Christendom be more deeply outraged than by a sale such as this ? And yet so general was the traffic in ecclesiastical dignities throughout the world. are also contemporaneous. Latinam (Nerini. The Abbot Bartholomew of Grotta Ferrata urged him to the step. Ncfando ambitu seductus^ says Bonizo there.ccepta 1340. Hated by the Romans. without pecunia. Majas qui posiiej'iint nofnen Gregorius. Vat. s. he made over his papal dignities by a formal contract to John Gratianus. . also says non parva ab eo a. popul. XI. in constant terror of the renewal of the revolution. pecuniis datis sibi jurare cagit (p. latinam siio patrino in die kal. on May i.. Pagi appeals to Benizo's Epitome against Baronius. per turpiss. 801). 1984 per cartul. document of 1043 calls him Dn. Rom. or Gregory VI. 388). : notices of the C^^. et m.1 040.. Vat.. 83) states the price to have been 1500 pounds Cod. minus d. that is to say. Victor III. v. set aside the with a defiant courag^e which perhaps law Canon ° • was only understood by the minority of his com- John . refutavit Joh. . any knowledge of the Liber ad Amicum. VIII. Pope. 1984. 1 045. n. a rich archpriest of the church of S. Joh. archipbr.. insecure on his throne. that when a pope finally sold the chair of Peter the scandal did not strike society as specially heinous. In exchange for a considerable income. Gratian. p. younger contemporary and Bishop at Sutri as early as 1075.. App. John at the Latin Gate. qui etiam Benno ( Vita pontificatum tenuit ann. Bonizo was a ingentib. Johis ad port. The ^ A intra portatn : .50 HISTORY OF ROME beneficent darkness veils the horrors of this year. . Johes Archicanonicus s. vejialitatem omfietiiq. Cod.. I. 2000 pounds. Hildebr. f^a/. Benedict eventually found himself obliged to abdicate. 1045. for the revenue of Peter's Pence from England.

viii. on his elevation. Alberico Senatorice. rejoicing that the Dove with the olive branch had returned to the Ark. viro. scBcuhim. The Cluniacs in France and the congregations of Italy all hailed his elevation as the beginning of a better time. issues from obscurity by the side of Gregory VI. . i. THE MIDDLE AGES. Oper. was to raise the degenerate Papacy to Hildebrand first The monk a height hitherto undreamed of. Alberic's wife was called Ermilina. there are also two unimportant letters (4 and 5) Dom. to Gregory VI. and D. Gregory's illegal elevation. whether he had the Pope's chaplain. we do not but in the " representative " spoken of by the in Apostolor. . although regarded as an idiot in that terrible period.IN patriots . Nunc aureum two ecclesiastica reßoreat disciplina. became and this fact alone proves that Gregory was no idiot. who. i. Scarcely had Peter Damiani knowledge of this traffic when he wrote to Gregory VI. are unable to fasten any crime upon him. i. Ep. and side by side with this simonist Pope a young and brave monk suddenly appears. after the heroic exertions of a lifetime. dign. he brand. Petro Senator. Damiani's Ep. was possibly an earnest and high-minded man. 51 he bought the Papacy in order to wrest it from the hands of a criminal. How far Hildebrand's activity already extended.^ The Saint may have known the Pope personally and have been persuaded of his spiritual virtues. : lib. any share know ^ . dignitatis viro. Even the chroniclers of the time. who represent him (assuredly with injustice) as so rude and simple that he was obliged to appoint a representative. and this remarkable Pope. et prcEsidente vestra pnidentia. In lib. The monk was also in correspondence with the Tusculans. (there are letters).

52 chronicles. The chronicler lords. had disappeared. sword in hand. restored a degree of order. it is true. . Ecclesia terrenas opes majori ex parte amisit. the ominous gift of the Carolingians.^ the im- mediate neighbourhood of the A hundred ready to fall upon Rome every road was infested with robbers. Daily assassinations made the streets insecure. Money was collected in Aquitaine to restore S. but the Pope boldly assembled the militia.^ having repressed it. the captains or vassals of the pope. 6ii. stood . besieged the city. Paul's. since the Church . While Benedict IX. — . every pilgrim was robbed within the city the churches lay in ruins while the priests caroused. who was Gregory's counsellor. The captains. thus sighed Gregory VI. and even conquered several fortresses in the district. Gregory VI. xix. forced their way into S. Peter's itself to snatch the gifts which pious hands still placed upon the altar. and who later took the name of Gregory VI I. Sylvester for R. ^ S. HISTORY OF ROME we may easily recognise the gifted young monk. which soon afterwards obtained it. Gregory's letter in Mansi. remained Pope His desire was to save the for nearly two years. pursued his wild career in Tusculum or Rome. lately a hereditary fief of the Counts of Tusculum. Peter's and S. in grateful recollection of his predecessor. could scarcely command the fortresses in city. was utterly ruined the Dominium Temporale. which stood in need of a drastic reform and The Papacy. Church. who Contest describes this state of things extols Gregory Gregory ^ captah?s. the box of Pandora in the hand of the pope from which a thousand evils had arisen. Roman nobles.

5 cujus bona The Annals fatna. The Archdeacon Peter convoked a Synod without consulting Gregory. The short and dark period of Gregory's pontificate was terrible. Maria . . who calls him magnce religionis Catalog. Peter's. soon ceased to bear any result his means were exhausted. vi. c. and his opponents gradually overpowered him.. Glaber Rod. and a third in S. . a the city at the same time second in S. as in the time of Otto the Great. by the German dictatorship alone that it could be saved. Eccardi : fuit /actus homo armorum. : "^ Otto of Freising {Chron. The accounts confuse history and legend. c. towards the robbers soon made him hated by the nobles and even by the equally and his severity rapacious cardinals. it was. The eyes of the better citizens at length turned to the King of Germany.^ Whatever he may have done under the influence of French and Italian monks to rescue the Church from its state of barbarous confusion. 13. 53 had apparently made an attempt on Rome he was. in melius reformavit. . ii. qtiidquid prior foedaverat. defective and Baronius period for this are of et severitatis. and it was here resolved urgently to invite Henry to come and take the imperial crown and raise the Maggiore.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. v. So utter was the state of that all three Popes lived in anarchy that it is said one in the Lateran. 32). defeated by Gregory's energy. uncritical.2 Church from the ruin into which she had ^ fallen. William of Malmesbury. however. The exertions of Gregory VI. .

pontificate and Sylvester III. Henry. that there were three Popes in Rome at one and the same time. Gregory VI. i. Jahrb. see Giesebrecht. 1881. before Christmas he assembled one thousand and forty-six bishops The three Popes were and Roman clergy summoned. Steindorff. 1874. dismissed the monarch to his side.) Steindorff deals with the schism between Benedict IX. where he hoped to gain Henry. accompanied by a great army and filled with the ardent desire of becoming the reformer of the Church. and Sylvester III. — — — — Henry III. (vol. RAISES Clement II.54 HISTORY OF ROME Henry HI. and appeared. and denies the statement. comes to Italy Council at Sutri Henry HI. and arrived at Verona in September 1046. Deutsch. relations with Italy. maintained by Giesebrecht. Council. Reichs unter Heinrich In excursus iii. to Rome and and vol. The Roman situation was provisionally discussed at a great Synod in Pavia. did homage without delay. (1046) Abdication of Gregory VI. now hastened to meet the King at Piacenza. vol. crossed the Brenner. E. coming from Augsburg. The Council of Sutri. Sylvester was deposed from Gregory ^ actually his and des Concerning his expedition Kaiserzeit. comes to Rome.^ No enemy opposed him the bishops and dukes. i.. 1046. 1046. explanation that his fate and that of him with the the anti-popes would be canonically decided by a . however. to the Papacy Clement CROWNS Henry Emperor Description of the Imperial Coronation Transference of the Patriciate to Henry HI. ii. . 2. and his Successors.. I11. among them the powerful Margrave Boniface of Tuscany. Shortly at Sutri.^ Leipzig.

vii. gave the Council cause to doubt its competence to judge him.^ guilty of simony and unworthy He and quietly laid down the in- signia of the Papacy. had hid himself in Tusculum and his brothers did not resistance. Gregory. . joyfully accepted the German King as her deliverer. begins a new epoch in the history of the city. him Henry. Benigni Divion (d'Achery. 55 penance in a monastery... and as if men from the had of the deluge ark had landed on the rock of Peter to give new What law. binds and holds together. office. vi. Chron. that races and new laws to a new world. Contr. 1046 Cod. A. Herrn. and more It seemed as if the waters especially of the Church. weary of the Tusculan horrors. ^ Bonizo iii. Vat. IV. With the Roman expedition of Henry HI. 761 . 1984. however. ad Heinr. consented publicly to describe the circum- condemned stances of his elevation. Gregory VI. calls him Idiota et mirce simplicitatis vir. . has indeed been experienced by few periods so fully as by that with which we have now to deal. subsided. Never afterwards was a King of Germany received with such glad acclamations by the Roman people never again did any other effect such great results or achieve the like changes. and was thereby forced to condemn himself as of the papal honour. venture on any . or one at least conscious of good into tentions. for Benedict H. stern and terrible power which kills. Rome. signifies in human affairs.. S. 446). immediately started for the city... with the bishops and the Margrave his renunciation did Boniface. Dial. who was an upright man. .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Benzo. Victor III. which did not shut its gates against him.

^^^ Canonical on December all three Popes deposed/ Pope had consequently to be in S. and this was done by a treaty which he had already concluded with the Romans at Sutri. the right must first be conferred upon him. As King of Germany he possessed no right either over city." The Romans replied ." 1046 {Afou. when it is you are represented by your of the Patricius. For is not but of the emperor. all that was required chair. King chose Suidger of Bamberg. Like Otto III.^ v. Peter's elected.). Germ. assembled pronounced . or yet over the papal election . Signors. the assent to the election does not belong to us. Syiiod in again ^ Svnod. before his coronation. in the affairs republic the Patricius Patricius of the pope We power to give the Roman republic the benefit of law.$6 Henry III. Henry had also at his side the man who was to and the to confer the crown upon himself. however. Rome." said "however thoughtless your conduct may hitherto have been. and lacking. Tuesday . and Wednesday before Christmas.'s HISTORY OF ROME A 23. Corbeiens. The royal to place the candidate on the sacred violate Henry. : " When the royal majesty is present. in the ^ "Annal. I still accord you liberty to elect a pope according to ancient custom choose from amongst this assembly whom you will. " Roman at the second sitting of the Henry Synod on December 24. wear the tiara Adalbert of Hamburg and Bremen having command was would not the refused the Papacy. admit that we have been so thoughtless as to appoint It now behoves your imperial idiots as popes. any of the canonical forms.





the ornament of manners, and to lend the
protection to the Church."^

arm of

The Senators of

the year


surrendered the valuable right to

who so meekly the German King,

heeded not the shades of Alberic and the three Crescentii since these, their patricians, would have accused them of treason. The Romans of these days were, however, ready for any sacrifice so that they obtained freedom from the Tusculan tyranny. Nothing more clearly shows the utter depth of their exhaustion and the extent of their sufferings than the light surrender of a right which it had formerly cost Otto the Great such repeated efforts to extort from the city. Rome made the humiliating confession that she possessed no priest worthy of the Papacy, that the clergy in the city were rude and utter


All other circumstances, moreover, forbade

the election of a


or even of an Italian to the


The Romans besought Henry


them a good pope he presented the Bishop of He raises Bamberg to the assenting clergy, and led the n. to^he reluctant candidate to the apostolic chair. Clement Papacy. II., consecrated on Christmas day 1046, immediately placed the imperial crown on Henry's head and on There were still many Romans that of his wife.

who had been

eye-witnesses of like transactions

to say, of papal election

and imperial corona-




Seniores Romani, licet hadenus sive salsum vii. p. 679 insulum degistis Ecce solito more sit in vestra electione, &c. The


passage explains the conception of the Patriciate in the time of


and Henry IV., and through the Lib. Pont, of the crown over the papal election.

illustrates the right

tion following


one the other in immediate succession in the case of Otto III. and Henry V. who, as they now saw the second German pope mount the chair of Peter, may have recalled the fact that the first had only lived a few sad years in Rome and had died in


Imperial coronation of Henrv

The coronation of Henry HI. w^as performed under such significant conditions and in such perfect tranquillity, that it offers the most fitting opportunity for describing in a few sentences the ceremonial of
the imperial coronation.

Since Charles the Great,

these repeated ceremonies, with the

more frequent

coronations or

Lateran processions of the popes, which we shall describe later, formed the most
brilliant spectacle in



letter of the

new Pope

the passage explosis tribus Ulis quibus idem

Bamberg in 1046. Pagi turns nomen papains rapina

dederat against Baronius.

The most

circumstantial account


given in the Ordo Coronationis

in Cencius,

which Cenni {Mon.,

261) refers to


III., Pertz

{Mon. Germ.,

187) to

portions prior to the

Henry VI. time of Henry VI.

contains, however,

of the

The non-appearance

Senate speaks decidedly in favour of an earlier date than that assigned

have also made use of the Ordo of ssec. xiv. in There are several Ordines of Frankish ii. 397. and Hohenstaufen times. Muratori, Ant. It., i. 99 Hittorp in Bibl. max. Pair., xiii. Martene, Raynald, Cenni and Pertz; also ^\* Chron. Altinate," Arch. Slorico, App. v., and Benzo, ad Heinr. IV., G. Waitz, "'Die Formeln der deutschen Königs und der römischen i. 9. Kaliserkrönung vom 10 bis 12 Jahrhundert" {Abh. der Kgl. Gesell,




Mabillon, AIus.





l'V. zti

Göttingen, 1873, xviii.), like Giesebrecht


658, 678), refers


Ordo of Cencius to Henry VI. The opinion that it refers to Henry HI. has meanwhile been again upheld by J. Schwarzer, Die

der Kaiserkröming, Forsch, zur Deutsch. Gesch.,

(1882)" p. 161 seq.

See also Schreiber,



— in imperatorib.



coronän.dis, Halle, 1871.





emperor elect approached with his Coronation scene. wife and retinue, he first took an oath to the Romans at the little bridge on the Neronian Field faithfully to observe the rights and usages of the city. On the day of the coronation he made his entrance through the Porta Castella close to S. Angelo and here repeated the oath.^ The clergy and the corporations of Rome greeted him at the church of S. Maria Traspontina, on a legendary site called the Terebinthus of Nero.^ The solemn procession then advanced to the steps of the cathedral. Senators walked by


the side of the king, the prefect of the city carried the naked sword before him, and his chamberlains

Arrived at the steps he dismoney. mounted from his horse and, accompanied by his retinue, ascended to the platform where the pope, surrounded by the higher clergy, awaited him sitting.

The king stooped
Ego N. flit. Imp.

to kiss the pope's foot, tendered

the oath to be an upright protector of the Church,


me servaturum Romanis
et libelli sine

bonas consnetu-


firmo chartas

tercii generis,



ingenio {Ordo in Cenni).



1984, says of

Henry V.


malo duo

juramenta ex more fecit, unutn juxta pontiaihwi, alterum ante porticics portam ; this can be none other than the porta Castelli, out of which the mediaeval ordines. according to popular custom, made a Porta Collina. Cum Rex in Imp. electus pervenerit ad portam Collinam, quce est Juxta casteHum Crescentii, thus the Ordo Coronationis A. 131



n. x.

speak of the Terebinthus Neronis when dealing with the Mirabilia. A large ancient tomb stood there, the Meta Romuli, a Usque in Meta, quce vocatur Memoria pyramid like that of Cestius.
I shall

{Bullar. Vat., i. 27, Bull of Leo IX. A. 1053). The Pyramid of Cestius was held to have been the tomb of Remus {sepndcrum Remio) it is thus already designated in the thirteenth century plan



of the city


Vat., i960).



received from the pope the kiss of peace, and was

adopted by him as the son of the Church. With solemn song both king and pope entered the church of S. Maria in Turri beside the steps of S. Peter's, and here the king was formally made Canon of the Cathedral.^ He then advanced, conducted by the Lateran Count of the Palace and by the Prim.icerius of the Judges, to the silver door of the cathedral, where he prayed and the Bishop of Albano delivered the first oration. Innumerable mystic ceremonies awaited the king in S. Peter's itself Here a short way from the entrance was the Rota Porphyretica, a round porphyry stone inserted in the pavement, on which the king and pope knelt. The imperial
candidate here

Confession of Faith, the Cardinal-bishop of Portus placed himself in the middle of the Rota and pronounced the second



The king was then draped in new vestments, was made a cleric in the sacristy by the
to the altar of S.

pope, was clad with tunic, dalmatica, pluviale, mitre

and sandals, and was then led
Maurice, whither



fatiguing ceremonies, accompanied him.

but less The Bishop

of Ostia here anointed the king on the right arm and
the neck and delivered the third oration.^
If the





by the dignity of


piazza of S. Peter's


called platea, quce vocatur Cortina


31, A. 1053).

the steps of S.


beside S. Peter's.

S. Maria in Turri stood close to and belonged to the monastery of S. Stephen The ceremony which took place here does not




have been customary before the time of Frederick I. orations pronounced over the king and queen are full of noble







his calling, then the solemnity of the function, the

mystic and tedious pomp, the magnificent monotone of prayer and song in the ancient cathedral, hallowed by so many exalted memories, must have stirred his inmost soul. The pinnacle of all human ambition,
the crown of Charles the Great, lay glittering before

longing eyes on the altar of the Prince of the Apostles. The pope, however, first placed a ring on the finger of the anointed, as symbol of the faith, the

permanence and strength of his Catholic rule with similar formulae girt him with the sword, and finally placed the crown upon his head. " Take," he said, "the symbol of fame, the diadem of royalty, the

crown, the empire, in the


of the Father, of the

Son, and of the Holy Ghost; renounce the arch-

be upright and merciful and live in such pious love that thou mayest hereafter receive the everlasting crown in company with the saints, from our Lord Jesus Christ." The church resounded with the Gloria and the Laudes " Life and victory to the emperor, to the Roman and the German army," and with the endless acclamations of the rude soldiers who hailed their king in German, Slav, and






The sequence of ceremonies is occasionally varied in the Ordines ; nor does the coronation seem to have been always performed in front of the altar of S. Peter it appears as sometimes taking place before The formulae must have been that of S. Maurice in the left aisle. s. Fidei, soliditatem signaculum Accipe anulum, deeply impressive Regni^ augmentum potentice, per quam scias triumphali potentia hostes




perseverabilitati connectere.
tione tibi collatum, in quo







ktmc gladium cum Dei benedicresistere^

per virttitem Spiritus Sancti



The emperor
the empire

divested himself of the symbols of

and now ministered to the pope as sub-deacon at mass. The Count Palatine afterwards removed the sandals, and put the red imperial boots with the spurs of S. Maurice upon him. Whereupon the entire procession, accompanied by the pope, left the church and advanced along the socalled Triumphal Way, through the flower-bedecked city, amid the ringing of all the bells, to the Lateran.^








and the scholae or guilds placed to salute the emperor as he passed. Chamberlains scattered money before and behind the procession, and all the scholae and the officials of the palace received the presbyterium or customary present of money. A banquet closed the solemnities in the papal palace. Where circumstances permitted, the emperor made a procession to mass at the Lateran on the second


omnes inimicos ttcos valeas, Regnuinque tibi commissum

et ainctos



tutari, ac protegere castra

auxiliitm invictissimi ti'iiimphatoris D. N. J. Christi, in unitate Spirittis Sancti vivit. et regnat in scecula sccculoi'tim.

Dei adverDei per qui cum Patre

— Accipe

Signum gloria, &c.


different formulge vary according

to the period.


The Lateran procession did not always take place. In later when the popes no longer dwelt in the Lateran, the coronation
went only as far as the piazza of S. Maria and pope separated. The Ordo in fact which Cenni himself overlooks), causes the

over, the procession

Traspontina, where emperor
Cenni, however (a

procession to go to the Lateran, since only at the Lateran are the

Palatitim majus (the Casa Major of Pope Zacharias) and the Camera Julia Imperatricis to be found. Henry VL did not make the Henry HL, however, must assuredly have procession to the Lateran done so, and it therefore follows that the Ordo does not refer to



one on the third to S. as the sublime scene of the . to the city its The Romans of the time might flatter themselves that the emperors ruled the universe. When. tude of dukes and counts. through which the procession solemnly advanced all combined to produce a picture of such mighty and universal historic interest that even a Roman accustomed to the pomp of Trajan's period could not have beheld it without feelings of astonishment. the strangeness of their faces and their tongues. fantastic attire lastly. Croce in Gerusalemme. of bishops and abbots. 6^ day. and another on the fourth to S. of consuls and duces. the splendour of their attire. The magnificence of these spectacles is no longer The multirivalled by the pageantry of our days. the stern. motley. : These coronation processions restored character of metropolis. knights and nobles with their retinues. gloomy.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Paul's. live and the hungry populace could the proceeds weeks on of the coronation. the martial array of warriors. borrowed from Byzantine pomp. of the militia with their banners. the mystic magnificence of the Papacy with all its orders in such picturesque costume. ruinous city. in curious. . of judges and senators. however. outlines of an imperial The ceremonies. although in the course of time many details had been altered and others had been introduced. whom they elected still The for strangers who flocked to the city freely distributed their gold. drama. had been established since Charles the Great and had remained essentially the same. Such are merely the barest coronation of this period. the aspect of secular Rome.

a power which . his civic authority. decretiim (by all classes of the Romans) ut rex H. on whose march nation to . They experienced on this occasion only the empty satisfaction that rights so important had been conferred on the empire by the authority of the Roman people. . est Benzo. who did not even understand their language. desponsatur patriciali coronattir ejusd.64 HISTORY OF ROME patriots of the school of Alberic reflected that these emperors. clamide. to Rome the cities of Italy fell to ashes. I. who entered with such pomp. the . were Germans. . Peter's a green chlamys. Henry III. 23. and clergy confirmed with loud applause the important decree by which the city and the apostolic chair were rendered subject to the German crown. national however. Henry break of III. prelatura aureo circulo. 1663) : Damiani. assumes the power of the Patricius.^ The powerful Emperor conamdo^ 1 Indtitus igitur rex viridiss. Henry was solemnly crowned Patricius in S. Karolo factum Paris. they suddenly seized their swords in indig- the furious populace rushed upon the Vatican murder the scarce-crowned emperor.e. sicuti de iii. citizens. . had not to fear this outhatred on the contrary. a ring and a golden diadem were the insignia of " power upon him the coronation. who arbitrarily appointed their popes. cum u?tiversis in nionarchia imperii sibi succedentibus fieret patricius^ legimus. Nobles. Romans conferred the patrician immediately after was even to be transmitted to his successors in the empire. Disceptatio synodalis (Op.. . and the most beautiful picture in the history of the world was changed in a few moments into a blurred sketch of a struggle in the streets and finally effaced by streams of blood.

quasi aliqua esset in laicali ordine dignitas constituta^ qucB He is a partisan of privilegii possideret plus imperatoria niajestate. Leo of Ostia. VOL. 802 rumoribus populi illectus tyrannidem Patriciatus arripuit. p. 77. 65 descended to assume the symbols of a magistracy which Roman nobles had previously borne.^ He might. ^ Bonizo.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. This dignity thus received a higher significance than it had possessed in the time of Otto III. in the eyes of Rome. All this must have been previously arranged at Sutri. fitly compare himself with Augustus. ii. howest patricius Rojuanor. and that the Roman captains employed it in order to usurp the right of the papal election. chief wars between the temporal and powers. IV. however. The same who dis- Henry's patriciate. This idea. c. who had consented to accept the tribunician and other powers he was also well aware that. the Patricius represented the supreme right of the Senate and people. Imp. consequently he says bitterly of Henry credidit per patriciatus ordinem se Rovianum approves of H. the Papacy and an opponent of the imperial popes. Roman title acquired so great a degree of power in finally the Middle causes of spiritual Ages and long became one of the chronicler. observes that this empty title is found in neither the Pagan nor the Christian Fasti of Rome. Since the tenth century it had been definitely associated with the idea that it included the power of appointing the pope. and thereby subjected himself to the reproach that he had lowered himself to the ranks of the Counts of Tusculum.^ a quibus etiarn accepit in semper ordinandi pontificis principattim. E . factus electione : — : posse ordinäre Pontißcem.. and it is further worthy of remark that an ancient . that it originated with the Byzantine Narses.

This is justly recognised by Heinemann. over the papal election. d. was of importance. Sublac.Q.^ Henry was not ashamed As to add the patriciate legally to the empire. regalia abentium : ut a nemine consecretur nisi prius a rege investiatur^ almus pontifex una cum romanis et religiosis patribns sicut s. II. firmavit. patricius: "Vita Annonis. Germ. Charles the Great had formerly called himself Patricius of the Romans. qtii ^ : . but from Great. m. Consequently. in the revolutions of Rome the temporal heads of the city henceforward called themselves Patricius." Mon. during the vacancy of the papal Ann. domno Henrigo chair. this title in by not been driven thereto by the clergy ? The services which Henry had rendered the Church. Adrian had transferred the right of the election and investiture of the popes and bishops.y 1984. HISTORY OF ROME was not derived from the Exarchs. .P. so was Henry distinguished documents. Reg. through the suppression of the tyranny of the nobles and the adjustment of the schism. Könige^ 1888. regum patriciafum et cetera sancivit et The union of the patriciate with the imperium which by Henry HI.. to Charles the whom. was effected : fol.R. and as such elected popes. 469. Again in 1049. Jan. thus designates Henry's patrician power ordinationem pontificum ei concessit et eor. Ind. et alii pont. episcopor. 2 Even Germans call him Romanor. xiii. was so highly esteemed for the moment that it did not appear to be too dearly purchased even at the extreme price of the freedom Cod. Adrianus p. XV. a Roman document calls him reg. et patritio R'manor.^ The Roman people had surrendered their sole Had they surviving right to the German kings. dei prop. Der Patriciat der deutsch. confirmaverunt per privilegij detestationem in potestate regis H. franc. 81. since the combination expressed not only the civic power but also the ancient rights of the S.66 ever. with the patriciate.. in prcEsentia habetur et fiituror. Vat.

. nunc ordinetur. ipse nos ex insatiabilis ore draconis eripuit. the insig- of the deposed Gregory VI.i In this moment of dissolution the Church appeared simply to rejoice in the present. of the transference of the patriciate to the German crown. thirty-one years later. discrowned before him the seventh Gregory was assuredly far from his of this powerful would kneel calculations. seemed utterly unaware of the other tyranny which she had brought upon herself. ad ejus nutum S. • in the dust. Sedi nemo prorsus eligat sacerdote?n. Great revolutions and wars which shook the world were the consequences . 36 (Op. Gratissimics.E. the clergy The few noble men among openly admitted that the German king this had power in recompense of his services. — Damiani : extols him in the Lib. as in Otto's time.R. non ingrata divina dispensatio contulit ut videl. 6/ of the papal election. And previously post Deum Cajetani) hoc sibi : — i. was restored without limit in Rome the election and investiture of the popes were made over to the German empire for good. ed. nificant Had the youthful Hildebrand. c. ac prceter ejus autoritatem Ap.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES. no prevision of the future as he saw the circlet of the patriciate placed on Henry's forehead ? That the son chaplain Emperor. .. as David had obtained the hand of the king's daughter as the reward of his victory over acquired Goliath. The imperial power. seil.

to the Papal Chair End of Benedict IX. who placed four of his countrymen in succession on the apostolic chair. January 1047 at the end of the same month he accompanied the Emperor to South Italy. A'al. with fiery zeal prepared the this reform. Benedict IX.^ with the Emperor's assistance held ^^^^ Council against the abuse of simony in . . Contr. since the Emperor dates again from Rome on January 3. Benevento. actum ad Culumna Civitatem. seizes the Sacred Chair Boniface OF Tuscany Henry raises Damasus II. ^ Herrn.68 HISTORY OF ROME Beginning of the Reform of the Church Henry returns to Germany III. On his march through Latium Henry reduced some captains to obedience. — — Death of Clement . goes to South Italy BY WAY of Rome 3. however. II. Death of Damasus Bruno of Toul appointed to the — (1047) — — — Papacy. without. 1859. The great revolution which in this age found the its hero in Gregory VII. and Capua ^ These efforts for reform have been described by Cornelius Will.^ progress to We Monte make no attempt follow Casino. Böhmer. Tusculans. No sooner had another German bishop risen to the chair of Peter than the Church was seized by a spirit of reform. Reforms of ^^emen Clement j^. was derived from popes. subjugating to the his . Germany and II. 1552. 1863. Marburg. Italy way for were now to be purified from the scandal of selling spiritual offices. I doubt whether this date is correct. Die Anfänge der Restauration der Kirche i/n I \ Jahrhundert. One of his diplomas for the Casa aurea is dated Jan. the present Colonna in the Latin mountains.^ German The same Henry III.

. and with a sneer again seated himself the revolution in : Rome Death of ^v^®"^"^ 11. ad A. Clenientem. The only pope who was buried in Germany. . who was accompanied by Hildebrand in his exile to Cologne. again ^^p^- . 69 everywhere the mere presence of the great monarch sufficed to re-establish the imperial power. Thomas at Pesaro on October monastery the Benedict IX.^ into the city.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 27. 1047. as a prisoner of state. mitted to the imperial authority. ad episcopatum suum Babenberg reportatus tumulatur. Gregory VI. •^ ^ upon the apostolic throne. Clement had returned to Rome the impression recently made by the imperial power in the city remained fresh. Romuald and Lupus say with one voice Benedidiis per poctihim veneni occidit Herrn. in Romanis partibus nono mense P. ^ Report asserted that Benedict had had him poisoned. shows that he died near Pesaro. Oct. and Jaffe accepts October 9 as the date of his death. It could not have done more for although the Romans had sub. Muratori. the city which he did not make his abode and where he left no garrison behind him. 10479. In the to early spring he returned by Rimini and Ravenna Germany. 1047. . Annal. taking with him. they nevertheless continued to hate it as a yoke and not even the most powerful emperor ever succeeded in subduing . immediately forced his way 9. ii. and might possibly have sufficed to secure him a short interval of peace. watched he had his agents in the city and awaited an opportunity of again seizing The German Pope died suddenly in the Papacy. Not without reason was the deposed Pope removed from Rome his presence in the city would probably have given rise to fresh disturbances. : : ix. promotionis sua: diem obiens. of S.. From Tusculum meantime Benedict IX. Contr. See also Steindorff.

he married Beatrix. was of Lombard descent. On his return home the Emperor sought to seize the 1 The Codex of Donizo (in the Vatican) contains miniature portraits : of the entire family they are reproduced in good coloured prints in the costumes are veiy instructive. who was childless. Appointed by the Emperor Conrad in the place of the refractory Margrave Rainer of Tuscany. Richilda. Beatrix bore him three children.. Brescia. Henry looked with mistrust on the great power of his vassal. and had annexed a Boniface ''^ and hfs^ family. and celebrated his nuptials in Italy territory with more than royal splendour. which was Tedald's almost Genn. was the grandson of Azzo the lord of Canossa. . the Margrave Tedald. Reggio. -yyj^o at first allied himself no less closely to Germany. Boniface henceforward ruled over this March also. and Modena through the favour of Henry H. Frederick. the most powerful prince of the time in Italy. . which necessarily made him hostile to the German interests. Bethmann's edition his wife in the Alon. Boniface. more threatening than the power of Milan. Beatrice. whose most faithful vassal he had remained during the war with the national Kins: Arduin. for accurate likenesses Hildegard are buried at must not look in them Azzo and Canossa. who afterwards became his heiress and the later celebrated Countess of Tuscan}-. and in 1046 Matilda.70 HISTORY OF ROME Boniface of Tuscany had secretly aided his restoration. which after Heribert's death had yielded submission and accepted the royalist archbishop Guido. We constant abode. His father. daughter of Frederick. Duke of Upper Lorraine.^ Tedald was able to bequeath a valuable property to his son Boniface. After the death of his wife. had acquired Mantua and Ferrara.

His envoys now drove Benedict IX. who was popular in Rome and possessed an unusual acquaintance with the Italian tongue. Nevertheless he had flattered the royal by doing homage to it in Rome. the for the third of Papacy. They put potentiaries. In the hope of its undermining the German fluence. The Dukes of the of Spoleto had for formerly been the Missi Carolingians Rome and after his coronation Henry must have in- bestowed the same power on the Margrave. He sent him to Boniface. Boniface favoured the revolution in Rome time to pleni- he suffered Benedict take possession IX. Bishop of Brixen. Boniface hated the German monarchy he strove for per. sent by the German party. The Margrave refused Poppo was obliged to return to the Emperor. to commanding . and the Emperor. Roman however. conduct the Pope-designate to Rome. to inquire as to his wishes regarding the new election. out of Rome. 7 Margrave. he himself conducted to the Lateran the German . however. affairs. the latter. Henry. manent this influence patriciate. 1047. to be elected at Polthe on December 25.1. IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and it was only Henry's decisive threat that availed to reduce the aged Boniface to obedience. had already hastened to the Emperor. as his missus. and aspired to the indignant that Henry had himself assumed in power. caused Poppo. in order that the Pope of his nomination might obtain the protection of the Margrave. Rome. but Boniface escaped by flight. forward Halynard. appears actually to have appointed Boniface his representaauthority tive in Roman . Archbishop of Lyons.

p. from a heathen transformed himself into a saint. abandoned by the Margrave. Benedict IX.. His end is unknown.72 Boniface places HISTORY OF ROME Pope. however. IX. Galletti. that Boniface conducted the Pope to Rome. John XIX. Poor the embassy of the "Annal. Several is recall the period. see Bonizo." Cod. Over the door ttvKtjv the ancient motto OXkov 0eoC fx^WovTis elaßalveiu e^w 'iv •ye'j/oto'öe Trjs ficdrjs ruv (ppovrlSoßv e<ra). driven forth either by the heat of summer or by fear.. as Damasus II. John XL. n. 1048.^ on the Sacred Chair.. vr]Ko\acDi Roman document t ^7'«' In 1153 the abbot signed rjyovu^yos Kp-q-n-ra ^eppar. . 1984.. 1747) seeks to show that a grave discovered in Grotta Ferrata is the grave of this Pope. Placentini {De Sepidcro Bened. This family. but the Cod. he withdrew to the monastery of Grotta Ferrata. John XII. who. chair on July 17. Benedict VIII. Concerning Romans. 803. Romce.. weary of life. Romani. and perhaps even others. He also says. returned to his fortress of Tusculum.. retained in consequence of its power a considerable influence in the city until far into the twelfth century. If. Del. alone is ^ Account in the acquainted with the intrigues of the Margrave. Vat. Benedict IX.. and. which had given to Rome five popes. "^ I antiquities in the have seen the inscription monastery : —an utterly valueless curiosity. 59..^ With Benedict ended the tyranny of the Counts of Tusculum. prim. ascended the sacred Damasus 11. The new German pontiff had scarcely shown himself to the Romans when he left the city. iv/iiii'tis €vpoir€ rhv KpiT^jv The Greek language a still survived here. as was said. 7)Tr€ypa(p\l/a.. After a reign of eight months and nine days as Pope for the last time. Vat. no one acquainted with the character of the times can doubt the possibility of the conversion. App.

she presents niece. &c. aninice quond. cap. as fief of the Church. necis est uberrima fruguin. VII. fol. 1053.^ Had he 1048- malaria?^ Or had the terrible Benedict IX. Sublac. 81. habitatrice Palestrina . 400. remained the possession of the descendants of Benedict and the Senatrix Stephania. p. mixed him a draught of poison ? The Roman envoys who arrived in Saxony. . Ind. domat ardua colla virorum. A. were consequently enemies of the Tusculans. in Petrini. Rome. wife of the pro heredibus nostris. could therefore live at Palestrina in peace. Reg. in sede IV. The Margrave John had died. to implore a third pope at the hands of the Patricius. and Damasus II. Petrini (p. which may still be seen there. 1 1 1) John) has shown the connection between the various members of the family. Damiani wrote the following quatrain on the subject of Roman : fever vorax hominum. in. snatched Death of away by a sudden fallen a victim death. Imilia nob. Romance febres stabili sunt jure ßdeles . the ancient still Praeneste. Lorenzo fuori et d. et property to Subiaco pro redempt. in Quoniam certuvi est me Comitissa que olim Dni Donadei conjunx fuit Decbr. Roviaferaxfebrium. 5. 78. et le — Marquis Mura. dorn. Joanne filio. He was. however. Joannis qui vocabatur de Benedicto. ii. in He went Palestrina. ^ Leo of Ostia. xix. 1048. Roma —Opuscul. on August 9. The Pope was buried in S. Quem semel invadunt. yi little Damasus in felt himself happier as bishop of a it place in Tyrol than was possible to to be as Pope Paiestrina.^ Aug. Anno Leonis IX. the Crescentii. were ^ Instr. vix a vivente recedunt. ^ in an early Christian sarcophagus. 9> twenty-three days after his to ordination. but his sister Emilia now owned the fief The disputes with the Roman Curia ^ had been adjusted. the possessors of Palestrina. c. only n. a city which. et Donadei^ et Domina Itta (according to documents.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Bruno. Egisheim in Alsace. After tedious deliberations Henry was finally relieved from his embarrassment by the Bishop of Toiil. His Wars with the Normans His Defeat at Civita Vecchia His Death (1054). endowed less with ambition than with pious zeal. Steindorff. 55 ff.. had acquired fame in his bishopric both by his unusual culture and by his apostolic virtues. but solely on condition that his election by clergy and people should take place in Rome. a son of Count Hugo finally raised the Papacy to universal spiritual supremacy.74 HISTORY OF ROME regarded with horror by the Germans. he of . As 1049» the new Pope entered Giesebrecht. This distinguished man. 104^^1054. He accepted the proferred dignity.^ This fourth German pope became an ornament to the sacred chair he inaugurated a new period in Rome. amid great political and social revolutions in Italy.. accompanied by a scanty ^ 453 ff. nearly related to the Emperor Conrad. . ii. Leo IX. in order that he might be justified from the reproach of being an intruder. the city in February retinue. consented to risk his life for the reform of the Church. Pope (1049) His efforts for Reform Corruption of the Church Simony HildeBRAND PoVERT\' OF THE POPE MaCBETH IN — Rome South Italy Acquisition of Benevento BY Leo IX. and no one coveted the fatal tiara. — — — — — — — — — — Leo IX. barefooted ii. . By reforms which gave an entirely new character to the Church and her relations to the secular power. 4.

no powerful nobles escorted this bishop. clothed in the unassuming habit of Cluny. as yet unknown to the world. was himself the genius of a new epoch. and it is said that it was at Hildebrand's instigation that Bruno had assumed the dress of a pilgrim and had announced that he would not occupy the sacred chair until he had been elected in Rome in canonical form. he publicly announced won the people 1 to his side i. and praying. who knocked at the gates as a pilgrim to ask the Romans whether they would accept him as Pope in the name of Christ. spectacle 75 must have filled the Romans with surprise. The new Pope had taken him into his service in France. but that he would return to election his bishopric unless the unanimous dignity upon him. He was. An apostle seemed to have returned to depraved Rome. Peter's he announced that the Emperor had chosen him of the clergy and as Pope. This was Hildebrand. but principle which 102. accompanied by a man of greater value than the royal power of princes a genius. The Romans received the foreign pilgrim with processions at the Leonine Gate. and secured Watterich. chaplain to the exiled Gregory VI.^ elected Pope. who introduced the Papacy of an entirely new system into the Eternal City. entering Rome beside the Pope-designate. the — Hildebrand. silent and unobserved. No armed hosts of Germans or Tuscans. people conferred the Bruno was thus unanimously election could be merely His the Roman nominal. To a great con- course assembled in S.IN THE MIDDLE unwonted AGES. . however.

was asked before ordination whether he was innocent of four crimes id est arsenochita q. and Peter's. i.. was scarcely seated on the papal throne (February 12) when the entire Church felt the sharp the Papacy. by practi- Leo in the purification of the cal Utter demoralisation of the Church at this period. 3.. and with this object in view he might draw upon the Gomorrhiamis. pro ancilla Dei sacrata . but with reAll contemporaries paint the volting artlessness. viii. Ital. a saint. and by the elevation of the episcopate. Since he had already demanded from the Emperor the consent of him a future in the Romans as the condition of the acceptance of now received this consent in S. Leo IX. The annals of ecclesiastical history depict the almost feverish activity Church by Councils against simony and concubinage of priests.^ ^ Victor III. and Leo's letter of Alexander II. 86. that every bishop of the author. Mus.76 HISTORY OF ROME tranquil Rome. . novaque lux visa est exoriri 2 Dia/. The vices of the clergy were so gro^s. measures for administration. he even seemed to condemn the imperial dictatorship as uncanonical. and to reconquer the freedom of the papal election became henceforward the constant endeavour of the Church. Arckidiacono. et pro muliere viro alio conjuncta. mascido . pro quatuor Et dum nulli horum ipse pedes . northern breath of a of strict reform. describes the crimes of the priesthood with praiseworthy indignation.. . e. vir conscius fuerit^ evangeliis ad medium deductis jurat ipse electus Ordo Roman. ii. with the dedication to Leo IX. op. Liber Gomorrhianus^ de diversitate peccantium contra naturam. lib.^ Could a painter of morals but descend into the cloaca of these times. a book in which Peter Damiani. says of him : A quo omnia : ecclesiasiica studia renovata ac restaurata. to the great indignation thanks. Mabillon. iii. he would find sufficient material for depicting the crimes of the Roman clergy. prohibited the book. : . &c.

the Romans the offices of the Church. The clergy violently opposed the decrees of the Synod. accrued from the patrimonies or not. all the churches in Rome would be left without priests. now his sub-deacon and Abbot of S. and compelled the Pope to leniency many bishops and priests were. to the . scarcely more dangerous to the Church than was Simon Magus. were sold to the highest bidders. from the office of lector to that of cardinal-deacon. modern expression. held his first Council in 1049. to employ a . he was alarmed by the remark that.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. "JJ immorality of the clergy in the darkest colours and even in luxurious Milan vice could not have been more utterly gross than it was in Rome. henceforward during the reign of six popes the all-powerful minister or. whether income were derived from any other source. he found the coffers empty whether any rents still . however. punished by deposition. In the age of the Patricians and Senators of all Simony. at first prevented Leo IX. . secretary of state. The battle for reform. from occupying himself with the political condiOn ascending the papal throne tion of the Papacy. until at length the itself Papacy was knocked down for a yearly rent. and his constant journeys between Italy and Germany. Behind Leo stood Hildebrand. if he determined to proceed with rigour. When Leo IX. however. the treasury had at all events been drained by Benedict IX. who placed the clergy under the dominion of the temporal powers from whom they bought their dignities. The Baal of Sodom and Gomorrha was. Paul's.

The name of the King Rex Afaccabaus. After Benedict IX. . Scotus ad A. made a pilgrimage to Rome and bestowed abundant alms. Macbeika. is not a little interesting. '^ Marian. ii. in is 984) until that of Leo IX. Macbothus. where they lightened their consciences and their money-bags. The harmony between him and the Emperor made the Romans anxious. HISTORY OF ROME So great was the financial distress that Leo could not maintain his modest court. He even Macbeth as a pilgrim. The city received all these strangers with honour and with outstretched hands and among these tyrant pilgrims the appearance of Macbeth in Rome . Mabbetha. contemplated selling his wardrobe. From the time of Benedict VII. since Leo allowed the forms of government to continue. t HENRICUS IMP ROMANORV . c. The chronicles inform us that in 1050 Macbeth. read in a deed of 1 02 1 {lieg. this. It is still more surprising that no denarius of Gregory VII. (who died however. while his real piety inspired respect.^ The misery of Rome was great the people lived without industry the numerous poor were accustomed to receive alms from the churches or to beg from the wealthy foreign pilgrims. since coins must have been struck. Kings laden with crimes consequently still continued to make pilgrimages to Rome. had turned the Lateran into a brothel. ^ Wibert. There is only one denarius of Leo IX. 3. Sub lac. fol. King of Scotland. . we have no papal coins I . accidental. has come down : to us. 1050 : Rex Scotia Macbethad Roma is argentum pauperibus seminando variously given : distribuit. on the other side f SCS PETRVS LEO P. and nothing but an unexpected present of money from Benevento prevented his retinue taking flight to Germany. 127): denarios bonos novos Romane monete. .^ The city remained tranquil.78 last coin.

^'^ . however. the emperors of the East and West. He made a pilgrimage to Garganus. holding Synods. at the head of an army. to inveigh either against the popes or against the possession of a State of the Church at a time when every bishopric owned such a state and when the Church required a political body in order to support its position. were foolish^ however. for the great object of the moral elevation of the Church and for strengthening the power of the Roman chair. France. Since the time of Charles the Great the Roman Curia aspired to the possession of Campania and Claims on the old estates in these parts which the Bishops of Rome had lost during the Iconoclastic disputes were extended to rights over provinces. into a eventually to arouse the displeasure of the saints. He willingly left the gloomy city. and Germany. Condition itaiy.IN THE MIDDLE it AGES. and only made it his abode from time to time. He travelled indefatigably in Italy. Into such strange contradictions were even the most religious among the popes led by the blending of It the spiritual and temporal powers. by advancing. . At Apulia. 79 Leo IX. the popes could only creep in stealthily among the lions. like John VIII. popes. all claimed dominion in Southern Italy but while the emperors fought for it with the sword.. to which the so-called Donation of ConThe stantine and other diplomas served as support. and at the same time cast the eye of a He was destined statesman over Southern Italy. transformed monastery or hospital. But even a man so spiritual as Leo could not remain indifferent to the temporal requirements of the Papacy.

These two bands v.. under Tancred de Hauteville. and son.80 HISTORY OF ROME the same time the the Lombards retained the sovereignty. Pandulf IV. his son Landulf in Benevento. contrary. Henry surrendering to him the government of Benevento in exchange for the bishopric of Bamberg. ruled in Salerno. Nevertheless the popes had long aimed at Benevento. after heroic struggles with the Greeks. went thither in the year 1050 he negotiated with the citizens and could see with his own eyes the pillage committed by the Normans The Beneventans. They banished their princes. weary of their in the territory. while the J}^^ Norman bands. Henry overlords. sea-ports continued to enjoy an almost entire Normans again served all parties in order to betray all. In the following year Leo was confirmed by the Emperor as Governor of the city. dreaded falling under the power of the Norman bands. and Pandulf III. on the their municipal rights. and on July 5. who would have annihilated The distant Pope. Leo IX. a city which Henry . son of William of the Iron Arm. appeared to them as the least oppressive of feudal superior. father at first and and recognised the Prince of Salerno as their had also conferred on the Normans a portion of the dukedom of Benevento in revenge against the town which had formerly rebelled against him. the renowned Waimar IV. III. who now Benevento the"hands° of the threw themselves into the arms of the Normans. Lombard prince. on the Other hand. adopted the Pope as their sovereign. had founded their military republic in Apulia with Melfi for its capital. and had even earlier settled in Aversa under Rainulf. At the time of Leo IX. in Capua. The Normans. 105 1. freedom.

to Drogo. a swarm of adventurers across the Alps in February He also assembled the arriere ban of some 1053. Contr.'s brother Frederick. see 2 Leo of Ostia.^ The Italians of his army were led by the ^ The popes never owned the entire duchy of Benevento. Concerning the treaty of exchange with the Emperor. 8l had previously presented to the Roman Church. Herrn. 1053. went to Rome in April and Both Drogo and Waimar. and succeeded in retaining it until our own times. he ^^S^e was able to lead a body of German mercenaries and Normans. ii. the succes- sor of William in the county of Apulia. hoping to entice him however.^ Leo IX. THE MIDDLE AGES. Accompanied by Godfrey of Lorraine and his Leo ix. where several of the Lombard dynasts and Apulian counts joined him with their vassals. Chancellor of the Church. Not until 1077 did they obtain possession of the city and the territory adjoining it. had become the virtual despots of Southern Italy. had already sought to protect this valuable possession from the Normans in the summer of 105 1 he made over the protection of Benevento . F . Leo hoped for success. 84. of the Italian provinces. and it was with this view that he journeyed to the Emperor in the summer of 1052. from having been the mercenaries. Contr.* The popes thus adroitly acquired the famous ancient seat of the Lombard rulers. soon fell the rapacious Normans continued to besiege Benevento and to devastate the surrounding district. The bishops and towns besought the Pope to deliver them from the bloodthirsty foreigners who. and advanced to Campania. 1053 shows Herrn. ad A. to Prince Waimar and even into his service.: IN II. ad A. c. how Leo's army was composed VOL. by the hand of assassins. IV.

It appears from him (iii. Capuans. even Leo could not repudiate the inconsistent dual nature of priest and prince which was united in the bishops of the time.. son of Melus. Kcb Paphlagonias. commanded the entire. which disbanded in Campania. Apulus.. . in which he obtained his admission as a cofifrater by a gift of 3000 byzants. Chron. and in Romans. pluri7ni Theiitonicortim^ partim jussu pulsi. Samnites. however. (Greek was pronounced in this way). Leo had come to an understanding with the Greeks. Emato7i . Spoletans. and Lombards. Keduion. the Swabians Werner and Rudolf.^ p. Kce Dux Italias. and gens Marchana probis digne reprobata latinis. When the question was one of defending or increasing his temporal dominion. men of Fermo. the Italians. addition. and byno means inconsiderable. c. Kce Cabeon.. Calabria. whose Katapan was at this time Argyros. and adorned with the pompous title of a Dux of Italy. Calabrias. The pious Leo thus became transformed into a general already in his youth as a deacon he had led the vassals of the Bishop of Toul to Italy in the name of Conrad II. and Paphlagonia. partim spe qzi(2stiis adducti. ^ We still read his letter to the monastery of Farfa. 25) that Leo had previously led an army against the Normans. diversasque ob noxias patria ii.^ He had hoped to form a league between the two Emperors. lib. Leo of Ostia reckons 500. ti Sichelias.82 sons of HISTORY OF ROME Count Burellus. now in the Byzantine service. and to thus extirpate the . Despini KcB agia Theotoco Älai-ia ti en age??ioni tis Farfa. reckons 700 brave Swabians. and was himself descended from a noble warrior race. Sicily. Fai'f. Amatus only CCC Todesque. by the two Margraves Trasmundus and Azzo two German knights. Argiros pronia theu Magistros Bestis. the future Rector of Benevento. dommorum. force. nonmilli etiam sceleratiet protervi. 620. &c. Sabines. Guill.

The rejected Normans in retreated to fight Holy Father his capacity of hostile The battle of Civita in the Capitanata on June 18. Peter's patrimony. against the general. or the German emperors on stood. cated Normans of the time of Leo IX. caused them dismay. when the excommunicated Piedmontese (bold robbers of S. and has been compared to the defeat at Castel Fidardo on September 1 8. and gave too much heed to the cries of the valiant Swabians. which they had acquired by the sword. led by Lamoriciere.).IN terrible THE MIDDLE His design AGES. 1 860. as were the excommunieight 1053. 83 Normans. ^^ 1053. Leo ix. under whose ban they Their envoys demanded peaceful investiture of those lands with which the Emperor had already invested them. But the dazzled Pope relied in the numbers of his army. but the strength of the expedition nevertheless alarmed the Normans. and promised in return homage and tribute to the Roman Church. and boasted that they would annihilate the brigands until not a trace of them remained. who jeered at the insignificant stature of the Normans. after more than -^^^^^ ^ the battle ' hundred and forty years. Argyros did not even send troops to join him. Even now. in the name of Italian unity. it still survives in the memories of men. Bold conquerors might have advanced stronger claims to the possession of cities. is perhaps the most memorable in the annals of the temporal Papacy. The presence of the Pope. the abstract title of the supremacy of the empire. overthrew the weak foreign legions of Pius IX. failed . For the State of . than the popes could put forward on the strength of diplomas.

mortem "Vita Leonis IX. Count Humphrey of Apulia and Robert Guiscard. Gaufried Malaterra Civiiata. Dragonara was situated in the neighbourhood. Robert Gtiiscard ^wo. di Bencv." in Borgia. who drew their bows and charged with their lances.i The victors now stormed the fortress of Civita. Their strength consisted merely of three thousand horse and some infantry. however. The Germans.84 HISTORY OF ROME the Church existed until our own days. The Chronique de It calls the city Civitas^ like Romuald. . and in the fortunes of the temporal power the Middle Ages have been repeated until now. . Mem. and the sons of Tancred de Hauteville. Three valiant heroes commanded the Norman forces. While the Pope blessed his army from the battlements of Civita. first on- and Guiscard now attacked the German The brave Swabians closed in force in the flank. expectantes.'s. The Italians. the son of Asclittin. 1 . and until our own days has remained the object for the attacks of princes. 318. where the Pope and cardinals had shut themselves in terror. ^ Facto famen de . Civite. dispersed in wild confusion at Richard's slaught. se quasi ninro in fnodum corone (a square). their shields clasped with their left hand. The suburbs were in flames without the Normans . their swords in the right. and fought and fell to the last man. successfully repulsed the attack of the Normans under Humphrey. a square. quick in attack and quick in retreat.. he had no doubt of victory. Count Richard of Aversa. but these small and skilled horsemen were so many wild devils in the saddle. ii. and for the defence of the pope by foreign mercenaries and excommunications.

grandissime plor et larines : Chrottique de R. however. AGES. The cunning superstition of the time represented the slain of Civita clad in golden garments waving palms to Leo on his deathbed." among whom there were moreover a goodly number of murderers and robbers. while the eyes of the slain Normans had been torn out by the ravens. ^ Devotement c. but in reality these " martyrs.IN THE MIDDLE . or to exchange the palm of the saint for the sword of the general. 85 rushed furiously to the attack within the citizens the papal baggage and threatened to surrender the Pope they finally drove him and the cardinals out of the city. 14. xi. They came respectfully to invite the sacred prisoner under their protection. . . Peter. the sight of the battlefield nevertheless taught him that the Pope was not called on to shed the blood of the faithful for political objects. veniam et benedictione?n ejus postulantes. and the rude warriors knelt before their prisoner and fervently kissed the apostolic feet. c. In his distress Leo now sent envoys to treat with the Normans. Ctim magna devotione ejus provolvuntur pedibus Malaterra. Although his biographer assures us that it comforted him to find the bodies of his warriors unharmed.^ They chivalrously took him in their midst and promised him a free escort to Benevento. Viscart. general for the role of the good shepherd. They had every right to carry so valuthe able a spoil of war to one of their fortresses humiliated Pope. The afflicted Pope spent two days in prayer for the dead. whom he caused to be solemnly buried. stood behind the shield of He exchanged the part of an indifferent S. pillaged . i.

2 still called "martyrs" {Civilta Cattolica of October 20. which recognised the judgment of God in the fate which had befallen him. Ada Sctor. sed verbo et dicto monerent pie. Contractus the Germans had sive quia tantuin sacerdoteni spiritcdis fallen occulta Dei judicio In like potius quam pro caducis rebus camalis pugna decebat. not against Saracens. drawn the sword. Fidardo are i860). Voices were heard. His contemporary. 212) : nan enim dominus discipulis suis et successorib.^ Or. possessed two consciences Censures passed on the ? natures and two The news of the battle flew with the speed of the Pope in conse- quence of the battle. Ant. since they were also temporal princes. but against devout Christians. popuhim corruerent."^ life If the defenders of Leo . also blamed the Pope : super Normannos p'ocliatunts . sziis praceperat. Sec. A holy and revered pope had. It. on which the German and Belgian Foreign Legion sacrificed themselves for the The men who lost their lives at Castel Dominium Temporale. " since it befits the priest only to make war with the weapons of the Spirit. may we believe that the popes. This was the opinion of Herrn. not to draw an iron sword in temporal matters . of Amalfi (Murat.86 stood HISTORY OF ROME accusers of his apostolic conscience. the Saviour did not command princes. his followers to attack nations sins ^ like secular but to combat their by pious teaching. i?i ut seculares veluti priyicipes secuti ??iateriales gradiis.^ 666. and had fallen into the power of the enemy. but having been defeated he became the object of the severest censure. the appearance of the fallen as A similar battlefield was seen 807 years later. the Vita in martyrs.^ i. — : . it was said. manner Romuald and the Chron. Had he defeated the Normans in this battle. all the world would have regarded him as the deliverer of Italy from the brigand hordes. Bruno of Segni. wind over all lands. The in Borgia describes the battlefield and the obsequies April 2.

but. zelum quideju Dei habens." It is ^ doubtful whether the great Father of the this Church would have uttered ecclesiastical State existed in dictum had time. and becomes absurdly impracticable. tanto spiritualibus augetur. does not seek the restoration of that of which she has been deprived. dove which sees another bird take its food out of its nest. Damian ' freely and sharply Damian's rebuked the action of his friend the Pope. is still the far distant from the standpoint on which this memorable question now placed. and like Dante after him. . drew a line between the empire and the Church. extracts the passage from S. like the sheep. Like of the^ Aup^ustine before him. but should For so much as she surrender it with patience. ' . desired to THE MIDDLE disarm AGES. Jerome. Germ. S. the true dove. The view of the relation of the in Church to the temporal dominion current time of Leo IX. : Mon. however. pushed to such an extreme. might have Jerome " The loses in earthly goods. nor does it complain. she offers her fleece to the shears and thus the Church should not wrest its own back from the spoiler. beak or claw. and. is too exalted men of any kind. xiv. . So the Church of God. he Dominium ° Temporale. turns it against Gregory VII. together with other sentences from the Fathers of the Church. 169. .IN IX. Wido Ferrar. was. stirs neither feather. sed non fortasse scientiam^ and laments that he had taken part in the war in person.. pious imposed silence in the words of S. so much does she gain in heavenly. an his A pious for maxim. 1 Quanta terrenis ecdesia minuitur. vadit. accusations the 87 these just by representing the attacks made by the Normans on : the State of the Church.

but matters belonging to the judicial tribunals or to the papal sentences should not be decided to the disgrace of the Church by force of arms. Gregory who — suffered the violent depredations of the savage Lombards ? Has a holy Pope ever risen in arms ? The laws of the forum or the edicts of the council may settle the disputes of the Church. I transitoriis Ecdesice facultatibiis loricatce acies in gladiis debacchantur ? ei'go pro rertun vilium detrimenfo fidelis fideleni gladio quote side by side with this the view held by Jesuits in Rome on such matters at the present day. . ix. " I morti per la Chiesa a Dragonara il 1053. lib. or of the temporal kingdom of a he was acquainted merely with earthly and .88 HISTORY OF ROME between the pastoral staff and the sword. " If for matters of faith. et — Quomodo petat. . to Ulrich of nusquain ferrea corj'ipere arma Fermo) Si ergo pro fide : quomodo pro terrenis : . Not even perhaps in the did Christian soldiers fighj for a cause in so high a sense divine. as that in which the soldiers of Lamorciere have fallen." he exclaims. iv. i860. "by which the universal Church lives. transitory possessions miserable possessions in comconceditur Damian (Ep. why should armed hosts bluster with the sword for the temporal and transitory possessions of the Church ? Why should the Christian murder Christians on account of the loss of wretched property ? Have we ever read that Gregory undertook or ordered any similar war. Crusades otherwise than identical with the cause of religion and Christ were folly. e nel Piceno il " The opinion that the temporal property of the Church i860") says : was only of an earthly nature was pardonable to believe now-a-days that it is in the time of Leo IX. The Civiltä Cattolica (October 20. no private person should draw the sword. ." Baronius already speaks as a champion of the Civiltä Cattolica when he stigmatises the saint as an arch -heretic in this matter." ^ We perceive that Damian had Pope 1 : at this time no conception either of an ecclesiastical State.

cunctos : dies. 1054. collected the Normans and Lombards. The Normans.°™c"^ into which the Pope. He sent the Cardinals Frederick of Lorraine and Humbert with a letter to Constantinople. JJ. made the Pope to his entry five days after the battle. while the conquerors urged the fulfilment of stipulations with which we are not acquainted. had acquired released legal stability for their conquests. from popes (so marvellous was their good fortune) issued as feudal lords of the With chivalrous kingdom of Naples. ill and tortured by grief. courtesy and practical insight The the victors conducted their prisoner to Benevento. quibus szipervixit tantce calamitati. The splendid reception which he there received could no longer comfort him he remained in the city under Norman custody the entire winter. See also De Meo. their victory. 1053 Leo IX.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ So far from Leo IX. ^ According to the Chronique de Robert Viscart. Leo them from which the His defeat laid the first founda- tion of the later feudal arrangements. by excommunication. Annali di Napoli ad A. that he was considering on the contrary how to form a new alliance against the intruders. 89 parison to those eternal possessions which made the Pope what he was. The count returned to Melfi. At the same time he supplicated . which was still unknown to the books of Amatus. in which he describes his misfortune in a veiled and garbled manner to the Greek Emperor Constantine Monomachus. The Annales Lamberti say ad A. in luctu et nicerore egit. Leo gave Count Vnfroi et ä li stibcessor toute Pnille et Calabre de la fin de Granüre Jusque ä lo Faro. and summons him to fight with the Emperor Henry on a common plan against the Normans. et fist dni de ses freres consoles. lay the thought of a permanent treaty. .

Serv. Leo's merits. Servor. nova Roina Constantmo Monomacho dilectofilio sahitem. He asserts the Donation of Constantine in decisive terms. as we are told by a credulous annalist. post \/ .. not in triumph as John X. atque defendit : tu juxta tui Hominis etyjnologiam constanter adjuva recuperare. 1054. attained his fiftieth year. Italy. sedem^ et Imperio factiis ut fias etiam imitator exhortamur : et qtuz ille juirabilis vir Christum eidem sedi contulit. Tu ergo jnagntis successor ^ Magni Constantini sanguine^ nomine. 1054.^ Thus Leo also appeals to a legendary donation.1 £tucies . retinere^ et defendere. conjirmavit. April 19. Death of Leo IX. having only the palace. had formerly returned from the Garigliano. was to the The disaster ofCivita darkens his sacred chair ^ illustrious figure . Count Humphrey accompanied the Pope to Capua on March 12. but as a humiliated man. ad A. who no longer enjoyed a moment of happiness. that the blasphemers stood rooted to the ground in front of Leo IX. however. He had himself carried from the Lateran to S. Thence Leo returned to Rome on April 3.^ devotionis ejus erga Ap. He soon fell ill. 1054. and recognised the approach of death.go HISTORY OF ROME Constantine to restore her ancient possessions in Southern Italy to the Church. died on April 19. The Dominium Temporale of the Church. — an ornament but it does not diminish the nimbus Leo Ep. and the West into the possession of the sacred chair. were so great. many popes. or rather to surrender everything that Constantine and his successors had formerly presented to her. as in the case of so the cause of his early death. Peter's on April 13. and scarcely were the Romans aware of his removal when they rushed to sack the Lateran. Dei glorioso et religioso Imp. Baron. which had given Rome.

"Historia Mortis Leonis IX. ready to believe in miracles. with which the grateful Church has reservices of a pious reformer.^ 2. The Herrn. people." Acta Sctor. Ex multis talem vix habitura patreni. . Lion estoit ?notilt vel et estoit roiiz.. soon ran to Leo's grave. of sanctity. it mingles with the nimbus 1 much that of the earth. et estoit de letre bon maistre Aime : iii. was handsome and of noble : presence. c.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES. et estoit de stature seignori15. Leo IX. Contr. Cestui able. ad A. Peter's bore the following couplet Victrix Roma dolet nono viduata Leone. Nevertheas in the case of all human is virtues. 1054. 9I warded the less.^ April 666. His tomb in S.

.. She sank into the service of the Pope or the Emperor and became divided into papal and State. declined whenever the empire or the Papacy made any vigorous movement. After the extinction of the house of Otto the the Roman nobles had made Papacy subject to themselves. who destroyed the tyranny of the Tusculans. devoid as it was of lasting form. Imperial Vicar in Italy Powerful position of Godfrey Cardinal Frederick Death of Victor II. Stephen IX. comes to Italy Victor II. and for a time had tumultuously upheld the patriciate.92 HISTORY OF ROME I. had with the patriciate obtained . Pope Death of the Emperor (1056) Regency of the Empress Agnes Victor II. Pope. however. it and imperial factions. Hildebrand's Programme — The Emperor — — — nomi- nates Gebhard of Eichstadt to the Papacy Godfrey of Lorraine marries Beatrix of Tuscany Henry HI.. — — — — — — The great movement of the Church at this period city. Henry III. conceals or dominates the history of the Long the stage and centre of the conflict between Church was only with difficulty that the city could attain and develop her own municipal independence. the civic power of which. CHAPTER III..

where the nobles would again have seized the election. but also one 01^ the greatest politicians T^ . and acquired spiritual supremacy over the world. 93 of the papal election for Germany. which had been re- stricted by the imperial power since ancient times. the enthusiastic Margravines of Tuscany. Beginning ofHildebrand's ^^^^^^^J"- all nations and reform As leader of the great movement. he sent into the field against the aristocracy and the inflamed.IN the right THE MIDDLE AGES. in whom the Roman Church gained vassals and defenders. whose fanatical zeal he whom he gave a policy. Scarcely was the Church reinvigorated by the aid of Germany. first did not then hold the place in Hildebrand's programme. the saints and monks. but w^ere finally dexterously converted into breaches through which the Papacy forced its way into the State. like a demagogue. namely concubinage and simony. On the banner borne by this courageous priest stood at first only two prohibitions borrowed from the Canon of discipline. . Rome. the Patarines of Lombardy. whom. . emperor and the insecurity in Rome. . and through his German popes had infused new life into the Church. . and the Normans. ment. Hildebrand was now not only ^ the greatest ?. when she demanded from her saviour the right of election and finally entire freedom. man of m . wrested the patriciate from the German crown. . he soon made everyone his instruall time. Both pointed to actual sores of the time. The liberty of papal election. whose friendship rapacious he acquired. the popes to recalcitrant bishops. compelled the clerical fear of a powerful The party to patient submission to the imperial right.

at the urgent entreaty of Hildebrand and the Romans. in defiance of the ^ Emperor. Stenzel has already refuted Bonizo's statement.94 HISTORY OF ROME idea of a breach with The Germany was also distant from the minds of all. a man experienced in affairs of State. full of intelligence and energy. at Hildebrand's exhortation. He went. and still young.^ Gebhard. and two years later his fell . widow Beatrix married Godfrey. . just acquired a position of great authority. where a rebel to the empire had . in order. Duke of Lorraine. however. a pope secure of the support of the reforming Emperor. by the hand of an 1052. Henry. Before his death Leo IX. if possible. sacrifice to that the judgment of a faithful friend would be well employed in Italy. After the Victor 1055-1057. and. Boniface assassin of Tuscany on May 6. in order to interfere in the papal election. probably confided the welfare of the Church to Hildebrand all eyes were already directed to this one monk. to Henry's court. was It cost the Emperor no small his trusted counsellor. ambassadors of the Roman aristocracy who adhered to Germany had also arrived at the court of the Patricius. with part Gebhard he hoped. renounced the patriciate. however. The German nobles looked with surprise on the monk who appeared as one of the envoys of the Roman clergy . to procure another pope from Germany. Godfrey was an enemy of the empire he had come to Italy as a fugitive. to which Henry was related. a member of the family of the Counts of Calw. and the zealots loudly demanded his election. raised the Bishop of Eichstädt to the Papacy. that Henry.

however. Ibid. The Bishop of Eichstädt left Regensburg in March and hastened Here as Victor II. its popes. Verona on April ii. after it had remained vacant for a year. but did not come to Rome. . were and such as Godfrey were now to ally himif he were to unite all Central Italy under his sceptre. This country remained the theatre of foreign fortunes its emperors and its dukes were foreign. and the Normans . which he ruled henceforward in the who were still under age.IN THE MIDDLE name AGES. 95 had seized the vast estates of Boniface. If a brave by robbery. thus became the most powerful prince in the whole of Italy. 289 at . Steindorff. who now shrewd self acquired their kingdom in Southern Italy foreigners also. 514. where the Beatrix also appeared nobility quickly obeyed him to defend her marriage with a former rebel against the tyrannical head of the State the angry Emperor. would it not then be possible with the Normans. acquire the Italian man to and Roman crown and ? to make popes according to his pleasure Gebhard had only accepted the Papacy under condition that the Emperor should bind himself to aid the sacred chair in the recovery of all its possessions .^ ii. 1055. Henry was at Brixen on March 22. 1055. The Emperor himself departed for Italy in March. . at Giesebrecht. 7. Mantua at Easter. He of his three children. he ascended the papal to Rome. many of its most respected bishops. April 13. Henry had also promised that a second election should take place in Rome. With his accustomed energy he set in order the '" ^*^^^' affairs of the empire in Northern Italy.^ Henry ill. had her and her child Matilda placed chair on .

Like his predecessors. where he acquired the reputation of diplomatic ability and great strength of character. Godfrey's brother Frederick. and. Victor II. had taken he service in the Church in the time of Leo IX. and either here or on the island of Tremiti hid himself from the anger of the distant Emperor. Reg. . had been made cardinal-deacon and chancellor by Leo. took the cowl in Monte Casino.) Romanos male tractatus apud ipsum Jaflfe. however. his life. husband remained bewrath. As he now returned. and escaped the danger which awaited him by flight. had entrusted Victor H. In 481) : Victore qtii pro causis papatus per {Iffiper. Vita S. where the Pope was charged to keep Duke Godfrey within bounds. again taking up arms fugitive Lorraine. Lietberti (Bouquet.^ He went thither in the summer of 1056. where glory.96 under in arrest. and was soon called to mourn by the corpse of his imperial friend. Frederick. in order to pave a career for himself. Radulphi. HISTORY OF ROME Her his yond reach of hurried return. received warning. he found himself ill at ease and longed to return to Germany. . the Emperor ordered the Pope to have him arrested. even forced the Emperor to Henry met the Pope at the make a Synod He of Florence in June and returned to Germany. conquesturus venerat (July 1056). laden with numerous treasures.. the prime ^ The Romans embittered xi. and had finally been sent as papal legate to Byzantium. spent a year in Rome dedicated to the reform of the Church. with the authority of a Vicar in Italy. summoned by the affairs of the Church and of his native land.

the monk Hildebrand could foresee his triumph over the defenceless heir of imperial power. the daughter of that Duke The William of Aquitaine to whom the Lombards had Agne?^^ previously offered the crown. While Victor II. The sudden death of this prince shook and changed the world. Victor benevolently ordered the affairs of Germany. wept beside the bier of his friend. his coffin a remained beside woman as While there guardian and a child as king. died at the Death of age of thirty-nine on October 5. The Empress Agnes.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. The Pope here ruled (by a curious accident) all the territories of the crown in the name of the Emperor. found herself regent for her son Henry IV. surrounded by greater regent. had wept beside the death-bed of Otto III. The great Henry III. but was soon obliged to return to Rome. G . as yet scarcely six years old.. sovereign power. however. called thither by the duties of Vicar of Italy. as Sylvester II. the aspiring Church. Germany and Italy sank into a state of utter anarchy. 1056 and with him ended the series of the vigorous emperors of Prankish .. and secured the succession of the child. administered VOL. 97 of manhood. 1056. difficulties and endowed with less ability than Theophano in former days. found herself freed from the imperial dictatorship. and as long as he lived. race who had raised Germany to the summit of universal power. to whose care both the empire and the heir had been recommended by the dying Emperor. IV. Her counsellor in the first instance was the Pope. and fortune lay dead before his eyes. and for Germany itself was the greatest of misfortunes.

He regarded himself as Patricius of Rome. now restricted the power of Godfrey. lo) quite arbitrarily asserts that et Godfrey had received the patriciate through Hanno 1056. him Indeed. ^ Gfrörer {Gregory VII.98 HISTORY OF ROME Spoleto and Camerino as duke/ No higher authority. at for least the permanent office of Missus Rome and the defence of the Papacy. i. J. Fatteschi. 1056. medio. &c. Christi Ughelli. sunt anni Mille quinquaginta octo. he had effected a between him and the Empress. p. He had already confirmed ^ Damiani. D. if not the his step-daughter . and title of Patricius. ad Vict. to gain was necessary that Victor should hasten to his side. i. It however. And Duke As the same position had been already held by II. ii.^ Victor returned to Florence in the spring of 1057. even at the Diet at Cologne in reconciliation December 1056. 352 ff. Amial. he endeavoured to ally himself with this Lotharingian family. are very faulty in point of chronology. in Muratori. Godfrey. From 1057 Godfrey was Dux and Marchio of Spoleto and Camerino. Boniface. p. to whom belonged the right of directing the papal election or the Empress Agnes at of introducing the popes Cologne had undoubtedly awarded him. et regnantes domitu Enrigo Imp. where he causes Christ to say : sublato rege de totius Romani Imperii Documents which : vacantis tibi jura permisi . recognised as possessor of all the fiefs of the Margrave Boniface. (Giesebrecht. i. Ep. at Cologne in . Papa Victore Dux Marchio. was able to bring his wife Matilda back to Italy. A. 112 ff.. His almost royal power gave him henceforward a greater influence over the affairs of the Church than any which the Dukes of Spoleto had formerly possessed. and One of Fabriano ab Incarn. N. 597)..

The new cardinal came to Rome with great pomp. {Reg. fol. and by whose help he hoped to acquire the independence of the Church. who alone possessed the power to set the German crownat defiance. Casino (Leo of Ostia. family. to the Abbot of M. scor. between Rome and Germany. Casino. Maria in Pallara. as Casino . thus a Privilegium of Alexander II. ^ It was sometimes called Palladio instead of Pallara. a monastery which had been ceded by Leo IX. Chrysogonus in Trastevere on Lorraine June 14. This Pope gave the convent to M. The sole support of the empire in Italy had fallen. and during the regency of a weak woman. After the death of the last imperial Pope.). He took possession of his titular church and made his dwelling on the ruinous Palatine. The choice must naturally fall on the Lotharingian cardinal.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. xx. in Abbot of Monte Florence he made the same Frederick Cardinal-priest of S. ii. and the house of Lorraine now found itself at once close to the summit of its greatness. the attempt at a free papal election might be risked. and here. which He placed this powerful was only outwardly reconciled to the German empire. occupied even at that time by Benedictines from Monte Casino. . brother of Godfrey.^ Scarcely had he arrived when the news reached him of the death of Victor H. c. Petri Diaconiin M. as brother of the first prince of Italy. was accorded an honourable reception. Hildebrand had destined the Lothar- ingian as the future Pope. Casino. It is the Abbacia solet martiruin Sebastiani et Zositni^ qtics vulgariter Pallara nuncupari . Croce in Gerusalemme. receiving in exchange S. 81). within the monastery of S. 99 The Frederick Frederick.

after a long interval.^ The elevation of Stephen IX. was elected in haste and proclaimed as Stephen IX. The Margrave Spoleto and Camerino. raised the influence of the house of Lorraine to an unbounded height. Peter's as early as the 3rd of August. and was ordained in Pietro ad Vincula. the tidings of the free election of Stephen with displeasure. was immediately demanded as Pope by the Romans. ii. The votes of numerous of a princely the German Emperor. Annales Lamberti ad A. But Stephen was too weak energetically to demand the restoration of the lost rights of the patriciate. and energetic. He was led in triumph to take possession of the Lateran. c.lOO Frederick. again exercise the rights of Romans were gladly united in favour candidate. and thus united almost the entire country from Mantua and Ferrara down to Roman territory. S. strong. 1057 : uno aniino pari voluntate in electione consenserunt Friderici. of Tuscany now annexed What more natural than the thought that the new Pope intended the imperial crown for his brother that Frederick had been made Pope solely with this object ? The German court received the news of Victor's death with sorrow. although Hildebrand. who had been persecuted by freedom of Stephen 1057-1058! election. had not yet arrived. however. and people hurried impatiently to the Palatine on August 2 . and in whose case they could. the influential candidate was conducted to S. whom Frederick himself put forward for the sake of appearances. . Nobles. clergy. 92. a HISTORY OF ROME man of princely nature. which. shrewd. the Roman ^ Leo of Ostia.

monks heathen brated in their cells on trackless mountains. We Odo instance. where the accomplished diplomatist was entrusted to excuse and explain the proceeding. whom Stephen had brought to Rome as Cardinal-bishop of Ostia. —Stephen IX. characters such as century. 2. Perceiving the imminent division between the German court and the sacred chair. seen holy — Penitential -As often as ecclesiastical discipline often have we men have decayed. found his antithesis in saints. After some time Stephen Germany. for of the Church. The Hermits and Peter Damiani Discipline Men collects distinguished around him as Cardinals. lOI people had conferred not on Henry III. Nilo. lay in ecstatic devotion orgies. his aim and his influence. some attention. Hildebrand was the true political head of the reform party. from which is the history of the city in these days inseparable. of Cluny. While godless bishops celehis contemporaries.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and the series was continued into the eleventh Benedict IX. but on his successors also. and Peter Damiani. so arise to avert the ruin beheld. and S. and consequently had awarded him the highest rank in the Curia. representing as they great element in the spirit do a of the age. alone. its sent Hildebrand as his nuncio to zealous prophet. The appearance of deserve this monk. he hastened to collect the ablest champions around him. The Pope had made him archdeacon. Romuald. and self-denying anchorites undertook to expiate the guilt of sinful .

About the middle of the of that of Romuald. Pg^gj. a force which Hildebrand adroitly employed to kindle the world into ecstacy. acquired social power in wider circles of society and diverted the souls and wealth alike of mankind into the channels which nourished the Church of Rome. . . not in the old sense creative or practical. and Peter Damiani. one of Romuald's hermitages near Gubbio. Like Romuald he was born in Ravenna. but his melancholy temperament drove him into solitude. but an enthusiastic and mystical force. whose the the dwellers in . Devoted to grammatical studies. In earlier times the Benedictine order had worked with salutary effect on barbarism as a social republic of monks its principles had in course of time been forgotten. Bruno of Segni. in the year 1007. framed his lesser prophets. hierarchical system. Gualbert of Vallombrosa. he rose to be a scholar and even a teacher in Ravenna. and after the days of Romuald the hermitages had arisen. cells or caves of piety lived the unknown zeal was only witnessed by mountains or by peasants. Nevertheless these thousands of hermits merely formed the lower grades of a pyramid higher natures rose. The spirit of Peter Damiani appeared as the heir Damiani. while he himself. One and the same age gave birth to Dominicus of Sora. Guido of Pomposa. He became a hermit at Fonte Avellana.102 HISTORY OF ROME Within these race of the humanity by unmerited penances. During an unhappy childhood he was forced to herd swine until a relative came to his rescue. a man of cold and calculating foresight. a mighty power of monasticism.

1061. He soon became one of the most active opponents of the ecclesiastical vices of the age the A satirist unchastity of the clergy and simony. even on the political. They were. The influence of the hermits on all. Peter Damiani also built hermitages and collected scholars. worked in unison. . and the still stricter order These hermits. Kreuzzüge. profligacy was equally great in Germany . however. and the fame of the Prior of Fonte Avellana spread throughout the whole of Italy. 39. has depicted the Persian luxury of the cardinals and bishops in some writings. Wilken. like Ratherius before him. 1. Gesch. der ^ His letter to the cardinal-bishops (Baron. such as the congregation of eleventh century anchorites were Romuald in Camaldoli. and can perhaps only be compared with that of the schools of the prophets of the Old Testament. represented an army which. conditions of the age borders on the mysterious. against the corruptions of the Church. ordered in congregations.). IO3 found scattered over the whole of Italy. i. could at this time have found more material for painting a portrait of the Church than S. n.^ He set himself to reform : . The even on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1065 Siegfried of Mainz and other bishops took with them the materials of almost incredible luxury. but still more for the reform of the Church and for the supremacy of Rome.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and which took the field not only for the reform of society. Jerome had found and Peter Damiani. bound by a common principle of mystical penance to fight of Gualbert in Vallombrosa. although scattered. Like Romuald. A. whom he sent as apostles of the hermit life into the provinces.

noisome. For fifteen years he has not left his hermitage.104 HISTORY OF ROME the morals of monasticism. Opusc. p^j^ of his self-inflicted scourging in the thought that the angels in heaven looked with approval on each separate stroke. his hair has grown down to his ankles his beard is terrible to behold. The intelligence of man had again become so darkened as to believe that the nearest approach to the image of God was to be found in the performance of meaningless tortures. But his scourgings did not contri- bute to the welfare of society. c. For three days in the week he eats nothing.^ Men of the present day look on the poor idiot Martin Storax with the sorrowful compassion called forth by madness. which caressingly twine round his head when he sings his psalms. The pious monk may have found solace for the . Penitential iscipine. De vita Eremitica. he tells us. as his intelligent labour might have done. which to taste or even smell would The stench of his cell is alone be a severe penance. day and night. But his reform was not of the nature of the liberal and practical rule of Benedict. in a cell a wild idiot who stammers fifty psalms and repeats them seven times daily. are two snakes. Damiani himself has described the figure of a penitent. and he never changes his clothes. his drinking water is like dregs. . for other three some bread On Sundays he cooks a dish that may be accounted pastry. We have. li. His playfellows. ^ Pelr. Even Damiani disapproves of this form of and water. Its essence was penance and it ordained chastisement which now a system of appears both childish and repulsive.. Dam. 5.

105 penance. however.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. A formal arithmetical calculation in relation to the number and value of the strokes of the lash had been introduced in the Every transgression demanded a fixed period of penance. and even land. bared their necks to the rod with which some monk or deacon fanatically or Since ancient times the . for property. penance imposed on sinners had been one of the strongest weapons in the hand of the Church. And he himself was the teacher and father muse which survived of the Flagellants. For the relief of the rich. value in gold to be used for pious purposes. An uneducated generation did not blush to receive the punishment due to sin in the childish form of corporal chastisement even an emperor like Henry III. fasts. But human nature was capable of committing more sins than it was possible to wipe out in the time allotted for their expiation. and the score of many offenders stood so high in the register that centuries would have been required to clear the account according to the Canon of penitence. but did not prevent his recommending scourging as an essential part of the work of sanctification. Incalculable sums in money. smilingly chastised them. even noble women. and singing of psalms. the Church permitted the term of penance to be commuted for its eleventh century. and throughout a course of centuries all classes and races. for that of the poor in corresponding scourgings. frequently scourged himself. offered for the redemption of the soul {pro redemptione ammce\ thus flowed . his culture and the breath of the poetic in him saved him from these excesses.

which contains fifty one hundred and of penance. the singing of ten psalms allowed an interval sufficient for the infliction of a thousand strokes. a year of penance was equal rich. singing . In the Middle Ages the souls of men were the bond-slaves of the priesthood and were bound to the Church {ecclesice adscripta). By some exercise the sinner could thus clear off centuries of penance in a short space of time. and. or to fifty psalms . according to his reckoning. For. According to the Canon.I06 HISTORY OF ROME centuries into the coffers of the Church. it followed that the psalter. psalms. since three thousand strokes were equal to a year. and as. Damiani was only able to despatch a century in a year. equal to twenty strokes on the hand. Damiani's own dexterity was put to shame by the skill of the mail-clad Dominicus. psalms. represented five years The performance twenty times repeated . until this un-Christian liquidation of moral guilt by the clink of money gave rise to Luther's reformation. but his mail-clad rival assured him that he could wipe out the score in six days. who was able to scourge away centuries with amazing celerity. A day's penance was. which founded her almost marvellous power on this relation between sin and penance. a year of penance was equivalent if to three thousand strokes rightly counted. accom- panied by the singing of psalms. Dominicus always wore a coat of mail on his naked body this coat he only laid aside to take a broom in each hand. to to twenty-six solidi or thirty thalers for the three solidi for the poor. As a defence against the unclean spirits of sensuality. however. to scourge away a century or more.

as are all other sacrifices which in different Did we consider the forms the human race is obliged to offer in every age for its moral redemption. frightfully si pila fuerit ptisanarum more contusus.^ terrible apparition of such martyrs to a delusion apart from the darkness of their age.. vi. He childishly comPetro cerebroso monacko." Quia tympanum ing to Psalm 150 est pellis arida. Romuald was ignorant. If Damiani had possessed no merit beyond his zeal for discipline he would never have acquired celebrity. lib. As Hildebrand represents the statesDominicus once entered Damiani's cell. ^ He /dz'd. disfigured. Damiani. and announced triumphantly that he had just cleared off eight psalters. which should be sounded. I07 achieved made one hundred. who possessed the courage to condemn the horrible institution. ille juxta Prophetam^ in tympano dominum veraciter See laudat. He was. however. we should deride them as merely caricatures. maintained intercourse with all the prominent personages of the time.^ Damiani quoted the energy of his friend as an example. Damiani was learned. . they are also tragic. In connection with this darkness. ii. man who twenty psalters accompanied by scourging cleared off a century of penance. however. and zealously defended the discipline against Peter. admits that his mail-clad friend could only have mentally recited the psalter. palmata.IN THE MIDDLE so that the AGES. and influenced all classes by his writings. The scourging was called discipltna. the strokes on the hand 483). qui confecttmi jejunio corpus per disciplinam verberat. another monk. pares the human skin to a timbrel. 8. more than a mere ascetic. accord" Praise the Lord with timbrels.. xliii. de laude flagellorum. 27. tamquam : also Opuscul. c. He has left a memorial of him (tom. however. ^ Ep.

1061." ^ The austere monk had sufficient ground to take offence at cardinals who. they call me inhuman. as well as the great business of the Church. devout enthusiasm such as his could not remain Stephen IX. " When I am among these am overwhelmed urbanities bishops. a zealot.I08 HISTORY OF ROME manlike head of the Church. ^ ^ . xi. n. and made bold to mock at his hermit moroseness if he forbade them the innocent game of chess. come to Rome. or like soldiers sat. hunted in the Campagna. a Hyrcanian tiger. for this But A : course with the world. his monkish sensitive heart." Damiani complains. a man of stone. with jests and Attic salt. they yet numbered since the days of Leo IX. so does Damiani her His intellect was weak.^ Damiani obeyed the call Damiani to Alexanderand Hildebrand. Ibid. uneducated as were the higher clergy in general at that time. pictures. at this I assume a simple or shame-faced expression. invested these cardinals even at this date with an almost princely importance. with " I and a thousand questions such as reduce If us priests to the level of rhetoricians and jesters. with falcons on their wrists. dice-box in hand. simplicity great. qucB nimirum de toto guidem sacerdote exhibent jnwitim. ad A. He himself relates that he imposed the penance of three psalters and the washing of the feet of The game of twelve poor people on a bishop who played chess. The hermit struggled against intercourse with the cardinals and nobles for. chess was known to Persians and Arabs in the tenth century. Alearum ijisuper ftiricZy vel scachorum. his imagination filled with mystical very reason he influenced the talent overflowing with masses of the people. forced him to buried in a hermitage. Baron. some men Their interdistinguished by learning and intellect.

1874. 1856 . or already found in Rome. she could draw fresh strength from every land with which to renew her youth ? is Damiani the first to mention it in Europe (Florence). Capecelatro. Gesch. It was forbidden by Lewis IX.IN to Ostia THE MIDDLE AGES. Bishop of Lucca Desiderius. . Cardinal of S. . Berlin. Cardinal of S. It was long since Rome had possessed so many distinguished cardinals and this college of counsellors to the Pope went forth Secular Rome to meet a new and brilliant future. called to his aid. Cardinal-bishop of Silva Candida Stephen. Franz Neukirch. were the men who gave a more or less strong impulse to the Church. 1875. Das Leben des Petrus Damiani. Jena. . Concerning Damiani : A. about 1254. these men were foreigners. Vogel. a monk of Cluny Anselm of Badagio. and finally Hildebrand. und Literatur des Schachspiels. Chrysogonus. A. I09 and Rome. and was henceforward employed Church as nuncio. . Remarkable men surrounded a remarkable Pope like the Pope. sprung from the order of Cluny and the rule of S. Antonius von der Linde. whom Stephen IX. when. and popular preacher. Firenze. Pier Datniano e del suo te7npo. 1862. Was it possible for the Roman Church to in the service of the . fall to ruin like a temporal state. more practical and stronger spirits. Göttingen. Cecilia. peacemaker. intercessor. Besides Damiani there were others. but spiritual Rome had been transformed beyond recognition in the briefest space of time. . remained as it was. Abbot of Monte Casino. Benedict. Storia di S. apostle of celibacy. Petrus Damiani. The Burgundian Humbert. unfettered to soil the exhausted of Rome.

His Plans and Death Benedict X. Hildebrand receives aid from THE Normans The new Decree of Election Progress of the Normans They take the Oath OF Allegiance to the Pope Fall of Benedict X. around which FELIX ROMA.^ Stephen. v. the monks brought Rome in treasures. Emperor Constantine.. he cherished at the same time bold schemes for temporal advancement. . Weeping. restored them their Stephen's life was consumed by excitethe midst of his gigantic projects he . the State His princely of the Church was to be extended. after a long interval. however. : Muratori. who had been Leo IX. furthered the reform with all his might. . of the He to even coveted the treasures of the abbey their silver itself. . The German dominion was to be suppressed in Italy. Ant. and to make good the claims which the Church advanced over Southern Italy.no 3.. — — — — — — — While Stephen IX. leaden bull of Stephen IX.'s companion in misfortune at Civita. views were clearly revealed in the inscription " Felix Roma " which is borne by one of his leaden seals and thus. Nicholas II. a pope again adorned the venerable city with a title which had last been bestowed upon her by the Goth Theodoric. which he had brought from Byzantium and deposited in Monte Casino. But he was without resources he consequently demanded the restoration of the gifts . It. 975 . an Italian kingdom to be established under Godfrey. repreis sentation of a city gate. HISTORY OF ROME Stephen IX. hated the Normans he hoped to revenge himself by means of his brother's arms. ment 1 and gold the Pope.

Ill determined to join his brother in Florence but before his departure he made the Romans promise. without foundation. Gregory.. ut fertur. in case of his death. son of Alberic and brother of Benedict IX. scornfully says Or non parlous plus de la de la subcession li de guar Ponor defailli ä et de Rome. ^ Amatus.. still remained head of the Tusculan family he was joined by Count Gerard of Galeria. in imparting another aspect to Italy. . 1058. Peter's chair. and by several distinguished Romans.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. by the sons of Count Crescentius of Monticelli near Tivoli. 1058. had filled S. says. venenum dedisse.^ Had Stephen IX. and all Hildejoined They were by the Crescentians brand's embittered opponents among the married and simonist clergy rose at the same time. 1984. Scarcely had the Pope reached Florence when he died on March 29. 50. With him ended the series of five German popes who. c. that the Romans sent assassins after him : direxerunt post eum : Braczutu77i Transtiberinum /ohannem. since the time of Clement II. Vat. and the various factions which the zeal for reform shown by the foreign popes had called forth. ^ Cod. recover the patriciate and the papal election. auraije Pyre de li Roj?iain. son of Rainer. iii. in unison with his brother. qui in dido iiinei'e.. ou me covient mentir. he would have succeeded. et se je di la v&ite.. fama pontefice Rome puiz que faillirent li Thodesque. to hold no election until Hildebrand's return from Germany. They forced ..^ His death caused an immediate reaction of the nobility both in the city and the surrounding territory. a man of lofty character. The Tusculan party seized the opportunity to Death of ix. . quar se je voill dire la costume et lo Election lor. been granted a longer reign.

but the Empress Agnes sent Hildebrand as her plenipotentiary to Florence in April.y : — monticelly. made Mincius a . remained as Pope in the Lateran throughout the year 1058. . Ep. iv.^ 1984 : de regione S. and Benedict X. 3764 natione Komanus ex Patre Majoris. the deed follows.^ The cardinals. Guidone. Vat.112 their HISTORY OF ROME way to into the city at night. and the populace. and his secular acta in Paul's. and n. i. : m. His (spurious) portrait were year. Benedict was held as a lawful pope in the thirteenth cen- ix. medallions figures among the In autentico . tury. fol. Vat. Cardinal-bishop of the papal chair as by force Benedict X. and on April Velletri. Dipl. Hildebrand came to an understanding with . . to which Honorius III.) gives Theiner ( Cod. 90 (wrongly attributed by Cajetani He calls Benedict X."^ Thus was the laborious work of so many councils suddenly overthrown the captains of the Campagna once more possessed the patrician power. cardinal in 1050. perspeximtis conHe remained as Pope unchallenged for a tineri . Preface. Benedict i Pape predecessoris n. and two of his infeudations. qtws pecunia corruperat Cod. Godfrey of Tuscany offered no opposition. stolidus. Cod. recognised. Maria Maggiore. Lambert Vat. of the popes S. again did homage to a pope of the Tusculan nobility. probably with some exaggeration. viii. 5 raised Benedict John Mincius.. powerlessly thundered their anathemas against the intruders Rome re-echoed with the tumult of the armed attack. deses ac nullius ingenii. Peter's.^ : adjuttis /'actione popiüarzum. . turned in flight. headed by Peter Damiani. to Cadalus). 2 Account of Damiani. coviites Gerardo Raynerri filio 1984. Leo : of Ostia and Bonizo mention the same counts. Temp. Leo IX. Domin. 1058-1059. rejoicing in the gold and even in the treasures plundered from S. 20\b comes galericBy et Albericus co?nes tusculanense et filii Crescentii de ^ Cod. Maria Roman belonging to the city seems to me that Benedict was a his mother is spoken of as dwelling It near S. thus refers b.

Wibert. vii. a man of Jewish descent. imperial vicar in Italy. Some documents in the Reg. it was necessary first to hold a Council at Sutri. and even the Roman nobles. Far/. nisi per ejus Jussiotiis verbum. 905). Leo de Benedicto Christiano.. In July 1059 ^ Lambert ad A. and before the army approached the city. in 1058. and the captains here determined stoutly to defend their Pope. where Benedict's deposition was pronounced end of the year. The Trasteverines. IV. belonging to the faction hostile to Tusculum. party to implore the confirmation of the German regency. that Hildebrand with Beatrix : — they are dated merely ab Incarnatione (n. or their chief. lib. 904. IV.^ all circum- stances willing to remain true to the oath formerly Henry The Empress now commis- sioned Godfrey to bring the Pope-elect to of Rome the Margrave equipped an army. and Gerhard was recognised The members of the Council due form. 671) says had taken in hand the papal election erexit alterum idolum without the knowledge of the Romans legcuvit ilium miserrimujii. but. as in the time Henry HI. IN THE MIDDLE AGES. furious strife had broken out between the hostile factions. (n. 1059. Great exaggerations. opened the at the in all Benzo {ad Heinr. accompanied the duke to Sutri. sent agents to Germany and given to declared themselves under 1 11. chancellor and. 906) bear the date of Benedict X. H . Meanwhile. quod nil ageret.. Godfrey and Beatrix in the election of the Florentine Bishop Gerhard at a Synod in Siena on December Immediate necessity compelled the clerical 1 8.. II Nicholas i>opeTios^. since the death of Victor n. immediately departed for Rome. VOL. Hildebrand succeeded in bribing some of the Romans and even some of the revolted counts.3 .

. Paul's. however. which was in the possession of Regetellus. Ro?nanorti?ji prefedtis.. Gfrörer makes a similar mistake with the name of Petrus de Imperatore. 1060 he signs himself. Vatican. a nobleman of the Trastevere the troops of the Margrave attacked the Lateran. fled to the fort of Passarano. sequently installed without opposition as Nicholas Hildebrand immediately II. Pauli de Urbe." The Prefect Crescentius was called Regetellus. and thence after some time escaped to the Count of Galeria. c..io\. son of the Prefect Crescentius. called insula lycaonia. Copy. 21) therefrom invents son. 4. or Imperiola.2 Benedict X. Reg. pp. out of which he has created a civic emperor. Mscr. John was prefect on April 28. Seniores. not far from Palestrina. who celli in lease : . Farfa^ ^ The edition of the " Annal. n. Reg. . Fol. belonged to the monastery of S... 73 A. where Leo signs himself <i(? Benedido Christiano {Reg. ^' 935)' ^ The : island in the Tiber still is here still . abbreviated into Rege. 1036 also calls the sons of the Prefect Crescentius Regetellu and Raino. 203-207). on January 24. Gfrörer {Gregory VII. Subl.^ Gerhard of Florence. vol. was con. Passarano. * castellwn Passa^'ani apud regent quiftiitfil. Angelo near Montifrom the convent of Subiaco. fol. 935 Johanne dorn. in the time of Gregory de Tusculana. in *ji : deeds. PoüG 1059-1061. hastened to Campania to conclude a provisional Germ. wrongly That the writer was well informed is shown by a document of the year 1060. gives a comite de Benedido Christiano. Reg. Castellum S. a Burgundian. . 1059. 241. 1984. and conferred it upon John Tiniosus. et Rainuciti germanis ßlii de do?niio in 1038 held S. like Monticelli. from which the A catalogue of the property held by Crescentii held it in fief. 7930. Far/. Crescentio . gr. says Passarani cumrocha sua {Archiv. S. i. HISTORY OF ROME upon which Godfrey's troops occupied the Leonina and the island/ On his own authority Nicholas II Hildebrand deprived the Prefect Peter of his office.114 gates. Vat.. the Cod. We see how easily history can be falsified. Paul. Romani " in Moft. Crescentiiprcefedi Ad Cod. says a Leoni. of a "a viceroy appointed by the empress.

. elevated the college of the Roman cardinals into an ecclesiastical senate. . Their expedition may.^ system had suffered at the hands of the civic nobility redoubled the energy of the party of reform under the conduct their The sudden overthrow which of Hildebrand. . . be correctly placed in February. Benedict X. the creation of the hand and brain of Hildebrand. 1984. This celebrated decree. in his first Council the candidate of the nobility. Vat. Nicholas II. It determined that the members of this college. ilium Nykol. The rescue of the papal election from the influence of the Roman nobility.5 IN alliance with the THE MIDDLE AGES. ^ Cod. the prohibition of the marriage of priests and of simony was renewed. was now to be accomplished. a new law concerning papal election was promulgated. pont. to return later with reinforcements. Nicholas IT 's law of election. and. These knights. like of hatred) Agareni.. Benzo first at times. from whose midst alone the popes were necessarily to issue in the course of time. according to their rank as . also of the German crown. in conjunction with the papal mercenaries. consequently assembled (in April 1059) one hundred and thirteen bishops.. attacked the anti-pope in Galeria. with Jaffe. almost all Italian. II Normans. and lastly. calls the The imperialist Normans (out writer of these annals. . and returned bringing three hundred Norman knights to Rome. . if possible. . was here condemned. Hildebrand went forthwith to Apulia ad Riczardum agarenorum comiiem et ordinavit euin principem et pepigit cu7n illo fcedus Tunc dictus princeps niiset tres comites suos cum nominato archidiacono rome cum 300 viilitibus agarenorum in aux. but were obliged to raise the siege of the fortress. the now all-powerful minister in Rome.

xix. n. Paul and S. Episcopos. and S. iia nunc qui spiriiuales sunt universalis Eccl. served in the Lateran seven cardinal-presbyters were assigned to each of the S. L. Tusculum. i. 574. ^ : ap. There See the Ritual Register in Baronius ad A. xx. Ordo. as presbyters and deacons of the Roman titular churches.. to which the clergy and people had only to assent. Ep. to these consuls or . sedis ceditut. n. Maria Maggiore. Albano. S.^ While consequently the civic nobility to represent the still claimed Roman Senate. but the supplementary consent henceforward remained merely a traditional form. Peter. Proeneste. 1061. 1057. basilicas of S. In order finally to remove the collaterals of Ostia. and the appointment of the chiet bishop became the privilege of a priestly minority . Lorenzo were also cardinals..Il6 HISTORY OF ROME bishops of the city territory. lib. Sabina. were. The seven Episcopi . S. twelve cardinal-deacons. ad A. Setiatores. Pope opposed the College of Cardinals and after the promulgation of the decree Damiani already compared the seven cardinal-bishops to the senators the Senate of ancient Rome. ii. The abbots of S. Ältcs. It. which more and more assumed the definite form of a political corporation. six Palatine deacons.^ A monarchical spirit laid hold of the Church. Paul. moreover. The people were ousted from the election its ancient democratic foundation in the community was destroyed. The decree did not as yet completely exclude the three ancient elective orders {Clerus. ad Card. he exalts the seven cardinal-bishops over all Patriarchs of the Church. huic soli studio debent solenter insistere. to Cadalus. . in Baron. ui humanwn genus veri Imperatoris Christi valeant legibus subjugare. Portus. Lorenzo. Popiilus) from the right of election. and the frngment (in some respects differing) in Mabillon. should undertake the actual election. resident in ^ Rome. In Ep. Rufina or Silva Candida.

as his peers. Mon. rex et habetur." ^ After the circle of electors had gradually become the cardinals " narrowed few in the course of time. Ap. . the election of the elector-bishops chief bishop of Christendom lay in the hands of a Roman and priests. 248. It was even declared that the pope might belong to a church determined that outside the city. et sicut jam medi' ante ejus nuntio Longobardie Cancellario Wiberto concessimus. the present king. Germ. p. filii n. Sede personaliter hoc jus impetraverint. . but ^ who in time. investi- Concerning this decree. Die II. 645 .7 IN election from the THE MIDDLE power of it AGES. Mansi. 1879. The right was. succesoribus illius. 903 i. ^ Neuordnung der Papstwahl durch Nicolaus Strassburg. See P. Far/. Henrici qui in prces. et futurus imp.^ ii. however. In ambiguous words it was declared that the election should be accomplished by right of the without prejudice to the reverence due and already granted to our beloved son Henry. xix.. . Hugonis. but that it should be within the power of even a minority of the cardinals canonically to elect a pope at some other place. qui ab Deo concedente speratur. adroitly restricted and reduced to a merely personal honour. a papal and an imperial. it II civic revolutions. ii. which is extant in two versions. Leges. Chron.. Salvo debito honore et rever. Hinschius. dil. Scheffer-Boichhorst. 408 Chron. The Council did not venture to repeal the patrician German crown which the Chancellor Wibert was unwilling to curtail. and with God's will the future emperor. who did not The cardmais^ yet wear the purple. App. a whole literature has arisen with reference to the falsification of one or other. 177. as well as to his successors who should have received in person this right from the sacred chair. Kirchenrecht. was should no longer necessarily be localised in the city. The decree may only have been published after the Norman ture.

. No pope would have ventured on this step during the lifetime of Henry III. and with more pride than the ancient senators. and the marvellous system of the hierarchy consequently soon resembled a giant fortress surrounded by a hundred concentric walls which mutually protected one another. Nicholas popes. nevertheless. the cardinals. in short. might choose good a sagacious electoral aristocracy might do popes . important act of Rome's civic history for ever from the hands of the Roman people and very soon also from those of the imperial power. Among the transforma- by was perhaps the one by which its organisation was furthest removed from its evangelical Although a natural principle is in favour of origin. the practical realisation of the idea.Il8 HISTORY OF ROME shared the temporal rule with the pope. II.. the Church.. however. more skilfully than the Patricians and Senators of all the Romans. A good Patricius or Emperor. the constitution of this college universal suffrage. such as Henry III. and in the main none but the powerful or sagacious will at few any time elect or govern. utilised every interval of enervation of the German empire. The audacity of the design would have rendered Nicholas and Hildebrand more anxious had they not been already assured of the protection of allies. presupposes either primitive con- ditions or a universally diffused intelligence . although the law of election of could not protect the Church from bad was still of incalculable consequence for It removed the most the freedom of the Papacy. the same it . claimed the rank of princes by tions suffered birth.

9 IN THE MIDDLE AGES. she had Italy. whose sons he had faithlessly set aside. life battle for when the Roman Church foresaw her and death with the German kingdom. In 1058 Richard of : . upstarts and usurpers. confirmed Pipin and Charles. and the needs of the Normans themselves united to found a kingdom. had summoned them to and had made them advocates of the sacred chair. kingdom. against the in their In order to create a defence Lombards and the Exarchs. had now ruled as Count the Norman military republic in Apulia since 1056 the successor of his brother Humphrey. her pontiffs placed their hopes on those very Normans who still stood under the Hildebrand's quick eye perban of the Church. to drive them from Italy was shattered with his death. The plan of ^^oi*"^ans. she found herself in a position nearly akin to that which she had held towards Byzantium during the Iconoclastic dispute. II At this time. the needs of the Papacy. and the anarchy in the Papacy favoured the enterprises of the brave Robert Guiscard. were it conditionally recognised. and Calabria already obeyed them. threatened both by the Roman nobles and the German patricians. who. The impotence of the Emperor in Byzantium. and that. — . Now. The Normans had made rapid conquests since Robert nearly all Apulia and the their victory over Leo IX. ceived that this aspiring race would form a dynasty in Italy. the weakness of Germany under the regency. Stephen IX. a twofold advantage might be derived the gain of a vassal state to the Church and a powerful defence against the city of Rome and the German empire. beginning as a humble freebooter.

^ An ambitious warrior probably feared less for the salvation of his soul than for the safety of his conquered and reluctant provinces. Giannone. still it confounded the assailant. excommunicated the Norman as a robber of the Church. Bull of excommunication of Pius IX. contra invasores et usurpatores 2 . ^ 21. Giannone (lib. x. The popes.120 HISTORY OF ROME Aversa snatched the celebrated city of Capua from Landulf V. and boldly turned these spiritual punishments. . 1062 (de .. aliquot provinciaj'wn pontificice ditionis. saw the sons of the last Lombard prince of Capua wandering through the country as beggars. who were rarely in a position to defend their possessions by means of troops. lib. 190) expresses surprise at the great effect produced by the excommunications in his time the historian of the city of Rome has seen them used for the same purposes in his own days. Nicholas II. into weapons for their earthly policy. its mystical effect on the mind of the age being at least as alarming as that of an eclipse. 26 Martii A. i860. its last Lombard prince. which should only have been emplo3^ed in the case of moral guilt. The ancient castaldy of Capua had been wrested from Salerno by Landulf (who died 842) his son Lando had built new Capua at the Pons Casiliujis about 856. in which the Pope might easily stir up Richard only obtained complete dominion over the city on May Meo. Capua had become a principality under Pandulf the Iron-head. Datum Rojnce apud S. Petrum d.^ Soon afterwards Robert Guiscard conquered the fortified town of Troja to which the Pope laid claim. ix. Annali di Napoli). from the ninth century onwards successfully employed the weapons of the inexhaustible armoury of the Lateran. Victor III. If an excommunication did not always stand like a cherub with the flaming sword in front of the threatened patrimony. fulminated their excommunications. at the end..

drew together. 121 he declared him outlawed in the name of God. the Jhe^pope. self-interest. Calabria. both brave. Otto. little The of the despoiled rulers were as regarded as the so-called supremacy of the German empire.^^ and Robert Guiscard. and yield to. The two parties. according to the belief of the age. mighty robbers. the papal recognition would lend a complete and divine authority. who invested strangers with foreign provinces as though these provinces were his own property. marvel at the confidence of a pope. who even ratified these strangers in possession of territories as yet unconquered. summer Holy of They rights here received their conquests. blood-stained condottieri. and Muratori is of opinion that it was just at this time that the additions concerning Benevento. appeared before Nicholas at Melfi.i Richard w^as recognised as Prince ^ The popes derived their rights from the donations of the emperors from Constantine down to Henry II. as of the See.become scrupulous.IN strife if THE MIDDLE AGES. moreover. each desirous of the other's help. in the invincible heroes. Robert's conquests were. The victors of Civita. however. and the State of the Church itself was only founded when the house of Pipin set aside the rights of the Merovingians. sufficiently extensive to form a kingdom. which owed its origin to a theft. to which. faithless and un. where the Pope held a Council 1059. Men beheld one legitimate authority disappear. uninjured by the many denunciations of the Church.. another. We may. Legitimacy has at all times been obliged to serve. . arise. with the fiefs exception of Benevento. Richard of Aversa J. and Henry. and the popes the rights of the Byzantines. and Sicily were introduced into the diplomas of Lewis.

In virtue of the treaty of Melfi. suisque sticcessoribiis qui ineliorwn cardinalitnn eiectione intraverint. . 7neo N. The Counts of Tusculum. 1360:. ßdelis ero S. as Count and Duke. N. since the eleventh century. The Normans took the oath of vassalage to the Pope under the promise of a yearly tribute they swore to aid the . maintenance of her possessions. given by Albinus...^ This fortress. A Robertiis Dei second and longer oath. in the diocese of Silva Candida.'. and. fol. and the anti-pope was for the second time besieged in Galeria. and to render assistance to the popes whom the better of the cardinals should have canonically elected to the Papacy. Eccl. and Cencius give Robert's oath. which was situated fifteen miles distant from Rome on the Via Clodia and the river Arrone. stood under counts. and Sicily was even promised him. Albinus. Jtcj-amentum 2 Pectoris patrirdonii. and first recognised by these new Church in the princes.^ Thus was the decree of election of Nicholas II. &c. Ppe. Guiscard. cw. without any date. as soon as he should have wrested the island from the Arabs and Greeks. vassal Every and every rector of a patrimony swore in these words. fol. begins Ego gr. et sei Petri Dux Apulie et Calabrie et utroque stib: venieiite fitturus Sicilie ab hac et hora et deinceps ero fidelis S. by whom ^ Deusdedit. 806. Vatican.. Duo. E. and Cencius. was customary at that time. &c. Ppe. placed under the armed protection of the Normans. Riccardian.122 HISTORY OF ROME of Capua. The ionnxxXo. p. Nicholas and Hildebrand brought a Norman army back with them to Rome. Tibi Domino meo et Nicol. was invested with Apulia and Calabria. R. Bonizo.of Prseneste and of the Sabina were immediately reduced to obedience. Albinus. R. was the old Domus Culta of Pope Zacharias..

transfer his than Leo of Ostia or Bonizo. of the Maritima. n. and fix the date of his fall in January 1059. to April.^ Count Gerard. who there sheltered Benedict X. and half of the harbour of Gregory VII. I believe. habitator in Territ. fortress.. Gyrardi Mariiimano. Vat.^ ^ Count Gerard died before 1038. In the thirteenth century the Orsini d. ^ Tomassetti {Arch. He presents the church. Maria Maggiore. as the stretch of coast along called at that time. at which Hildebrand employed his power of intrigue to complete his overthrow. I23 had been annexed as a hereditary possession. Jaffe.IN it THE MIDDLE AGES. m. invested the monastery of S. with the most terrible maledictions. Reg. 1068. Roman Tuscany was inch Comes fil. Severa to Farfa. was one of the most powerful of the petty tyrants of Roman Tuscany.. . again deposed him. life-long Fall of x. Soc. and also Giesebrecht. Cod.. Ego Girardus in the possession of the place. 995. the barbarous author of which is better informed therefore be assigned to the The subjugation of Benedict X. A Council. Thirty Roman nobles swore that his personal safety should be respected. degraded him from the ranks of the priesthood. He came to the city and made his abode in his mother's dwelling near S. held parley from the walls.^ v. Agnes Comes near Rome. Paul S. His son was. 1984. 1059. may autumn of 1059. and sentenced him to anti-pope. when Nicholas expelled him from Rome. confinement in the monastery of S. 77 f. He manfully defended himself in his fortress. removal. I think erroneously. b. and only after repeated assaults was obliged to surrender to the Benedict X. Farf. were lords of Galeria.. with Galeria in 1074 j the counts. A. Ro??i. nevertheless. The Catalogues of the popes give him a reign of nine months and twenty or twenty-two days. was the leader of the party opposed to Hildebrand. and had been excommunicated by several popes in succession and lastly by Nicholas.). seem to have remained incliti comitis.

the new . seemed equally met in a common The struggle against Papacy. belonged to this party. The The Counts of Tusculum. irritated alike by the decree ot election. an Alsatian by birth. son of the Prefect Stephen. by the opposing party. demente. the rights of the infringed. and among the clergy themselves the Cardinal of S. however. of Galeria. sympathies almost all the leaders m Rome. . 1061 Election The — Romans and the Lombards summon King Henry to elect a Pope — Milan — The Pataria — The CoTTAS and Ariald — The Followers of Hildebrand elect Anselm of Lucca as Pope — The — German Court elevates Cadalus of Parma. conducted a The union with Germany and the hostile faction. while the city nobility were headed by the unruly Cencius. and nobles vanquished. Indignation in Rome against the Decree of Death of Nicholas. scarcely did the Roman nobility recognise the fact. '' . and the usurped investiture of the Normans. The schism was overcome. in Tuscany and Latmm. The city rights of the German crown. the resistance of the The Norman sword henceforward menaced the neighbourhood of Rome. when they became the determined supporters of the German court. and Rome henceforward. remained divided into a papal and an Hildebrand rallied round his imperial party. these were standard all the supporters of reform outnumbered. for centuries. the Counts of oFoerman Scgni and Ccccauo. Hugo Candidus. the descendants of the Crescentii. of interests of both Rome. formerly enemies of Tusculum.124 HISTORY OF ROME 4.

It belongs to the year 1060. Berardtis de Rainerio de Petrus de Alberico. Piro de Hermerardo. {Prcsfecto). 1060. Guido neptus Guittimanus. 935. Conte Tigrinus de Sarracemts de Sancto Eustatio. they sign themCencius de Pf. 1061. Leo de Benedicto selves as follows : — Christiano. de Tusctdana. . when Rome was tranquil. had been obliged to employ the Normans foreigners whom they hated — for the subjugation of the — city. Eustatio. Adulterinus. Petj'us Obledanus. de Balduino. cardinals. Ego Defranco de S. 154). Leo de Azo. E. April 28. Tuscana. Joh. OcGuidone. Death of catastrophe was consequently unavoidable. complevi et absolvi {Reg. Gregorius Tusculans. Petrus de Beno de Maroza. ejus. died at Florence on July 27. Gregorii. Baroncellus getter de de Stefano Rifice (perhaps Orefice). specifies the most prominent Romans of this time as judges or boni homines (only a few are of the burgher class). tasio. although Cencius de P. Ratterius Monticellus. After the pope. fil. The greater number of these nobles were of papal sympathies. a ^ Nicholas II. (These three are Joh. and consequently. R.) Bernardus de Torena. Benedütus de Episcopo. receiving no sure support among these families. Joh. and some Tusculans figure in the deed. and bishops. Johannis de Berardo." p. Bertramo frater ejus. 1 25 great schism which was soon to break forth in the Church lent the Roman nobility a transient energy many were race. after the city prefect John and the palatine judges.. Petrus de Anas- Joh. Curte. Alberici. Conte de Joh.^ When 1061. that for a long time past they had not sprung from the great families of Rome. printed by Galletti "Gabio. Bracnito. Joh. jj^S^^fy 27. Ego Alexius scrinarius S. Albertus de Otto Curso. Maiza. Durantus de Johannis de Atria. IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Berardus fil. The popes were finally the less qualified to overcome these barons. de Petro Vitioso. Joh. de Faida. iavianus fil. Genzo de Siginulfo. for Farfa. Bonofilius Lanista. others. A placitum of Nicholas II. Cencius Frajampane. of Latin no less zealously fought against the Pope's dominion over the city. Farfa. of adherents of the German origin and consequently German empire.

et patricicdem circulum per episcopos. the ring. the decree of election must be repealed. vii. ^ The . the nobles The Roman nobility elect the German King Patricius. Annal. appealing at the same time to the decree of election of Nicholas H.. IV. ad Heinr. anulum. names these Romans. the young King. partisans of the head stood Cencius. ad A. Chron.^ The conspirators against the new Papacy were therefore conservative and antinational. Cencius and Romanus. the green chlamys.2 Several bishops of Lombardy and the ambassadors of Milan united their entreaties to those of the Romans. and agreed to invest Henry. nee non et Cencio et Romano gertnani. Baruneii filii. the sons of Baruncius. as After this period the name Cencius became it is common in Rome as that of Crescentius (of which an abbrevia- had previously been. Bertholdi. atque per Senatores^ et per eos qui in popolo Benzo. Vat. ^ Mittunt ei clamide7n^ mitram. 1061 Bernoldi.. All the enemies of reform the of Norman invasion.126 HISTORY OF ROME banded together so . tion) . held a parliament in Rome.. Cardinal Hugo with some bishops. lib. . The Counts of the Campagna. per cardinales. and. Vat. with the patriciate and the traditional rights over the papal election. 1984. hac Belizzon Titonis de Caro. eo quod empire at their : erant ßdeles imperatoris. who urged the Empress not to allow her son to be robbed of the rights of the of the city. by which many fortresses the nobility had been destroyed. 672 videbantur prastantiores. must be revenged. They sent the symbols of the patriciate. et Cencio Crescentii Denilla erant ciwi dicto Caduh. Cod. by which no candidate could be raised to the pontificate without Henry's participation. who also first signed the instrument given above Cencius Stephani prafecti aim suis germanis. 1984. Cencius and his brothers. the patriciate restored. and the diadem to the King.. Cod. the mitre. . they summoned him to give a pope to Rome. Berizo and others.

805. ^ The republican beginnings of Milan may date from 1056 when Henry III. For Rome.IN crown.^ Even in earlier centuries the archbishops of Milan had struggled against the absolute power of the Papacy and the right which these prelates claimed of crowning the kings of Italy already made them the rivals of the popes who crowned these kings emperors. . The Milanese clergy were immensely wealthy and " numerous as the sand of the sea." ^ . unlike Reform Sf thT^ j^^JJ^j^^^ Milan. ^ Bonizo. The profound sensation produced by the reform was nowhere greater than at Milan. the paradise of Italy as they called it. The decree of reform consequently aroused the greatest anger where the spiritual offices were pur- chased by the sons of nobles and the greater number of the priests lived with women. died. 12/ terri- They desired a pope from Lombard tory. by means of which it acquired a strong burgher class and a republican constitution. di Alilano^ xxiii. Giulini {Mem. and a determined opponent of celibacy. and its political importance had long obscured even that of Rome.) says non comparisce maipiu dopo qtiesf anno Vepoca reale imperiale nelle carte : milanesi. p. had not as yet risen to the height of actual social conflicts. and these ecclesiastical contrasts became the hotter from being at the same time political and social also. This rich commercial city surpassed all its contemporaries in splendour. But the insubordination of the higher clergy fostered as its antithesis the most fervent zeal for reform among the democratic portion of the people. THE MIDDLE AGES.

who succeeded Heribert archbishopric in 1045. Ambrosii. tradition.2 Council. p. ^ creature of the empire. and by their deacon Ariald obtained distinction These men maintained the closest intercourse with Hildebrand.128 HISTORY OF ROME in the Guido of Velate. on the coronation of the kings of qticc est two Cottas of the Porta miova induti ponere super cathedram marmoreatfiy debent imperatoreni post altare S. however. according to They appear for the first time in Milan. called Pataria. one of which adhered to the Emperor. on the other hand. the Bishop of Lucca. 805 : in other words. ct Herkmbaldo^ concerning the Cotta family brose. e. it is true. they came from Rome with S. The Archbishop Guido. and while one upheld the abuses of the Church. panmsos voca- bant. threw Milan and into equal confusion. the divisions between the parties again broke forth. the other demanded a merciless reform. when Nicholas II. and the death of Nicholas H. that cottis albis was the custom. Puricelli. a Milanese by birth. found its leaders in a few of the nobility. sent Damiani and Anselm of Badagio. de SS. Arialdo 168). the other to the Pope. ^ Rome Eisqtie paupertatem improperantes Paterinos i. became of the people. so that Milan as well as Rome found herself divided into two factions." like the Gueux of the ^ Low Countries. . AmItaly. whither. It (p. The party of reform. Bonizo. family of Cotta. had been 'forced to submit to the fanatic as preacher. was in consequence hated by the reformers. Martyr. Landulf and succcssively captains gj^g ^-j^Q Herlembald. was merely temporary decrees of the . and became the centre around which crowded all the supporters of the ancient system. as his legates to the city. The reconciliation.^ Two brothers of the noble Landuif Heriembald Cotta. "rabble.

had been one of the founders of the Pataria. Leo de Benedicto. he gives the names of the Romans of HiMebrand's party cum Leone procedenti de judaica congregatione.IN THE MIDDLE in AGES. it is true. Anselm of Lucca was placed upon the papal chair by means of the arms of Richard of Capua. returned baffled to Rome. united with the Romans in the endeavour to elect a pope of Hildebrand. : VOL. 672) says that Richard had received 1000 pounds. IV. The ratification. stood by the side of Hildebrand. a Traste- Benzo c. however. I . and. When this legate. In case the King's ratification were obtained the election of Anselm would not directly violate the decree of Nicholas H. after being refused admittance. sinmlque cum Cencio Fi-aiapane atque Brachiuio Johanne {Bniciuto. A tedious schism and disastrous civil wars were necessarily the results the of this audacious step. where some nobles. was not asked for. 3. and John Brazutus. and through his means Hildebrand might consequently hope to obtain a favourable compromise. in ii. and Hildebrand thus openly challenged the regal power. The Abbot Desiderius had induced Richard to conduct the new Pope to Rome. Braczutus. Hilde- brand took courage to sever himself completely from German court. therefore. 1061. (vii. Cencius Frangipane. 1 29 The imperialists Lombardy. He assembled the cardinals on October i. and in conformity with the new decree of election. the faction opposed to The Roman reformers on their side sent the Cardinal Stephen to the German court. caused the Bishop of Lucca to be elected Pope. Alexander 1061-1073. however. but had nevertheless stood in friendly relations to the German court.^ ^ It was. This zealous prelate.

Concerning the conditions then Parma. iv. Op. 28) mentions the Abbot of S. Here the Fraverine According to documents.^ n.. had annulled as . Bernoldi. ordviatus. as Patricius. Nicholas. begins with Leo qui vocatur Frajapane in 1014 . The Council. . and Cod. Papa eligitur et Honorius appellatur. Andreas Clivi . ^ It. Kal. The German and some Lombard bishops had assembled at Basle under the presidency of Wibert and there the Roman envoys. deed in Muratori. c. Ant.. as also the elec- tion of Cadaius anti-pope Honorius Alexander II. illegal the decree of Nicholas II. Chron. : Chadelo Parmensis Ep. Paul Bernried {Vita Gregor. 7. 76. power. Syn. and caused the heads of many a hostile count or consul to fall. and in conjunction with the Roman delegates had raised the Veronese Cadalus. Scauri as being also present at the ordination of Honorius. formally crowned Henry. Storia di Parma (Parma.. however. Farf. to the Papacy. . ad A. VIZ. iii. and existing in ii. The task.130 HISTORY OF ROME only after a violent struggle with the imperialists and by a circuitous route that Anselm was conveyed by night to the Lateran.. 46) mentions Cencius. like a true Norman. at whose head stood Gerard of Galeria and Cencius. was beyond the power of the weak Cadalus. the news of the election of a pope in Germany reached the city. the ten-year old King. While Richard. 1984). however. (Dam. see Ireneo Affb.. 935. Bertram as envoys of the Romans. dwelt in Rome. .. Vat. 1792). Two popes now stood opposed to one another one . 106 1 Nov. The Discept. The elevation ßj^i^Qp ^f Parma. it japani family appears for the first time. : Reg. 797. Sed vicesivia septirna die ante ejus promotionem Lticensis Ep.^ of this prelate was a blunder. and moral strength. The plans of Hildebrand might easily have been frustrated by a man of genius.

Seldom has the world awaited a like struggle with such expectancy. occupied in making preparations to descend in arms to drive his rival from the Lateran. . I3I in Rome.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. factions. The parties no longer selves — which stood behind the two popes were but the two world powers themthe Roman Church and the Roman Empire. the other on the further side of the Alps.

The Bishop of Parma.. Henry a courtier of no reason for opponent. — Before Cadalus advanced against Rome. Alexander Cadalus goes to Italy Benzo Rome as Envoy of the Regent COMES TO Parliament in the Circus and on the Capitol Cadalus conquers the Leonine City goes to Tusculum Godfrey of Tuscany dictates a Truce Revolution in Germany Alexander II. whom he immediately raised to the office of chancellor. weak and dependent. II. in which the hermit implored him to retire from his usurpation. found regarding himself as a usurper. Cadalus paid no heed to the fiery philippics. IV. recognised as Pope (1062) He enters Rome..132 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I. whose inspired pen he employed in writing pamphlets in the cause of Rome. sheltered himself with confidence behind his archdeacon. and in which he announced (though he proved himself a false prophet) his death in the space of a }'ear. with the nobility in Lombardy and with the Normans. Alexander II. Hilde- brand was untiringly active in gaining adherents and in holding negotiations with Godfrey of Tuscany. previously chancellor of some intelligence. — — — — — . His personal qualities were too insignifi- . but sufficient grounds for bestowing the title on his III. By his side stood Damiani.

The adherents of the German court received the lively ambassador at the gate of S. xiii. Peter's with a golden key. and the audacity of his personal attacks. io6i .. as easily as he had opened the gates of venal Rome. in addition. and its phraseology. Lindner {Forschungen zur deutsch. Benzo. vi. Pancrazio and accompanied him with rejoicings to ^ Benzo as envoy^in Rome. Bishop of Alba in Piedmont. in return for their aid to Cadaius.. Genn. He equipped Cadaius troops and descended on Italy in the sprins: JT o of 1062. cant to inspire dread in the followers of Hildebrand but his wealth was princely.^ He began by forming a party for Cadaius in Tuscany. He scorned neither calumnies nor falsehoods. as to remind us of Rabelais. libri vii. Gesch. with the vassals of his bishopric. comes to 1 he imperial party here escorted him with honour Italy. while Beatrix of Tuscany placed obin vain. as also his wit and talent.) takes him to be a . South Italian. Benzo. Imp. 133 . way He made army order to strengthen his to a halt in Parma. and he hoped to open S. had accompanied him as envoy of the Empress to the Romans. he had promised them heaps of gold.. May not some of the songs of the Carmina Burana be due to him ? Benzonis Epis.. from city to stacles in his in city. a flatterer of the German court. is a vulgar swaggerer .. might have made an impression on the Italians if. took the field Romans. is so amusing. a medley of prose and verse. and then against them with the not entirely unsuccessful weapons of satire. his Latin.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. frequently so inventive in however. Albensis ad Heinr. to unite his forces with the rebellious advance against the city. the rabid enemy of Hildebrand and his popes. Benzo. and then tried to induce the Romans to depose a pope who owed his elevation to unlawful means. . Moii.

i). Sibyl.^ The boastful bishop here looked upon himself in the light of a legate of an ancient emperor. Its rows of steps. ^ Counts and dukes also wore lofty mitres at this period. however. as an orator the ruins of the Capitol.^ A parlia^ Ad palaciurn Ocfav tarn {Benzo. c. was animated with a new life in the year 1062. must have still provided seats for a vast throng. dedicated to the most sumptuous amusements of Rome. . '^ Ab qnoddam hypodromitim quia ibi regia mandaiehe videbatur esse . The ancient theatre. he Parliament Circus. in their tall white mitres.^ The nobility assembled in parliament within the remains of some circus or hippodrome. appeared as the patres conscripti in his eyes. Maria in Ara Cceli. the rude consuls and officials of the palace. as they fill it at the present day. its triumphal arches had fallen to decay. ii. to fight no less fanatically for their popes than the factions of the Greens and Blues had once fought on the same spot for their charioteers. grass and weeds filled its arena. where he was assigned a dwelling in the Palace of Octavian. Both its obelisks lay prostrate on the ground. the seat of the legend of the (i. mitre in the miniatures of the Codex of Donizo.134 HISTORY OF ROME the Capitol. the Countess Matilda a conical. and. The Circus Maximus (which again meets us in documents) had suffered from the consequences of five hundred years' neglect since the time when a Gothic king had last celebrated the chariot races within its walls. as the crowd of a barbarous generation now entered it in arms. Tedaldus Marchio wears a round. amid compared may have himself to Cicero at least. Stenzel and Watterich 271) erroneously place the palace on the Palatine instead of in the neighbourhood of S.

. him as a perjured traitor German which he owed the bishopric of Lucca an intruder who had attacked Rome with Norman arms finally. I have nothing to object. the Milanese for the meetings of Parliament. who explained that he had ac. The Pope accordingly rode away with his faction. On the following day he again summoned the imperialists he has left us a pompous parliamentary picture of this " meeting of the Senate. At the same time. the civic element had come more prominently to the front. Circus Maximus. their ancient theatre also served ii. to the He denounced court. to . since the formation senate and the monarchical ideas of the . 1 35 ment on a profane appears significant for the Rome of this age of a clerical shows that. competens miditorium. and Benzo was led back to the Palace of Octavian by his adherents. As he rode to the race-course. and to seek for pardon at Henry's feet. it Papacy had aroused a greater resistance. in the name of the King. . and his presence was in itself a victory for the secular party. Benzo dexterously imparted the character of a Roman popular assembly to the meeting Pope Alexander found himself compelled to attend in person.IN THE MIDDLE site AGES. xxi. instead of the It lay we here suppose the Flaminius to be meant. and Benzo had the satisfaction of addressing him in a violent speech. cepted the election out of fidelity to the King and would send an embassy to Henry. he was . surrounded by cardinals and armed retainers. under the Capitol. if. Giulini. 314. Stormy acclamations followed his speech the reply of Alexander." and has . was received with a wild outcry. he commanded him to vacate the chair of Peter. greeted with tumult.

and these vouch accuracy of Benzo's statement. . had installed him as Pope. son of Berardus. and other nobles of senatorial rank/ The Magister Nicholas explained the means by which Hildebrand had raised Anselm to the pontificate. He was greeted by Benzo. Saxo. John. lacro resonantibus tubis persirepunt taratantara. in tnantica. Bulgamin and his brother. Magister of the Sacred Palace. or Honorius IL. Nicholas. Cencius Francolini. the Chancellor Wibert. Although is possible that Trebatius may only have been introduced for the sake of the rhyme. 4. Saxo de Helpiza. lib. " accompanied by his compatriot. the ancient Trebatii next the president of the judges. whom he found more fickle than " Proteus. the mania of the Romans for tracing their descent from ancient families for the is true to fact. Bonfilius. Bonifilius. Bulgaminus.136 HISTORY OF ROME some speeches of the assembled to their fathers.^ An embassy from the Capitol" then invited Cadalus quickly to take possession of the Papacy. barbata vero genitalia nesciebant sarabara (breeches) et hodie coram elevato simuii. 3 : Nicolaus tnagister it s. Petrus de Via. a scion as he at least believed of . as head of the imperialists. Berardus de Ciza." faithful to his standard. by many of the Roman nobles. strove to keep the Romans. who. c. which he entered on March 25. We - encounter some of these names. and Benzo. a rich and Roman. Palatiiy oriundtis de gen. . recorded who were ranged according illustrious rank first. antiqui Trebatii. ii. Where have we heard friars? that the papal election was in the hands of mendicant Eorum panniculi erant sine utraqtu 7nanica^ in siitistro : dextro latere pendebat Cucurbita. started from Parma and advanced by Bologna to Sutri. Berardus. in documents. ^ Benzo. Gennarius. and by the Cadalus. who awaited him.

since the days of Evander. who spared the citizens after the capture of Rome. Transivimus Tyberim ad portum Flajani.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the fight Cadaius ^^ the . on the other side of the Tiber. Hundreds of the slain covered the Neronian Field many attack . who a short time afterwards wrote an indignant letter to Cadalus. in the . however. and the memory of a Gothic king was thus reverenced even in days when the sole record of his deeds survived . Liber Poiitificalis. . unable to force his way into the city. He here remained five days.^ p.^ was fierce and bloody. Terrified. sounded with lamentations. recalled the memory of the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey he called to mind the clemency of Totila. Hildebrand's adherents made an Count of encamped Galeria. Altahens. Rome had not witnessed a like defeat. or through Trastevere he did not venture to remain in the Leonina. Even Damiani. which Ostia and ^ between Rome. 137 They marched to Rome and by Mount Mario. withdrew to the fortress of Flajanum. but again removed his camp to the Neronian Field.^ received a reinforce^ The editor of Benzo in the M071. Cadalus was. Giesel) wrongly corrects to portam Flaminii. Germ. either across the bridge of Hadrian. the city re- Leonma. It is the ford across the Tiber at Fiano {Flajanum^ the brecht [Ann. when he heard of Godfrey's approach. in a note erroneously lies holds this Galeria on the Arrone for Ponte Galera. while the conquerors exulted in the thought that. Romans met their death in the river . Alexander's plenipotentiary. 217. not. he broke up his camp. says Benzo. but Cadalus entered the Leonina as victor on April 14. After a fruitless negotiation with Leo de Benedicto.

Petrus excell. The title was hereditary among the Tusculans. romanor. 1066 (Gattula. 618 S. Territor.. allies of Alexander.. 574). We cannot conclude with Curtius that he actually possessed power in the city. Far/. CoUinesi infra Cas: quod dicitur F/aja?iuvi (pp. in the Reg. 1197). son of Alberic III. The 702. his brother calls himseh et Dom. through Pantaleo. {Reg. 559. but in vain .^ The hopes of Honorius II. negotiations with the Romans or with Benzo. p. Concerning Fiano to this spot. In a document of December 26. vir Consul Dux atque omn. montem Soracten . abbat. Coll. and encamped near the fortress.. Senator. Burellus newed his proposals. Petri Diaconi. Gregory. who recognised him as Pope and eagerly seized on the Roman schism in order to drive the Normans. i. IX. and had invited them to induce the German regency to undertake a common Constantine reenterprise against the Normans. and in consequence invariably called themselves Consuls or Senators of the Romans. and Ptolemy..138 HISTORY OF ROME ment of one thousand men under the sons of Count from Campania. claim legitimate rights over Rome. joined forces with the Counts of Tusculum. which was commanded at the time by one of the sons or nephews of Alberic.^ and fol. 235)." with regard Thus. Casin. calls Gregory. were also revived by the ambassadors of the Greek emperor. Hist. Roinanor. " Campagna Romana. ancient Flavianum) 26 miles from Maries qua telhwiy lay stiptus est Rome. out of Italy with the help of AlexConstantine Ducas had already held ander's rival. a member of the same family. Octavian or These nobles continued to Peter. ^ Tomassetti. Prefect of Amalfi. for Godfrey's appearance produced a sudden change. Farf. . Chron. ad pontem de Flajano in territ. and brother of Benedict himself in 1063 consul. n.

hermit in 1060. while he himself would go to the German court in order to have the dispute adjusted. In his Apologetica to Hildebrand and Alexander. di Matilde. Damiani life and thither Cardinal sent in a letter of Weary .^ When Godfrey entered into negotiations ^ Fiorentini {Memor. son of Stephen. Cadalus was satisfied to have purchased this intervention and his own retreat to Parma with large sums tive . He advanced to the Milvian Bridge and summoned both parties to lay down their arms. ^ According to the Anal. which frequently employed him as legate. 72) is silent concerning the between Godfrey and Cadalus. Paul and the Leonine city. now endeavoured to obtain the German court. found himself in possession of S. which are. the Had merely resolved to play the role of the authoritamediator since. by which the two popes were required to return to their bishoprics. he depicts the despotic character of the former jestingly but with negotiations . Damiani was a ii. of money. revealed by Damiani's letter to the duke.^ The duke placed a garrison in Rome . Each of the two parties support of the vindication. where Cencius. as he explained. 236. He Godfrey of jnte^rSdes. but the party of Cadalus retained the fortress of S. Angelo.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. it fell to him to conduct the popes to Rome. 1 39 husband of Beatrix been a man of genius he would have availed himself of the opportunity to seize the patriciate and to found an Italian kingdom. and Alexander also obediently returned to Lucca. the saint had resigned the bishopric of Ostia and withdrawn to Fonte Avellana he nevertheless continued to serve the Church. i. He dictated terms at Tusculum. Cam aid xvii. however. Godfrey went thither. . of his Rome.

^ Hanno govern- of Germany. Godefredo monaclms y apology on Alexander's Marchioni Petrus peccator His letter of Baronius erroneously places it in 1064. Damiani had addressed him an indignant letter and he now defended the cause of the Roman Church in a pamphlet . . opinion concerning Henry's royal He is here unfaithful to his earlier right. . and had himself usurped the regency. on October 28. had wrested the government from the hands of the Empress. in the form of a dialogue. 49. qui vocein : me colaphizando demulsit que mihi Neroiatia sejnper pietate hanc querulns erumpet in — Ecce latibuluni petit. 1062.. Defensorem.140 HISTORY OF ROME with the excommunicated Cadalus. The eccentric monk : carved spoons. made truth : possible blaiidus by Hanno. Dam. should set aside the election of Cadalus and declare Alexander H. &c. p. to be recognised. et for even ilk condohdt. with which Hildebrand's policy was not wholly unconnected. quia ligno vita pependit Sic modicum magno lignu?n pretiosius auro. excell. The victory of Hildebrand's part}^ . sub colore pccnitenticz Roma: subter- fugere quccrit. et Duci is election the Disceptatio synodalis inter Regis advocatum et R. — iv. . E. . and easily succeeded in arranging that a Council at Augsburg. which he sent with verses as presents to the Pope Dent alii fulvum trutina librante metallum Sed ?nundus vivit. The Archbishop Hanno of Cologne in concert with Duke Godfrey in Unforeseen events Cologne seizes the ment in Germany. meanwhile favoured Alexander's cause. had forcibly kidnapped the boyish Henry. . ^ . was complete iyrannus. the legal Pope. This false and avaricious prelate was born to work the mishe surfortune of Germany and of the empire rendered the rights of the crown in causing the decree of election of Nicholas H.

Hanno is overthrown in Germany CiVIL II. however. They were not. and a reaction at the German court gave him promise of a speedy victory. as well as the Sabina and Campagna. and Alexander IL. the most intelligent member and the soul of the imperial faction. master only of the city itself. Godfrey was appointed missus for Rome.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. where they besieged or destroyed the fortresses of the counts. The unfortunate pretender. took up his abode in fear in the . I4I Wibert. was supplanted. Lateran. RETURNS to RoME ING THE Papacy — Fall — SECOND of — Cadalus CONCERNCadalus — Final WaR . received their Godfrey's Pope with great joy in January 1063 army united with the Normans and held Rome. 1063. exhausted his wealth at Parma in raising troops for a fresh expedition to Rome. and urgently implored the Empress Agnes for the restoration of their Pope. RECOGNITION OF ALEXANDER The Germans had renounced Cadalus but the Romans remained faithful to his standard. 2. who found himself betrayed by the German court. and the office of Chancellor of Italy was transferred to Bishop At the same time Duke Gregory of Vercelli. therefore. Many Lombard bishops lent him their support. Alexander the^"^^'^^ Lateran. The treacherous Hanno had been sup- . whither he was deputed to conduct Alexander from Lucca. in a position to drive the Roman adherents of the empire out of Johannipolis and the Leonina. The followers of Hildebrand.

Peter's at appeared before Rome. forth The schism broke a second time . civil war was renewed in 1063. with whom he united his Roman The Cadalus Pete?s^* 1063. Albert in Hanno now endeavoured to counteract Rome he exhorted the Romans courage- ously to persevere. abode in S. Cadalus could therefore only reckon on the support of his own mercenaries. pestiferis ad Am.^ ^ Bonizo. could neither send a strong rein- forcement to Rome.142 HISTORY OF ROME the planted in brilliant favour of the young and ambitious Albert. while on the other side the confusion of Germany and the youth of the King made a Roman expedition impossible. Godfrey of Tuscany pursued a like policy. but which were carried on with such insignificant forces as to excite more astonishment than sympathy. the Christian world looked with indignation on the re- peated struggles of two popes for the tiara. Petri : . nor did they desire to do so. ' adherents.. struggles which stained Rome with blood. and were already directing covetous glances towards the Roman Campagna. p. the party of the Empress again . 807 adjuvantibiis Capitaneis et qtdbttsd. b. and counselled Cadalus to retain possession of the sacred chair and Benzo to bring him back to Rome. Romanis noctu civitatem Leoninam intravit et eccl. Angelo under ^"^ight» ^"^ ^^°^ '^P ^^^ His troops hereupon the protection of Cencius. seized the govern- ment. Richard of Capua and Robert Guiscard. when Cadalus He seized S. King by the Bishop of Bremen . continually occupied in Southern Italy. These astute princes were gainers by the continued anarchy.

struggle took place. . and the Romans danced with exultation round Cadalus. A furious The safety of Alexander II. natural. or artificially constructed. was indefinitely prolonged. Benzo. fortresses." lay in the swords of the Norman knights.. the papal feudal nobility a formal republic of nobles must have been instituted. the golden calf It was that the adjacent arranged towns should alternow nately place a garrison in Rome ^ Hildebrand's party gained strength through reinforcements of Normans and even Tuscans. and the bitter civil war . . and richly rewarded the militia. the two were. p°p^^' For more than a century nobles and abbots had built towers or had transformed monuments into invadit ^ —consilio Cencii cujusd. . furs and silken garments on the counts.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 18. " the idol of the Normans. ibiq. ut per vices custodirent urbeni ex coniiguis civitatibus sufficiens comitatus. Angeli intravit. ii. Romani castrum s. No other place in the for a civil world afforded such opportunities it war as as Civil war Rome. The attempt failed. until the Counts of the Campagna again hazarded an attack upon the papal palace. Cadalus were street they now hoped really to gain possession of the Lateran the combatants. pestiferi est. I43 sought to open a way to the Lateran. although the Normans suffered losses from an ambuscade beside the opus Praxitelis^ where the two marble colossi stood in the Baths of ConThe grateful anti-pope heaped costly stantine. c. All power in Rome \ belonged at this time to the captains. however. where the monuments of antiquity provided. in exhaustion rested for a month. se tutatus Decretum est post hec ex constäto senatus. whose courage was inflamed by but after a hot engagement in the Hildebrand driven back to the Coelian.

received the Patarines in the Lateran. were possible to bestow a glance on the Rome of this period.^ ^ Damiani to Hanno. trembled at the thought Romans. Cadalus. Cadalus. twisting serpent. would meet our gaze. head. the root of sin. He therefore scattered gold incessantly." in a hateful. as Benzo calls him. . while the two popes. and strewed the world with " nettles and vipers. the shipwreck of chastity." In such grotesque manner did the opponents assail one another in pamphlets. short.144 HISTORY OF ROME it towers. issuing decrees and heaping anathemas on one another's the Campagna. Ep. singing masses. the food of hell. and. and to the young King. on whose behalf it was waged. however. into whose lap the god descended in a shower of being betrayed by the fickle of gold. and Damiani might fitly have likened him to Jupiter. the the arrow from the all bow of Satan. sat. one in the Lateran. had promised Cadalus to bear the office of captain during alternate months in and bulls. and Rome to Danae. the other in Hadrian's fortress. iii. enemy of man- kind. " the spoiler of the Church. as well as on many of the civil squares and streets. among them Rapizo of Todi. the apostle of Antichrist. vi. lib. the herald of the devil." lay in Hadrian's mausoleum and set the world in motion for his pleasure while Alexander. or Asinander. the rod of Asher. the " scum of the century. continued to issue decrees against the marriage of priests. . The German Counts of Rome. the destroyer of apostolic discipline. For more than a year Rome prosecuted this terrible war. a forest of dark fortified palaces and of towers on every bridge.

IV. sentina vittorum. in which he reminded the princes of the glorious expeditions of the Ottos.— IN — THE MIDDLE AGES. Letter iii. which you are unwilling and Paul. Paul's. . the Gauls. therefore. From the citadel of the empire deliver us. you have surrendered it to the Normans. From Salerno and Amalfi deliver us. iii. Normanni enim aspirant sibi subjicere — et —castrum cito : Romani perdiderunt unum ex s. from the heathen. lib. wrote name of the Romans to King Henry and to Albert. betray this possession. but finally and for ever to the Germans. Pauli^ altera pars imperii^ perventuri in Capitolium. of Conrad. et sepibus^ Kt ^ replevit totam terrain urticis et vepribtis. He says wittily apostolis. said this curious bishop. Instead of retaining Italy as your fathers did. to preserve to it. quod erit Suevis in alterum obprobium. their bitter tongues as 848) : Sed Prandelli Asinander^ asinus Congregavit Patarinos ex viis hareticus. c. the fortress of the Roman empire. saints aboniinatio cceli. and of Henry to Rome. Lord deliver us. : serpens lubrzcus. vii. coluber tortuosus^ stercus hominuni. t. From Apulia and Calabria deliver us. however. You counsellors of the German empire. and you Germans now pray the curious prayer : From all that is good. The well as the harlequin -like knew how to use ßenzo. and the Lombards. From Naples and Gerentia deliver us. Ep. From Benevento and Capua deliver us. 1 45 A fresh Norman host meanwhile laid siege to the Porta Appia and S. letters of complaint in the Benzo. who says (v. latrina criminum^ castitatis. one with the cross. najifragittni &c. K . the other with the sword these saints gave it to the Greeks.i The apostles Peter conquered Rome. VOL.

Nego- and embassies went and came. Albert. . remained hopeless. Corsica and Sardinia deliver us. After having spent more avail ' But of what Ab omni bono libera nos Domijie. Benzo went. : A Benevento Capua libera nos Dojuine^ Sec. urgently to exhort the young King to make an expedition to Rome. noster rex senatores. If these show that the Emperor continued Romans to civic dignities. where they appeared as messengers of heaven to the despairing Cadalus. Haimo the Romans. that Scipio and Cato. ut de militib. and who vainly awaited ousted Henry's arrival. they perhaps to elect ad principian honores (iii. Fabius and Cicero had arisen among them.146 HISTORY OF ROME From From beautiful Sicily deliver us. 24). Ab arce imperii libera nos Dofnine. Constantine Ducas also promised a fleet and an army. that the King would make senators of their milites. de senaforib. Peter's. Benzo would now (1862) hear in Germany itself the invocation Lombardia et Venetia libera nos Domine. and princes of their senators ? ^ Honorlus II. Angelo. ^ a Dignnm est ergo. exaltet are not merely phrases. Agents of the Greeks and Lombards from Bari were brought by Pantaleo of Amalfi to S. Ab Apulia et Calabi'ia libera nos Domine. Romatiis facial dorn.^ The messenger who bore tiations the letter returned with the futile promise of an expedition to Rome. He immediately sent Benzo (who spoke German) to Quedlinburg. were the flattering protestations that the Romans were worthy of their ancestors. Hildebrand's party regained the upper hand in Germany. and returned with assurances which he magniloquently delivered to the Romans in S. finally abjured a Pope who had become irksome to them.

n. the year 1066. Alexander entered Rome under the protection of Godfrey. deutsch. 105. unius jumenti adjumento inler 07-atores Bciretum cegre pervenit.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. at which Honorius H. May 1064. p. and cited to appear. Kaiserzeit. Altahetises. robbed even at the last by his protector Cencius. Annales 5. iv. April 107 1 Document 29 and 30. d. 807 unoqtte dientulo contentus. he was declared deposed on and Alexander was recognised as Alexander Honorius lived for some years longer nised as lawful Pope. : Cadalus was still living ^ on ii. ad Am.^ Hanno won a complete victory over his opponent..) 2 Concerning the year of the Council in Mantua. ander H. see Giesebrecht ^ in the Annales Altahenses. ^ und pp. ^°P^' ^°^'^' as bishop in Parma. Peter — — — — — — — — — — Hildebrand had attained his object. an attack which he later undertook against Mantua proving unsuccessful. and the opposing faction submitted to the 31.^ 3. Growing Power of Hildebrand Efforts for Reform The Normans Richard's Revolt and March to Rome Godfrey and the Pope lead an Army against him Fresh Treaty The Empress Agnes takes the Veil in Rome Fighting IN Milan Herlembald Cotta Miles of Death of Ariald. Gesch. History of Parma . S. He had already demanded a settlement of the schism he now required that Alexat a German Council . in Affo. since the feeble attempts of the German regency to maintain Bonizo. 183.2 The schism was at an end. Cadalus was obliged to ride forth a fugitive. (This in ^ . should be Honorius failed to respond. himself should convene a Synod for form's sake in Mantua. rule of Hildebrand. I47 than a year vainly sighing in Hadrian's tomb.

leo fortisy Cis ?nare vel citra tu Presso * namque tua calce dracotie. the god of the very Pope who owed the nod of William of lo6i. lib. which no less full es. i^fl^. Roman reminiscences — Tajitus Casar. tefacit ipse deum. inspired by a different ideal of the Church to that of Hildebrand. quam dof?ino pareo Papce... Landulf. Scipio. sed te prosiratus adoro : Tu facis hunc dominum. c.^ The weak Peter Damiani. n. Vivere vis RomcB. PapafU rite colo.148 HISTORY OF ROME baffled the patriciate were by the recognition of Alexander. exilis staturce.. Ad Hildebrandum. ZT/j/. With this we may compare is Benzo's panegyric of poem on Henry IV.^ in Baron. : 15. '• him the ^ tiara. despiciabilis parentela. 31. 6). celebrated de gest. his " holy Satan/' with reverent dislike he said that he was more obedient to this man than to God and S. or Caesar. iv. Roniana7n quasi imperaior regebat The Archbishop Alphanus of Salerno him in an ode Roma quid Scipionibus Catej'isque Quiritibiis Debuit i?iage quam tibi ? Cuius est studiis sua Nacta via potentia. the ruler. Victor habes palmam cum Scipiotu. the mighty spirit and marv^elled at displayed by a man of such humble and concealed within such an insignificant form. jnilitiain iii. Malmesbury. : (iv. quantus et orbis . and the claims of the crown over the papal election could now be more emphatically encountered.^ The Church hung on Homuncionem iii. dara depromito voce : Plus domino Papa. . Growing power of Hildebrandj Contemporaries likened the remarkable monk origin to Marius. regarded the latter. Carmina^ in — torn. Peter he even calls him . Anglor. Residens in palatio. . ad A.

The papal palace received ambassadors from the whole of Christendom. Godfrey or his wife protected Rome to the north the Norman vassals served as a bulwark to the south. princes. The fickle Cardinal Hugo Candidus also yielded and. and men of the highest reputation and rank hastened thither to attend the Council. . was now. the Crescentii Tusculans were crushed fear of the the Normans and of Godfrey checked every attempt at revolt. THE MIDDLE who AGES.IN this life. Rome. returned to the bosom of the Church. The ties of civil society were severed. . and bishops. from motives of self interest. and apart from their swords Alexander IL could never have defended himself against Cadalus. suddenly exalted into the capital of the world. which. . and be transformed into an army of monks in the papal service. The Pope hurled anathemas against the recalcitrant bishops and priests. The Roman to strive nobility did not for the moment dare and for the temporal power. in the period of the Crescentii and the Tusculans. had ceased to be the centre of Christendom. who submitted by degrees. by Hildebrand's energy. in marriage ^^ P"^^*^" order that the ranks of the priesthood might be deprived of their human foundations. I49 enigmatic man. Never had the like activity reigned in the Lateran. The popes . invested her with a new Prohibition Meanwhile Christianity found itself plunged into a social revolution by the prohibition of marriage among the clergy. The Normans had already rendered great services to the Church the first free papal election had been accomplished by their agency.

had lost the hope of German He suddenly crossed the Liris. ipsiusque * — jam urbis patriciatuni omriibus modis ambiret. traversed and devastated Latium. He suddenly broke his oath of vassalage (in 1066) and from a protector became an open enemy of the Church. took intervention. encamped in the neighbourhood of Rome. 1066. the King returned to Augsburg. which had hitherto been warned The young Henry in vain by Cadalus and Benzo. who with the overthrow of Honorius II. ad A. c.ISO HISTORY OF ROME were consequently under greater obligations to these vassals than they actually felt towards them. Perhaps the reward given to Richard of Capua did not correspond to the promises he had received. and years after the battle of Civita. but Godfrey failing to join him as pre-arranged. Ceprano. iii. further terrified the German court. 23: cum subjngata Campania^ ad RomiT jam se vicinatn /^onexisset. It is possible that he may have been secretly summoned by the Counts of the Campagna and the Romans. . or obstacles may have been placed in the way of his progress. a dignity which had doubtless been promised him by Hildebrand's opponents.^ Thus far had the Normans advanced only thirteen advantage. The conquests of Richard in Campania. During the time of the schism he had already Richard of known how to turn circumstances to his Capua advances against Rome. had already departed for Italy before the tidings reached him of Richard's march against Rome. and demanded the dignity of Patricius. he had been emboldened by his rapid success. where he had surprised Ga^ta as early as 1063. Leo of Ostia. The Margrave of Lupus Protospata.

iii. Bonizo.^ Famine and fever thinned Godfrey's army. iii. 809. in May 1067. to 1548. The Normans re- treated on Godfrey's approach Richard threw himself on Capua. as Patricius 151 Tuscany. Diplom. True. With the Margrave was his stepdaughter. Angelo di Todici near Aquino. Priiicipi obtulit. 1808). . Naples. and the Normans The finally attained their desires by means of gold. who regarded himself of Rome. ssec.^ . Aquino belonged from x. As Godfrey. Dux. he had restored the Campagna to the Church. 809 Amatus.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. In 1045 Gseta chose Adenolf. Aquinas in M. the ruin of the Normans seemed himself for eighteen Jordan. ad Am. who now perhaps entered Rome for the first time and rendered her first service to the Church. . accompanied by the Pope and the cardinals. Godfrey Richard.. Apostolor. meanwhile hastily advanced. 10 . now advanced with greater power against Aquino certain . summoned by Hildebrand.. p. the young Countess Matilda. ad Am. Pasquale e pro/ana p. ^ Bonizo. to Lombard counts of the family of Landulf. to intercept the enemy's approach. but Rome remained insecure against another attack on the part of her dangerous neighbours. c. manfully defended days near the clty. as Richard was overlord of Aquino. 950 Cayro {Storia sacra ^ The Cod. and had forced the Normans to a fresh treaty of vassalage. Casino extends from The history of the city has been written by D. avaricious Margrave not unwillingly betrayed the hopes of the Roman Curia he held negotiations with Jordan at the bridge of S.^ . and to the great grief of the Pope set forth on his retreat. however. but nevertheless the counts remained. ^ Et hoc pri7m0n servitium excellentissima Bonifacii filia b. d' Aquino. the resident count. and his son Jordan encamped on the plain near Aquino. Leo of Ostia.

Christendom. Rome pious to learn the simplicity of the fisherman. and Hildebrand could The storm had again pursue his plans undisturbed.. made her weary of life. The cardinal addressed the illustrious lady in exhortations conceived in the spirit of S. Cavenses. and the loss of her influence over her dissolute son. and riding a miserable palfrey. 1066 Dicx Cottefiydtis veiiit in Carnpaiiia. : : . The same year he had the satisfaction of seeing the Empress (1067) herself arrive in Rome in the humble guise of a The conscience of Henry's mother.152 HISTORY OF ROME died away. had been troubled by the exhortations of a monk of Cluny. The Annal. and he pointed out the case of her own husband. but that the Empress Agnes had come to divided . 1067.. The deposed Empress came to Rome disguised in a linen garment. The strife of factions for the regency. rightly give the year 1067 Gotfridus dux cum valido exercitu in Campaniam venit usque Aquinum. iii. who had sunk But the i. . Ayitiq. a prayer book in her hands. into the grave in the prime of manhood. 854. who proclaimed in triumph that the Queen of Sheba had gone to Jerusalem to be instructed by Solomon. a woman who had been the cause of a schism that had penitent. The Empress Agnes comes to Rome. 56. She wished to exchange the diadem for the veil she threw herself weeping at the grave of the apostle and confessed to the monk Damiani. ^ Damiani's first letter to her Opuscul. however. Tom. Jerome he wrote her several letters. which he quoted the tragic figures of the may still be read Roman emperors. Agnes says Riccardtis fiigavit Gotfridmn.^ c. whose fleeting rule or terrible fates illustrate the instability of all earthly greatness. It. 25. : The " Chronicle of Amalfi" (Murat. 213) even : The Annales Bcneventaiii A.

A. Germ. but was persuaded by Ariald's means to take up arms like Judas Maccabeus in the service of the Church. amid heroic struggles against the Milan.^ Herlembald consequently succeeded to the position of his dead brother Landulf. 361. Landulfs . anima admirabili. who had violated his marriage bed. brother cherished in addition political aims. energetically governed it for some years. was filled with bitter hatred of the luxurious priests. quasi purpuream : — gerens. . a short time to Germany ^ Landulf (Senior iii. in Rome until 1067. the great nobles and the clergy. tenuivtdtu^ oculis aquilinus^ pectore leonino.nor Ö power in of the city and. He made Archbishop Guido.. 14) describes his figure Herlembaldus ex magna prosapia capitaneorum oriundus^ 7niles ut natura dabat strenuissimuSf barbam ut usus antiquus extgebat. See note 31 She returned to Siegb. Rome was more edification than a the and pious for the former regent could also serve Hilde- brand as a political instrument by means of which he could work on Henry and on Germany. after the fall of Lanzo de Curte at the hands of the Nobili he was chosen as Captain by the Ariald and people of Milan. c. 1 53 presence of the Empress in subject of triumph faithful . Mon. one of the foremost characters of the age. viii. for Chron. Befriended by Alexander H. The Herlembald Cotta. who seem already to have acquired bald Cotta vigorous "^^ ^°. a democratic constitution.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. himself Sie.^ in 1072. Returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem he wished to take the cowl. who was also a did not go to 1062. The struggle for reform was again burning fiercely in Milan. Two brave men there supported the cause of Rome but if the deacon Ariald was zealous solely for the accomplishment of reform.

hi publico Consistorio vexillum et s. abneget se ipsum. ^ Ada Sctor. Could Herlembald.^ p. that Peter : . Ecclesia vexilliferumfecit. favoured with the fortune that attended the Normans.154 HISTORY OF ROME Milanese. In 1066 Alexander II. . p.. however. many curious figures of the kind Herlembald and Ariald. it is difficult to understand natures such as these.^ In the present day. natures actuated by wild demoniac passions and inflamed with love and hate. and in the beginning of the great struggle between the Church and the empire. head the procession. Babyla at Milan. They constitute. The Pope supported the tyranny of the ambitious captain. one of the attractive features of the Middle Ages. received both men in full consistory at Rome. Herlembald and Ariald went to and fro between Milan to concert their common plans. he could have reduced the Lombard clergy and nobles to submission. Ambrosius. whom a monkish piety did not prevent from appearing like a powerful duke in sumptuous apparel. The Milanese Arnulf hereupon remarks maliciously had never borne such a deadly banner. pronounced Rome and him a knight of the Church. which represents Herlembald as fuiles artnatiis beside S. a monkish pass before us soldier and a fanatic deacon. 2*] Jun. as a vassal to the Papacy. 279. when the ardour of powerful spirits and the plastic individuality of a mighty manhood are becoming increasingly rare. The Acta. provided that. 291 : : Alex. and giving Herlembald a white banner adorned with a red cross. but on the contrary qui vult post itie venire. the Pope would have tolerated his usurpation. had said Sctor. have succeeded in making himself ruler of North Italy. speak of an ancient picture in S. Petri Herlembaldo dedit eumque RomancE univ.

We have described them. the Papacy had passed through no period of greater violence. and even raised a successor in his stead.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. followed by a furious struggle. 4. Their return to Milan was. Herlembald. 155 These two men succeeded in prevailing on the Pope to excommunicate the Archbishop Guido. since the time of the Iconoclastic controversy. so completely gained the upper hand. however. and. in the absence of any such account. Weakness of the Pope in Rome Dissolution of THE State of the Church — City Prefecture Cencius. Prefect of the City Death of Godfrey of Tuscany Death of Peter Damiani Monte Casino Festival of the Dedication of the — — — — II. for the sake of the faction revenues. many events in Rome would remain unintelligible. in which Ariald fell a victim. more Tuscany and in his bishopric of Lucca. The Pope was in especially in constant activity outside Rome. however. that he banished the archbishop. he continued to retain after his elevation to the Papacy. its which. — — Basilica rebuilt by Desiderius (107 i). reduced to the condition of the excited city remained of the nobility had been insecure. Although silence. since. and Alexander willingly left it as often as . The pious zealot was seized by his opponents in attempting to escape and suffered a terrible martyrdom. The struggles for reform filled the pontificate of Alexander with feverish unrest. Such was the condition of affairs in Milan. Head of the Malcontents — Cinthius.

In Rome the great families ridiculed the territorial supremacy of the Pope. vos Ostiensim comitatum mihi for having relieved him of the county : subtraxisse el alii iradidisse. consuls. and Ancona in the name of the Emperor. Rtidolphi^ ii. and duces as judges. — formed solely in reality Dominion of the Church these provinces were severed into a hundred in idea the itself petty baronies. 2 Thus in Ostia. 30). . who. administrators and judges. The popes. Fermo. judex s. and officials of finance. xv. . Palatii in Osimo this instance probably belongs to the period when Victor II. and Roman Tuscany . in which they installed their viscounts and in such bishoprics and abbeys as enjoyed immunity the prelates themselves possessed the jurisdiction of counts and appointed their own fortresses. ruled Spoleto.156 Decay of ^ HISTORY OF ROME onhe cuurch. His temporal authority was reduced to the narrowest Hmits and the Papacy remained utterly powerless against the Counts of the Campagna. to the most distant even to the Pentapolis and Romagna. thanks Alexander II. Sec. (Ep. Damiani. who wished to resign his bishopric. Damiani ( Vita s. The nobles or Senate administered the civic government and justice 1 The Pope still frequently appointed judges for distant places. . the bishop possessed the jurisdiction of count. Maritima. had sent their rectors. had become hereditary lords of the cities. now scarcely possessed such authority in the immediate neighbourhood of Rome. . formerly officials or tenants of the Church. a part of the Sabina. generals. .^ The Carolingian State of the Church was broken up counts. he could.^ As much of the State the of the Church as had been preserved — Latium. in Carolingian times. a Roman. 497) thus calls Stephen.

but. 1060) shows that the court was comNicholas II. Farf. . episc.. 1 57 under the accustomed in The Pope either presided as hitherto the civil tribunal. Farfa. The Romans. The popes naturally endeavoured to reduce the prefecture from an imperial to a papal office and succeeded at this time at least in frequently installing prefects without regard to the imperial investiture. A deed of October 8. loio) shows Hildebrand as vicegerent of the Pope assidentib. therein restores to Farfa the property of which it had been robbed by the Crescentii. . or was represented by his deputy. judicibus. deprived of the papal election from the time of Nicholas II.^^^ . ac Romanor. majoribus. Even cencius after the fall of Cadalus the Roman Cencius con. x. examine into the legal claims.. and the appointment of the prefect. The election to this office occasioned a violent The city dispute in the last days of Alexander II.^ was more important than ever. held obstinately to the right of choosing the most important of their city magisthey elected the prefect in a parliament. . IN THE MIDDLE forms. or consented to the pope's giving it in his stead. as a rule.^ n. filled the city with tumult. n. At this period the City The City civil justice. after having empowered the Prefect . et presbyteris cardinalibus nee non prceThe trial proceeds according fecto. trates as often as the prefect could make good his patrician power. AGES. posed as in ssec. Far/. the emperor gave him the investiture. 935 (April 28. ^ Reg. Prefect not only exercised a large share in but as president of the criminal tribunal possessed the right of inflicting capital punishment in Rome and His office within the territory belonging to the city. the nobles eagerly strove to obtain it. to Roman law there is no longer any question of Lombard judges in John to . 1072 {Re§. .

Stephen was Prefect in the time of his son Cencius desired to become Prefect defuncto Cencius signed himself «'<? Prcefecio in n. which had been wrested from him after the fall of Cadalus. ejusd. 78) Cencius Judicum priniicerius. . and Benno ( Vita Gregor.. Alexandri. he closed the bridge of Hadrian on the side next the city. Prafecti filitis. Paul Bernried Cine ins. Re^. Cencius right. Damiani Cinthius^ as I shall call him for the Berthold not inaccurately calls him Crescentius. On Stephen's death his son desired to succeed to the vacant office the reformers. A. Angelo (the tower of the Crescentii) had fallen. 1076) calls him geiieris clari935. Lambert {Annal. . the son of that John Tiniosus who had been made Prefect by Hildebrand in 1058. raised to the dignity a pious man. no longer retained possession of this important fortress. belonged to the family of the Crescentii. obtain the prefecture. ^ According Alexander II. sake of distinction. into whose possession S. but erroneously makes him Prefect. tate et opuni gloria eminens. by building a tower on the spot here he placed watchmen who extorted toll . . Cencius or Cinthius. Cencius. 811. vii. and do not apparently exaggerate the crimes of the Having failed to leader of the faction of Cadalus. Farf.158 HISTORY OF ROME This Cencius must have tinued to defy the Pope. however. P. He aimed at the civic power. /oh. however. patre tempor. but possessed neither the energy nor the ephemeral fortune of his ancestors. p. to Bonizo. a second Catiline.^ Contemporary accounts represent Cencius son of Stephen as a godless murderer and adulterer. Lambert and Berthold write Quintius. His father Stephen had been City Prefect and had not been deprived of the office by the party of Hildebrand. which may possibly be The rival candidate is called by Bonizo cequivocus.

his opponent. found herself divided into two great camps. they could have freed Rome from the predatory nobility. thorough government of the Pope on the contrary. Peter's. Petri ponte turrim mirce niagnitudinis cedißcans omnes : transeuntes reddidit tributarios Bonizo. 46 : ut in ipsa turri. ^ Natu tJi s. Had the popes onl}' been able to employ the services of the city militia. The popes possessed no other supporters than such as they gained by persuasion and gold. id.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. since the patrimonies of S. and served the objects of their party or the nobles who represented it. Peter were almost consumed. or than the vassals on whom they conferred the Church lands in fief. is painted in the form of a devil. Rome. like Milan. . quam mirce magnittidinis supra pontem Petri con- struxerat viros sicarios poneret. Paul Bernried s. of John. the number of armed men must at the outside have been insignificant It is probable that Hildebrand expended all his resources in the endeavour to place the city prefecture Cinthius. the tower stood We must not therefore think that on the bridge itself. These companies of burghers frequently stood quite independent. and. But they were not always masters of the militia. we may judge how small was the city. like a robber knight. 1 59 from all passers by/ When a Roman noble could thus play the footpad. and severed into important family groups with their vassalage. the son in the hands of a friend to reform. If Cencius. c. was to undertake the part of the knight of the cross which Herlembald had played in Milan. Cinthius was regarded as a saint by his papal power within the . on the way to S. . There was no fixed.

He who publicly delivered penitential sermons in S. legalis judicii qui negotite orum orare. which held that every Christian was also a priest. ii. and. Even Damiani was surprised that an official of the republic should preach and revive the principles of the early Christians. as less : Constat ergo quemlibet Christianutn esse per gratiam Christi sacerdotem . however. nan ut prafectum reipublicce. he said.^ He called the curious preacher a two- fold labourer in the field of the Lord. was inspired with a fervent zeal. so Damiani still ventured to say. sed potius ut ^ : sacerdotem decebat ^ ecclesicB. HISTORY OF ROME was on terms of closest friendship with Hildebrand and the two leaders of reform in Milan. a maxim which scarcely accorded with the system of Hildebrand. not a judge who would admonish instruct them. the populace. Multas siquid. to administer justice was nothing than to pray. which did not. quia videlicet sancfionem a est obtinere non pravaient. The Romans gazed with astonishment on the Prefect of their city. quid aliud quam . however. Justitiam ergo faccrc. and Damiani was obliged to his friend not to neglect the temporal well-being of the people for the sake of the salvation of their souls. a Moses and an Aaron . ita locuttis es. He says dum concinaremur ad populum. since. te ßeri qucerelas audio ab his. causas habent . advers. desired a prefect who would administer justice. for Rome was not fertile soil for martyrs. like them. Ep. There are two letters from him addressed Cinthio Urbis prafecto. Peter's. bear the character of gloomy fanaticism.l6o partisans.^ There is nothing that better depicts the Rome of the time than the contrast between these two Romans Cencius committing robbery and murder in a tower on the bridge of S.

Damiani wrote to her : de mysterio muttia. According to Fiorentini Matilda's marriage did not take place before 1069 or 1070. to which a Margrave ol Tuscany. continentice. and the astute Roman Church. quam inter vos. Beatrix and Beatrix and Matilda. The Margrave died in Lorraine in 1069 . and thus Lorraine and the Italian territory remained In possession of the family. the German king was unable to assert afresh his right of occupythe hereditary principle. At this time. continued to enjoy the protection of the two Illustrious women. even ing the margravate The in the female line. 7). in S. which she forthwith bequeathed to her daughter. who at the head of factions decided the fate of Italy and Rome. of a Bertha and an Irmengard. — Two celebrated men Death of son by his first marriage. &c.. servatis. In an earlier age we observed the figures of a Theodora and a Marozia. CInthius praying to administer the laws. deo teste. Peter's and neglecting The closing days of Alexander IL were marked by some important events. Godfrey had made known to him of the two at the apostle's grave their desire lib. The private history women would disclose many intrigues. VOL. In the middle ^ Beatrix had no children by Godfrey. Godfrey the Tuscany Hunchback. pudicitia perpetuo conservanda (Ep.^ Owing to his weakness. l6l Angelo. Spoleto and Camerino of German sympathies must necessarily have been fatal. was silently acknowledged. when society was deeply stirred by ^ ^• religious emotion. ° IN THE MIDDLE AGES. passed away before him Godfrey of Tuscany and Peter Damiani. ^ before us In Italy. some distinguished women pass his . the only daughter ^°^9of Beatrix. married to Matilda. inherited the province. xiv. L . IV. widow retained the imperial fiefs of her first husband.

^ ^ Shortly before his also wrote to by the purest death he had attended . and power. Opusc. : her : xviii. qucB peritura vides. the predecessors. This was the last embassy undertaken by Damiani He died on in the service of Rome outside Italy. Peter Damiani went as legate of the Church to in 1069. Worms and the King submitted for the first Death of Peter time to the papal command. ii) writes to her Domna Adelegidce Romani Senatus Patricice. p. February 22. wealth. es.^ Like Beatrix she had twice been married and twice been left a widow her first husband was Herman. Her daughter Bertha married the young Henry in Wearied of his wife. cum Susanna. Frivola sinceris prcecurrunt somnia verts. Duci. Damiani. inspired motives. quod 51) sumiis. but whose importance was of a different kind from that of their Besides Beatrix and her daughter. 217). . at Faenza. aside. sixty-six years of age. epitaph (Opera i. her second the Margrave Oddo. 1072. Duke of Swabia. . iv. which has already surprised Curtius {De Senat u^ Is this title (unusual after the time of Marozia) an invention p. Deborah. vidnas cum Anna. tion. : nulla fides. but the Roman Church opposed the separa. Benzo (v. Damiani 412. Margravine Adelaide of Susa in Piedmont had long been distinguished by intellect. ipsefuturus. God only recognises conjuges women virgines cum Maria . Henry wished to put her 1065. Quod nunc His sit fuzmus . and one of the most zealous champions for reform. with the reputation of having been the most pious man of the Church of his time.102 HISTORY OF ROME of the eleventh century we again find women who exercised a great influence on their age. He compares her to Adelaidi excellent. 1072. Did the Romans receive noble women into their of Benzo ? aristocracy 2 ? He wrote his own es.

throned on his cloud-capped hill of Casino or Cairo." . .. Vive niemor mortis. formed ^^bey of •• -11 in r Monte the only flourishmg district amid the rising states of Casino. It numbered two hundred monks. the Normans. The territory of the monastic republic. IN THE MIDDLE AGES. zealously cultivated learning. had attained greater renown either his by his literary talent. or the dying states of the Lombards. While the Lombard states were falling to decay. and the audacious conquerors probably feared the anathemas of the Lateran less than the sentence of excommunication which the abbot.. itself situated 1 on unproductive limestone hills. Desiderius. but Monte Casino still retained its wealth. . himself belonged to the Lombard house of Benevento. however. his profane as well as spiritual in Stephen IX. had been abbot 1057 a successor Desiderius. greater The Flourishing o?"he'°'^ number of the Italian monasteries had be- come impoverished. If Lombards as well as Normans seized the domains of the abbey from time to time. hurled down on their " dissentient -i-i-- Succedunt brevibus secula temporibus. or Dauferius. Monte Casino collected within her precincts the last flowers of culture belonging to this German race. completed by the Abbot Desiderius. or by the learning of the scholars whom he gathered within monastic academy. quo semper vivere possis : Quidquid adest transit ^ quod manet^ ecce vetiit. was celebrated on October i. 1 63 the most sumptuous festival which had yet been seen For the dedication of the basilica at Monte Casino. many of whom in Italy. the robbers were compelled to restore their spoils. This abbey was now the greatest in Italy. 1071.

moral as well as political. and. Agata de Toscolano. The bronze church-doors. ' Festival of ^f M^^^'°^ Casino. the exhaustion of the wealth. HISTORY OF ROME Monte Casino was the Mecca not only of the Southern Lombards but also of the rude Normans . Maria de Pallara aim pertinentiis illorum. The Norman counts and the last of the Lombard princes Richard of Capua came with his son also attended. They hastened thither to unburthen themselves of their crimes. and the gifts of Greek emperors. are covered with the sion of the monastery. made pilgrimages to his grave.104 heads. singing psalms. from the resources . amassed the lucrative sins of Norman and other princes. the marvel of Southern Italy of those days. by commuting accumulated centuries of penance for gold and silver. and with several other cardinals ten archbishops of Southern Italy and forty-four bishops were present. The festival of the dedication was attended by distinguished guests from far and wide. in Roma S.^ The Pope and cardinals might look with envy on the coffers filled with gold byzants. Benedict. but they fervently reverenced S. . who had herself The Empress Agnes also spent half a year at Monte buried here. or the jewels and damask hangings there accumulated. Thus the convent discreetly they robbed. within her vaulted treasure-chambers. We may see in the Chronicle the list of gold and silver offerings made by Guiscard and his wife Sigelgaita. and must have sadly compared Lateran with this fabulous of which Desiderius in five years had built the new basilica. Casino in penitential exercises. names of the places which were then in possesAmong them are S. The Pope came with Hildebrand. with Damiani. Angeltcs de Algido^ S. which belong to the time of Desiderius.

and the discerning might foresee that the failing Alexander would shortly be succeeded by the great Hildebrand. Benedict. seen its equal. The festival lasted eight days Italy had never . Richard of Capua. Landulf. Duke of Naples Sergius of Sorrento. the visitor to Monte Casino cannot even now resist a thrill of emotion as he touches the celebrated parchment on which the names of Alexander IL. the Counts of the Marsian territory. were alone absent. innumerable knights and nobles thronged to the ceremony. and seldom have so many celebrities been collected together. though they would scarcely have predicted that the Abbot Desiderius was also destined to wear the tiara. and. and Gisulf of Salerno were inscribed on the day of dedication. Peter Damiani. Every eye might rest in admiration on the heroes of the ecclesiastical conflict.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. therein declares was found uninjured in the alterait I that the body of S. . 1 65 Jordan and the his brother Rainulf. Landulf of Benevento.^ have seen the original parchment. enemy of Rome. reconciled lord of Gisulf of Salerno Sergius. Rainulf. which tion of the church. in consequence of whose decrees the world was still ablaze. Hildebrand. Alexander II. now her . although the celebrated basilica of Desiderius no longer exists. Desiderius. The monks thereby refuted had been stolen by the Franks. the belief that was shown to him. Jordan. partly by their own ^ hands. Roger and Robert Guiscard. still Benevento . being at the time engaged in attacking Palermo. Gregory's hand- . The brilliant throng resembled a great parliament of Rome and Southern Italy. a short time before vassal .

and a national in either sense a great demonstration against the German empire. In it. have seen it thus also on a bull of Heldibrandus cardinalis siibd. Docwnents inidits. Casin. 261). 22). p. He therefore wrote his name in various ways. as it were symbolically. was also sung by other poets {Cod. et siibsc7-ipsit. see. Alphanus.. 28) describes the building and consecration of the basilica.^ 47. a friend of Desiderius.i writing is neat and beautiful : Ego Yldibrandus I qualisciinque Romane Ecclesice Archidiaconus ss. Italian ecclesiastical festival . celebrated event in a who was himself poem (printed in Ozanam. ^ Leo c. : Victor II. roviane dando concensit of Ostia (iii. the efforts of Hildebrand celebrated the first victories of the new age which had dawned in the history of the Roman Church. fol. . Mont. the It present at the festival.1 66 HISTORY OF ROME festival The political was at the same time a festival of alliance between Rome and the Normans. where he signs ecde.

. Vat. 1073. Death of Alexander Hildebrand ascends THE Papal Chair His Career his Aims His Ordination on June 29. He was Rome : the sole rule of neither a the Papacy the object of his policy. He stood on the boundaries of two social periods one order was passing away. In this man of com. 1049. Hildebrand was by birth. . i. — Alexander II. adds /a/r/« the Lives of the Popes -wx'iiQ patrza Suamnsis oppido Rovaco .— IN THE MIDDLE AGES. II. succeeded by manding genius the stern and magnificent the ancient died on April 21. April spirit of ^^^ ^°73- Romans seemed reincarnate.. : . 293 and 3085 Giesebrecht.n. 1073. 167 CHAPTER I. and the greatest pope of Rome belonged to the Lombard race. however. Watterich. iii. — . His father Bonizo is said to Roman have been a poor joiner of the Tuscan Soana. 1437. remodelled the hitherto existing relations of the Church to the world and the temporal power by one of the most violent revolutions known to the Caesar of papal history. and he seemed but little fitted to wear the priestly His importance consisted in the fact that he robe. Hildebrand was essentially a politician. suanensis opido Ronato Hiide^^^^^• Tuscus . V. which so largely populated Tuscany.^ Hildenor a Latin. not a churchman. . another had but dawned. ^ The Catalogues say Wo!/. and was Death of Hildebrand. Cod.

There he may have taken the Benedictine cowl. The Lombard families of Gunzo. We must remember that during his aspiring youth he had seen a moral monster seated on the chair of Peter we must also remember that the Roman Church had been degraded ideal of a cloistral sanctity . Bonizo Flavign. 122) erroneously calls is him a Roman o£ the The name Hildeprand is common among abbreviated Rapizo. Ingizo. and of Napoleon (Bonipert) belong to the same country. Herizo (Heribert). The sight of a profoundly corrupt society drove the sensitive Damian to a hermitage. . The narrow to the level of a provincial bishopric. names ending century : in izo instead of bert are peculiar to Italy in the eleventh Roizo. : : .. Hugo Rome. Gregory VII. and afterwards entered the order of Cluny and it is in his genius that the hierarchical ideas of this order took an all-dominant form. {^Chi-on. for he became a monk. His vehement nature could not remain buried in the ascetic mysticism of the time on the contrary. but nevertheless desired to rule found no place in the mind of Hildebrand. Albizo. flames sprang from his head. Abbot of S. his soul reissued healthy but endowed with the it. . fanatical strength. Maria on the Aventine. out child prodigy Dominabitur a Mart of wood shavings he put together the words usque ad Mare.1 68 HISTORY OF ROME brand had come to Rome when a boy under the protection of an uncle. which was born to exercise an energetic influence on the world. Berizo. Diminutives of Lombard Guinizo. their characLegend represents Hildebrand as a ters are of the same order. from Bonipert. when an infant. held less family of counts as by a law- an investiture for its younger Lombards. and. He learned to despise world. but Hildebrand with a yet deeper pain surveyed the hierarchical decline of the Roman Church. ii. Gepizo.

and while Hildebrand accompanied the Pope in his exile to Cologne.IN sons. filled AGES. In his youth Hildebrand had attended the Synod of Sutri. in consequence of which Henry HI. THE MIDDLE mind. and to make the entire empire the theatre of strife. from the firstly. the accustomed to summon the German to crown them emperors. was forced speedily to discover the causes of its ruin and to seek the reflective A means of its restoration. the union of the Church under the supremacy of Rome. how to remove the contest from civic territory to a universal field. It was necessary to deliver the Papacy from the imperial supremacy. back with him to Germany. he had sufficient leisure to reflect on the slavery into which the Papacy had been sunk by its deliverer. of the civic the emancipation of the Papacy. with which he invested his German favourites as he had been accustomed to invest them with Bamberg or Mainz. and the deliverance of the clergy from lay investiture. The causes were found in the ascendancy of the temporal power over a clergy who had become feudalised. 169 with the consciousness of the historic task of the Papacy. and in the . and . the Emperor. The question was. He carried Gregory VI. had reduced the Papacy to a bishopric. royal patriciate. secondly. w^ere Rome. When popes kings to harassed by schism and civic factions. and had each time paid for the transient services they had received with the renewal of their vassalage under the imperial power. loosening of the bonds of Church discipline collective the restoration required the reform of discipline. influence from the nobility.

These great designs gradually formed themselves in the mind of Hildebrand. in while the dead Alexander unburied . exalted over all metropolitans and . after the decree of election. of men and means. Great minds rise and fashion themselves during tion. The to party of reform had framed a plan of action. To the pope alone would society be accountable. to reduce the kingly power to serve as hand- maid to the Papacy. . or with so clear a consciousness of his aims. Hildebrand in the struggle for had taken part ticeship reign of six predecessors. but no monarch ever entered on his office with the like profound knowledge of temporal affairs. We have spoken of his restless activity since the elevation of Leo IX. For centuries feudalism had closely interwoven the two orders the prohibition of investiture by lay hands would deliver the Church from its feudal imperial bonds celibacy would sever the whole body of the clergy from secular society. might venture. The reform during the period of appren- was long and difficult. and the pope. he step by step won power and freedom for the Papacy. national churches. still On lay April 22. its duties and its interests. as cardinal and chancellor. which Beatrix of Tuscany could not have been a stranger.170 HISTORY OF ROME and this deliverance could only be effected when the Church was severed from the laws of the State.. In the midst of a tumult the archdeacon was to be raised to the pontificate as it were by divine inspiration of the people. and have observed how. as their governing head. times of violent revolu- and before himself becoming pope.

which had been pre-arranged est populi. had striven by upon him. when elected office flight thrust A affairs of five popes. senior {Hist. Wido. lid. c. read the already prepared decree of election. He feigned no uncertainty he concerning a result of which he was secure could fearlessly respond to the acclamations which greeted him. iii. hesitated a moment before mounting the summit of power. discerpitiir. ascribe the election and Landulf.2 ^ Wido of Ferrara. Hildebrand was . Medtol. joyous haste.IN THE MIDDLE 1 AGES. after twenty ... to avoid the humble resistance would scarcely have befitted the seventh Gregory. was hailed as emperor by his legions. 31). distraitur. lid. and the densely crowded audience could without flattery applaud the eulogy which celebrated the virtues of the Lateran. calls it work pacto secretiss. The Regesta.. The cardinals 1073. cum Oldeprando — nee non qui plurimis Romanis ossibus Albimi et Rtifini sparsis (a witty expression of the time for silver and gold). Matilda's : . Benzo. on whom was laid so great a destiny.i Pope. . &c. elected Pietro in Vincoli by the exulting cardinals. a summit which. an enemy of Gregory. and amid ^pdUa. as were he a general who. 1 the elect. owing to their very incapacity to measure its fateful heights. I7I proclaimed Pope by HildeJ e brand the enthusiastic people he was conducted to b. to decree of election is given at the beginning of Gregory's Henry's adherents. shouts of joy from the populace. gives a lively description : of the election scene. men of inferior minds have so frequently mounted in victories. eligitur. concursus actus f Ildebrandus capitur.Nimis expavity et quasi extra se raptus cucurrit ad pulpitum^ bribery. the minister versed in the diplomatic Gregory I. lid. And yet this man.

the man of the time. the occupant of the German throne had been a man elevation of vigour. Card. was untrue. Gregory's would never have been tolerated. spread the effected rumour that by craft and bribery. Henry. . alarmed the simonist bishops of France King and Germany. howbefore he had acquired strength. his genius an uncanonical election would have immediately exposed him defenceless to his innumerable enemies. ever. is it possible that the cautious Hildebrand would have accepted the tiara ? And The new served his decree of election had right expressly preto the of ratification it. of in whom many it appeared order to cast the stigma of simony on the election of such a pope. like many great rulers. and cupiens p. or until he could elude it. to refuse his ratification of the election. The great majority of the Romans had voted for Hildebrand. The unsparing severity with which a man such as he must carry out the decree of reform.1/2 HISTORY OF ROME Hildebrand's opponents. how- ever. Henry was advised If. His blameless admiration.. A candidate who was necessarily an opponent of the empire would undoubtedly have been overthrown The Pope. but prudently delayed his consecration until he was either assured of Henry's ratification. had been The assertion. instead of a young prince led astray by his passions. . life commanded if respect. populum ipsum a sua intentione reirahere. Aragon. 304. had the luck to rise to power at a time when the strong were dead. and Gregory could not evade election to the He therefore notified he did not seek for the assent.

. A formal ratification is quite out of the question. the Festival of the Prince of the Apostles. Church reveals the struggles of the supremacy of the Papacy our . The revolt of the Saxons crippled the royal power of an immature prince. See Floto. and the Empress Agnes. Gesch. and nothing more. Gregory's first Council in Rome HIS Decree of Reform. other authors deny it. was consecrated Pope on June 29. and Henry did not venture to injure his insecure position by arousing the most He sent Count Eberhard to terrible of all enemies. beginning of vol. Gregory Vn. .^ 2. the Margravine Beatrix. were only possible while the German empire was sunk in confusion and while an unrestrained youth filled the German throne. receives the Oath of Fealty from THE Princes of Benevento and Capua It is refused by Robert Guiscard Gregory's Scheme OF MAKING THE PrINCES VaSSALS AND THEIR Dominions Fiefs of the Roman Church His SUMMONS TO A GENERAL CRUSADE MaTILDA AND Gregory VII. Imperial Chancellor of Italy. That Henry gave it. Gregory VII. in presence of the enemy was weak. 173 His magnificent victories. Rome in order to assert the rights of the crown by an inquiry into the election. Heinrich^ s IV. which still remain a subject of astonishment to present generations. — — — — — . The inquiry. ii. ^ That Gregory failed to sue for Henry's ratification is almost beyond a doubt. was merely a form. The history of the for Gregory VII. however.IN the THE MIDDLE AGES. is asserted only by Bonizo.

strove at least to detach these dangerous neighbours from the duty of vassalage to the empire.. et Laiidulphum Bene- ventan. 18 a. Gregorium Pp. unable to expel the intruders. ep. and. and bound himself to defend the State of the Church and finally the validity of the law of election. i.174 history HISTORY OF ROME must keep within narrower limits. Momanenta Gregoriana. and at circumstances at large. Gregory went to Apulia to make the Normans renew their promises to the Papacy. Constitutio inter D. Greg. VII. In August 1073 Gregory received the oath of fidelity from the Lombard Landulf VI. must the fate that befell the city in the struggle that tiara. Landulf throughout The other treaty of . promised not to render the oath of vassalage to the empire without the Pope's consent. ed. Ibid. of Benevento in September the homage of the Prince of Capua. to weaken these vassals by divisions and jealousy. 18 Kal. Capua. her existing relations to the emperors and the popes causing her to prove an active and effective power in universal history. with a policy worthy of ancient Rome. of August 12. Although we cannot avoid a glance of the age at the general tendencies we must show nevertheless adhere to political matters. and like a prudent general to secure a strong basis of action. Before holding his first Council. The popes. Princip. For the city also bore an active part in the dispute. Octbr. BibL German. ep.^ . to make them serviceable to the Church. 21 a. Reg.. rer.. Jaffe. followed between the crown and the and her share in the controversy that convulsed the world. Richard became tributary. acknowledges himself as an obedient vassal.^ ii.

25. the Norman military vassalage served as a further step to larger demands. Gregory's predecessors had exhausted their i. Guiscard would not follow the example of a quests as fiefs . to et pericuhim reiptibliccB et S.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and Gregory in consequence insidiously sowed dissensions between him and Richard. but wondrous was the sudden candour with which he unfolded other and higher claims on the part of the sacred chair. whose designs he understood he also required better conditions and He refused the oath still greater gain of territory. he would be regarded as insane nevertheless there was a time when popes ^ ^ If a ' . become Pope when Scarcely had he Gregory alarmed kings by his design of founding a new Roman universal dominion The countries of the West were to be vassal states of spiritual Peter. . the assertion in all seriousness. the conqueror of Sicily refused to accept his con- from the Pope. unum fieri meditabantur. of fealty. Gregory ciaim^s to supremacy over foreign made _ ^ . ^ Rome. when they claimed to possess political world. when nations unreservedly admitted these claims.. pacern habituri. 175 rival . in perturinvenimus nimis obstinate perseverant^ nullo inodo^ : Harlem bald nisi nobis volentibus. was the soil from which such bold ideas originally supremacy over half the ^^^^ ^'^^' sprang . their rulers the vassals of S.^ His efforts to reduce Southern Italy into a Roman vassal state could no longer afford surprise. qui ad confusionem E. pope nowadays asserted that foreign princes owed him vassalage. and when kings either feared them or yielded The donation of Constantine them submission. J?^^. batione in qua eos Normanni. ep.

were innumerable. in exchange for the oath of fealty. in which he calmly powers announced to foreign belonged to the sacred princes chair. the Church sought to extend these legal relations. in order to secure their crowns. offered their dominions sion in in fief to the Pope. that their realms These high-flown pretensions were also derived from the idea that Christ is Lord of the world. however. Princes sought refuge in the as bosom of the Church from motives of prudence well as piety. and that the pope as his vicar shared his prerogatives the popes.176 HISTORY OF ROME in recovering the lost patrimonies. . Gregory claimed feudal supremacy over Bohemia. to expand these domains into kingdoms. often curious. We but this forceful man looked beyond the shreds of the ecclesiastical state to the sovereignty of the world. Pretenders. as also the state of confu- which civic relations were involved. Conquerors hastened to give legitimacy to the spoil they had acquired by obtaining. who had never been consulted. and the Lateran converted Accustomed a pious gift into an obligatory tribute. Sin-laden or pious kings offered yearly rents from the property of their subjects. given them encouragement. read with astonishment the letters written in part soon after his elevation. the grace of God from Christ's representatives. would not have dared to advance these claims had not the mystical conception of the nature of the Papacy. to harassed proprietors surrendering their free pro- perty in order to receive it back as a fief of the Church. and titles to make them all tributary to herself Their VII.

proßcisci volentibus . 7. 7.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. i.^ The genuine Roman audacity of such claims would now seem to us utterly incredible. ii. had conceded the use of a mitre to Duke Wratislaw over Russia. elechis omnib. principi debitafidelitate exhibita. ab atitiquo proprii juris S. in the Cod. over Poland. which actually happened. over Hungary. latere vos credinius^ Hispania regnum Hyspanice i. Peter. To Geisa.. He admonishes teneSy sceptrtwi regni quod Solomon the Hungarian king correcto errore tuo^ apostoHcce non regies majestatis beneficium : recognoscas. Pontif. XIV. . Principib. Bohemia : Reg.. 70. Ind. : i. 63. Reg. 29. The quiet conviction ^ G. a time which finds its interpretation in the spirit of the Middle Ages.. Albin. 13.^ He advanced the same claims over Corsica and Sardinia. Scandinavia. had placed the lance and crown of that conquered land as votive gifts in S. because the fugitive Prince of Novgorod had visited the grave . fol. non ii. R^g-i ii. from which it passed into Cencius. 177 because Alexander II. Scarcely was he elected Pope when he sent the Cardinal Hugh to guard the supremacy of the Church in Spain. 74rius of Croatia tendered the oath of vassalage to the Roman Church. 38.. Petri fuisse. Reg. over Dalmatia and Croatia. countries which he in all seriousness considered as belonging to S. the Spanish kingdom having belonged to the pope by right from of old. To Demetrius manus nostras {rex Ruscorufn). 133. had they not been put forward in a religious age and at a time when the world was regarded from a religious point of view. ii. of S. because Henry III. in Rom. vellet obtinere quod regnum ilhid dono Petri per eidem Petro ap. devotis Demetprecibus postulavit . VOL. M . and had offered him his country as a fief. Peter's. Peter. 2 Reg.^ s. ep. 41. . IV. and paid an annual tribute of 200 b)'zants de mihi concesso regno. Sardinia Reg. and England. The oathof October 1076. in terram .

other institutions as instruments destined to to his ideal. transient and unessential in political aspect. but eternal in the Church. crushed or reduced to a hoped to form a western than Leo IX. did not correspond at first sought to realise in South Italy. and He wrote finally to the princes of Italy. He only saw the world as the form of its the Christian idea. . who boldly and sagaciously advanced towards his grand project of uniting Southern Italy into a kingdom. then rescuing Byzantium from the Mussulman. however. His mind was occupied with serious schemes of a war against the Normans he dreaded . the possession tiara. could not tolerate a near him as an enemy. Roman Church. rendering it subject to the planting the Cross in Jerusalem. and again. Gregory VII. He at first league more successfully but his soaring of the spirit. Did he seize on what lay nearest. or that itself all its was of for him the order kingdom God which The realm contained in of fact. toxicated conqueror of such genius Guiscard must either be vassal ally. which of the world. it was only as part of a mighty system. He formed schemes of placing himself at the head of a European host and first driving the Normans. which he service. Greeks and Saracens out of Italy. the growing power of Robert Guiscard.178 HISTORY OF ROME which with Gregory announced them imparts a certain magnificence to his mystical notions regard- ing the relations between the changing and perishing things of earth and the eternal principle of religion. to William of Burgundy. in- looked by beyond the actual scope of the undertaking. had done.

7. 46. ii.IN in THE MIDDLE to AGES. Roman Church. I^eg. relinquo. Gregory would have placed himself at the head of the crusade and perhaps have robbed the youthful Godfrey of Bouillon of immortality. protection of the project. 1074. earn et sicut sanctum matrem custodias. — To — To 1074. Did he hope by a powerful stroke. the Ultramontanes. i. Gregory said he only wished to terrify the assurances of affection. post i. : of Burgundy.. .. as before if. whom he informed would be the leader of the crusade. with the crosier and the ^ To William 26. ad ejits honorem letter is full of defendas . ^eg:.^ ! What made a fantastic close and at what a time Whatever the the terrible of his pontificate beginning. like an enthusiastic Alexander or Trajan. Deum et tibi Rom. February 2. ii. however. may have Italy. to in him he hoped to establish his ? hierarchical ideas in Europe with design this less difficulty —the subjugation of Southern Italy—by He must Or did he only veil his actual scheme ? have recognised that he could not personally throw himself into the religious wars of the East until the independence of the Church in the West had been attained.. Henry. been. Gregory's a crusade. 1074.. December 31 tit Si favente deo. Christendom.e. i. he a spirited foreseeing struggles escape them while hurrying the enthusiastic world behind him to the East. The Mindful of the censures which had been incurred by Leo IX. A page which the greatest of all in the world's history on popes would have appeared. but that to him (the Emperor) he would confide the December 1074. ivero. In this case. illuc.. December ^e^. and favoured by the enthusiasm of Christendom. March 1074. J^e^. i. 49. Normans into peace. Jafife. —To p. thus the text in 145. Eccl. 37. 179 that he himself Henry.

XII. Reg. True. Flaviamvn 17 Kal. is dated Junii Ind. soon remained almost It is possible that alone in her zeal. 13 exped. iv. The undertaking. mustered by the Pope (he had excommunicated Robert at the March Synod of 1074) and Gisulf of Salerno in the woods of the Ciminian hill near Viterbo. G. 1864. The Countess of Tuscany. Robert Guiscard to work whose ruin Gregory had secured the co-operation of Richard of Capua and Gisulf may have dissolved this alliance by artifice. Font. 812. see Italics inferioris Gregor io VII. which covered him to the north into a caricature. Concerning these circumstances among others. however. et Gisolfe ^ Bonizo. XII. De conditione Königsberg. ii. i.l8o tiara. to the empress data in Amatus. but Gregory created an ecclesiastical State out of The Countess Matilda. however... c. : prince de Salerne. : Cimiiii. 2 Id. ad s. . p.^ Thus far Gregory had not been fortunate in securing the vassalage of Southern Italy he found. The dream The Matiid?^ of universal dominion melted like mist. Et un lieu qui se dame mont Cymino fu assemble lo pape. and with more practical spirit he turned his gaze in this direction. n. Weinreich. 85. and even the Norman expedition collapsed. compensation in the unlimited devotion He might regard this province as a of Tuscany. at HISTORY OF ROME the head of fanatical myriads. has remained colossal unwritten.Julii Ind. was the friend and guardian spirit of the papal in the school in expeditione ad monteni Reg-. i. strong barrier. however. fifty — . 84. against the attacks of Germany. of her pious and courageous mother. educated Matilda's heritage. degenerated thousand Italian and even Trans-Alpine troops assembled.

Salic law on that of her husband Godfrey Matilda Marchionissa professa sum ex natione mea legem viverevideor Lantgobardorumy sed nunc modo pro parte stiprascripti Gottifredi qui fuit viro meo legem vivere videor Saliga?n (Document A. as her spiritual adviser. THE MIDDLE AGES. vii. in feelings of That Matilda's ancestors were Lombards is shown by documents She acknowledged Lombard law on her Ego qui supra father's side. with her admiration. for Matilda was of Lombard race by her father's side. The brave and shrewd Godfrey the Hunchback shared neither the religious enthusiasm nor the Roman politics of his wife he remained constant to Henry's banner. although lost it is possible that a woman. Hatred and calumny have in vain sought to cast odium on the intimacy. a connection of world-historic importance. The personal friendship between Gregory and Matilda. Her marriage had been followed by a virtual separation owing to the constant absence of her husband. Bishop ot Lucca. stands alone in history. have also given her heart. 1079 in Fiorentini.). down from the high estate of his all-powerful will to the low pleasures of an intrigue. Matilda. : . the Cluniac Anselm. App. in Never again has a pope stood beside a young and energetic woman equally important alliance. ^ in Bacchini and Fiorentini. while Gregory made use of Matilda's aver.^ She was at this time twenty-eight years of age. admiring friendship. sion to him to rivet her the more firmly to his plans.IN hierarchy. and seldom has a confessor had to listen to the vows of so God-fearing He assigned her and so strong a soul. Calm reason will always refuse to drag Gregory VH. l8l This celebrated princess was bound to Gregory by the ties of a common nationality. may.

and the episcopate was dictatorial already accustomed to the interference of the Roman to priest. She was childless. Reumont. He here renewed the decrees of reform issued by his predecessors. . and mercilessly deposed the married or simonist clergy. deserves instead to rank beside the few great queens who at any age have attained renown.1 82 HISTORY OF ROME high-spirited. to her age. but under the spell of Gregory's genius. and a sincere belief in an ideal. His letters bound all the bishops of the entire West to the unconditional fulfilment of these decrees. with a relief representing Ilippolytus and Phsedra and the inscription : In year 1076. Her seals bear MATHILDA DEI .^ Matilda inaugurated her activit}' for Gregory's ideas century. Tavole cronoL e sincrojte della Storia Fiorentina. As Leo the Isaurian desired clear of idols. Had she been nothing more than a nunlike fanatic. superior in education strong. the Marcella or Scholastica of her Q^^^^ have rendered her in the highest degree remarkable but this warlike Deborah of the Papacy. so by a decree sweep the churches ^ Her mother died on April 18. . where her sarcophagus may be seen in the Campo Santo. GRATIA Si QVID EST. the friendship of a Gregory would still . Qttamvis peccatrix sum doinna vocata Beatrix ttimitlo missa iaceo qticB coviitissa. by her presence at his first Council. owing to her practical powers of government. on the Godfrey was murdered in the same year Matilda now governed her territories alone. when the Pope (in the first week of Lent) assembled several bishops and princes. 1076. at Pisa. J of 1074. the heart of a woman. a perfectly queenly woman. consecrated to his schemes the mind of a man. a fact that explains much.

. the seat of the popes. it was no longer the feeble remains of Roman absolutism in contest with which the aspiring Church gained her dogmatic autonomy and a temporal dominion but instead two great and time-honoured systems. on a reasonable issue concerning their natural Feudalism had almost inextricably confused limits. but the temporal could not and would not permit her obligations. longer and more than the Thirty Years' War. name of morality and ecclesiastical discipline. rival to escape feudal terrible A struggle. however. In the eighth century Byzantine despot had raised the flag of reason and a pope named Gregory had placed himself between the emperor and the images sacred to Christendom in the eleventh century a pope arose a . so now was Christendom stirred to its uttermost limits. the boundaries of the spiritual and temporal powers . became repeatedly the theatre of this fluctuating strife. spiritual order endeavoured by a violent process to free herself from the temporal. and unhappy Rome. the imperial crown and the tiara. as them of the uncanoniformerly. and a German emperor interposed between him and human passions. which struggled with one another on a false issue concerning supremacy.IN THE MIDDLE finally rid AGES. 1 83 Gregory wished to cal clergy. and. was the result of this revolution. : this condition of things was intolerable the . In the struggle of the Church with the empire objects of secular policy were always intermingled in the eleventh century. but unfortunately abuses and vices in the sheltered themselves behind his royal shield. ever remaining the source whence it sprang and the sanctuary which contained the two symbols of battle. .

theft. that kings Bulls of Victor II. The in cardinals were S. — — — — Opposition to Gregory met with violent opposition In defiance of the in the city Gregory itself. Peter. and could envy the revenues of the priests. Peter's had sixty mansionarii. when the steps lust. Cecilia. State of things in Rome Gregory's Opponents — WiBERT OF Ravenna Henry IV. Resistance in Germany to Gregory's Decrees Decision Attempt of the AGAINST Lay Investiture Roman Cencius against Gregory. A chronicler who bestows a glance upon the condition of the Peter's has depicted for us Roman churches. They held orgies in the cathedral at night. Marco. swarm. Chrysogonus. uncle. . their children or nephews generally becoming wealthy on the property of the Church and inheriting the benefices of their father or S. in the BuUarmm Vatican. of the altars were profaned by scenes of and murder. and Martin and the usufruct of the offerings laid Sylvester. who were daily accustomed to delude foreigners by reading mass in the vestments of cardinals and by receiving offerings.1 84 HISTORY OF ROME 3. S. married laymen. they joined the recalcitrant nobles in the ^ The Arch- Bonizo. Papal bulls had regulated upon the altar of S. p. also sufficiently grasping. Lorenzo in services Peter's were Damaso. Maria. Leo IX. The gifts presented there. The weekly distributed between the Cardinals of SS. to the death city. . if only those at Eastertide. Anastasia. guardians of the temple. ^ i. decrees of the Synod ^^^- hundreds of clergy lived here in concubinage.^ Gregory exerted himself to banish this The clients entire throng of deposed priests with their and kindred hated him 811. were so great.

who lived like princes. sale of spiritual offices the Church of Ger- Bonizo. wibert of ^^^""^• Wibert. 1 85 bishop of Ravenna had also a secret understanding with the disaffected. subjection letter. 2 J^^g'i i. and was young and filled with ambition. and the majority of the priests were married men.had formerly been chancellorand vicarof Italy. and so many thousands of clergy in the empire. p. and how great.^ He . a party it could reckon for support in Rome. He had obtained the patriarchal throne of Ravenna towards the end of Alexander H. and courage.'s pontificate had attended in person the Synod of 1074. had been solely by the necessity of the moment. . But he refused to send his vassals to the projected campaign against the Normans. and had apparently been commissioned by the German court to discover on what. and had taken (and apparently submissively) the seat assigned him at the right of the new Pope. to yield obedience to the decrees of Rome must consequently have appeared presumplike the ^ on the many. He held secret council with Cencius. The young Emperor. obliged to yield to the revolted Saxons. The metropolitan of the time. whom he hated. . The undertaking to compel these prelates. was simonist. 811. his piteous however.^ A rupture with the Pope was to be expected. nor would he summon them to punish the rebellious Count of Bagnorea. to the decrees of reform dictated . 29 a. prudence. regardlessly carried church of any other country. had undoubtedly made humble promises of .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and the soul of the schism under Cadalus he was the sworn opponent of Hildebrand.

France and Spain. Bremen. though they had sufficient grounds to oppose the monkish prohibition of marriage as unchristian. Public opinion was obliged to condemn the sale of spiritual offices. . saved the dignity of the German counsellors Melius est mibere. the bishops could find no reason for justifying simony. which made the institution of marriage a subject that affected the history of the world. To these counsellors the blame of the sale of the spiritual The envoys also offices was generally attributed. and that these nuncios now went into the provinces of the universal Church like the proconsuls of ancient Rome the papal envoys demanded from Henry the dismissal of the When — — excommunicated by Alexander II. They called the dogmatis. The mystical views of the age fought on its behalf. his decree aroused an indescribable storm throughout the country. Gregory now sent legates after his first Council to accompany the Empress-mother back to Germany. Gregory challenges the world to battle by his decrees. Lambert. against celibacy arose in Pope hominem plane hcereticum et vesatii The same violent struggle 1074.1 86 HISTORY OF ROME tuous. required the fulfilment of the decrees of the Synod The spirited Archbishop Liemar of in Germany. The papal envoj's it is worth observing that the use of legates assumed an entirely new character after the time of Hildebrand. and the decree of celibacy was adroitly linked with the salutary prohibition of simony. nature was defeated and the austere spirit of monasticism triumphed. said the German bishops with the and maintained violenta exactione hovthies vivere cogeret ritti angclorum^ et dum consuetiivi cursum natura negaret fo7-nicationi frena ^ apostle. quam tiri. laxaret. AnnaL A. however.^ In this tragic struggle.

The incalculable struggle which he saw before him filled even Hildebrand with uneasiness. si eum. the bishops of Lombardy. jam a viginti anriis inhabitavi.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the Normans.. ii. ? Dat. 18 KaL Nov. refusing. without any consideration for his native land. Roma KaL Febr. 9.^ His enemies in Rome. quam viles et ignavi tenent haretici. As the Byzantine emperors took Varangians of the North. : We still to Hugo of Cluny. and Italy was in and against the Pope. sicut qitidam episcopus terrce tuce in animo tibi fore nimtiavit.are. France. (Sicily Naples ? or Sardinia . so would Gregory have brought the warriors of Jutland and Zealand against their kinsmen the Normans and other enemies.. and. The whole of Germany. in : : principem 8 et defensorem christianitatis fieri optamus. Deo teste. in qua umnn defiliis tuis. Ind. 1 8/ Church. apostolica aulce militandum dares. ^ Reg. XIII. 51 Est etiam non longe a 7iobis provincia qucedam opulentissima juxta m. would then have invested these allies with the coasts already occupied by the Normans. Reg. which he says si non sperarem ad meliorem vitam^ et utilitate??i S. We seem to hear Gregory I. caused him dismay he sought allies he directed despairing appeals even to Denmark. XIII. January 49. : summoned him to the support of the Church. ducem ac Rome. .^ At ^ his second Council (at the end of February read his excited letters of this time 22. ?). to recognise a Synod held in Germany in presence of the Roman legates. in concert with other bishops. and Huns into their service for their Italian wars. Sarmatians. ii. cum aliquanta 77iultiiudine eorum qui sibi fidi milites essent. Thus also to Beatrix and Matilda. both for . Ind. remanerem. venire^ nullo modo Romce^ quam coaclus. Reg. promising in return a province in Southern Italy. E. ii. whose King Sueno he flames.

was to be suddenly severed. and without any previous election were presented or sold to the most despicable of forbade the sale of spiritual offices . and the folly of kings who had bestowed princely power upon priests. n When the reforming popes i r - by the laity. but Gregory attacked an ancient royal right by which kings had invested bishops. The feudal relation between laity and clergy. down -i the gauntlet before the t united temporal power. they struck at a reprehensible abuse. court favourites. which had become part of the constitution. The king frequently appointed bishops or abbots according to the caprice of the moment. . bishop or abbot should for the future be invested with the staff and ring by king or emperor. served in person like generals priestly vestments in war and battle. they henceforth became vassals of the crown. and the scarcely sufficed to distinguish them from the duke or count. and the clergy were to be removed from the feudal system. The possession of crown lands had undoubtedly engendered frightful evils in the Church spiritual offices were conferred by the temporal power without consideration as to fitness. It was this celebrated decree which kindled a fifty years' war. and he No thus boldly threw . before their consecration.1 88 HISTORY OF ROME Gregory forbids the ofThe^^^^^ ciergj'by lay hands. by presenting them with a staff. and thus was to be avenged on Christendom the pious weakness of endowing churches with cities and lands. 10/5) he forbade the lay investiture of the clergy. needs and every kind of . with ring and staff. in virtue of the property which these bishops held as fiefs from the State. with whom they had political rights and duties.

Wibert and Cardinal Hugo.^ was to secure to the Church in every country her wealthy Dominium Temporale. to render her subject to the pope alone. and better leaders than Cencius. Chron. Gregory.^ : laicas ab Investituris ecclesiarum suiiimovet personas. would have produced a formidable alliance against Gregory. He would not have understood had a well-meaning idealist informed him that the shortest way to the emancipation of the priesthood from the political power would have been to make it again poor and His bold idea spiritual as the apostles had been. The royal power ^ Roman The Acts of the important Synod (February 24 to them (Mansi. has already indicated the decree relating . 1074.. 10 {ad A. and thus to convert the half of Europe into a State of the Church. on the Unstrut in June 1075 1^^ his hands free. omnesque from Reg. 28) have perished .. who had again turned renegade to the Church. To purify the priesthood from a secularisation religion so unapostolic was a necessity of and humanity. Hist. 1 89 common. Med. The time seemed favourable for depriving monarchs of the right of investiture. Ravenna. c. ever. iii. . howsorely harassed by the Saxons. for Henry was now His victory. and Arnulph. xx. iv. . 3 palam interdicit Regt jus deinde habere hi dajidis Episcopatibus . desired to deliver the Church from dependence on the State and yet maintain her in her enormous possessions. Milan.IN vice in THE MIDDLE AGES. Rome. 1075) Verdunense ad A. the short account of Investiture to it 443) does not mention the Pagi. and he now began to feel himself a king. to withdraw her everywhere from feudal obligations to the crown. however. this from Hugo Flavin. the Normans offered themselves as natural allies. however.



was re-established in Milan. After the city had been torn asunder for years by the war of the Patarines, nobles and people rose against the intolerable tyranny of Herlembald. The famous captain fell in battle with the standard of S. Peter in his hand the Milanese demanded and received an archbishop from Henry, and Gregory (at whose court the banished Archbishop Atto dwelt) could not prevent the investiture of Tedald.^ He deprived him of his office, but with the fall of Herlembald his influence in Milan was at an end. His most active enemy was Cencius, the head of the malcontents in Rome. The Prefect of the city

summoned courage


bring this violent




affSnsr^^ Gregory

but did not venture to execute the sentence of death which was passed upon him. Even Matilda Cencius gave hostages interceded in his favour. his tower was destroyed, and for a time he remained quict.^ He meditated revenge. As the breach with Henry had become irreparable, he formed a scheme for Gregory's overthrow. In the name of the Romans he urged Henry to seize on the power in the city, and promised to deliver the Pope a

attempt on the life or the freedom of the Pope as at the time of the first Iconoclastic dispute would, it was hoped, put an end
prisoner into his hands.


In July or August 1075.

Giulini, xxvi.



I place these occurrences in the year 1074, the time of the

814) says, Cencius was pardoned at Matilda's P. Bernried intercession, and Matilda was present at the first Council. Benno (c. "45 seq.) is the most circumstantial concerning Cencius.




invents stories of the


Roman's being subjected

to dreadful

to the

or not




Henry was accessory

to the plot remains uncertain.
spiracy, supported neither

Meanwhile, the conby the Lombards, nor by the Normans, nor by the King, was reduced solely to the isolated crime of a bandit, the odium of which was heightened by the place and time. The scene at Christmas of 1075 is one of the most He seizes hideous in the history of mediaeval Rome. The the Pope Pope read the usual mass on the vigil of the festival j^i^^'"^' at the altar in the crypt of S. Maria Maggiore shouts and the clash of arms arose Cencius rushed into the church, sword in hand, with the nobles who were his fellow-conspirators. He seized the Pope by the hair at the altar, dragged him bleeding away, threw him on his horse, and galloped through the city by night to his palace or tower in the region Parione.^ The city was in uproar, the alarm bells were rung, the people rushed to arms, the priests with lamentations veiled the altars, the militia barred the gates, men with torches paraded every street. No one had seen the Pope. In the morning the people assembled for counsel on the ancient Capitol the days of the Catilinarian conspiracy seemed to have returned. Tidings arrived that the Pope was imprisoned in the tower of Cencius, and here indeed Gregory found himself wounded and





et in

Anna/, ad A. 1076: ab altari rapuit, vulneratujn cepit, turrim suam tanquam latronem sacrilegum cutn maximo ludibrio

tractum, et miserabiliter coartattim incarceravit.


also Bonizo,

According to Pandulf Pisan. (Murat., iii. i. 305), Cencius's house stood in loco^ qui unus educto gladio vacatur Parrioni. P. Bernried (c. 49) even relates caput ejus abscindere voluit—percussum tarnen in fronte.



Lambert; Arnulf, Gesta Med.^

v. c. 6.




He was



the robber,

who had


been able to remove him from the city, required the Pope to bestow the best Church lands upon him in fief; the robber's vassals mocked at the Pope; his savage sisters, like furies, overwhelmed him with a flood of talk in which the name Matilda was probably often repeated nevertheless Gregory did not If the faction of Cencius sought lose his dignity.^ to recall Rome to freedom, it obtained no hearing. Its short resistance was soon overcome, and the infuriated populace attacked the palace in order to set




Pope at liberty. Cencius, finding himself lost, begged for mercy or with a drawn sword demanded it the Pope forgave him, promised him absolution, if after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem he would return

penitent to his


Gregory's courage never per-

haps showed itself more conspicuous, or his character nobler, than on this night, and after his escape. He kept his word even to the murderer, whom he protected from the rage of the populace. He was led back in triumph to S. Maria, where this marvellous man, more fortunate than Leo III., finished The populace meanwhile the interrupted mass. destroyed the houses of Cencius and his party, while the savage captain and his kinsmen left the

He abandoned


pilgrimage to Jerusalem,

Berthold represents Cencius like a brigand in some romance

gladio super collwn illius furialiter


7?nnax, et omni-


terrificus (!) thesatwwii et firmissima

Petri castella in bene-

ficia sibi extorquere


cessavit ab eo ; sed

omnino non potuit.
P. Bernried,


description of the furious sisters

doubtless true.


Bernried depicts the Pope's sermon with emphasis.


whole scene must nevertheless have been shorter and







however, at the first milestone, and scornfully threw himself into one of his castles on the Campagna, col-

and malcontents, and ravaged with impunity the domains of the Church.^ The greatest of all popes had to suffer the contradictions of fate the world trembled before him kings knelt at his feet, but the rebellious Romans dragged him forth by the hair. He humbled his crowned enemies, but was unable to punish the
lected vassals
; ;

most despicable of

his adversaries,


in the silence

of his heart must have re-echoed the reflections of

Solomon on the nothingness of


earthly majesty.

Gregory issued from the darkness of that night with the glory of an indomitable man and a martyr. The people of Rome gave conspicuous proofs of their attachment to him and of reverence for his These demonstrations were both important genius. and encouraging. His friends may have accused Henry of a share in the outrage, and the only result of the insane attempt was that of quenching the The indignant Gregory last hope of a compromise. threw aside the last fetter of respect for mankind, if any such restrained him. He now determined to advance boldly against the greatest of his enemies among princes. It behoved him to force the temporal power in the Roman empire to bend to the
^ Berthold Castellum ibi contiguum occupavzt, tibi rapinis et sanguine victitabat. Since Gregory charged the Bishop of Prseneste to excommunicate Cencius, this fortress may have been that of Preeneste


According to Lambert and P. Bernried, the Romans destroyed

the property of Cencius, and hanged nine of his adherents in front of
S. Peter's.


in consequence abuses the


as faithless,







decrees of the Church.



between Henry

IV. and Gregory VI I. the two representatives of Church and State, is perhaps the most skilful drama
ever enacted in political history.


Breach between Gregory and Henry The King deposes the pope at worms — his letter to Gregory Henry is excommunicated and deposed IN Rome Consternation aroused by the step Relations between the two Opponents

— Gregory's

Twenty-seven Articles.


the youthful Henry,

with self-importance

his victory over the

Saxons, no longer kept any
sell spiritual offices

of his promises, continued to
before and brought the

excommunicated counsellors to his court, Gregory took occasion to drive him to extremities. His last letter to the King was the challenge of a subtle and prudent opponent who had
equipped himself in silence for the combat. He demanded from Henry a contrite acknowledgment of his sins he even required the signature of a bishop who would attest the repentance of the King he boldly gave him to understand that he might meet with an end like Saul's.^ Roman legates had they required the King to alread}^ gone to Goslar do penance for his sins and vices, and in case of his


1 In mente habeas, quid Saidi post adeptam vidoriam de suo triumpho glo7'iaiiti, et ejusd. prophetce monita 11011 exeqiceiiti acciderit, J^eg., iii. 10 (Rome, January 8, et qnaliter a Domino reprobatus sit. The Jews jeer at the 1076, or more correctly, December 8, 1075). despotism of the Roman Church, the symbols of which, however, have been borrowed from their priesthood.






they announced the sentence of excommuniof


The son





prince of Christen-

dom, received the intimation with just indignation but instead of meeting the Pope with measured irony, he gave vent to his anger, and struck at his
adversary with rude violence. He sent the legates back with indignity burning with anger, he sum;


a Council at

Worms, and




taken unawares, pronounced the Pope deposed on The Pope January 24. Every true statesman must have con- at Worms.



young King who, by

this inconsiderate

betrayed an entire lack of political judgment. Henry believed the Pope, who had arrayed all the temporal and episcopal powers in the empire against him, to be defenceless. But he deceived himself concerning his own strength, and he was deceived concerning the insecurity of the Pope's position in Rome by Gregory's enemies for the excommunicated and restless Cardinal Hugo, who had assumed the air of an ambassador of the Romans at the Synod of Worms, was the Pope's most zealous accuser at this same Synod.^ The long and puerile list of offences laid to Gregory's charge would have taxed the belief of his bitterest enemy. But the sentiment of freedom asserted itself in the German national Church in opposition to an ambitious Pope,



to P. Bernried (c. 67)

he came with forged


cardinalium, senatusque, ac popiili nomine titulatis

—ubi etiam



continebantur postulatio novi pontificis^

et abjectio legitimi fastoris.

Lambert, Annal. A, 1076 deferens seczi??i de vita et institutione papcB scenicis figmentis consimilem tragediani {i.e., a formal pasquinade).


the Council of







Although the Papacy is merely the ruin of what it was. by arms the throne apostle . and who. to Hildebrand. The King wrote episcopate of its who robbed last — — to the Henry's the Pope. Let me be brief: the archbishops. as if rule and empire stood not in God's hands but in thine. . not by usurpation but by God's holy will. We suffered all from reverence for the seat of the thou heldest reverence for fear. but false monk. all as ignorant. Thou boldest them .196 HISTORY OF ROME the remains of independence. thou resistedst the royal power itself which God has conferred on us. Christ has called us to the empire but not thee to the Papacy. and threatenedst to depose us. thyself alone as wise. yet if we the tranquil spectators of the past but read the acts of those bygone times. by favour arms. Henry consequently summoned the threatened national Church into the field against the Pope. outside his own person. even exhorted congregations to refuse these bishops spiritual obedience. and although its theocratic power over monarchs already seems an astounding fiction. bishops and priests thou hast trodden under thy feet as slaves devoid of will. Thou acquiredst it by craft and fraud in scorn of thy monastic cowl thou obtainedst favour by gold. only seemed to recognise subjects in the world. " This salutation hast thou deserved. deposed bishops without trial by synod. we feel something of their passionate fervour even now. <' Pope as follows : Henry. thou who art cursed instead of blessed by every order in the Church. upraiser of strife. not Pope. King.

that another may take it. in the Udal. sed pia Dei ordinatione Rex Hildebrando The letter. Paul touches thee. non usurpatione. honour the king ? fearest not God. the judgment of all our bishops condemns thee.) is printed in De hello Saxon. The royal envoys. for thou armest the subjects against the powers that be and preachest treason against the bishops called by God. but will teach Henry. n. : a valuable document of the time. from which thou hast destroyed peace.' grace King. (Eccard.: IN THE MIDDLE AGES. . to depose and to condemn whom thou even givest power to the laity. and says to thee Descend from the apostolic throne which thou hast usurped. however. I97 of peace. and on their side deposed . Wilt thou depose me. say Julian to God ? Because thou Fear God. deposition of the Pope by means of a German Synod was an act unheard of in the annals of the Church it aroused the entire West. . .. a blameless king. jam non Bruno. whom he has appointed. thou honourest not me. the true pope. the Pope. . ^ 66 and elsewhere frequently. seq. ii. hastened across the Alps the Lombard nobles and bishops assembled in Piacenza received them with rejoicings they assented to the decrees of Worms. who am judged by God alone. with all our bishops call on thee Descend. the true doctrine of Peter. The curse of S. abridged. descend " ^ Such were the contents of Henry's letter to ' ' : ' : ! Gregory illegal. Cod. clxiii. which I have apostolico^ sed /also Monaco. ^ ff. The because one-sided. since the bishops left judgment over even an apostate Does not Peter. who will not do violence to religion. by God's I. n.

^ It is worthy of remark that Henry's dignity as patrician he was not emperor afforded an apparent legal authority for his proceedings against the Pope since. in a different form. command thee instantly to descend from thy usurped throne. ßdelissimi. and all the bishops on the other side of the mountains. a priest from Parma belonging to the lower ranks of the clergy. You. he appeals to his patrician power. and to elect a new pope. but a ravening wolf" cry of indignation followed these words the assembly rose from their seats the Cardinal of Portus ordered the offender to be seized. the King. as patrician. brethren " (and the speaker turned to the clergy). . 66. to spare Gregory's life exsurgite igitur in eum. A . Roland. The messenger appeared one day before the Council. he encouraged them to renounce Gregory. in which. and the Prefect of the city rushed on Roland usual : — . from whose hands you shall receive a pope for this man here is not a pope. which assembled in the Lateran on February 22. in the deposition which he pronounced against Gregory. for without their consent and that of the emperor no one can attain such dignity. n. Henry informed the Romans of the contents of his as it were. et sit priimcs in fide primus in ejus dampnatiove. however ^ : . Bruno.iq8 The imperial HISTORY OF ROME envoy brings the Pope the decree of deposition. was commissioned to carry the decrees of Worms and Piacenza to Rome Henry had also addressed a proclamation to the Romans. however. letter to the Pope. epitomised. " I summon on the coming Whitsuntide to the presence of the King. hymn when Roland entered and fearlessly addressed the Pope " My Lord. They were. however. Scarcely had the first sitting been opened with the — — .

199 with his sword. prevented the murder of the envoy. who. Calm being energetic action. 393). Although the widow of the vigorous Henry had renounced her son for the Roman the mother could not be entirely stifled by the incense that she inhaled in Rome. the ^ West JIz's aflame. She herself informed Altmann of Passau of her son's excommunication in brief terms and without displaying any feeling (Hugo Flav. All other papal excommunications had been feeble in comparison to that world-historic blow which set priests. and Henry.. viater regis i^itererat. had hastened across the Alps to throw themselves at his feet. the Synod proceeded to The Lombard and German bishops who had and signed the decree were excommunicated. described their ipsius gladius damjiationis barbarous treatment (Urstisius. restored. 1076. Chron. It forms a terrible but sublime omnibus Agnes Imp. but the Pope. at the beginning of the Council Gregory had already the satisfaction of receiving some of those German bishops.. Gregory's audacious system might have been shattered by a fanatical sword-thrust. filled with consternation.^ Gregory's excommunication fell on the world like an actual thunderbolt. the feelings of a Gregory ^^^^ Henry V^^^^^^' ^^^ ban. interposing. and like a thunderbolt struck the head of the chief monarch in Christendom. while Empress Agnes was present as participator at a Council in the basilica.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. where every word seemed aimed at her very heart. "• 435)' She said that Henry's envoys had been imprisoned by the Romans. The Synod demanded the extremest penalty of excommunication against the King. . cujus animam non parum sanciaverat : Berthold A. Never had a curse produced a like result. writing to Hanno of Cologne. i.

The conception of papal authority had not yet been pushed so far that the sentence of excommunication pronounced against the King of the Romans could leave mankind undismayed. . xx. . H. 76. et omnes Christianos a vinculo juraynenti^ qtwd sibi fecere addresses S. Was a Gregory to hesitate to adopt this weapon against a king who had degraded the Church by abuses and had declared the Pope deposed? But the unexampled audacity of this excommunication shook the world to its foundations. ^ Depositio regis H.^ Is it possible for a later age fully to comprehend ' . Universal belief endowed the head of the Church with the power of blessing and cursing.. Peter The Pope — veifacient. absolvo^ et nullus ei sicut regi serviat interdico. in P. inaudita stiperbia insti7'rexitj totitis regni Teiitonicor. qui contra ttiam Ecc. regi filio H. n.' did He in any way except kings ? Anathemas were the recognised weapons of the popes. Imp. : c. Mansi. and will seem the more surprising the further the progress of mankind leaves mediaevalism behind. . 467. subject to Kings as well as all other laymen were Church discipline. . Bernried. and no secular authority could dispute the right of ecclesiastical censure. mihi tua gratia est potestas a Deo data ligandi atque solvendi in ccelo et in terra per tua?n potestatem et auctoritateju.. and the proud Gregory : " When Christ said to Peter was able to ask " Feed my sheep. Still greater astonishment was aroused by the presumption (hitherto unparalleled) of the Roman bishop in declaring that the head of the empire had forfeited his crown and in releasing his subjects from their oath of allegiance an act which sowed hatred and rebellion throughout the provinces.200 HISTORY OF ROME drama out of the darkness of the Middle Ages. et Italice gubemacula co?itradico.

which would have been wholly inadequate to the present case. 815 postquam de banno regis ad aures personuit vulgi^ universus noster orbis tremuit. ii. however. the passing son of the moment.^ Henry and Gregory. for the record of similar proceedings in Gregory's justification. : Romanus lego et relego Otto of Freising. c. examples. writing to the Germans.. viii. is sufficiently astonishing. gesta. p. 21. 78). each had . Chron. See also Reg. had taken their stand upon similar grounds each had declared the other deposed. se : ipsos non capiebant^ impossibile hoc esse proclamabant. which are not so very far removed from the Middle Ages. says a chronicler of the time. was shaken the judgment of mankind was perplexed by so unparalleled a deed. of blessing or who assumes the power damning for eternity while the breath of an instant can sweep him away. and hoped to appease the indignant surprise by some examples of episcopal power. set forth his right of excommunicating the King (Bernried. Reg. . excomfjitinicatum^ vel regtio privatum. leaving no trace behind. while priests searched the annals of the Papacy . ^ Hugo Flav. An awful grandeur belongs to that mediaeval priesthood which so boldly raised itself beyond the confines of eternity.^ vi. 35 Romanor. 20I was a time when the pope derived so god-like a power from a poor and peaceful apostle ? To our times. Ckron. 437 : pra admiratione Eonizo. 6. now opponents for life and death.IN that there THE MIDDLE AGES. His letter to the faithful. Gregory himself. et nusquam invenio quenquam eorum ante kzinc a Romano Pont. The entire Roman empire..^ iii.. The news of the deposition of the King of the Romans made an indescribable impression in the West. c. this usurpation of god-like majesty in the person of a miserable mortal. Regum et Imperator.

but infallibility the exaggerated and supremacy which Gregory put forward terrifies the judgment and lessens our interest in that salutary reform. but Gregory had calculated his plan of operations with subtle skill. even though he wielded the sword of a hero. we may. which Regesta. is doubtful. was powerless against a pope armed with the anathema. made the victory of the Pope desirable as far archical . But their weapons were unequal. Although the composition of the twenty-seven have been inserted in Gregory's articles. enunciating clearly and plainly as they do the aims of Gregory aims which he himself had candidly avowed in his letters. A king of this age. as it affected these abuses. could finally take the field with greater strength than his royal enemy. who was apparently devoid of allies. Both were despotic natures but the arbitrariness of the King was checked by the constitutional .202 HISTORY OF ROME abandoned the ground of law and usurped a right which he did not possess. counterpoise of the imperial system. which he protected. Henry had rushed into the combat with blind impetuosity. in any case. even though we recognise the necessity of emancipating the Church from the political power. programme of papal — . The struggle of a king with a pope was like that of an ordinary man with a magician. The fickle character of a vicious prince detracts from our sympathy for his fate the actual abuses in the Church. and the Pope. consider their most striking features. while the hier- power of the Pope was no longer restricted by bishops and councils.

Peter. given in iv. i.. of the period pleasure that the account of Gregory VII. &c. 203 Pro- The Roman Church has been founded by God /^ alone. iii. and never will err throughout If the eternity. He can be judged by no one. Only the Pope has the right to issue new laws. Roman pope has been canonically elected. becomes holy by the merits of is S. from the wealth of materials at his command. is canonical. to depose bishops without 1 1 1 • t . as the holy Scriptures prove. no book. The Roman Church has never erred. 1076. seems to be the best that we have on this subject. Giesebrecht (vol. He alone has the right to make use of the imperial insignia.IN " THE MIDDLE -r« ^ 1 AGES. He has the right to depose emperors. thrown new light on this subject. Planke's Christlich. now call it syllabus) in Baronius. gramme of the p^plcyf" the sentence of a synod. to found new sees. He can release subjects from their allegiance to unjust rulers. His name Pope is unique in the world. I note with 172) has compiled from the Pope's letters. His decision is unimpeachable. he his foot to be kissed by princes. Compare with this what Voigt {Hildebrand^ 55 a.. .) has since. Church. Without his authority no chapter. Catholic ' who is in unity with the He only Roman ad A." ^ Dictatus pap(B (we should Reg. He alone offers His name alone is invoked in all churches.Kirchlicher Gesellschaftsverfassung. ii.^ p.

of many but not the the from it a King whom they feared or hated. armed the terrible allies of priestly power. nobles and to an people of Germany to renounce allegiance excommunicated despot. and to this organisation it was that the ambitious popes owed their successes. however. of entire people German empire depicts bishops. country.^ The history of the revolt of princes. valiant disgraceful humiliation of Canossa. ^ Two-thirds of rioto has excellently analysed the position of Henry IV. was driven by his German opponents to the monarch. so soon as he found him worthy. on whom he. He divests himself of the Regal Power He seeks Absolution from the Ban Canossa Moral Greatness of Gregory VH. offered who led the rebelHon into his own the nobles the alluring prospect of the throne. but his power rested merely on the insecure basis of feudalism. Revolt of the Estates of the Empire from Henry IV. . and to elect another king. (1077) The Lombards renounce the King He makes Overtures to them Death op Cencius Death of Cinthius Death of the Empress Agnes in Rome. power of his He soon recogRoman opponent. fanaticism and superstition. and incited the clergy. — — — — — — — Henry returned nised. Suffice to observe that this highly gifted in war but a prey to ungoverned passions. Had Henry been a true monarch he would have endured the excommunication.204 HISTORY OF ROME 5. would bestow apostolic consecration. the curse for curse.

Rudolf of Swabia. whom his the Germans announced coming. that the dignity of the fatherland and ^^"^y ^^^ empire might not be disgraced in his person. Henry. and in acknowledging the Pope's power of arbitration over the empire. But while he journeyed through the territories of his friend Matilda. on which date he was to be judged pg(Jj"^' by a parliament in Augsburg. 20$ Germany had revolted political motives. climbed the awful wintry ice-fields of Mont Cenis. . he flung aside . .IN THE MIDDLE from AGES. The characterless King rushed from one extreme to the other finding himself deserted. The fear felt by the princes of his monarchical designs. and Gregory. They pronounced Henry The deposed. of the Pope meanwhile he was to live as a private . and their unfortunate party hatred. attended by a scanty retinue. and withdrew to Speyer. now seeking for absolution. mitted to a disgrace which even Charles the Bald would scarcely have endured. made them the allies of Rome. invited to Augsburg. were in vain. on paths infested by outlaws. headed by Welf of Bavaria. He revoked the individual decrees against the Pope. while they even consorted with the papal legates at Tribur in October. The dejected prince subin Speyer. under the presidency 2. in recognising as legal the audacious step of the Pope in excommunicating their King. 1077. The assembly at Tribur betrayed the fatherland. scorned his invitation to Worms. set forth. and Unposition of had taken part with Rome against the King his powerful enemies. The entreaties of the King. if he were not released from the ban before DiS^at^ February 2. and Berthold of Carinthia. 1077.

but also a great victory of the moral power. a castle . and Gregory. The alleviating feature in Henry's shame is the touching — fidelity of the wife. was mitigated —the his whom Henry's arrival in Italy was hailed with loud rejoicings on the part of the Lombards. lamentable spectacle of the penitential pilgrimage of an excommunicated fugitive. reason prompted him to avert his coming. like a suicide. and only endowed with cunning. but who now devotedly shared wife his dangers. was destitute of genius." various cities on both sides of the Po. is the intended visit to . placed his foot upon the royal neck. who had halted in Mantua. who. . however. A true man would have collected an army and boldly thrown himself between the Pope and Germany Henry. over rude despotism. fled to Canossa.206 his HISTORY OF ROME weapons. praying for pardon for his sins a triumph of superstition over reason and honour. under whose iron hosts Italy had trembled. The first Italian expedition of the son ofthat Henry HI. looking upon him with surprise. On receiving the tidings of Gregory's Germany. The northern Italians had only seen German kings descend the Alps in order to advance with power on Rome to instal and depose popes and to take the Imperium they now believed that Henry had come to drive Gregory from his throne as an " enemy of Numerous vassals poured out from mankind. He threw himself at the knees of his enemy. and. by which the disgrace of journey he had previously repudiated. represented by the Church. hurled himself from the height of royal pride to the depths of humiliation.

— the destroyer Papacy. until the fatal fortress at length met his gaze. terrible Two scenes will ever shine in the history of the grandeur of the Henry penitent ^t Canossa. of Germany. the other merely extorts admiration for an almost superhuman character. The King meanwhile listened to the arguments of the counts and bishops. and there shut himself up. and Henry IV. tortured into . anxiety drove him . 20/ of Matilda's. but with those of . With blindness indescribable the youth repelled the Lombard advances and rushed onwards to a moral death. There. or a Napoleon. behind triple walls. and his troubled heart became the prey of pride and fear. Nevertheless the weaponless victory of the monk has more claim on the admiration of the world than all the victories of an Alexander. The battles fought by mediaeval popes were not waged with weapons of iron and lead. negotiations to obtain remislike Henry entered and sion of his sentence women his mother-in-law. beholder are unequally stirred by these two worldfamous scenes. kneeling in the shirt of the But the feelings of the penitent before Gregory. and a woman who covered this priest with her shield while the bishops . by stings of conscience. daily arrived in the castle to pray for absolution.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the —the Countess Matilda Countess Adelaide — spiritual tender-hearted sisters interceded in his behalf — monuments of the popes. towards Canossa. Attila retiring before Leo. which together rent it asunder. The first fills him with reverence for a purely moral grandeur. The approaching Diet at Augsburg filled him with terror shame bound his feet. sat the priest who had cursed him. a Caesar.

and to the use or the effect of these spiritual means is due the fact that the Middle Ages occasionally attained a higher level than our own. to the Germans. 12. to tatis criidelitatem esse clamarent. imperishable in the annals of universal had formerly shed tears at the sight of an insignificant Pope who raised his arms to him Gregory wept from emotion as he in supplication Otto I. putting. : pro eo precibus intercedentes^ omnes mentis duritiam ??iiraj'enliir. who himself said quidem insolitam nostrcB nobis non apostolicce severitatis g?'avitatem sed quasi iyrannicca feriReg. days the unfortunate King stood before the gate of the inner fortress. ^ P.208 HISTORY OF ROME moral power. tionntdli vero in tct ^ Subditus Romano Pont. no trust in the promises of a The humiliation of the King.. : Lam- bert. rendered him an object of compassion. whom he triumphantly says Rex Jmmiliatiis ad panitentiani. . however. 84) depicts : the general indignation against Gregory. Bernried (c. Beside a Gregory a Napoleon seems merely a barbarian. as was but natural. semper. dictoqtie obtemperans foret trace of patriotic indignation.^ through his means the Papacy would celebrate a During three entire . as monk. moment history.^ When he finally absolved the humiliated prince (oii January 28) he at the same time annihilated his Henry was obliged to resign the crown royal power into his hands and to remain a private individual until he had been judged by a council. and even to Matilda Gregory's severity must have seemed cruel. iv. In case of his restoration he was to swear to remain obedient Gregory perceived that to the will of the Pope. Gregory hesitated. fickle prince. wearing the penitential shirt over his other garments. and praying for admission. without a .

republican had already made vigorous growth. castle where he had left the dignity of the empire and the greatness of his father. refused IV. The brave people.reeted With coldness spirit . . O . The majestic calm with which he executed sentence on Henry invests him feet. The same moment saw Gregory at the zenith of fortune and Henry at the nadir of his humiliation. the cities. cast himself weeping on the ground at his But the brazen spirit of the Roman monk was only momentarily softened. from which they descend or ascend. . as a man awakening from a terrible dream. with a terrible sublimity. 209 beheld the King of the Germans. while breaking the host. in I'll which the him ?^ ^^^ Lombards. The Pope now slowly sank to his ordinary level the As he issued from the King slowly rose erect. turned away in contempt the counts.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Henry sank in pitiable nothingness in presence of the terrible ordeal. which he endured without dignity. VOL. Effects of still in arms. the overlord of the West. the bishops ^ either averted their faces or p. he was received in Lombardy with the silence of the grave." said he. and calmly and coldly offered the remaining half to the King. hummadon ." He swallowed the wafer amid cries of joy from the fanatic people. Happily he had not been guilty of perjury like Lothar and perhaps this : moment of shame and despair revived the spirit of manhood in the depths of his heart and restored him morally to himself Human affairs have a limit both in height and depth. " am guilty of the offences laid to my charge. may the tasting of this wafer be my instant death. " If I.

The excess of the victory naturally revenged itself on Gregory. although he could inflict the extremest penalty on a passionate prince. Henry had irrevocable upon the crown the Lombards had been ready to unite with him against the public enemy he had now treacherously made a shameful peace with this enemy.210 HISTORY OF ROME shelter. In Piacenza he received his supporters. or afforded him him a reluctant hospitality outside their walls. A student of mankind. might tell himself that. and the King for a time kept the Lombards at a distance. however. A . and it was therefore necessary to raise the child Conrad in place of his unmanly father. he of a new conflict. as he told the Lombards. had only sought for absolution in order to be free and to revenge himself on the Pope. and justify Gregory's . who had manfully rejected the absolution offered them by the Wibert of Ravenna and also Pope at Canossa. harshness. he could not compel him to endure it for ever. With reason he refused Henry's entreaties that he might take the crown of Italy in Monza. Unfortunately this excellent source of history ends with the year 1077. such as Gregory.^ Henry had only left Canossato become the victim If. to march with him to Rome. . Cencius approached him. feeling of anger pervaded inflicted Northern disgrace Italy . there is no one but must condemn his perfidy. to banish Gregory and to elect another Pope. The Roman must have looked in wonder at a King who had cast himself in the dust before a Pope whom he himself a short ^ Lambert gives a lively description of the feeling in Lombardy. and then endeavoured to make terms with them.

He now came to Pavia to seek his fortune against Gregory but Henry. few days before Gregory's return to Rome (in September). and punished Cinthius thus his accomplices with death or exile. his virtues. however. killed the murderer. died late in the summer of ci^thius^^ ^^^t- the same year in the which (1077). hesitated to receive him. The Gregorians rejoiced that Catiline had been removed to hell the men excommunicated by the Pope. the pious Cinthius was removed to paradise. his obsequies. him They placed his head attacked Stephen's castle. 1077 ad inferna. indefatigable in devising plans and contriving conspiracies. Archbishop Wibert at their head. in puncto celerrimus descendit Eonizo.^ If the godless Cencius had been cast into hell. Bonizo. night aliis 2 : : rege non viso et Concerning his end. 92 : — : Berthold tells of his death. Peter's. in front of S. . as it seems. and his miracles. . The Romans of his party lamented and revenged the death of their Prefect. p. however. insalutato. P. 211 time before had dragged by the hair from a church. followed the obsequies of their friend with ostentatious pomp. murdered in an Stephen (the brother of Cencius) ambuscade had laid for Campagna. 817 per insidia^n Stephani fratris Cencii occisus est. until he suddenly died in Death of J'jl^i^^"^' Pavia. The ^ faithful also is crowded to his grave. reappear in the history of Italy. says that the est. Berthold says. gates of Canossa. The revengeful Roman hovered about the . Bernried. The who Prefect.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Prefect. King received him at Cencius aniara morte mortuus cujus funus Guibertus cum excommunicatis mirabili pompa celebravit. c.^ shared the fate of his friends Ariald and Herlembald. constantly Cencius' figure characteristic of the conspirators. a occisus est ab apparitoribus Henriciance persecutionis. to The Death of whose care Gregory had entrusted the city during his absence. ad A.

212 HISTORY OF ROME in his who Hfetime had sometimes instructed them in sermons. Henry King — Henry returns to Germany. Henry's unhappy mother followed him to the grave on December 14. which has been erroneously held to be the tomb of Otto II. monarchy became fixed in Henry's mind he recognised his task. Her remains were buried in the chapel of S. The inscription given Petri sztper sepuIcruDi prefecti^ as Peter Mallius also writes.^ Death Empress tS!^^' I077. This is the Sepulo-jun Prefectioi the Mirabilia. in the paradise of S. Peter's.^ 6. and with the courage of a hero set himself to medio ipsius paradysi devotissime est ttwiba marmorece imposihis. were long the object of reverence. The Graphia : cujus coopertoriu?n (the porphyry cover of Hadrian's tomb) ^ Berthold : zn — in paradiso ^ b. broken-hearted by the fall of her son. Gregory to Rome — Fall of the last Lombard Dynasties in South Italy — Retrospective view of the Lombard Nation — Robert tenders Gregory the Oath of Vassalage —William the Conqueror and Gregory — The Pope recognises Rudolf and excommunicates Henry a second time — Wibert of Ravenna Anti-Pope — Turning point in the History of Henry and Gregory. and Agnes and Otto II. Peter's. buried in a marble sarcophagus. .. were the only crowned heads of German race who found a grave in Rome. 1077) from the grave of the Empress (the monument has now disappeared) cannot belong to this period. rival The manly restore the . His remains. worked miracles as a martyr in death. ad A. by Maffeo Vegius (Baron. Petronilla near S. She died in the Lateran. resolution to regains Courage — Rudolf of Swabia.

Gregory had had no part. and set in motion various forces which had hitherto lain dormant. Gregory consequently summoned Henry to appear there. The sudden election of a rival king. had invited the Pope to Forchheim. afterwards as the heroic became. which. led to an unexpected change in all affairs. however. and the Pope sent his legates to Germany. on whose family he himself had bestowed the Dukedom of Swabia. and Rudolf The election of a rhaUdng. where judgment was to be pronounced upon the King in March. and exerted themselves also to obtain his recognition ^ in the empire. rebels The German conformity with the treaty of Canossa. demanded Henry wished to a safe-conduct for the journey. 21 The latter half of his life shows the prince champion against the papal power. threw his plans into confusion.3 IN fulfil it THE MIDDLE AGES. in Rudolf of Swabia was elected presence of the papal legates. but intended to render him a vassal of the sacred chair and to obtain his renunciation of the right of investiture as well as his recognition of all He had other papal demands. 137 and 138 : papal legates were present at the election of the rival king. as he solemnly afterwards swore. 13. On March 1077. German King in Henry was declared deposed. ii. probably no desire entirely to crush the humiliated King. king. such as the Hohenstaufens. It overthrew the treaty of Canossa and changed Henry's adversaries in Germany into rebels against a king who had been absolved by the Pope. evade the obligation and strove to prevent the in journey. rival March 13. . and for himself.^ Prudence Floto.

of whom he recognised neither one nor other since an almost miraculous change had reduced the German empire to the same state to which the Papacy had been reduced under Henry III. commanded Gregory whom Henry had effected a reconciliation. manly form. his strength and bravery. remain neutral for the present and to profit by the opportunity of acting as arbitrator between two kings. with to . Gregory meanwhile. The fatherland which he had left in so unkingly a fashion he now re-entered for the first time His handsome. He appointed the Archbishop Tedald and Dionysius of Piacenza as his vicars in Italy and crossed the Alps on his homeward journey in April. Reg. The Lombards of every city Romagna rallied round Henry's they barred the passes of the Alps against Gregory. 1081 : cuiferme omnes • Italici favent Reg. strengthened the growing and Italy feared the ambition of a great Pope more than the imperial overlordship of an enfeebled King. Privileges. 3. .. vii. bearing.214 clearly HISTORY OF ROME Henry Germany. and the banner ^ entire . took prisoners his legates. and A. ojjmes causam Heinrici^ prceter . heard the war-cries of the defiant Lombards.^ ix. freedom of the cities. remaining in Matilda's fortress. Henry was obliged to hasten back to Germany to do battle for his crown. 3 . which he had given them. and as early as May at a Diet in Roncaglia wished to renew the ^ ad??wduj?i paucos latcdaiit ac detendunt to the Quotquot enim Latini {laid) sunt. his princely ^^ King.. now first threw aside their wrappings and rendered him the equal of the most renowned monarchs of the German empire. • • . thus Gregory himself wrote Germans : in 1078 .

Matilda's troops alone prevented them from seizing Gregory by force of arms. True. retained his miserable life and the freedom the Pope accorded him shelter in person of his ^ ^ Rome. his for directing his arms against Gisulf In vain the own brother-in-law. c. Gregory remained some months longer in Upper Italy.^ fall. Henry did his utmost to embarrass him by so formidable an enemy. friend. but the advance of the Lombards caused him dismay. £f lo pape qui a??ioit Gisolfe totiz les autres seig7tors. where Amalfi afforded Robert n^Js power. Richard of Capua. and then saw that it was impossible to reach Germany. either by a Roman expedition or by a papal enterprise. where he spent the remainder of his days in . Robert applied himself to the subjugation of Campania. a cruel despot. ^ ^ Amatus sur depicts Gisulf as a second Nero.5 IN decrees THE MIDDLE AGES. and forced Gisulf to surrender in the citadel. the son of the once brilliant Waimar. 21 Piacenza and to depose the Pope. fallen into a that the battle with the German King. ^^ him a pretext of Salerno. he found the city tranquil. . 7). conquered the city. was now but beginning. The last Lombard ruler. and the astute Robert Guiscard with great adroitness remained neutral between the King and the Pope. Robert formed an alliance with his former rival. pourceque Gisolfe anioit tant lo pape (viii. which he had hoped would have ended speedily. et lui estoit tant obedient. besieged Salerno in May 1077. No longer disturbed in his plans. On his return to Rome in September he of was obliged to admit that he had difficulty. . and Gregory's most devoted Pope strove to avert Gisulfs Downfall states ot ^^^ ^ Lombards.

1075 (which is erroneous. and ended with Gisulf on December 16. Musand. maintained old its Lombard names. Amatus describes the Pope's reception of the fugitive : lo rechut come avior depere 30). Southern such as Italy filled individuality in Italy for five hundred years. Pandolf. Arechis. — et 1077. Regit Archiv. Radelchis. Benev. to which belongs the glory of forming an essential and noble ingredient of the Italian nation.). or as Marald. Romuald. ancient language had perished under the influence of the in families Roman idiom. Wiselgard. De Blasio doubts Gisulfs rectorate. This tected code only disappeared in the middle of the twelfth century.2l6 the HISTORY OF ROME papal service and was made Rector of the Roman Campagna/ Thus vanished the Lombard states in Southern Italy. Castelmann. We have frequently remarked that throughout a course of centuries Lombards stood at the head Romuald. since this prince appears as Dux - of Amalfi in 1088 See the numerous documents in De Blasio. in the Moniim. Audoald. iii. . A. its blood still flowed who proudly traced documents of their origin to Alberic's victorious followers. Adelbert. A^^. Roderick This German race. Lidtus. Salerni. Adelfar. and in Monte Casino. Ademar. we with find the Machenolf. Radelgrim. Until late in the twelfth century. Landolf. Neai). The tenacity of the race was marvellous although its . Adenolf. 1077 are still dated with the year of Gisulfs reign. ) The principality of Salerno Series Principnm began with Siconolf in 840. totite les choses delf Eglise (viii. 45. ^ Leo of Ostia. n. is also the chronology of the Atinal. c. viii. 117). vionstra ä li Roviaiii et tonte inaniere de geiit coment hit votdoit bieuy et lo ßst prince de (p. Gisulf. as Documents of May (De Blasio. pro- by the code of laws which wise kings in barbarian times had bestowed on the Italians.

et Maritima. afforded waver. et omni prosperitate hujus vitce apostolica potestate innodamtis.^ Robert determined to annex Benevento also. tentant et cos nittmtzir Cavipaniam. ^ Piazza. while Richard laid siege to Naples. women. vi'hich still remains peculiar.)..IN THE MIDDLE life AGES. children. p. verum etiam in corpore. which S. p. Fratello. as the formula ran. In a similar manner at the March Synod of 1080. reconthe Bacchini {Istoria di S. di Polirone. and Aidone.. speaking of the Goths and Vandals (Lombards) in Italy. x. said. atque Sabinos. phirimi forsan ex Ulis oriundi sumus {Elegant. qui invadere et qui Urbem Romanam confundere. : Excommutiicajuus omnes Northmannos. et qui invadere terrain Petri laborant. Benevento alone made a manful resistance. Catania. 5) calls Lombard race il sangue piii nobile delP Italia. 310. qui Beneventtim obsident. Alarchiam Firinaitam. praef. is called pardnoma ä dum- bard (Lombard). nee nan Diuatum Spoletanum. . iii. w^ere planted there by Robert and Roger Their dialect. 3. An excommunicated person spread infection . papal policy caused the princes of Capua to feudal vassal of the Pope. il Seminario delle case piic illustri quindi originate. were all ornaments of the Lombard race. 47.. the and childless prince and the him the desired opportunity. March Synod of 1078 s. of Italy . where the comitatus tiburtinus is also added. Lionardo Vigo. : (Pandulf Pisanus. Laurentius Valla. and Victor III. Nicosia. slaves. c. lib. Ben. 21/ of the spiritual and political and even in late times the Countess Matilda.) Gregory anathematised innumerable persons non solu77i spiritu. Gregory VII. The asylum accorded to Gisulf in Rome furnished a pretext. Concerning the survival of Lombard families in the kingdom of Naples. the March of Ancona and Spoleto. Four of these Lombard colonies : still exist in Sicily. see Giannone. 1857. If Robert remained undaunted by Gregory's excommunication. Canti Popolari Siciliani. vid.2 ^ Richard died before Naples in 1078. p. He laid siege to the city at the end of the year 1077 and harassed by his expeditions the Roman territory. the death of last Landulf VI.

Cencius. him by the Pope. Apulice et Calabrice. that Robert's successes would be his ruin. Gregory showed of the himself indulgent. The duke pledged himself in return to pay a yearly tribute and to protect the Church. first suggested to becomes vassal of the Pope. That the Pope enticed the dreaded Norman hero by Robert Guiscard tenders the oath of vassalage to the Pope. excited the barons of Apulia and Calabria to rebellion and thereby compelled Guiscard himself the with to a reconciliation with the Pope. June 29. he offered him substantial advantages. et s. he left Salerno and Amalfi. R. 1080.2l8 Jordan of HISTORY OF ROME His son Jordan conceived the Capua ciled to the Church. 313) £^''0 dated June 29 (in Albinus. as he did. probably nothing more than a fable nevertheless. Gregory. Peter) for March of Fermo (possessions of a time in the power of the conqueror. et Sicilies . with whom he had publicly quarrelled for the second time. relinquished the siege of Benevento. and who was already preparing for a warlike descent on Italy. even the prospect of the imperial . and Benevento now permanently became a papal possession.y Dei gr. Robert Guiscard. however. 1080. Calabria and Sicily. in Mansi. whom he then invested with Apulia. crown is a portion of the S. requiring. idea. did not press for the restoration of GisulPs conquests on the contrary. The oath : itself is XX. as he had formerly promised Nicholas 11} servants were nevertheless excepted. Petri. who had taken the oath of fidelity in person at Ceprano on the Liris on June 29. allied He raised the siege of Naples. tendered the oath of vassalage in Rome. destroyed Robert's camp. and pilgrims were permitted to buy the necessaries of ^ life in the territory under excommunication. the protection Normans against Henry. Beneventans.

by Thierry. Pastori Gregorio. sicut est Roberte Dux. E. Kal. How the self-interest of is shown Normands. Hist. Gregory demanded a like profession of vassalage from the King of England. E. Papa De ilia autem terra. Julii. ab hac hora investio te. the kings of the two Sicihes were obliged to acknowledge themselves vassals of the sacred chair. Willelmus salutem cum amicitia. S. where the Norman robbers were to conquer lands in order to hold them as fiefs from Rome. for hundred years. The King. Firmance. de 279 seq. they hoped to play in England also. viei sanct. and the Roman Curia in consequence claimed supremacy over the island. nee volo vieos antecessoribus tuis : quia nee ego pj'omisi nee antecessores id fecisse comperio. de terra cpiani mem. Salerjtus. Peter in his hand. . Dei Angler. And the investiture Ego G. qtta?7i Amalphia. and seemed to be directed to the conquest of Greece he accepted the papal investiture " by the . . however." and henceforward. members of his The game which the popes had played successfully in Italy. William the Conqueror. the 219 The pride of Norman was tempered by prudence. ii.). la conquete de PAngleterre par les (4th edit. et : Ap. Peter. Robert promised a tax of twelve denarii for every pair of oxen in his kingdom. Rex.^ Dux. et pars marchice. 1 The royal spirit is evident even in the superscription Excellentiss. grat. et tibi concesseriint antecessores : üdelitatem facere nolui. actum Ciprani III. laughed at Gregory's pretensions and rejected them in a laconic letter. Nicolaus et Alexander. the banner of S. nunc te patienter sustineo. . Sedl . At the close injuste tenes. et deinceps ei'o fidelis S. R. the popes treated the legitimacy of the Anglo-Saxon kings. et Dux Northmannor. S.: IN THE MIDDLE AGES. who had gained possession grace of God and six more than of Britain at the same time as other race had vanquished Italy. William had invaded England with the papal authorisation.

1080. see P. 480. countships. For the second excommunication against Henry.. and possessions of every kind on the earth also. 107. 1080. The indignant Saxons had besought the Pope finally to recognise Rudolf. He assembled nineteen bishops of his party at Mainz on May 31. ii. recognises the antiking Rudolf. Bernried. Udalriciy n. Chron. 162. i. Petrus diadema Rodiilfo) is known to Siegbert. ^ . ad A. he caused Wibert of Ravenna to be elected Pope at Brixen by several Stenzel. iii. solemnly recognised Rudolf as King. Gregory's mind is in this instance already Henry IV. but Henry in addition and with justice advanced another step. and invoked the apostles Peter and Paul to show the world that they possessed the power to bind and to loose not in heaven alone. xx. finally to repudiate Henry. . while the whole of North Italy rose on his side. He declared Henry the German kingdom and Italy he cursed his arms. puts forward darkened by extravagant passion. 431 Giesebrecht. 534. Wibert as anti-pope. but to give and to take away kingdoms.. in to have forfeited like a sorcerer March 1080. and Hugo Flavin. The inscription on the crown sent to Rudolf {Petra dedit Petro. June 1080. On June 25. principalities. Mansi. 451.220 HISTORY OF ROME Meanwhile the Pope had been forced to a decision with regard to Henry. c. where the Pope was declared deposed a second time. for Henry stood in arms. 1077.^ The same proceedings were thus repeated on each side. The letter of rejection sent to the Pope by the assembly at Mainz '^ is given in Cod.^ The effect of this second excommunication was no longer like that of the first. The Pope yielded at the Roman Synod Gregory VII. 25. who had already in November 1077 for the second time banished Bernhard the cardinal legate in Germany. a prince experienced in war.

Ravenna. and statesman-like insight. had attained a bishops. had in the course of time been completely severed from Rome. who invested the counts in the isolated towns as vassals of his own.IN Italian THE MIDDLE AGES. i. while the archbishops themselves held the ancient property of the popes.. So ancient an enemy. and {^Mon. he had long aimed in his ambition at the tiara. taken almost Concerning Wibert's election..). the Exarchate. 221 His war against Gregory consequently assumed an ecclesiastical character. the ancient adversaries of the popes. which he hoped to wrest from Gregory he had now the title of pope. p. praises him as being thoroughly noble.^ . Udal. xiv. however. Distinguished by illustrious birth. Wido Ferrar. 19 word for word from Bonizo. was a territory which bestowed a great importance on an anti-pope. princely degree of splendour. and had become a possession of the Archbishop of Ravenna. Peter's. These vassals soon became hereditary. not from the popes but from the emperors. 817. must necessarily appear as anti-pope on the scene of action. The decree of deposition pronounced at Brixen {Cod. 164) repeats the childish charges Henry against Gregory of sorcery and the murder of his predecessor. the oldest province of the Carolingian ecclesiastical State. He was more dangerous than Cadalus could be. Germ. but must perforce obtain consecration and power from distant He went immediately from Brixen to S. one so intimately versed in all political affairs as Wibert. As the Pope harassed him by means of a rival king in Germany. sapiens et nobilis ortus. Since the tenth century the Patriarchs of Ravenna. learning. Even Donizo ^ calls him doctus. . so Henry now brought a rival pope into the field. Vifa Anselmi Ep. Lucensis^ c.

He was defeated in the bloody battle on the Elster in October. not at its strongest. turned against the Saxons. Chron. raised his maimed arm and exclaimed ecce hcec est manus. The tide on which the courageous Pope had hitherto been borne was followed by the ebb of fortune. solitary and splendid. qua do?mno meo Heinrico fideni sacramento ßrmavi (Ekkehard. A. who intended to set forth on his Roman expedition in the coming year. his long distress in Rome. and Cardinal Baronius maliciously ^^ adoratur bestia. in the period of decline. as he died. The hideous black skeleton of the hand which was cut off is shown in the cathedral of Merseburg.^^ says on the subject 1 Rudolf. But the . his fall and his death in exile. and the spring saw Henry cross the Alps with an army to punish the enemy in Rome.^ The turning point in the history of both Henry and Gregory had now arrived.222 HISTORY OF ROME Lombardy. but perhaps at its clearest. marvellous genius of the man shines. until his star sinks. and the King. : : . but was at the same time freed from his rival. below the horizon of history into the sea of time. Rudolf fell the winter passed away. adored Wibert after the election. 1080).

Gregory VII. After the summer of 1080 Wibert remained in Ravenna. Gregory Although Guiscard refused to enter into alliance . 223 CHAPTER I... and sank into decay so utter that it constitutes an epoch in her history. Countess are the heroes of the tragedy. takes up his abode He lays waste the Property of the great Countess. The Normans. by heroic deeds. where he collected troops.— — IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Henry First Siege of the Siege in the Spring OF 1082 He retires to Farfa He marches to Tivoli. advances against City — Second Rome (1081) — — The city struggle — prolonged of Rome became for years — between the theatre of the the two In bitter antagonists. VI. This memorable war around Rome was not rendered conspicuous. deserted the Pope. The means and the forces called into action were insignificant nevertheless the importance of the struggle. the great . where Clement III. this struggle the city herself was almost annihilated. while Gregory The exerted himself to bring about a crusade against dSert^'^^ him. Henry IV. the Emperor and the Pope. as earlier wars of the kind had been. IV. the fate of the besiegers. Robert Guiscard. however. and the moral greatness of the besieged invest it with an unusual attraction.

224 HISTORY OF ROME with Henry. Henry came land which he in the spring of 1081. made a man of this gifted prince he now came to avenge the disgrace of Canossa. were required warfare fierce to attain his objects. Church. urged to make peace with Henry he was told that he had nothing to hope from Germany. he was to emulate. left was not yet reduced to submission were sufficiently strong to Three hold their own against the Roman party. He nevertheless beheld the advance of his enemies with the courage of a Belisarius. but reminded them that this king must be an obedient vassal of the . acquiesced in his design. since Jordan of Capua had veered Henry's Gregory could only rely on the protection of Matilda. . And side. however. The father. to obtain the imperial crown and to make the Papacy again Three more years of serviceable to the empire. that the vassals of the Countess looked on her resistance as . The Pope. his adherents. He summoned the Germans to elect a new king. nor did he ever succeed in accomplishing his final aim. He was preparing for an expedition against Greece. madness he did not yield. terrible years of struggle with the warrior as well as weapons of the with those of the politician had . whose example behind the ancient walls of the city he determined After the fall of the rival king. whither he desired to convey a Byzantine impostor in the guise of the dethroned Michael Ducas. forced it by necessity. although to deprived him of Norman aid precisely at this juncture. he failed to obey the exhortations of the Pope.

which Gregory's genius had emancipated from the imperial power.^ ^ Bonizo. . the When Henry pitched his camp on the Field of Nero on May 22 Gregory had cause to bless the wisdom Henry iv. without opposition from the margravine. 14. and nominated new judges and a new prefect. ^ Fecit novam Romam ex tentoriis. and his first attack made no impression. He assembled the Romans of the former factions of Cadalus and Benzo in his camp some landgraves. moreover. city. but in this he was unsuccessful. Since the time of Totila. deaf to Gregory's entreaties also. May 1081. Henry. iii. in the appendix. IV. . rallied to his side. creavit novos centuriones^ tribunos ac senatores prcefectum et VOL. since it strengthened his party. printed in Giesebrecht. P . Rome had suffered no siege so protracted as that which Henry now undertook his means. sailed for Durazzo after Easter 1081. to Rome. ) . says Benzo. He hoped to strengthen his army in Ravenna and to win Guiscard to his side. however. . 225 Papacy.IN since THE MIDDLE AGES. caused the Lombard Wibert to be recognised as Clement HI. But the city remained . at a Council at Pavia. however. before^^ of his predecessors who had fortified the Leonine Ro^ne. and finally advanced. The crafty duke.. or devoid of a leader. ad Am. p. were scanty. 818. Henry issued a proclamation to the Romans. he created an opposition senate or Curia. walls . faithful to Gregory and refused the King's'proposals.. This step was judicious. n. appointed palace officials. who reappears (lib. Tuscans..i Normans. never again fell beneath the yoke. the civic militia defended its . vi. the royal party in Rome was weak. more especially the Tusculans. took the Italian crown.

No document indicates centurions or tribunes they are merely a phrase . who. Henry dated a privilegium for z. In Ravenna. he passed behind Soracte. of Alexius and Irene. Peter's.^ Henry formed an alliance with the Emperor the Byzantine subsidies arrived opportunely.. But neither did fortune smile upon of 1082. The flourishing cities of Pisa. where both the crowns with which each desired to invest the other lay shut up. Lucca. treacherously kindled in S. to the sword. and Siena hastened to renounce the government of the margravine and to strengthen their civic freedom by imperial diplomas. driven to extremities by Guiscard. he received messengers from the Emperor Alexius. nothing more. aliasq.226 • HISTORY OF ROME smile at the The papal party might held within his lessly . nomenclatorem. where he spent the winter. of Benzo. Henry was again forced to retire to the Campagna . Ital. Urk. Peter's. in the spring The papal party remained firm in the Leonina no use was made of a breach a fire. sought by large sums of money to gain Henry's speedy assistance. dignitates. 108 1 (Ficker. Whitsuntide his head. . the King . n. 81). since Rome was apparently more vulnerable to gold than . Anna Comnena. was quickly extinguished. daughter Henry {Alexiad^ iii. secundum antiquum morem. Lucca from Rome on January 23. . Florence alone withstood Henry's attacks. the crown upon camp he and his pope gazed hopetowards S. The powerless enemy had merely shown his opponents the sword. gives her father's letter to 93). processions which Henry. After forty days Henry broke up his camp and retired to Tuscany. ^ Reichs- und Rechtsgesch.

in The deeds the Gregory's reign after . in order that he might lay siege to Rome.. Far/. from whose son Crescentius (the child of his marriage with Rogata) John. and at the same time might foment the rebellion in the neighbouring Lombard territory. guarded the Via Latina. 227 the Tiber with great difficulty. sincere joy he celebrated the arrival of his overlord and aided him with money and provisions. {Cod. occasionally 1080 Henry later issued a most complete diploma in favour of Farfa. halted at Farfa on This abbey. ^ They fixed Reg. : 6808). and to fo the^^^ bring him nearer to Latium. Robert's enemies profited by his absence to incite his Italian provinces to revolt. MLXXXIV. which stood in immediate dependence on the empire. since the popes endeavoured to suppress the ancient liberties granted by charters to the monastery. Far/. are not dated with the year of regnante Henrico rege. were hostile to the Papacy.IN there crossed THE MIDDLE March AGES.^ Henry's expedition to the Sabina was intended to He defend him from the margravine on that side. The ceremonies for the reception of an emperor are specified in the Ordo Farf. . Guido. and 17. The Abbot Berard remained faithful to Henry with . . Vat. The monks. datum A. p. served him as an excellent point of support in the Sabina. 607. where the Tusculans Sabina. Cencius and Rusticus were descended.. since the anti-pope was here to establish his abode. The Lombards here languished under the yoke of their Norman oppressors in the same miserable condition as the Anglo-Saxons languished under the tyranny of William the Conqueror. Chron. He occupied Tivoli. at constant strife with the Crescentii of the family of Octavian.

A chronicler of the time was able to compare the palace of the great countess to a haven for the catholic world. ii. longed for the duke's removal to Greece. hopes on Henry he took the Greek gold. Henry marched into Lombardy after Easter. But even here Towns were the war came to no decisive end. hastened himself to Apulia. 268 seq. where she owned a number of fortresses. Henry Lombardy. . found vent in the fury of religious war. 300. but nevertheless only advanced as far as Tivoli. assumed vast proportions. Fanaticism depopulated. again Matilda who forced him into a petty war of great on the Po. the Apennines and relieve Gregory's necessities. into which priests. exiles of every class fled before the sword of the King and Matilda's patrimony (she laid claim to half of Italy) was sufficient to difficulty in . The Byzantine Emperor desired nothing more ardently than to induce his royal ally to undertake a warlike expedition to Apulia. monks. The two allies sought to make use of one another consequently nothing was as lightning conductors done on Henry's side. churches were burned.228 their HISTORY OF ROME . v. although only after tedious exertions. . Fate condemned him to a life-long struggle with a For in Upper Italy it was priest and an Amazon. heroic in suppressing the revolt. . He made over the Greek war to his son Boemund. The King. to return. zealously fanned by Jordan of Capua. and v. Vita Math. on the other hand. and succeeded.^ 1 Donizo. so that he might rid himself of Robert Guiscard. and Guiscard was forced . Meanwhile the rebellion in Apulia.

229 2. Angelo Henry negotiates WITH THE Romans Firmness of the Pope Jordan OF Capua does Homage to the King DeSIDERIUS EFFECTS A PeaCE HeNRY'S TrEATY WITH THE Romans His Retreat to Tuscany Failure — — — — — — of Gregory's November Synod BREAK THEIR OaTH TO THE KiNG. enemy ^ in his the end of 1082.. but the attack ad Occident. castra posuit ubi et priuSy partem cas tela Petri. The King again encamped on the Field of Nero and his patience was again put to the test during seven weary months. in S. counter-marches. tendens. as obsti. Paul's.^ Nothing perhaps more conspicuously illustrates Gregory's power over mankind.. rex — Romain s. had effected nothing. Ekkeh. though he had undoubtedly terrified the city during the summer by attacks from Tivoli and laid waste the Campagna. since Clement HI. He found the state of affairs unaltered. 1083. H. besieges Rome for the third time (1082-1083) Capture of the Leonine City Gregory VII. It is — — The Romans wearisome to follow Henry's marches and Henry iv. Chron. At the end of the year 1082 Rome for he stood for the third time before Rome. . ad A. The impatient enemy now attacked and the ^ the Vatican fortress beside S.J^e^at^ nate in his attack as his harassed resistance. than the devotion displayed for him by the Romans during this three years' siege.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES. in spite of the fact that he was their Pope and territorial ruler. his general as well as his Pope. Henry IV.

. The Romans still held the portico . Chron. of M. Angelo. that Gregory only succeeded in averting the defection of Rome by means of gold. ' obtained possession of a tower. V. iv. slew the guards and He conquers Leonina. Antial.e. for . JuJiii. MedioL^ i. and Saxons under Wigbert of Thuringia. [ulii ann. feria 6 ante octavam pentecostes. Peter's. 6) rejoices over Gregory's flight. 1083 captaqtie est tirbs 4 7ion. Petri 3 die m. Ekkehard. and the sacred temple became the scene of deadly slaughter. ad A. to of the Leonina. Incarn. Germans forced an entrance. the victors attacked it the following day. to enter (June 1083). HISTORY OF ROME Meanwhile the distress became so utterly insupportable. had escaped under the protection of Pierleone to S. they searched Gregory to effect his capture would be the triumph of the day. who : says Henry made his dwelling in palatio Casariano^ ^ beside S. The Milanese vassals of Tedald.^ Henry's troops rugged with joy through the broken walls into the Leonine was the struggle city first . Henry dated a document Liemar of Ind. Kal. Hist. Tune 2 1083. Cavenses . Chron. Junii.^ 1 Landulf. however. Benevent. the end of the whole war. sent him by Guiscard instead of relief Weariness on the part of the guards at length surrendered the Leonina into the hands of the King. D. Breathing vengeance. MLXXXIII. Casino. and calls the Pope Stercutius and Stercorentius — Devolavit moriturus ad Crescetitis Juguiu7Hy Quod indigetie After the fall appellant Adriani tumulum.230 failed.. climbed the walls. : cepit porticum s. was now waged round sought shelter in Peter's basilica the the Gregorians the . Annal. The Pope. S. 2. Benzo (vi. Bremen : X. A furious . it was said that Godfrey of Bouillon 2.

but prudence forbade the step. Scriptor. Henry's threatened anger terrified the people all the entrances were garrisoned no one ventured either in or out. ordin. Kal. regni XXVII. MLXXXIII. bishops. He might have taken this crown in The conS. feliciter. moreover. A. With the Leonina the King possessed the key to the city. surrounded by knights. to compel Gregory himself to perform the coronation and to make an advantageous peace. who.D. A document Farfa aut. in the Cod. H. Regis XXIX. ann..1 IN THE MIDDLE AGES. yet only half contented him. . Ind. sent of the still unconquered city was necessary he negotiated with it and he hoped. 1099. XX Villi. the immediate prospect of famine. . after tedious exertions his terrible aware that Henry entered S. A. The expression for urbem captain : is inappropriate. and Roman nobles. The strains of the Te Deum gladdened Henry's soul the revenge was sweet. made his triumphant progress amid smoking ruins to the cathedral. IV. i. V. Peter's. Jun. Germ. regis rotne feliciter. nor had the imperial crown been placed on his own head. The compromise which Henry offered seemed acceptable and while he cunningly endeavoured to win the Romans from their it . The interminable siege. His Pope (a puppet. . D. . Inc. in which his victory had made a profound impression. .. actum XVII. certainly actum Romce post urbem Rer. 144. captain. enemy was shut up within the adjacent fortress. D. n. Regni XXVII. From the battlements of this fortress Gregory perhaps looked down on the penitent of Canossa. 23 Thus Peter's. and with the anti-pope at his side. . In Lindenbrog. autem ordinat. whom he might drop at any moment) was not consecrated. Heinrici IV. Far/.

negotiations were actively carried on. allegiance to the Pope. Angelo. He would acknowledge Henry neither as King nor as Emperor he refused to be coerced. Neither fear of man nor the caprice of fortune moved his spirit. The Romans Henry in the Leonina. . Ambassadors also came from the Emperor Alexius to summon Henry to undertake his promised expedition to Apulia. formed three distinct camps while weapons rested. he told that he would take the crown from Gregory's hands that he would be reconciled with the Pope. He also told them that a Synod would definitely decide the pending dispute. 130. v. who on their knees implored him in his hopeless position to make terms with the King and to set his country at liberty. conformity with the treaty of he proposed to convoke a general Synod in in the city.2 HISTORY OF ROME them . This wonderful man bid defiance to fate as heroically in the Mausoleum of Hadrian as in the tower of Cencius. The Greeks still called South Italy AoyyißapSia. He insisted on submission to his commands . hoped to overcome his rival and to seize the ducal throne of Apulia. and the time seemed sufficiently favourable. With unmoved calm Gregory resisted the urgent entreaties of the Romans. and that it was their duty to aid him in this object. who resisted Robert Guiscard (who had now returned home) with courage and success. Gregory in S.2^. even the prayers of his most faithful adherents among the clergy. And since the fall of Rome seemed certain he ^ T] Anna Comnena. Canossa in November.^ Jordan of Capua.

The envoys of the Romans. but he was obliged daily to associate with them and even to discuss the burning questions in possession of his splendid of the time with Wibert. according to aiTcTHenrv Pope was to summon a iv. " Hugonis Chron.. and of Henry held negotiations in S. see papal agents.. to negotiate a peace between the King and the Pope. abbot longed to escape from the pit of heretics. who ought to have excommunicated his friend. paid a heavy tribute and received Capua as a fief of the empire. was obliged to set aside the law.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. X. The grateful. the note to For the place and the 1083. the Romans pledged themselves ^ Bemold and Ekkehard. of the Pope. 233 hastened to do homage to the King. Setting forth with the Prince of Capua.^ In a secret article. Treaty the They swore the terms of which the to a treaty. " the Antichrist." Mon. . he presented himself before the excommunicated King in Albano. He urged the Abbot of Monte Casino to accompany him. and by a golden seal graciously confirmed Desiderius monastery. Here Jordan did homage. however. and Desiderius hesitatingly obeyed his repeated invitation. 460. as a person infected by contact with those under the ban. The King yielded to Jordan's entreaties." Gregory. ad A. and Henry promised by oath that he would not prevent the attendance of any bishop. but obstinate. Henry himself desired a peace. Maria in Pallara on the Palatine. although the courageous abbot protested that not until Henry had been crowned Emperor could Jordan receive investiture at his hands. Synod to decide on the King's cause in November. Genn.

VaL. The entreaties of her own bishops. faced his fate in S. the representations of the Countess Adelaide.''' mentions the Palaciolus beside the ^ Bernold : juxta s. . and the Roman people were to take the oath of fidelity. To this Synod Gregory had invited all the bishops not included in the excommunication. who. after a destructive progress through her territories. This courageous woman determined not to blush before her great friend. and she was satisfied when she saw him. withdraws. In the latter alternative. Henry now advanced with their hostages to Tuscany he had caused a part of the Leonine walls to be thrown down. a newly elected pope was to crown him. . Petrum quendam monticuhim nomine PalaBull of Leo IX. Her inability to effect his release was a cause of It was with difficulty that bitter grief to Matilda. in case of Gregory's flight or death. ceolum incastellavit Bullar. wavered for a moment. explaining in . Burgura Frisonor. She since the fall of the Pope was inevitable. 1053. Glad to hold the Romans by a chain. return to the Roman Campagna as the date of the Synod approached.234 to HISTORY OF ROME aid him in obtaining his coronation within a given time. she resisted Henry's attacks. then rejected every compromise. of March 20. The ''' i. and had only placed 400 horsemen under Ulrich of Godesheim in a fort erected on the hill Palatiolus within the Leonina. et Saxonor. surrounded by enemies and traitors.^ The margravine still remained in arms in behalf of Gregory in Tuscany. Angelo. 25. and the cries of her devastated cities urged her to submission.

he broke the treaty he prevented the bishops. He also caused rival King of the Germans to to be arrested. religiöses Episcopos Abbates ad synodum Uteris suis . . ad A. great was Gregory's indignation that he could scarcely refrain from excommunicating Henry afresh he. Reginald of Como. that since Henry had broken the treaty of Canossa he was responsible for all the that disasters. As Henry again approached the city towards ^ Greg. So . 1083. The November Council was but scantily attended.IN his encyclicals THE MIDDLE AGES. and would refute the accusations brought against him. . more especially Gregory's Hugh of Lyons. and by these bishops (necessarily members of the Gregorian party) the King could not a Council submit to be judged without surrendering his cause as lost beforehand. says Papa omnes vocavit. most zealous supporters. 23$ he would unmask the actual promoters of the disastrous dispute. however. Recognising the object of the Pope. and imprisoned Cardinal Otto of Ostia.^ The Pope could not invite any bishops to but such as were exempt from excommunication. dericis et laicis qui 28. pronounced the anathema upon everyone who had prevented the bishops from coming to Rome. et Bernold. He called God to witness that King Rudolf had been elected against his desire. Servor. . Anselm of Lucca. who had been sent as Gregory's nuncio to Rudolf. Ep.^ 51 in Jaffe. non tenentur erroneously : excommunicatione. Reg. Serv. Dei ix. and that he hoped to make peace with the empire. viii. attributed to the year 1082 by Baronius. from journeying the ambassadors of the Rome. and consequently failed in its object. .

the The date fixed King. nt veniret ad accipiendwn coj'ona/n s. But was it possible that a man so earnest as Gregory could acquiesce in the farce which they devised ? Henry himself rejected the suggestion. either to take the crown as the submissive servant of the Pope. the Romans had themselves destroyed the fortifications. but on the stiff-necked Pope and the treacherous nobles. his cause appeared to stand in evil case. cum jzistitia. They excused themselves with the falsehood that they had promised the King not that he should be solemnly consecrated by Gregory. X^^ Romans violate the HenJyr^* and they consequently found themselves compelled to reveal the secret compact to the Pope. Angelo. was near. Fever had swept away the garrison on Palatiolus. but merely that the Pope would give him the crown. who was inclined for peace. who retained their for the coronation of hostages. and the S. de castello Angeli per virgam sibi dimissam a papa . i ^ Bemold : Unde Rojuani mandaverunt Hemrico. autem.236 HISTORY OF ROME Christmas 1083. si vellet .^ Romans that the Kmg was able to explam to the -n blame of continuing the war rested not on him. sin reciperet. or to permit it to be handed to him on a wand from the battlements of The treaties were thus broken.

Atinal. Urbis Senatus et pop. gold being alone required to draw the people back to his He ravished the Campagna in the spring of side. 1064. nee decepti auf devicti nobiliores qziida^ji {Af. Angelo (1084) He is deposed by a Roman Parliament. sibi vulgus Roman. xvi. Germ. palatium feria V. 237 3. and then started on an expedition to Apulia. R. Henry's retreat to Campania The Romans DESERT Gregory They surrender the City Gregory shuts himself up in S. acceptam pecuniam ad conciliand. which had renounced Gregory and anxiously desired his coronation and the election of Clement HI. ad A. and Clement III.. all the rest had given : Only a few of the him forty hostages. ) : permanserunt quoque nee corrupti Romani. But scarcely had he departed when Roman envoys invited him to take possession of the city.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ ^ Had Henry Bernhold. Angelo Gregory's Distress The Duke of the Normans comes to his Relief Henry's Retreat Terrible Robert Guiscard takes Rome Destruction of the City. This sudden change was due less to the nobles than to the populace. nobles had deserted Gregory Vita Anselmi Luc. c. who longed to put an end to their troubles. IS crowned by the Anti-Pope The Emperor takes the Septizonium and the Capitol by STORM The Romans besiege the Pope in S. and already began to assume a greater independence The Romans had long towards their captains. Perchett. cum suo Ravennate Guiberto intravit. is elected in his stead Henry IV. cecclesia 22 . — — — — — — — — — — been able to scatter gold with a more liberal hand he would soon have won the city. ante palmas expendit^ cujus adjutorio Lateran. 1084 : H. cum tota fere R. . . Ep.

No noble longer in thee. ad A. "^ now is Imperatori ejusq. avaricious Romans victims of the Pope and Emperor. and 1 Anna Comnena says : ^St? t^ c. faith. which rendered to Gregory. of trickery and of simoniacal pestilence no chastity. Norman monk. was as little of a slanderer as was Jugurtha in ancient days. was a heavy blow spirit Nevertheless the indomitable of the Pope remained even now unshaken. Once the source of all thou fillest thy wallet. have two. his fall inevitable. Does one give ? thou drivest the other away does one cease to give ? thou callest the other Thou threatenest one with the other and so back.oyyißapMav 38 : rjirelyeTO. as papam unaniviiter abdicarunt." cries Gaufried. I/isi. . they were now tired of sacrificing themselves for his aims. iii. The monk. Their defection. Sicu/a. the Roman messengers actually met Henry in : Apulia. pontifici nianus tradunt . avarice. thy A — . which is exaggerated. Thy weapons are blunted. a contemporary. who would not perceive the horrors which Guiscard soon after committed in Rome. laws are falsified. ventured to lavish his reproaches on the heads of the fickle. is . nothing but found within thee. Roma hi te quottdam be Ilipo tens vigetit. With Instead of one Pope thou must thee all is venal. Malaterra. " Rome. . avaritia^ . which did not accord with their own advantage. 1084. . fought bravely for the Pope The Romans renounce Gregory's cause. Gaufrid. A. dwell any but with customs unabashed forehead thou prosecutest the vile arts of gain. the pit of all disgrace.238 HISTORY OF ROME . cuncta prava hixus. toto orbe florida . Thou art full of lies. " thou decayest in thy despicable cunning no one fears thee thou offerest thy neck to every scourge. According to also Ekkehard's Ekkehard. nevertheless. No virtues.

Angelo. — the Normans. now hastened. . . 1084. great number of the nobles still adhered to him the .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. n. Henry.). i. Romam indie S. Henry returned by forced marches to Rome on March 21. his success is Rome. protected by the shields and spears of a handful of resolute men but all was not lost even now. nullus ordo. less Stenzel wrongly places the capture of it in the year 1083. day of seems a . . however. Despairing of taking Rome. I was ready to return to Germany when Roman messengers recalled us to the city. Verdun : — On the Benedict we entered Rome this fact dream to me I may say that God has effected for us with ten men what our ancestors could not have accomplished with ten thousand." ^ Gregory. A value(t?«?^^/. who would have preferred death rather than humiliation before the King. ^ The : letter. Benedicli intravimus is written after having X.. 815) Henry. and with the anti-pope took up his abode in the Lateran. by a .. M. 239 Henry iv.. With him were his wife and several German and Italian bishops and nobles. A . ^g'"^^ ^^' How little he had hoped " for shown by his letter after his coronation to Bishop Dietrich of S. he made his entrance. . which is without a date {Gesta Treveror. cuncta sunt venalia. Fides nulla. the family of the Corsi the and the Palatine Capitol the Pierleoni were encamped on the island of the Tiber. pestis simonicua Gravat omnes fines suos. Germ. however. as Totila in former days. which received us with rejoicings. is silent with regard to the entrance of left Rome. sat in S. most strongly fortified place in Rome remained in His nephew Rusticus held the Coelian his power. xvii. poem on Rome is given by Sudendorf 55. John. by the gate of S.

was installed in the Lateran on Palm Sunday. paschce in imp. college of judges. and was consecrated by Lombard bishops. At the same time the Romans conferred the patrician authority on Emperor and Pope immetheir new Emperor.^ Henry attacks the civic fortresses. and judicial acts were henceforward dated with his he failed to appear. pronounced him deposed. also conquered this fortress? Gregory's nephew : Rome . and S. 1098 later.. consensu o??inium Henry to the Bishop of Verdun : totius populi Romani exultatione.240 politic act.. after a feeble resistance on the part of the Gregorians. Ind. . a ment Clement III. Angelo must soon surrender its valuable spoils for had not Otto III. ^ et nosque a papa demente ordinatu?n Romanor. Maria in Campo Marzo of June 7. a document from S. Farfa^ n. of the nobles. pontificate. installed as Pope. 7931. II. and on Easter Sunday (March 31). Clement III. Mscr. and nominated afresh the seven bishops Rome and the surrounding terriof the Lateran. A. surrounded himself with an opposition senate of cardinals. . constituitur.rex patricius . dementis III. Chron. 99. Peter's. and the prefect. consecratum in die s. as Clement III.^ diately ordered the ecclesiastical and secular governthey appointed a Lateran ministerium. tory almost unanimously obeyed his commands. p. Reg. and. Siegberti: H. crowns Henry Emperor. Hugo Candidus was appointed by Clement cardinal-bishop of Prseneste. Romanor. he crowned Henry and his wife Bertha in S. 1086. Vat. and of the bishops of his camp summoned Gregory. and recognised Wibert as Pope in all due form. Henry now rapidly laid siege to the fortresses in they must soon yield. /X. 2 Thus immediately on April 29. 1084. to HISTORY OF ROME overthrow the enemy in Rome itself a parliament of the Romans.

Ego Britto jud.^ The Capitol was also besieged here . I. laid siege to the Palatine. de quibus quain columnas subvertit. Concerning the Septizonium. the Corsi. d. ^ Rex Capitolium ascendit. ann. Com. and one of the finest monuments of Rome was half destroyed before Rusticus surrendered. Pisan. Pand..1. Pont. VII. it as to a fortified castle. 1084.^ ^ Septisolia in qtdbus Rusticus nepos prcedicti Pontificis considebat. * Count Saxo of Civita Vecchia ceded the half of this city to Farfa on April 29. a family who may possibly have traced their descent from the Corsican colony of Leo IV.. et univ Pp. XXIX. 24 made a desperate resistance in the Septizonium on of the convent of S. 1886 Stevenson. dorn. 1888). Pisan. A. Q . Fratichi^ Sarraceni. ejus m. domos omnes Corsorum subvertit. was signed by the imperial palatine judges Ego Guillielmus judex s.^ Their palaces were in forts lay supporters of destroyed and burned. still Families of the name of Corsi are found among the lower classes in Rome. Heinrico a D. It : Imp. ** II Settiz. Gregory. Severiano " {Bull. 313. April. D. Ego Johannes judex Seniorictus jud. Cencitis s. for the works of the ancient Romans were generations to did shattered built on so vast a scale that even their strength. Some Roman families bore the names of nations. IN THE MIDDLE monks Henry all AGES. m. Of Eustasio Sign. I. see Hülsen. Et imperante D. obsidere plurifjias multis machinanientis obtentavit. IV. Imps. and Henry was able to his satisfaction to make his temporary abode in the venerable Capitol. Sign. Pand. D. Caro Ind. prop. ornamental buildings put the fortresses of modern shame by The splen- colonnades. Ego manus Sarramcini a. des Sep. were by machines. Severus. cum thus Sassi. p. corojiato sui7imo I??ip. Urbana nobles : causidicus prefecttircB. resting one upon the other. urbis causidicus. which the Gregory on the CHvus Scauri had transformed into the strongest fortress. testis. Das Septiz. VOL. Berlin. Pontif. Palatii. Cleme?ttis s.

to discover Asialdi films Astaldi. a Roman had defended the freedom of the city against an emperor. n. of Alberic and of Marozia. his eyes towards the Latin Campagna. The tragic history of Hadrian's mausoleum. he sat in the round which raged the as Germans and Romans. may have passed before Gregory's troubled fury of both spirit vaults of the fortress. and beg for speedy relief. be his fate if he fell into avenger of the disgrace of Canossa would have dragged him across the Alps. s. . where the troops of his friend Matilda were nowhere With painful expectation he turned to be descried. which sheltered the Pope The Romans themselves besieged the fortress. the memory of the popes Now to who had been gloomy strangled within it. . where. terini. in order to starve it out. another emperor now besieged a pope who defended the freedom of the Church against the temporal power. Actum Civitate Romana a/>iid Capitolium {Reg. ! besiege the Angeio! Angelo.242 The ^ HISTORY OF ROME S. of Crescentius. Eiistathio. Gregorii Adul- Carbonis de Gregorio Latro. while Gregory's breathless messengers scoured Campania to throw themselves at the feet of Robert Guiscard. In the same fortress. as his father had formerly dragged Gregory VI. What would Henry's hands ? The allowed his glance to rove over the Tuscan plain. Gregory looked from the battlements of this mausoleum over the ruins of the Leonina and Rome he . Horrigeni a. and the greatest of all the popes would have ended his days a prisoner in some fortress of the Black Forest or on the Rhine. ninety years earlier. the times of Belisarius and Totila. and surrounded it with walls. Farfa^ 1098).

and explained that the . Since he was compelled to abandon Rome before he was himself besieged within it. 243 whether the squadrons of the Norman duke were in sight until at length he beheld their lances gleaming one day under Palestrina. ^ : reckons 6000 horse and 30. for the Romans were fickle. quos habere potuit. for Gregory's fall would have ^^^^^^^'^ at once turned Henry's arms against himself. c. since his forces were insignificant. He started at the beginning of May with six thousand horse and thirty thousand foot. nor defend himself in Rome. which numbered among them the rapacious people of Calabria and the still more savage Saracens of Sicily. he assembled a parliament of the Romans. he caused the towers on the Capitol and the walls of the Leonina to be pulled down. . . 271) Saracenis omnibtis. Hist.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. — — : gente coadunata immensa et Landulf.^ Desiderius announced his approach not only to the Pope. Appulus (vi. iii. like Vitiges on the approach of Belisarius. Fortune had only an ironical smile for Henry this Tantalus of the Middle Ages never enjoyed an unmixed success. the abbot being accused of serving two masters enemies of each other from motives of prudence. and would have produced a terrible coalition of his enemies. Med. and. He could neither advance to meet the most formidable warriors of the age. but also to the Emperor an ambiguous proceeding.. 33 Guill. and the Gregorians still retained their fortresses within the city. and one which exposed him to severe censure.000 infantry. Guiscard no sooner heard Robert of the Pope's distress than he determined to hasten advances to forward to relieve him.

/a/. Wido Ferrar. who ! : — : Romam Sutri 2 12 Kal. Aprilis. thence to proceed northwards. pour lafaussetide li Romain ^ qui jamaiz non sont ferme ä lor signor se parti de Rome. 20: castra metatus foris ?nuros tirbis prope Lateranense palatium in loco qui dicitur ad Arcus. P. iii. Fossa N.2 The Romans kept the city barricaded. gave hopes of his speedy return. c.^. et destructa atifugit . and he was Gregory's biographer P. or Guiscard. A 23. document for the cathedral of Pisa is dated from Böhmer. Rome May 21. with Clement III. 37 : juxta aquaductum castra metatur.. On May 21 he retreated. n. First pitching his camp at Aqua Martia. on May Malaterra. c. Arag. Bernried says nothing concerning Henry's struggles for Rome. encouraged the dismayed people to resistance. Their manly resistance against Guiscard honourably fills a Leoniana civitate all drew from Bonizo. ante portam qua via Tusculana porrigitur^ c. so also the later chroniclers.^ Lombardy. and abandoned them to their fate. 1908. Et venit Robertus dux. Diacon. he cautiously remained there for three days. ii.. along the Flaminian Way as far as Civita Castellana. 53) says that Henry went to Civita Chron. ei puiz que li emp^reor de Rome sot sanz doute que venoit lo due. 313 : domo Capitolina. in order suddenly to attack him in the rear. Castellana. . nothing about Matilda. de Rob. 6.244 affairs HISTORY OF ROME of the empire demanded his presence in Henry IV.. Caven ses Siud Chron. While Henry was already reached retiring. three days after the retreat of the Emperor. p. rex a Romanis intromissus of which copies from the other ^ Card. uncertain whether Henry had only deceived him by his departure. et stet it usque 12 Kal. (iii. one H. Guiscard's horse had the Lateran Gate.. The Norman had come by forced marches along the Latin . Junii. Way through the valley of the Sacco he appeared before Rome on May 24. c. The date of the retreat is given by ^. tibi triduo commoratur. Viscari.




Their dis-

short chapter in their mediaeval history.

deserved genuine compassion their Emperor, to whom they had surrendered the city, had abandoned them, and after the sufferings of a three

unhappy city found herself exposed Normans and Saracens who had been summoned by the Pope. Robert held Robert negotiations with traitors and Gregorians within the JfikeTRome walls, headed by the Consul Cencius Frano;ipane.^ by storm, May 28, 01. 1-1 111 T r i^ In the dawn of May 28, his knights scaled the gate 1084.
years' siege, the

to the avarice of the



of S. Lorenzo, and having entered, hastened to the Porta Flaminia and broke it open. The army,

which there stood ready, thus made its way into the city. The Romans, it is true, threw themselves against the Normans, but the duke finally drove them through the flames of the Field of Mars over
the bridge to the other side of the Tiber, released the He

Pope from


Angelo, and led him to the Lateran.^ capture of Rome, a glory which adorns but
S. in the history of this great soldier

^^^ ^""P^*

few heroes, shines
prince, to

more constant than to Pompey or to Caesar. He had defeated the army of the Emperor of the East in Albania, had put to flight the Emperor of the West, and he now replaced
fortune was
According to a tradition in Joh. Caballini de Cerronibus, PoHstoria Rovia Topographicus, p. 142), who wrote at the time of Cola di Rienzo, Guiscard entered by the Flaminia corruptis


(Urlich's Cod. urb.

per eum nonnullis civil. Rom. de genei-e Buchapedum. 2 Montfaucon {Diar. It., p. 336) gives the gloss of a Cod. of Grotta anjz. Christi 1084 Ind, VII. m. Maji 29 Feria III. hora Ferrata On the other hand III., ingressus Dux Romaiti, ipsam depopulavit. a marginal gloss in the Papal Chronicle of Cencius {Cod. Riccardian., Normanni intraverunt Romam m. Madii d. XXVIII., fol. Ivii.) has

which agrees better with Gaufried.



the greatest of popes on the throne of Christendom.

Gregory VII., standing beside his preserver Guiscard, presents a spectacle so remarkable as seldom to be met with in history. As the Pope gratefully clasped the hero of Palermo and Durazzo in his arms, he may have remembered Leo IX., and, Guiscard himself may possibly have surveyed with astonishment the altered aspect of affairs, and, while he now saved a pope from the hands of his ruthless enemies, may have called to mind the battlefield of Civita, where he had knelt before another pope who was his
Sack of

b°the Normans,

however, which was surrendered ^^ ^^^ soldiers for plunder, became the scene of more than Vandal horrors. The Romans rose on the third day, and with furious indignation attacked the

The unhappy

barbarous conquerors. The imperial party, which had reassembled, hoped by a desperate onslaught to the young Roger rid themselves of their oppressors hurried from the camp with a thousand men at arms

to the aid of his father,

now reduced

to the direst


city fought valiantly but in vain

to a

despair of the people was stifled in blood and flames,
for, in

order to save himself, Robert had set


Burning of


of the



both flames and the


tumult of battle had subsided,
streets in ruins, the


lay a heap of

smoking ashes before Gregory's eyes

burnt churches,

dead bodies of Romans formed a thousand accusers against him. The Pope must have
averted his eyes, as the Romans, bound with cords,

were led in troops into their camp by Saracens. Noble women, men calling themselves senators,




like cattle

children and youths were openly sold
into slavery: others,

and among them the imperial








Goths and Vandals, nevertheless, had been more fortunate than were the Normans, since Goths and Vandals had found Rome filled with inexhaustible

Moslems in the duke could no longer have been comparable to that which their predecessors had ravished from S. Peter's two hundred and thirty years before. The city was now terribly impoverished, and even the churches were devoid of ornament. Mutilated

while the plunder of the

service of the

statues stood in the ruinous streets or lay in the

dust amid the

relics of

baths and temples.


images of saints remained here and there in the basilicas, which were already falling to decay, and attracted the spoiler by the gold which was possibly

affixed to

them by



brutal fury of the victors satisfied itself for

some days

robbery and murder, until the Romans, a cord and a naked sword round their necks, threw themselves at the feet of the duke. The grim conqueror felt compassion, but he could not make good their losses.^ The sack of Rome remains a





id Judceos,



captivos duxit usq.

Calabria?7i, says Gregory's adherent
et simplices, vinctis

Bonizo, p.


Mulieres conjugatas

post tergum rnanibus^

violenter prius oppressas
c. 20. 2

ad tabernactda adduci


Pand. Pisan.


vendens plurtmos, &c.


and even the Norman Gaufried, who

speaks of his remorse, qtiod tantis tirbevi affecissei injuriis^ is silent concerning these horrors,

the disgrace of


(iii. c.





dark stain on Gregory's history, as also on that of Guiscard. It was Nemesis that compelled the Pope, however hesitatingly and reluctantly, to gaze upon
not Gregory VII. in the burning city (and it burned on his account) as terrible a man of destiny as Napoleon calmly riding
the flames of



over bloody


of battle



the Great,


preserved the sacred city from Attila and obtained
alleviation for her fate from the anger of Genseric, forms a glorious contrast to Gregory, not one of whose contemporaries has recorded that he made any attempt to save Rome from the sack, or ever shed a tear of compassion for her fall.^ What to


of destiny was the destruction

of half

comparison with the idea sacrificed the peace of the world ?


which he


Hildebert's Lament over the Fall of Rome Ruin of the City in the time of Gregory


Years afterwards a foreign bishop, Hildebert of Tours, who visited the city about the year 1106, lamented its ruin in the following touching words





Roma^ nihil^ cum sis prope tola mina^ mag}ia ficeris Integra^ fracta doces.
artis in te

Ni cessasseni bonce

prima studia

Nulli regi de te cessisset victoria Miles quidem est normanmcs, qui

victam superat.

Ordericus Vitalis alone, writing in the twelfth century,


that Guiscard wished to destroy


entirely, but that the

643. j

throwing himself at his


deterred him.

Hist. Ecci.,

lib. vii.




tuos fastus cetas destruxit^ et arces

CcBsaris et superilm templa palude jacent.
Ille labor^ labor tile riiit^

quo dines

A raxes

Et sta?item

treinuit^ et diruisse dolet.


Quern gladii Regwn^ quem provida jura Senatus, Quern superi rerum constituere caput. Quern niagis optavit cum scelere solus habere Ccesar^ qua7n socins, et plus esse socer. Qui crescens studiis tribus, kostes, crimen^ amicos Vi domuit, secuit legibus^ emit ope. In que7n dumßeret vigilavit cura priorum^ Juvit opus pietas^ hospitis unda locum. Expendere duces thesauros^fatafavorem^ Artifices Studium^ totus et orbis opes.

Proh dolor ! urbs
Penso statum,



solitus dicere

dum specto Roma fuit.





nonflamma^ nee


Ad plefijwi potuit hoc abolere decus.
restat adhuc^


ut neque pars stans

jEquari possit, diruta nee


Confer opes, ebur et 7narmor, superiimqiie favorem Artificum vigilent in Jiovafacta manus. No7i tainen aid fieri par stanii fabrica muro, Aut restaurari sola ruina potest. Cura hominum potuit ta7ita}n coi7ipo7iere Ro77ia7ny Quanta77i non potuit solvere cura detlm. Hie superihn for7nas superi 77iirantur et ipsi. Et cupiimtfictis vultibus esse pares ; No7i potuit 7iatura deos hoc ore creare Quo 7niranda deÜ77i sig7ia creavit ho77io. Vultus adest his nu77iinibus, poiiusque coluntur
Artificiwi studio^ quai7t deitate sua.

Urbsfelix, si vel do/imiis urbs ilia careret,

Vel do77tinis esset turpe carere fide.''^


^ The elegy is given in Beaugendre, Op. Hildeb., col. 1334. William of Malmesbury copied it {de Gestis Anglor., iii. 134), and added Roma mine ad cofTiparatiotteni antiquitatis videttir oppidtini


2 50
of Tours.



Hildebert beheld the destruction of the city in the beginning of the twelfth century its ancient and
, .




new ruins and the still fresh traces of The talented poet was shocked at

the enemy.



emotions which
to efface

Rome awoke

within him, and sought

them by means

of a second elegy, in which

he placed words of consolation

in the mouth of sorrowing Rome. " When I still," for so he caused the unfortunate sibyl to speak, " when I still took


by Henry

army, my people, and my marble magnificence were my pride. The idols and the palaces are fallen, people and knights have sunk into servitude and Rome scarcely remembers Rome but now, I have exchanged the eagle for the cross, Caesar for Peter, and earth for heaven." ^ These exalted reflections could not, however, console the Romaiis for the ruins of their city, through '^vhicli they wandered as beggars. Rome had become the poorer by many thousand inhabitants through
pleasure in idols,



Vix scio, qiice fuerini^ vix Roma Ro7na recordor ; Vix sinit occasus vel meininisse inei.
of a genuine poet

The words poem

he exclaims, however,


a third

Roi7ia nocens, manifesta docens exempla nocendi,

Scylla rapax, puteusqtie capax, avidusque tenendi.


hundred years before Hildebert, a similar lament, contained



of Otto HI.'s time,


put into the mouth of



uttered of her

Edita cojisulibus nwnerasti Roma tn'umphos, Segna moves planctus edita consulibus. Qnce tibi causa mali felix o gloi'ia mutidi, Cur manant oculi que tibi cause mali.


In Di Costanzo,


degli scrittori

— riguardanti



Assisi, 1797, P- 423-

Udalrici^ Rome had previously been devastated by fires. The Field of Mars.''^ . THE MIDDLE AGES. portas Rom. 25 and imprisonment. storms within and without. Peter's itself must have been injured. urbis et pontes turres.^ destruction under Cadalus and Henry was when compared with the burning under the Normans. a parione tisqtte ad s. Under Magna pars urbis cremata est in festo s. Henry's attacks on S. For centuries she had suftered no such violent blow twenty years of civil war. Under Leo IX. For Guiscard twice set the city in flames first when he entered by the Flaminian Gate and again when he was attacked by the Romans.1^ . Hadrian. and lastly fire. Paul's had apparently effected the ruin of the ancient colonnade. IN war. had added their ravages to those inflicted by the first hostile destruction which she had actually suffered since the time that Totila had torn down her walls. : . ac triumphales arcus. which stretched from the gate to the basilica and with the capture of the Borgo the Vatican portico was destroyed. possibly as far as the Bridge of fire . armatorum cttneis inunivit{Cod. was destroyed by ^ the remains of the fortified Almost every important monument was of deposition at Brixen says : at this time. : fuit incend. . The decree 164). flight. 2 : Alexander II. Cataloofues in Cencius. The Leonina had perished by fire S. and death. the fate of the Septizonium. Within the city Palatine and Capitol had been laid waste. must have been Nevertheless the incon- shared by other siderable fortified buildings. We can enumerate a series of monuments which owed their destruction to this period. Eustachii. Felicem in pincis. at that time the finest portion of the imperial palaces. .

Dux ignem exclavians Gaufried nrhs maxima ex parte incendio consumitur. according to Bonizo. According to Pandulf Pisan. : . Petr. Angelo Godfrey (Pantheon). Mere burnt Bernold and Wido maximam urbis partem incetuiit. that Rome had originally been reduced to the lamentable condition which it presented at his time by the city. S. penitus dcstruxit.. the remains of the Circus Maximus can hardly have escaped. .. responsible for the destruction of a great part of the end of the fifteenth century. . a part of Rome hinc Lateranensis porta perusta sonat. The Apulian William only speaks of some buildings. Lupus is silent. : : . 313 : tolain Silvestri et S.252 porticos in this HISTORY OF ROME neighbourhood and several other monuments perished the Mausoleum of Augustus escaped owing to the mode of its construction. iii. unanimously affirm that it was ." The ancient church of the Quattro Coronati was reduced to ashes the Lateran and several churches must have suffered severely the Colosseum. Sicul. Diacon. 33) says three parts of the city lo due. A historian. : . Pisan. constilis ignem in Urbem i/fiisit. . 313). de Roh. viii. iii. in qua eccles. c. 7 Landulf (///jA Med. and the Column of Marcus Aurelius owing to its isolated position on an entirely open piazza. Hist. Laurentii in ^ Lucina sit<z regionem illam. ahnost all the regions according to S. the Triumphal Arches.^ All the chroniclers who have incidentally described the frightful catastrophe. p. une grant part de la cit^ fu arse. (p. c.. . from the Lateran to . . 772): civitate in magna sua parte coUisa. with justice pronounced the opinion.^ The hitherto thickly inhabited quarter of the Lateran was destroyed by fire as far as the Colosseum. and this Chron. (Murat. and the Lateran Gate itself was henceforward known as the " burned. according to Romuald. 53 ex consilio Cencii Romanor. . et piiiz mandhoit pour paiz ä c. living at the ^ Pand. Anon. sunt. the regions circa Lateranum et Coliseum were burnt . Viscart^ happened near the Quattro Coronati. .

Foreign a quarry. . made rapid progress at this period. gradually tine. consecrated by Alex- ander IL. moreover. —the celebrated cathedral of Lucca. Owing. it is probable that it contained valuable ornaments and columns which were 1 Blondus. When Desiderius built his basilica. became gradually forsaken. still remained inhabited. or had been purchased from the city. The traveller of the present day. city may recall the fact that this desertion is due to the Norman destruction. iii. the destruction of the city ruin. Decad. 204. were undoubtedly adorned with columns which had either been presented by Rome. — built in the eleventh century. too. cathedral of Pisa. to internal causes.^ AGES. for even sent to Rome. and although.^ ii. 253 thickly The formerly populated Coelian (the region of the Colosseum). as to The beautiful stones and columns.IN hatred of the THE MIDDLE Normans. became deserted and the like fate befell the Avenrenowned for its splendour until the time of Otto III. The its building of churches had formerly contributed to and the transformation of ancient monuments into fortresses and towers now effected the like result. lib. Hist. which he caused to be shipped from Portus. who visits these two ancient hills and finds in their silent desertion nothing but ruins and the remains of early This quarter of the churches. But it. cities. and the inhabitants thronged more and more into the Field of Mars. pagan statues can scarcely have been forthcoming. he bought columns and blocks of marble in Rome. where new Rome arose. amid the booty which Robert carried off to Salerno. it is true. too.

direptione habentes . . Robert art. as soon as the Normans had withdrawn. Matthew works of the in this southern city. even after sack. but destroyed other ^ for: Alphanus in his poem on the building of Monte Casino says Hie tarnen handfacile Ducla labore vel a7'te rudi Omnis ab urbe columnafuit. like Genseric. Departure of Gregory VII. attacked Tivoli in vain.254 HISTORY OF ROME afterwards employed in building the cathedral of S. 5. insatiabilitas urbe capte et prcedcB data mulla mala perpetraverat nobilium Romaiior. statues of marble or bronze still survived in Rome.^ Robert took hostages. 462 at quia Normannor. 28) says that Desiderius bought in 11011 et : bases ac lilia (capitals) ncc . rapina. modum went — in . which was his just Gregory Rome^^^ with the Normans. Angelo. and in June departed with the Pope into the Campagna. submission. where he exile. The horrors committed by his liberators condemned Gregory VII. into Exile His Fall His Death in Salerno His Figure in — — — Universal History. Although the Romans had promised ruins of Rome. diversor. placed a garrison in S. for removed actual some remarks uttered by Hildebert also have may in his first elegy allow us to Norman conclude that. henceforward to an eternal punishment in the highest His career ended in the sense of earthly destiny. Rome cohmmaSy mannora. the Pope therefore to Salerno in fear. Chron. he must nevertheless have foreseen that. filias stuprando — nullumq. Leo of Ostia (iii. he would fall a victim to their revenge. ii. color.^ It is possible that. crudelitate. 2 Hugo.

laden with the curse of Rome. in order to take farewell of the theatre of From some his struggles. which he left in He might tell himself that he had not been defeated. 1085. Henry who had conquered the city.. A. : Bernold more accurately promovit. Romam Petri reversurus^ &c. where he went to eat the bread of exile at the hand of his friend Desiderius.^ THE MIDDLE AGES. obliged to turn with the troops of to the south. and had compelled Gregory himself to go forth. With gloomy thoughts he must have mentally followed Henry to the Po on his triumphal progress homewards. Gregory must have turned a last painful look on Rome. this to say the least. form a tragic end to the drama of his life. of the Eternal City. qui tunc temporis morabaUir in ilia . his sorrowful journey to Monte Casino and Salerno. although accepted by Romuald. occupied with fellow-believers he * Death of Gregory -. . maxime ob injuriam VII. the other was ruins behind him. a drama in which eternal justice obtains as glorious a triumph as in Napoleon's lonely death on St Helena. a fugitive. Tivoli. into exile. 255 of these heights on the Campagna. Gregory died on May 25. Clementis apostolici. without mentioning Tivoli ipse ad Petri cum papa Gregorio de Roma exercitum in festivitate s. but that neither had he conquered. While one of the enemies proceeded northwards. against whose had formerly preached a crusade. 1084. recuperandam terram s. who had raised an anti-pope to the sacred chair. Roman prisoners condemned to gratitude towards a vassal who carried him off into a foreign land.^J^ According to Wido. The departure of the great Pope from ruined Rome amid the swarms of Normans and Saracens. Robert attacked is. iterum says.IN tresses. who had obtained the imperial crown. very doubtful.

how: ^ ever. On his death-bed he sighed " I have loved righteousness and hated iniquity. 2 . has ever attained to his revolutionary daring. either in ancient Rome or in modern times. a character almost without equal. however. tnaledidus homo. ^ Dilexi justitiam^ et odii iniquitatem^ propterea manor itt exilio. expresses his despotic This was also the cry of the Jacobins and of Robespierre. raises him to a far higher sphere than that which belongs to secular monarchs. men who have moved the world by a violent yet salutary influence. lies behind his papacy. He who desires the impossible must appear a visionary. To Gregory belongs a place among the rulers of the earth. which he wished to replace by a spiritual tyranny. thinking in his brief moment of power to compass at once the work of centuries." This his character. His terrible battle-cry in the war against the secular tyranny. does not.^ This monk did not shrink from the thought of overthrowing the order of things existing in Europe. stand amid the glorious ranks of sages and reformers who are reverenced by all races without distinction as benefactors of mankind. qui prohibet gladium siaiin a sanguhie.256 HISTORY OF ROME schemes of returning to Rome at the head of an army. Gregory was the heir of the ancient aims of the Papacy. however. grand spirit. character. and as that of a its ruins. and no one. As Pope he aimed too high. But his unexampled genius as ruler and statesman is his own. which was great and manly. The religious element. in order to raise the papal throne upon His true greatness. therefore I die in The words reveal the fundamental basis of exile. Beside Gregory Napoleon sinks to an utter poverty of ideas.

I read the following inscription in a church called Mentorella. as the popes have actually been called. when suffering humanity desired to have the principle of good embodied in a personality before its eyes. VOL. is more remarkable than the united empire of Roman or Asiatic conquerors. their The realm of priests. 257 visionary Gregory's attempt to seize the dominion of the political world must be regarded. of bar- barism and necessity. is so astonishing. Marvellous was the strength with which he won the freedom of the Church. His purpose. it is true. IV. the whole world. As long as the world lasts this spiritual empire will remain a unique. near Guadagnolo con Vacque battesimalil Vicedio lava Vimperator el rende pio. that it will continue to awake the surprise of the latest generations of mankind. Gregory VII.^ The idea was the outcome of an age of slavery. The transference to a human being of the power to bind and to loose in moral affairs is perhaps the most wondrous ^ Vice-god. and founded the dominion of the hierarchy. idea of setting up a mortal as an infallible and God-like being. was a hero of this priestly empire alone. embraced mankind as a Church. R . a personality which to its comfort it could always see and reach. at once the apostle of meekness and the vicar of God. unexampled phenomenon of moral power. but the Church only existed The for him in the form of the papal monarchy. a gospel. who bore in hands no other weapons than a cross. Thus below a : picture representing the baptism of Constantine. holding the keys of heaven and hell.— THE MIDDLE IN AGES. a blessing and a curse. and of submitting to him.

that the greatness of the Church assumed this audacious character in Gregory. vicious. It was not until after the struggles which dated from Gregory VII. becoming univerderision as the belated sal. that the laity. and monarchy. forms. We may reproach Gregory with having severed the Church into two halves into the profane laity. History. wonder. however. the highest ideas of mankind. — it must. began to show signs of intellectual life. has turned them to . Civilization en Europe^ vi. by the Gregorian principles. the strongest passions. deprived for ever of all rights of election. however. The teaching of the apostles endures time has long overthrown the hierarchical principles of Gregory. has not ratified his unchristian ideal. or culture. H ind^pendance du clergi chritien ä Vigard des ßdeles. and uncultured. le vice radical des relations de FEgiise avec les peuples.258 HISTORY OF ROME It is. therefore. p. The conception of the Christian republic was indeed falsified . 52. and the sacred and self-elective priestly caste. cest la siparation des gouvernants et des gotwernc's. and. le9on. No dreams of the obscurantist and the fanatic. ^ fected on his lines. perall political infused a spirit of Caesarism. fact in the history of the world. la non- inßuence des gouvernh sur leur gouvernement. —democracy. ex- plained by the fact that in the Middle Ages the Church represented the universal needs. for this ideal remained below the loftier conception of humanity. united in itself aristocracy. // faut le dire. . Guizot.^ Into this hierarchy Gregory If this system. for the hierarchy usurped the place of the Church. hitherto rude. at the same time.

to make them work together. 259 machinery. how to rescue them from their last hierarchical rigidity. extent. their gradual separation. mankind was to render how incapable of grasping the lofty ideas of Christianity. Was the Church of Gregory VI I. to equalise them in the principles of freedom and justice. and the decline of the power of the Gregorian Church. and thus at last to build up a In the age universal empire of culture and peace. necessarily entailed the nevertheless. The the first time stirred this in all the moral depths of From one its immeasurable proceeded a movement. directed by a single will. by means of a struggle which best for life. . the awakening of intellect in the world. engendered all the evils of clerical despotism and tyranny. work that Gregory accomplished was a result undreamed of by himself.IN THE MIDDLE its AGES. the expression of nature in its eternal personal even now realised ? The extinction of the Frankish feudal State. constitute the historic life of the Middle Ages. and we can understand that the work of Gregory VII. which together represent the social whole. their original barbarous feudal blending. and ? of the Middle Ages the and realisation of Christianity Are these pure ideas. and the centralisation of all dogmatic power in a caste. their per- manent division. of physical force and barbarism. be granted that German reformation. which spread through man every circle of Church and State. have rather social aspect. the problem And of even now we are occupied with Church and State completely independent powers. struggle between The gigantic these two forms.

He built nothing. consequence of the fire.26o HISTORY OF ROxME to denote a race. encompasses this hard and tedious world. This is built into the wall of a chapel Tempore Gregorii Septeni Presulis Abni Exiinms Praciarus Vir Benedictus Moribus Eccksiam Renovavit Ftindihis Istam Presbiter . Paul's he restored this basilica. . and bears us onward to a happiness. The engraved figures and inscriptions are undestroyed the niello in metal is alone lacking. one after another. and this not in . still every noble ^ spirit. As rector of S. which perished in the fire of 1823. I have seen the remains of these doors in two wooden chests in the monastery of S. remained in exile at Salerno. 's time is now valuable. the anticipation of which must gladden after countless struggles. and Pantaleo of Amalfi adorned it with bronze doors. . Rome possesses no monument of this pope. all the Roman churches and have discovered only one stone which speaks of Gregory VII. Gregory VII. in S. but of the rapacious instincts of the Romans Every inscription belonging to in times subsequent to the Normans. . begun new phase still in the history of the human Ages Those gigantic ruins of the Middle sink one after the other before our eyes into the great stream of the harmony of life.-^ Even the corpse of Gregory VII. Paul's. I have searched. which. Pudenziana.

escapes to Monte Casino. where there was no family dynasty to be founded. Desiderius is raised by force to the Papal Chair AS Victor III. structible principle. (1088). the actual heir was the hierarchical spirit which continued to subsist as an inde. VII. which only tardily becomes peopled by insignificant figures. who had grown old and grey fighting in its defence. where he dies (1087) Election and Ordination of Otto of Ostia as Urban II. but After also the fall of a great man leave an influence behind until these circles finally which may be traced in a thousand ever-widening circles in the waves of time. as the body of Alexander the Great in former days had been surrounded by his guards. Gregory's coffin was now surrounded by the men of the hierarchy.— — THE MIDDLE IN AGES. . however. 201 CHAPTER I. lose themselves in space. : — — — Gregory's fall the city of Rome resembled a deserted stage. He escapes to Monte Casino he resumes the Papal Dignity in 1087 Is consecrated IN Rome Condition of the City Victor HI. Not only the actions. Who was to inherit the spiritual empire ? Was it to be overthrown by the petty passions of envy and ambition ? Such would have been the case in a secular State in the realm of priests.

. Atfuga. his connection with the Normans. Hie exptdit urhe Quern Ligures Regem. had bestowed a heroic lustre on the history of Italy. to plunge into Robert was buried at Venosa. turning over manuscripts adorned with purple miniatures. .^ It was now believed that Desiderius disunited. sed Venetum nee fuga^ nee pelagus. or disputing with scholars it . Cardinal of S. had designated four candidates for the forthcoming papal election Desiderius of Monte Casino. his very relations with the Emperor Henry made his election desirable. . surrounded by the peaceful muses. the abbot coveted the tiara at such a moment. Partkus. where the following haughty were written on his grave ^ : lines Hie terror mundi Guiscardus. like Gregory. Alemannus hcibent. This extraordinary man. Guiscard's death had just deprived the Papacy of a powerful support. The wishes of the cardinals : . centred around Desiderius. his ambition must have been more than great. could If. Monte Casino reminded him that he might end his days in the tranquil enjoyment of happiness. had risen from the dust. Cecilia Anselm of Lucca Otto of Ostia in Trastevere Hugh of Lyons. like Gregory. reminded him that it were folly to exchange the lonely cloister for tumultuous Rome. Roma. who. The wealth of the abbot. in case the heirs of the duke proved and however. Macedunique phalanx tion texii A/exi??i. alone avert the threatened faithless evil. a talented man of diplo- matic duplicity. and.202 HISTORY OF ROME Gregory. soon after the Pope. the respect which he enjoyed among contemporary princes. died in Cephalonia on July 17. without force of character. on his deathbed. Arabs.

IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the head of the republic. the tiara behind Desiderius's back. The year 1085 passed without an understanding Desiderius f^e parfai being attained. the Gregorians in suspense. Desiderius hoped that the public would have acquiesced in his continued refusal the cardinals and nobles. with the object not of acquiring. even as a proof of conscious weakness nature. and lastly to draw upon himself a fatal destiny. we may say. repeatedly driven towards it by the cardinals and princes. to expose himself to the intrigues of ambitious and envious cardinals. however. but of evading it. remains everywhere so much the same. The human feeling shown in his resistance was fine. even recoiled from this crown as from something sinister. to the Countess Matilda. the best funeral oration on Gregory's greatness. that even here a prelate was not wanting to cast furtive glances of envious longing at in his coffin. led by the Consul Cencius Frangipani. The two years that followed Gregory's death present the spectacle of a battle for the papal crown. . The deserted city still remained divided into two camps the imperialists united. The abbot announced his refusal to Jordan. . he would use his influence to procure the elevation of a worthy pope at an elective council. assembled cardinals. and to the . the distinguished man who belonged to the Lombard house of Benevento. however. But not until Easter of the following year did he come with Prince Gisulf to Rome. The dead Pope seemed to hold the tiara fast even and Desiderius. explaining that . Prince of Capua. 263 an endless struggle with the world. crown. This attractive spectacle is.

however. frantically shouted his name. whoever he might be. which had refused him the ratification of the Archbishop of Salerno. the impatient cardinals proclaimed him as pope on May 24. by a departure which resembled a flight. he undertook to provide for the pope. As soon as his own advantage dictated. he was forced to follow the sea-coast by ^ Capparn quidem rubeam induit^ alba vero inJiiere cum nu?iquam pottierunt. however. -A tumult in the city taught him what he had to expect as pope.-^ Meanwhile the election of Victor III. and the scarcely elected Pope escaped after four days. lively The description given by Peter Diaconus (iii. '1086 saw himself clad ^^^s in the purple as Victor III. to thrust upon him the white vestment known as the alb. He was furious against the college of cardinals. 66) is and dramatic. he proposed the Bishop of Ostia.204 in S. It ^°^7- found impossible. had for some time past found its head in the imperial Prefect. the vassal of the Henry's Prefect sacred chair withdrew his aid. The populace. alike from friends and enemies. at his own expense until peace was restored to the Church. The Counts of the Campagna being of imperial sympathies. The Prefect taken prisoner by Guiscard had been released by Roger. prevented Victor's consecration in the Vatican. c. Guiscard's successor in the duchy. which remained in possession of several fortresses in Rome. HISTORY OF ROME Lucia by the Septizonium. collected arms on the Capitol. He took counsel with Cencius. 1086. and with despair he I Desiderius III. . Henry's party. did not remain uncontested. on their knees implored him to accept the Papacy.

Diacon. (ii. Of the Prefect he says : die noctuque 2 cum aliquantis cere iniqtw condtictis in Capitolium contra etindeni electum conveniens . deaf to the entreaties of both bishops and princes. 66. laid 265 aside the Ardea . whose conduct and prinThe result of their ciples appeared ambiguous. 466). may have proved insupportable. arriving Terracina.TN THE MIDDLE at AGES. the thought of beholding the tiara on the head of one of his opponents. Roger. Roman nobles with their leader Cencius.. more especially on that of Hugh of Lyons. Cardinals. bishops of Southern Italy. persecutiones ei maximas intulit. he insignia of the Papacy and hastened back to his beloved monastery/ Here he remained a year. was hostile to Desiderius and strongly opposed the re-election of the abbot. headed by Hugh of Lyons and Otto of Ostia. ii. He and the Abbot of Marseilles were excommunicated by Desiderius. left for Rome after Easter under the The little army escort of Jordan and Gisulf. Duke of Apulia. who had been made advocate of the Church. opposition was that Desiderius voluntarily resumed If human ambition the papal insignia on March 21. and the dethroned Prince Gisulf were also present. gathering round Prince Jordan. and boasted See Hugh of Lyons' violent of having achieved Henry's coronation. censured Gregory's actions. however. Hugo letter to Matilda (Hugo.^ Victor III. stirred within him. iii. . to guide his pilotless ship through the storms of the time. : 466) blames Desiderius as an intriguer he caused himself to be elected by force. 6'].. reassembled in Capua during the Lent of 1087 for the papal election. Flav. The Gregorian party. Chron. ^ Petr. Peter. and to the exhortations of S. c.

twelfth centuries the holiest cathedral of Christendom was besieged and defended like the Septizonium or S.266 HISTORY OF ROME at Ostia advanced seawards. It is curious to reflect that the basilica of S. who had come to establish the rule of the Pope in Rome. The Normans Clement sought besieged the basilica . in the Clement imagined. the fugitive shelter in the city. Clement III. and Victor III. and the nature of its condition. The weariness was universal. the ancient Pantheon. and Matilda's troops still remained in arms. crossed the Tiber and encamped outside the Leonina. collected his adherents. May . The imperial Prefect had seized Rome after Victor's flight. impelled by urgent longing for his convent. may be III. Peter's. Peter henceforward actually served the factions as a fortress that in the eleventh and . Rome undisciplined. where the Pope was to be consecrated. Angelo. The aspect which the city now presented. in order entrench himself within another indestructible church. torn and devastated. Cardinal-bishop of Ostia. but scarcely had he arrived at Monte Casino when he was recalled by messengers from the Countess Matilda. Peter's by the Can we blame Desiderius for shrinking from the thought of the Papacy ? Only eight days afterwards he left Rome. The continued anarchy afforded him but little ground for hope. to — — was consecrated on 9 in S. S. but cannot be described. was in the hands of the enemy. and that within its colonnades the soldiers fought as fiercely as on the battlements of any fortress. and had hastily summoned Clement III. and Vatican and the Pantheon. dwelt in the Vatican. Henry was at a distance. came.

and inscribed a beautiful and touching epitaph on his gravestone. left Rome held a III. and died on September 16. The greater number of the Romans. again excommunicated Clement and then had himself conveyed monastery to die. S. appointed Oderisius abbot. a tragic sacrifice to the Death of Papacy from which he had hoped in vain to escape. an . In August he Synod Benevento. and Victor in III. sept/i6. Ostia and Portus alone remained in his power. for the third time in July. in failing health. of M. dwelling with the countess on the island in the Tiber. Peter's was now recovered and now lost. Angelo. remained faithful to Clement... 267 Sighing. The arrival of an imperial envoy. the Pope Victor III.— IN THE MIDDLE him AGES. The monks buried the restorer of their abbey in the chapter house. Casino^ he died on the XVI. He ' and shadowy figure. and here he took up his abode.^ inglorious ^ Octbr. Peter's. where he desired to rest. . he obeyed their forced an entrance for summons Matilda's troops into a portion of the city. which must necessarily throw them into the arms of the Normans and again recall the destroyers to the unfortunate city. S. moreover. According to the Chron. for even as Pope he had continued to administer the affairs of the monastery he recommended Otto the Cardinalbishop of Ostia as his successor to the sacred chair. inspired the followers of Wibert with fresh courage. Trastevere. Amid scenes of hideous bloodshed S. inflamed by hatred towards the Gregorian papacy. The Abbot Desiderius was a great man and one ^°^7of imperishable renown. His epitaph says : Kah . where he confirmed to his Gregory's decrees.

and Clement the survivors of a great past began to feel themselves strange and isolated. delayed in the . Rome Quis fuerim. Geschichte.. HISTORY OF ROME the celebrated champions for reform Of who had formerly rallied round Gregory's banner. Stirps mihi magnaiiim. Envoys of the Gregorian party. 1867. Desiderius was the last to quit the stage. in the midst of which Matilda. cardinals. On May 8. had been excommunicated by Victor HI. as an enemy of the Church. and therefore could no longer enter into competition. A new generation and other aims had arisen. Henry. nomen Est Desiderius^ tuque Casine decus See my Grabdenkmäler der Päpste. The voice of the dying man had chosen him as pope. activity of Desiderius. vii. . " Desiderius Papst Victor HI. and then sincerely reconciled to his former adversary. Concerning the life and von M.. — The election of Otto was. and abbots assembled at Terracina John of Portus found herself . Casino als of the Forsch. another of the four. Anselm of Lucca had died a year earlier.— 268 . vel quüf. and were scattered here and there. quaiis. aurea scripta docent." vol. power of the anti-pope the cardinals quarrelled among themselves. zur deutsch. forty bishops. Hugh of Lyons. nevertheless. BeJieveiitits patria. see F. 1088. Hirsch. repeatedly summoned them to bestow a head on the disorganised Church several of them at last gathered round the Abbot Oderisius. Otto of Ostia had been first the rival of Victor III. and convoked an elective council. . qttaiittisque doceri Si quis forte velit. and he had formerly been one of the four candidates designated by Gregory VII. envoys of the countess.

Far/a. He was the first pope who.. Peter was still imperial Prefect {Reg. 2. and legates of Germany. received ordination outside vincial city. in the neighbourhood of Rheims. Contelorius. 1 134). and had formerly been monk and prior of Cluny. Rome and in a pro- 2. Clement III. or rather brings this family on the stage as early as 1080.. in foii^'^°^^" conformity with the decree of election of Nicholas IL. Petr.. As legate in Germany. Henry IV. In 1080. were also present. — City — Matilda's Marriage with Guelf to Italy (1090) HI. unaniniem attulerunt. To his zeal for reform and his theological culture he owed his elevation to the Cardinal-bishopric of Ostia in 1078. where he had served at the time that Gregory VII. c.— — — IN THE MIDDLE AGES. invents the Prefect Petrus de Vico in IO99. — . n. in Possession of Rome Urban IL throws himself into the arms of the Normans. There were anti-prefects. fideliuni consensum Benedidus prafectus universor. ^ Ex urbe vero Rom. Henry IV. crated as Urban II. whom I have repeatedly been able to supplement. belonging to Chatillon. Diacon. 269 represented the clergy. BACK to the youthful City — Rebellion of — Conrad Urban IL seizes Rome. who conduct him to Rome His disconsolate Position in — the V. laicor. He had been kept a prisoner for a time by and it appears that the King had in him a not very keen opponent. iv. as of the Countess Matilda. Urban II.^ On March 12 Cardinal Otto was proclaimed and conse.Urban ii. Benedict the papal prefect the people of Rome. returns The Romans summon Clement the Urban IL was a Frenchman of noble birth.

city . 1883. Rome. .. had been in Lombardy. and to Rome. and the misery of a mendicant people amid a city that resembled a streets. establish Clement III. Stern. F. seemed as if Gregory VII. and the Emperor at his intellect . the second anti-king. the mound It of ruins. his ability as an orator and diplomatist was recognised.^ Urban himself immediately announced to Christendom that he was determined to rule as Pope in the spirit of Gregory. The reveals nothing but scenes of daily warfare in the tyranny of rude nobles. had died after making submission to the Emperor (in 1088). and in Urban the Catholic party saw the man who would tread the path of Gregory VII. he had become ecclesiastical pro- foundly versed and political was stronger than that of Desiderius. son. J For his earlier life see M. Henry's side. permanently in was in Clement's power during this rule of anti-popes and anti-prefects it lay sunk in the The history of Rome most frightful anarchy. and the Saxons and nearly all the papal bishops gradually leaned more and more to Henry's Since 1087 the young King Conrad. Berlin. des Papstes Urban IL. his position. however. had drawn the fate of exile on a long series of his successors since . length threatened to return to overthrow Matilda. In Germany the civil war had never ceased since Henry's return Hermann.270 HISTORY OF ROME liberated in in all had been affairs . and have shrewdness to discover fresh means for the struggle when the old had become exhausted. was difficult. Zur Biogr.

on the other hand. ing years of his archbishopric. — The Papacy owed its life to the doubtful protection of Norman princes. Matilda. entire year in Southern Italy. and The Germans made a : witty epigram on the two popes {Cod.. behind the shield of Pierleone. sed clemens non potes sit tibi Tradita solvendi cum. Neverthehe ceaselessly wove webs of he entrapped his enemies.— IN after his THE MIDDLE AGES.^ He longed. ^ life within the modest limits of his IL. conduct Urban 11. powerless and so poor as to receive alms from the matrons of less. still ruled the greater portion of the city he was forced. until their uncle Roger of Sicily and the Pope succeeded in effecting a reconciliation. . and it was a Norman army that The led Urban II. and perhaps sincerely. 2/1 time wc find many of the popes almost constantly in flight or banishment a curious condition. Urban remained on the island of the Tiber. •^ the streets. 2) Nomen habes Clemens. between the two popes.to Rome. 1088. The city thus ag^ain became the theatre of strife . Urban Henry IV. must have remained almost the popes. Udalrici^ n. who fought each other in Nov. to bewail the unhappy fate which condemned him to maintain a title with superhuman exertions. ab Urbe. Clement. reciprocally anathematised and alter- nately banished one another. and one hitherto unseen in the history of the Urban II. with subtle art cunning with which Rome. to spend the remain. Diceris Urbanus^ nulla potestas. where the brothers Roger and Boemund were engaged in bitter warfare for the succession. back to Rome in November 1088. however. cum sis projectus Vel muta nomen^ vel regrediaris ad Urbefn. esse.

After having deserted Henry's banner. and an important event even forced him to make war again in Italy. for Germany. son of Azzo II. Kunigunde. and crime to crime. and dreading the victorious return of the Emperor. but the force of the destiny which their all the parties to the strife had invoked upon heads. Duke of Bavaria. and on August II. IV. and had exchanged country. a sister of the last Swabian duke of the house of Guelf. husband. not far from Würzburg. and in 1071 had received the dukedom (of which his rebellious fatherin-law had been deprived) as fief from King Henry. he became his bitterest opponent and Gregory's most devoted partisan. and by which an entire generation was plunged in inextricable confusion. Henry himself was already disposed to reconciliation with the Church the excommunicated bishops. who stood or fell with Clement III.272 HISTORY OF ROME the world desired peace. and of and Matilda. Margrave of Este. and in bestowing a champion Guelf inspired by selfish aims upon the Church. would have come to weary of valiant hero. recognising that Matilda's now enfeebled party was ready to make terms with Henry. . In later times he had even been the head and soul of the Roman party in Germany. 1086... alone deterred him. He had married the daughter of Otto. and . while his brother Fulco continued the line of Este. Urban. blindly onwards.. adroitly succeeded in providing the countess with another Marriage between the son of Guelf IV. had utterly defeated Henry at But even this Bleichfeld. strife. his native in 1055. drove them added intrigue to intrigue. 1089. had become heir of this very house Italy.

sistence who did battle empire. Alps in the spring of 1090. S . ad A. but her estates. inexhaustible energy of a monarch. against whom he had already fought for years. Not the charms of the princess.^ hero of a hundred battles crossed the Henry iv. ut tanto virilius S. pro incontinentia^ R. sought her hand. The great princess. whose banner was now borne by and if her the husband. E. Mathildis tarn — Welfoni duct quam pro Rom. con- demned for his to a life of incessant warfare. now forty-two years of age. . IV. 1089 : In filio Welfonis dncis conjugio coptdatur— 7ton Italia nobil. formed the attraction even Robert. accompanied by the two iSw^i^oo. he found this When himself confronted by the same Countess Matilda. His younger son. Pontificis obedientia. Guelf IV. 2/3 terms with the Emperor. contra excommtmicatos posset subvenire. Guelf V. had not ambition for the aggrandisement of his house in Italy suddenly found nourishment. heir to William of England. was. awakens surprise. videl. like himself. who. nor the obstinate resistance of Matilda. who had selected him to be the husband of the Countess Matilda. VOL. the fanatical perof a childless shall woman borders on the ener- mysterious. however. Hohenstaufens. getic wars in We not describe Henry's Lombardy. on the young Guelf The Guelf immediately marriage took place in 1089 lent new strength to the Catholic party in Italy. was the ancestor of the house of Brunswick.. was destined to be sacrificed to the policy of a covetous father and of a cunning pope. Frederick and Conrad. a youth of eighteen. urged by discontented vassals to ^ Bernold. country. and Henry was obliged again to descend upon the . which she bestowed.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

2 HLTthe bac^ As ^ often as the anti-pope c. agnetis et castrujn sei Angeli a Romanis eaptum Petr. subdue tain in dedit. where he endeavoured to retain the friendship of the Normans. 10 : cum Ap. Imp. Even Jordan of Capua profited by the prevailing disorder to annex Roman territory.. Urbani PP. 1090. and were with difficulty prevented from razing the fortress to the ground. 1091 : Romani quoque turrem quetii Creseentii. make with feminine obstinacy scornfully rejected the proposal. although the spectacle of its conIn spite of the fact that dition remains unaltered. —Romani Herum quee quoque Guibertum heBresiareham^ Romam intrare permiserunt. expelled the papal garrison. the Romans again renounced him.. the city of Our attention is directed to Rome. Diacon. d. Bernold. iv. that to the city. and Benevento. Henry's advance (an attempt on the part of the : elder Guelf to cessful) make peace having proved unsuc- The summon city. A. Urban could not become master of the city on the contrary. jamdudum exptderunt^ .^ While Urban now convened Synods in Melfi. et H. Angelo by a sudden assault in 1091. fere Campaniaiii ajure sedis apud Pipernum vita decedit. came to Rome. They now summoncd Clement III. terremoius fuit Rome infesto see. dolo captam diruere temptaverunt. accepisset^ : est. and had obtained possession of almost the entire Campagna when death overtook him in the Volscian Pipernum on November 20. who was in Henry's camp. Troja. In fact.274 HISTORY OF ROME peace. had produced such an influence upon them they again returned to his side. catenus papcc obediebat. he was univ. he was obliged to wander restlessly in South Italy. They took S. ^ The Catalogue in Cencius Tpe. Clement had been banished by the fickle Romans.

p. combined to forge an outrageous ^ A Count of Sutri was nephew of Wibert : Odo — Co)?ies SutricB fiepos ejus erat^ et ecclesiasticce Ordericus VIII. the discouragement of Matilda's party.IN able to dinals THE MIDDLE AGES. Urban. an : with the inscripPrcenestino Ep. The fall of Mantua (in April 109 1) and of other cities. remained inoperative. 141). struck the Catholics with They reflected on the possibility of raising new and formidable enemy to the Emperor. which now amounted to fanaticism. and .. Romano Pontifice III. and both within the city and outside it the judicial acts were still dated with the year of Clement's pontificate. As late as 1093 Hugo Critica. altar Candidus consecrated. A. But he could not enter the city. who owed their elevation to himself. up a The cunning of the priests. had his ministry. while Clement officiated in S. Storia di Palestrina^ . of the elder Guelf. for these nobles availed themselves of the schism to rob the Church. and the avarice dismay. dedicatum (Cecconi. in Pagi. of a woman. Peter's. however. and in both this and the following year he was forced to celebrate Christmas outside the walls. and almost all the Counts of the Campagna recognised Clement III. the defection of Rome. Urban was obliged to remain satisfied with anathematising his rival from Benevento. 1086. 275 summon a Synod of a few schismatic car- and of some suburban bishops. however. as Bishop of Prseneste. his judges. it is true. Anti-bishops rent the Roman territory asunder. his prefects they were. tion pads fautores phiribus pressuris coercebat.^ Meanwhile the administration of both spiritual and secular affairs remained in Wibert's hands. the hatred. where he assembled a Council in March 1091. powerless. demente ab Ugone. these Synods.

Absiulit uxorem sibi primittis.. . The clergy had long since woven their toils round his heart he was terrified at the prospect of the endless struggle the rudeness of his father's surroundings was distasteful to him.. HISTORY OF ROME Conrad. father suspected his purpose and had him imprisoned he escaped to Matilda. The fervour of youth had Standing at the side of her friend Gregory at fled. The many -rt m . he had inherited merely his father's fickleness of disposition without any of his passionate energy. et modo p7-olem. Canossa and interceding for the humiliated King.. Mox . The son did not apparently approve of his father's scheme.^ his . deprives this illustrious woman of the renown which had hitherto encompassed her career. The rebellion. this act of Matilda's with cold-blooded effrontery v. Matilda's had been a figure to command esteem sixteen years later. which she encouraged.. son of enry IV. and he was oppressed by the anathema of the Church.. and the sensuality gave way destroyed the filial Conrad was incited to rebellion his due. gentle. at the side of her boyish husband and sheltering the son of this King as a rebel under She her broad wings. Unlike his father in character. who received him with joy. . and with a taste for peaceful arts. 848) : Se dojuincB largis Mathildis siibdidit alts . principles. Qua vehiti dignwn valde carinnque propinquum siiscepit Illius iractat emn^ landaus tit rex vocitettir." she is a repulsive spectacle. which the latter reverence which was to '' ^ Donizo has celebrated (ii.^ had for young^ ^ . . All his contemporaries describe the youth as handsome. Henry's eldest son. patrem sicy Hister ut Aman . years been his heutenant Italy. 2/6 Defection of Conrad.— .

and coronation. shameless but not guiltless. and however he may have been to blame for his son's apostasy. ^ — attributed to his son in regard to his stepmother surpasses beUef.^ in Longobardia regnavit contra Fatrem. ab excomm. a Lombard who absolved the traitor to his Meanwhile. se ipsum. i. in his lonely fortress. the unfortunate Emperor heard of defection. Praxedis or Adelais of Russia. fled from Verona to Matilda. Milan. Piacenza. His account of the conduct which Plenry 1093 (Pistorius. Chron. Guelf was active in forming league against Henry Conrad's rebellion . et solutus Dodechin.^ Conradus patri suo rebellans^ venit ad P.). Urbanum. 3 Floto holds that the vices attributed to Henry of the and probably many of the rumours concerning him were Giesebrecht believes that the Emperor suspected utterly unfounded. and entered into a twenty years' alliance with the Guelf and the Countess Matilda. and. at the instigation of the priests. . he shut himself. tit ajunt. 2/7 him to the Pope. dolore affect tis. . ^ Nimioq. set a suis prcBvetttus ad effectum pervetiire non potuit. To add to his distress. Bernold. 1093. formerly centre of the imperial party. juorti traderevohdt. priests.^ Whatever transgressions he may have committed (his bitter enemies were undoubtedly guilty of much invention and exaggeration).IN sent THE MIDDLE AGES. own father. Cremona declared in favour of the rebel. the unhappy barbarian. drew with it the defection of several cities. Lodi. his lot was indeed hard. A.^ his son's Conrad K?ng"of ^^^^^' ^°93- in When flight. and in his despair would have fallen upon his sword. his second wife. the existence of unlawful relations between his wife and his son. overcome with sorrow. crowned in Milan as King of Italy young Duke Conrad was 1093. are lies A. in presence of two ecclesiastical councils revealed the mysteries of her marriage bed to the whole world.

munitio7ie viorabatur more accurately the letter of atidivi the Abbot of Vendome (viii. lib. Papa RonicB prope S. Op. and guarded a strong tower under the Palatine. and gave him money. Urban was consequently obliged to seek shelter in the dwelling of the Frangipani. and other fortified places. who was oppressed by was deplorable the Abbot Godfrey of Vendome. Maria Nova. 1 Bernold. tt ^ t-» 1 1 /• t». son of Cencius. i. S. Mariam novum in quadam firmiss. sold his possessions. iii. and for the first time took his debt. 1093.. Maria Nova.^ Here Urban dwelt. the commandant of the Lateran appointed by Clement III. wherewith he bribed Ferrucius. who was in the city at the time on affairs of his convent. HISTORY OF ROME to Rom-. which they called Turris Cartularia. on the ruins of the Temple of Venus and Rome. the protection of the Consul John. touched by his situation. 641) : — : —dorn P. The chanp-c in the course of events allowed Urban 11. Angelo. Nov. under o{\he Frangipani. UrbaJiuni in domo Joannis Fricapanem lafitare. The Arch of Titus. however. which was included pjjg rival was no longer in the city. a tower which had originally belonged to the popes. to come to Rome.278 Urban comes II. however. ^^^ grandson of that Leo Frangipani who founded the fortunes of this celebrated family about the year 1000. opened or closed Dvveiis in ^^^ its en- trance on the Via Sacra. held the Lateran. at the end of November 1093. The followers of Wibert.t 1 but in Henry's camp. A. dated from S. About Easter 1094 Urban entered the palace of the popes. Some of Urban's Bulls are . This family remained steadfast to the lawful popes they had entrenched themselves near S. within this baronial fortress. el contra Guitbertistam hceresi7n viriliter laborare. The position of the Pope. Sirmond. . 1094 Z>. released Urban from his difficulties. .

and xiv. gazing on the ruins of churches and city streets VII. ^ The abbot himself writes : ntidatum. he laments the apostasy of his son. presents a gloomy picture of the deca- dence of the Papacy. Prisca. had not been occupied by any CathoHc pope for a length of time. as. on a silent as inhabited by a tattered. Such were the effects of the struggle for investiture. lost to sight in a Lombard fortress. was made Cardinal of S.. according to the opinion of the abbot. who was visited in secret by the Lord. seated in the deserted Lateran. — and — memorials of Gregory death. surrounded by rude partisans and no less rude bishops.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. eum pene omnibus temporalibus bonis nimis oppressum inveni . owing the possession of the papal residence to the gold of a foreign abbot. aged. oppressed. does not offer many sadder spectacles than that of the Emperor Henry IV. murderous. he compares himself In reward he to Nicodemus. no less desolate than they had lain at the time of the Gothic war. with thoughts fixed on suicide. ix. squalid and and miserable population. at this very time. et alieno cere . which.^ Urban II. too. History. See also Ep. and for three centuries the abbots of Vendome were called cardinals. while all around the provinces lie devastated by fire and sword. and such the memorials of the seventh Gregory. 2/9 seat on the Lateran throne.

A division of life so deep-rooted as history had never previously beheld. bishop against bishop. ing OF Movement — — — Return of Urban II. would have his apostolic found to his astonishment that the successors to office were occupied in erecting the throne of a Caesar over his grave. and where was the Saviour of blessing and of mercy ? Had Christ now returned to earth. prince against prince. Conrad's filial apostasy was but the glaring symbol in which contemporary mankind recognised For all around father stood its own condition. pope against pope. and guilt.— HISTORY OF ROME 280 3. and that. The tedious wars between the crown and the tiara had reduced the whole empire to a state of indeThe rage of factions had filled all scribable misery. appeared to sever Christendom itself. brother against brother. The world was veiled in the darkness of the deadly curse. strife. circles of society with unnatural hatred. like the . too. The Phenomenon of the Crusades — StrengthenTHE Papacy through this Universal Urban IL preaches the Crusade in PlACENZA AND IN ClERMONT (1095) RELATIONS OF THE City of Rome to the Crusades and to The Normans of Italy take the Chivalry Cross The Army of French Crusaders marches through Rome and drives away Clement III. Peter. and to destroy the venerated power of its mysteries. He would have discovered to His surprise that the religion of love which He had founded had changed beyond recognition from the pure sources of its origin. divided against son.

After the profound corruption of the fifteenth century. At the end of the eleventh century the European world resembled a battlefield on which the darkness of night had fallen where the armies. We see how the strange phenomenon of the The Crusades is explained by the conditions of the time. and guilt. But with the dawn of day they believed that a vision appeared in the heavens. and the Reformation strove to recover the sacred writings. or genius. a cherub who beckoned them to follow him to the East. are motive causes. only awaited the morning to throw themselves on one another with renewed fury. delusion. Hieronymus. mankind longed for atonement. yearning for peace. like virtue.1 IN THE MIDDLE AGES. although many other motives may have played a part. wearied but filled with hatred. . or error. commanded them to conclude the peace of God. and . All the results of history are developed from the secret workings of impulse and necessity. race was ruder and lost Christ in the In the eleventh century the human more childish by full four hun- dred years grave. Savonarola. 28 emperors of Rome. reason. it sought the Saviour in His material represented the to the sources of salvation in an The Crusades consequently mankind return of . they called themselves Pontifex Maximus. which made martyrs of Huss. and to proceed in arms to the sacred Jerusalem to atone for their own sins and the sins of the world at the grave of the Redeemer. The dispute concerning investitures became one of the levers of the immense movement. but condemned by unexpiated guilt to further fratricidal war.

. of which a pope. while the pilgrims to the grave of the Prince of the Apostles had gradually numerous. pilgrims were scarcely able to reach the city. it was through reached the these gates that Gregory VH. and rarely entered the desecrated church of S. and Rome found a rival in sanctity in a Jewish town in distant Asia. Instead of addressing the doorit keeper of heaven.i ^ become Among the pilgrims who visited Rome at this time was the . The reverence for Rome had long been diminished by by many reprehensible popes. and of a legion of saints thrust Him aside ? Had not Rome erected the image of a Prince of the Apostles invested with the secular patriciate. ventured to assert that it was honoured by the entire West as a god upon earth ? Peter was the symbol of the Roman but hierarchy. the unity of the universal Church. by the horrors of perpetual civil war and at the time of Henry IV. had world and had visited it with afflictions. as early as the eighth century. not of the salvation which every Christian implored. Peter. of the apostles. was of the God Himself? gates of The : not better to seek the Son world had been taught to believe that the secret road to heaven lay through Rome nevertheless. For a long time less past. they had thronged ever more frequently to the grave of Christ. party.282 actual HISTORY OF ROME expedition to the cradle of the Christian religion in the East. Was not Christ almost forgotten by the world ? Had not the worship of the virgin. which had become a fortress of Wibert's the vices of the clergy.

IN Reflective THE MIDDLE AGES. 283 the Romans may have denounced Crusades for having diverted the streams of pious pilgrims and of gold past them in another direction the city was destined bitterly to experience the alienation of these sources of revenue. and drove them from open grave of Asia. homes took place in Damascus in the year of civilisation Had Peter of Amiens had a similar fact i860. but the Church created a new force out of the new enthusiasm. was received as afflic- when the account of the tions of the Christians in distant Jerusalem roused human their race to a pious frenzy.. The oppression of the Syrian Christians was not immoderately hard historians of the time have not informed us of any massacre of 25. only to prosecute Archbishop of Hamburg. ad A. a sublime object of religious imagination. to a universal Christian idea. the popes adroitly placed themselves at the head of an immense movement... . as well as the materials for heresy and schism. At a time when her fate remained doubtful in the struggle which still continued with Henry IV. advanced with the spirit of the age. rose out of the petty quarrels and interests. ment on a century when a hermit a messenger of God. The present generation looks back with astonishin squalid attire. such as to the . He came. half the riding through the world on an ass. to Syria. and themselves attained a new height in the history of the world. Baron. united the Church in a great passion which inflamed Europe. however.000 men. 1092. into which the struggle for reform had degenerated. Danish King Eric his case against the (in 1092). led near and distant enemies.

. ..^ Urban II. is a spectacle which in greatness puts the divided and narrow-minded Urban II.... no longer united by any its common aim. impotence of modern policy to shame. After eight centuries. it were foolish to demonstrate that the Crusades were the product of religious frenzy spirit . a great epoch in the life of humanity." Milman well civilised says in a note to this Crusades are monuments of human folly! but to which of the more regular wars of reason appeal as Europe will our calmer monuments either of human justice or human wisdom.. and of the influence by which this impulse unites peoples of such varied character. . a product of the entire character of the Middle Ages. Tuscanv by the Countess Matilda.-t-i .. but may perhaps have purchased its toleration at the sacrifice half of its fervid. V.. which he himself preached. he convoked a . The spectacle of the electric effect of an impulse. passage: — "The . Council m Piacenza.284 HISTORY OF ROME behind him. they are a manifestation of the of the time. youthful susceptibility for the exalted and sublime. showed him that Henry's cause was No cathedral was able to lost his own won. it was obliged to hold its .. preac es Crusade in Piacenza. The rejoicings with which he was received in Lombardy. but at the present day he would be merely derided as a lunatic.. contain the parliament. Mankind is happily no longer capable of undertaking homicidal expeditions for the sake of religious ideas. ^ It is now amusing to note Gibbon's vehemence against the uselessness of the Crusades.-. adorned his pontificate with the first Invited to Qj-usade. the crowd of clergy and laymen who assembled to meet him (in the beginning of March 1095).. he would probably have precipitated Europe upon Asia.

. when the chivalrous Franks were summoned by a pope. to Before Urban's departure he received the homage of the young Conrad in Cremona. The dazzled rebel hastened to Pisa to receive his wealthy bride.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. . All the orators of Greece and Rome would have envied Urban not only his magnificent position. A profound excitement the world. The first embassy from the Byzantine emperor entreating help appeared before the Council and was comforted by promises of assistance. who was himself a Frenchman. and by the feverish shouts of thousands who lay encamped round the city like an electric cloud. only waiting for a spark from his word to break forth in flames. the daughter of Roger of Sicily the Pope to France to attend the Council. which had been stirred to its depths by Gregory VII. But a second general assembly was convened at Clermont for filled . Pope him the prospect of obtaining the empire. but the sympathy of the hearers who flocked to this historic parliament and in scarcely any other place has language ever shown an equally overpowering might. it was animated by a new spirit. November. He was greeted on the field of Clermont by the and in ardour of thirteen archbishops and two hundred and ^jg?"^'^*' five bishops. 285 meetings in the open air. under condition that the prince renounced the right of investiture. the offered the defence of the Eastern Church. by the homage of many nobles of French soil. . and. The tongue of Cicero lent its sonorous majesty to a Roman orator even at this date to influence a crowd in whose mouth the ancient Latin had long been corrupt.

against You. oppressors the enemy of the Christian faith. HISTORY OF ROME when speakers have desired to inspire their audience with enthusiasm for a great idea. as you love your souls. precisely because they . and robbers and murderers. and died. public feeling on behalf of the most exalted motive. only lent it an added appeal is made to Singular contrast fervour. to strive the highest aim. appealing to the noblest virtues. . widows you. . robbers of the property of others you who accept money to shed the blood of Christians you who. beheld in granted these thousands for the most part robbers and murderers. Urban did not deliver a all speech. he summoned tears. so far from chilling their enthusiasm. are for summoned II. dripping with the blood of your brothers. he called on Christendom with one accord to gird itself with the sword and deliver Christ from the Turkish chains. and these qualifications. but a sermon. under your captain Christ to the rescue of . suffered. they have adopted flattery. . In order to give emphasis to his utterances. " Rise. and quotations from the prophets to his aid. the presence of which they have taken for the priestly orator. like vultures. motives for was the atonement to be made the Crusade itself an act of discipline for the attainment of absolution. where Christ had walked. and murderers and violaof orphans . sighs. tors of churches .286 Elsewhere. you. and the strongest of for his audience sins . ! are robbers and murderers. turn your weapons. however. are drawn by the scent of the battlefield hasten. The Pope briefly depicted the captivity of the sacred city of the King of Kings.

for such is the will of God. in order that he may depict a Roman army in the history of the Crusades. awoke the enthusiasm of this . he declined. separated from Europe by land tage and sea and by a thousand years. however. xx." ^ : Princes. love of adventure. All you who are guilty of such sins as exclude you from the kingdom of God. parliament of Clermont for distant fellow-believers and a far-off city. Bishop Ademar of Puy obtaining remission of sins in life death. 287 Jerusalem. and then de^ Rome^ towards o-usades. The historian of Rome looks around in search of Attitude of such of her citizens as flocked to the banner of the Redeemer. 821. Urban's success was more complete than he had expected. and be certain of . knights. of its matter in universal history outweighs the speeches of Demosthenes and Cicero. Deus lo volt. naming. Although some bishops urged him to place himself at the head of the expedition. all of servile state.IN THE MIDDLE AGES." The most glowing eloquence has frequently failed in rousing a multitude for its own immediate advanUrban. ransom yourselves at this price. The importance Urban's short and simple discourse is given by Mansi. with trembling haste beneath this symbol ambition. serfs. . all debtors and outlaws could assemble under the banner of the expedition. bishops. and mountains of gold in Syria in the as his representative. : fastened a red cross upon their garments and paradise in meantime. and every crime found shelter all bondsmen. The thicklypacked audience (which numbered within it but few innocent men) repeatedly interrupted the Pope with the fanatic shout " Deus lo volt. however.

which aided the conquest of Syria by their fleets. Genoa. and at the same time the nobles into traditions antiquity made Roman . scribe. owing to the traffic with the Levant and the settlement of colonies to which they gave rise to . have seldom been and the romantic their nature. increasing Chivalry could not take form within the city the Church.288 HISTORY OF ROME Dei per Romanos . Senate and people would probably have laughed in derision had Urban summoned them to rise in religious en- and advance the city which had to the rescue of Jerusalem been destroyed by a Roman Emperor. the Crusades were a source of gain. they were the cause of decay. more especially to the maritime republics. formerly whose fall was still recalled by the Arch of Titus. Pisa. fired The Romans for great ideas. the Gesta Romans. however. itself. Rome — — Pompey beside the bridge of the Tiber. of whose Ark of the Covenant the Lateran still boasted the possession. in developed in its heroic caprices of enjoying pleasure or doing chivalry evil. To the rising cities. Rome. and whose latest descendants a dehad lived since the time of spised school of foreigners thusiasm. hindered of its rise. he fails to discover. and Venice. its strength. as is his duty. spirit by enthusiasm spirit of chivalry was foreign to Wherever the German and Norman prevailed. however. to forsake the ruins of . which prevented the development of all secular growth (to which women largely con- tribute). . and in the love of action which led it over land and sea but at this period the greater part of Italy remained incapable of any movement such as that to which chivalry had given birth.

as well as the ruins of the ancient city. great and petty brigands. Galeria. Palestrina. as many priests as nobles and citizens. Far otherwise was it at the court of the Norman Born knights. VOL. the aspect of whose rocky nests was then as repulsive for these ancient seats as it is at the present day . Civita Castellana. and neither here nor in Rome did a court of beautiful women ever assemble to crown with flowers a victorious cavalier. The graceful poetry of the Middle Ages never rested on the gloomy ruins of Rome. as vagrant princes of Southern Italy. would have gathered as spectators on the tiers of the ancient Colosseum. would have formed an inappropriate environment. such as Segni. at lasting strife with both popes and emperors. not at a spiritual court. was all poor. could be developed only at a secular. inhabited by counts. but never into knights. T . all avaricious and The Campagna. on the other hand. but the composite system of vassalage on which the order of chivalry was based.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. dwelling in the ancient monuments. feudalism had penetrated into Roman territory. IV. Monte-rotondo. divided into parties. of these wild nobles. Ceccano. of counts. and almost as manytearful nuns as laughing women. upon whose prostrate granite columns the stern shades of ancient senators seemed to sit and bewail the fall of their city. 289 senators and consuls. True. were never touched at any period by the influence of civilisaNo errant troubadour ever visited the castles tion. Roman tournament The Roman Nobili of this age were a rude race. To a on the grass-grown arena of the ancient Circus the churches and convents.

new terri- The Normans Tancred and Boemund. Roman territory. anticipating Tasso.i The passage of a crusading army drew the Normans to join it. no one of genuine obtained renown in the Crusades. Robert of Normandy. Many of the Italian people cited there are merely poetic figures. perhaps even natives of in 1096. The sound of the sacred trumpets made them start with joy. although the eldest son of Guiscard. than 500 knights under Boemund. the French and English Normans. to acquire tories . does not mention any Romans.290 HISTORY OF ROME adventurers they had conquered the beautiful land. the flower of chivalry. had been set aside for his younger brother Roger). first and Norman made the glory of the Crusade by her immortal heroes Tancred and Boemund. followed the banner of his relative Bcemund (who. to undertake fresh deeds. Robert of Flanders. Tancred. the brother of the King of France. although the chronicler. (Duchesne. The French of the western provinces. Tasso invented Rinaldo. . and in a doubtful letter of Urban to Alexius it is stated that Boämund had set forth cwn septeyn viillibus delecta juventutis italics (Mansi. rallied round these two leaders. when he broke up his camp before besieged Amalfi in order to go to Jerusalem Italian troops. where they were to take Italy ^ Hisior. Rome and Apulia to Bari. xx. and Stephen of Chartres and Blois marched through Tuscany. and had struck terror to the Greek emperor. 892). son of William the Conqueror. had driven the Moslem from Sicily with their lances. Although Italian race Lombards followed Raymund's banner. led by Hugh of Vermandois. ) 660. who. Geslontm Vita Hierosol. iv. passes the army in review. in order Lupus enumerates some counts and more to flatter Alfonso of Este.

Diacon. and that they themselves. de HierosoL 820. (iv. Tudebodus. p. " we found the 1 1 ) Petr.Crusaders sheathe their swords in sacred Rome ag^ainst the p^ss through r bitter enemies of the Pope. 778. Peter's. we should probably have heard of the siege of some of the monuments in which the followers of Wibert lay entrenched.. c. 5. swords stained with the blood of schismatics whom they could not overcome. Had the chroniclers told us more about the sojourn of these crusaders. c." thus apostle. describes the route of this third expedition. and Belli Sacri Historia. The Pope. the Romans must have watched the approach of the Normans of France and England with anxiety. . an eye-witness among them. of the writes ^ when kneeling in prayer before the shrine " As we entered the basilica. Peter's. Itinere. and bestowed the banner of S. iv. met these princes at Lucca. commanded by the most distinguished princes of the West. were menaced by murderous Christians in 1 • • 1 -r» 1 1 • t S. and might deem themselves fortunate in that this splendidly equipped train consisted of disciplined troops. Peter on Prince Hugh. Histor. Fulcher in Duchesne. consecrated pilgrims. He was able to make use of these crusaders to effect through their means the subjugation of Rome and the expulsion of the followers of Wibert from With the recollection of the sack under S.^ THE MIDDLE returning AGES. They must have been appalled at finding that the Turks were already in Rome. Ibid. to Guiscard still fresh in their memories. and at having these Rome. there gave them his blessing. 29 Rome.1 IN ship. The knights of France and England were astounded on The their march to Jerusalem at being obliged to un.

. respects the march of the crusaders through papal They forced territory was an advantage to Urban. Hie7'osoly7nitana. the remainder continued their proaltars. Thes. Wibert to leave the city they apparently conquered some towcrs and fortresses. nisi quod a Domino vifidiclam inde fieri optavi' mus. iota tirbe Rom.^ ^ Fulcher Carnotensis. latitabant Wibertini. was at least enabled to spend Christmas in peace. 1097. Histor. i. who entered Rome after their departure. a<^ ^. iii. by Monte Casino to Bari. 820 satis proinde dolnimiis. 386. and Fulcher's vivid picture saves the In other historian from any further description.. Sed nil aliud facere potuimus. placed on the They drive of the city. they climbed on the beams of the church and threw stones down upon us when we knelt in prayer they desired to murder everyone who appeared to them as the follower of Urban.^ Such was the attitude of the city of Rome towards the Crusades. He was now master of almost the entire city. Wilken's account of this expedition is very inaccurate. See Anon. and the Pope. : 2 Bernold. Dom. S. cutn taiitam neqiiitiam ibi fieri vidinnis. in Papa — nativit." Fulcher admitted that the crusaders regarded the dreadful condition of the Christian capital with horror. gloriosissime celebravit. we had .292 HISTORY OF ROME people of the imbecile Pope Wibert with swords in they seized the votive offerings which their hands . pene sibi subjugata^ qua adhuc i. quippe prceter turrim Crescentii. Roma: cu?n suis card. Zwetlensis^ Petz. which the crusaders refused to be detained) alone remaining in the power of Wibert's followers. but left the punishment in the hands of God: for several of the crusaders in cowardice turned back from Rome. Angelo (with the siege of gress .

— — IN THE MIDDLE AGES. as secular head of Christendom. separates from Matilda The Guelfs desert to Henry's Camp Henry IV. removed the empire from the world-historic height to place itGregory VII. 1099 — — — — — j 1106. and nowhere else is the beholder filled with a like admiration not only for the power of religious motives. iioi of Henry IV. the empire allowed a moment of such importance as never again returned to pass by unheeded. Was it not the duty of the Emperor. assuming the task which belonged to the empire. to unfold its banner and to lead princes and peoples in the holy war ? Through the fault of circumstances and of Henry IV. to place himself in the forefront of this great movement. to the first Crusade The Pope places himself at the Head of the General Movement Guelf V. and it was inherited from him by the subtle Urban. The Papacy. there is no period in which we survey the phenomenon of the spiritual first The impulses in mankind with so great a degree of astonishment as that of the beginning of the Crusades. but also for the genius and good fortune of the popes. returns to Germany (1097) End of his Tragic Struggles Death of Urban Death OF Conrad. In the entire history of the Middle Ages. 293 4. IL. Crusade revealed the weakness of the empire. had clearly recognised self thereon. . This idea he had bequeathed to his successors. the significance of the struggle of Europe with Asia and had striven to become the leader of this movement.. Attitude of Henry IV. which was incapable of rising to its mission.

seems to have fallen to a lower depth than when he stood as a penitent in Canossa ." which is still more powerful is among mankind than of the ideal impulse of religion. . Henry IV. Ideas move the world to ultimate issues. and sacred hunger for gold. as a passive spectator of those parliaments. but interest directs the the " immediate steps of men. the Church proved to the world that it was who preserved the unity of nations. banished him from the domain of history. Henry IV. Guelf and Matilda. . which seemed movements of the Crusades. made up common in The marriage of accordance perhaps with their own wishes and in harmony with the policy of Rome. be the leader the world is did not matter governed by the the leaders. while in his absence a new epoch in the world's history is inaugurated by the parliaments of Piacenza and she Clermont . suddenly raised him from his despondency. but a standard-bearer in the war against . so to speak. which had made him its plaything. We have seen Henry defeated in the rebellion of his cause seemed lost in the peninhis son in Italy sula and it was also in great danger in Germany.294 HISTORY OF ROME or Whether the Pope was of the expedition was not this to . and of the popes were Since the Crusades proceeded from the Church. But the caprice of Fortune. the anathema of the Pope had. idea. will ever remind us that the half of history materials. A domestic quarrel forms a curious episode to be lost in the vaster in the great struggle of the Church with the State. gloomily brooding in a castle in Northern Italy. was a Platonic union the countess did not desire a husband..

his celebrated wife of having refused to fulfil her marriage vow. 20) concerning ^ . Donizo darkly hints at it. . Unde in primis causa seminandi inter poiitificem et ivip. and a claimant to Matilda's estates was removed. its purpose it was now dissolved by the shrewd Pope. who either accused . R. we may nevertheless assume that this donation was in part responsible for it. Liguriam et Tusciam provmcias G^'egorio papa et S.^ Although the immediate causes of the quarrel between husband and wife are unknown. iv. The quarrel apparently brought to light a fact which had been concealed from both Guelfs namely. The world had just listened to the revelations of a queen. devotissime obtulit. But the services he had rendered and a riper manhood endowed the young Guelf with courage to abandon his attitude of submission towards his wife he determined to rule and possess her property. E. who had accused her husband of the most outrageous conjugal offences it now gave ear to the confession of a prince. odii initiuin fuit. and it is scarcely Guelf probable that the step was taken without Urban's fj^P^""^^"^^ co-operation. ^ Bernold. and it is known to Petr. c.IN THE MIDDLE AGES 295 Henry. for the countess had by deed promised all her lands to her friend Gregory. comittssa. imperatoris exercitum tiniens. and Matilda treated him like a presumptuous boy. — . 1095. not an heir to her estates. that Matilda's property was already bequeathed to the Church. A. The pretended marriage had served Matilda. Villani's legend (lib. iv. but a servant to her aims. After the Council of Piacenza the younger Guelf openly separated from Matilda.. Math. Diacon. or alleged the Platonic relationship (whatever may have been its cause) in order to conceal the grounds of his separation.^ 49. H. c.

: 7iativitat. he went. and that he had been deceived concerning Matilda's property. Clement III. . forthwith the most Henry now quitted his solitude to fight against Matilda.^ is Matilda and Guelf amusing. 1099 (he begins his year with Christmas) D. Roma cum magna pace celebravit . Angelo by treachery on August in his fortresses. but Villani also knows that it was Matilda ^ who repudiated Gulfo. ruler and the Pope was now able to call himself Urban was more astute and more of the city. 1098. The in a great countess acquired the lasting glory of having victori- ously resisted the arms of the years' war. tellum Aiigeli cum in aliis munitionib. and the Guelfs hastened to Germany. nam et cass. camp. 1097. emulos suos civitate — saiis of viriliter sua potestate detinuit^ aut placavii aut says : vi perdomuit. effectually protected the The Emperor returns to Papacy with her returned to leave her in possession The Emperor was forced to of the field. he perceived that his son was merely used as a puppet husband. 24. The avarice of the Guelfs suddenly raised him above all religious and political considerations . in ojunesq. while Urban IL at His protector length obtained possession of Rome. A. still weak but he remained powerless within his archbishopric of Ravenna. to Henry's camp. Pierleone gained S. Meanwhile Italy was lost to Henry. The Catalogue Cencius castj-um set.. it is true. to the universal surprise. Emperor twelve and of having shield. Papa Dom.2q6 The Guelfs go to Henri's HISTOJIY OF ROME As soon as The elder Guelf hastened to Italy. where. Bernold. filled with indignation. the excommunicated enemy became intimate friend. Germany for the last time. resistance offered a Germany. they zealously strengthened the party of the Emperor. when in 1097 he His Pope.

xx. He forbade all feudal relations to the traditum : m — clergy. (more probably VI. 3 hebdomada pascha: inagniim conciliiwi tenuit Ro?}ia Eos qtwque anathematis vinculo colligavit. xx. qui pro ecclesiasticis honoiib. Junii^ Ind. Histor. 962. After such violent storms. or in wandering and incessant activity. . In Southern Italy he established his alliance with the Normans. therefore on August 24. D. VII. hominum homines fierent. He did not die in the Lateran. Urbani II.. Urban died on July 29. 659). and he renewed all his own decrees and those of his predecessors. he even appointed (on July 5. 2 Florentii Wigorn. a subject of dispute between the popes and the Kings of Naples and Spain. 1 The Bull Salerni 3 Non. Death of If the news of the capture of Jerusalem by the ^rban ii.. he was enabled to close little to record his eyes in content. this Pope the relation as same enjoyed a brief interval of repose and triumph. Mansi. to whom he stood in Augustus had stood to Caesar. crusaders reached his ears. 565) Urbamis P. Laurentii .) From it is derived the Pont. The papal was palace had fallen into ruin.. 1099. and the city still filled with fanatic schismatics and murderous Angeli a Romanis capUim est festo s. {M. castruvi ipsiim est Petro Leonis in vigilia s. with the popes. Salerno) Count Roger of Sicily and his successors as apostolic legates in the island. Bartkolomai. at . vii. a people with whom he stood on terms of intimate friendship 1098.. (Mansi. XI.^ For the historian who has described the struggle of tragic Henry IV. 297 fortunate than Gregory VII. Genn.^ He assembled a great Council in Rome after Easter 1099..IN THE MIDDLE AGES. so-called monarchy of Sicily. laicor. there remains but beyond the deaths of the chief figures in the strife. after a life spent in exile.

^ History mentions with praise the names of Liemar of Bremen. the infamous rebellion of his second son Henry. B. and it was judged necessary to carry his remains by a circuitous route through Trastevere to S. multittuio propter fidelitatem (Baron. 1862. KaL Aug. atque per Transtyberim propter insidias inimicoi'um in eccl. was life.298 enemies.. 1098) Eadmerus. Urbain II.' ^^ Liege on August 7. but by no means in a satisfactory manner Un Pape ati Moyen age. Church. Nicolai in carcere in domo Petri Leonis IV. ill-used by his unnatural sons. Imperatoris ipsi Papa says : — — : . has been written by ejus delatum est. Pisan. Petri corpus The history of Urban II. Rapoto.^ HISTORY OF ROME The fortunate Pope who had inaugurated the Crusades was obliged to make his abode in the gloomy palace of one fortified of his protectors. 1106.. at Florence as early as iioi. We cannot unhappy Germany. Benno of Osnabrück. Adrien de Brimont.. the companion of Anselm of Canterbury. s. follow his her celebrated condied. or describe either his later battles. Paris. anitnatn deo reddidit. He died in the house of the Pierleone near the church of S. 352 Urbamcs apud eccl. 2 Pand. Dietrich of Verdun. Peter's. He died Au^tv. p. in the arms of some friends of unalterable fidelity. excommunicated by the 1106. while all the great countess survived temporaries. despised The young Conrad father into and deserted. Count Palatine of Bavaria. ad A. who was in Rome during the last days of Urban. or finally his tragic end. removed by fanatic priests from its resting-place in the church in Liege Death of ^ Nonnullos cives tirbiSy quorum mgens erat infesta. the Bohemian Wratislaw.^ Clement troubles III. deposed by the German princes.^ We merely bestow a sorrowful glance on Henry's sarcophagus. Niccolo in Carcere. also of his soon released from the Henry followed later.

. strife deprived of a father's guidance. Nevertheless. hither man resembles a vessel driven and thither by the wind. the dread in which excommunication was held. genius. especially in the first half of his career. His vacillation beside the calm strength of Gregory shows both monarchs and meaner men that. the object of the of factions and of their despicable avarice. a pilgrim from Jerusalem.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. in which he had to face late in life that the hostility of religious opinion. more . and finally the Church invested him. which explained by the unmade him. apart from all the other weapons with which character. and see beside it a monk. as a libertine and a despot. extenuation of his fall at Canossa we must take into account the superstitious character of the age. all His In struggle with the most powerful of popes exhibits the contradictions of a vacillating nature. his faults are partly fortunate circumstances of his youth. unless fortified by an inner law of right and duty. weeping and singing the psalms for the dead. and even then it remained ever obscured by circumstances. an age in which manly dignity was prostrated beneath the scourge of the priest. It was only Henry's object became entirely clear to his own eyes. 299 and carried to a desolate island in the Maas. The King who lay in his coffin had been at the same time a bold sinner and a brave warrior and although every unprejudiced judgment must condemn him. the clear and inherited object which he had in view lent a great superiority over his adversary. the belief outward penitential exercises. To Gregory VH. his . and unless provided with a definite aim by in — consistency of action.

even although explained by the history of so bloody a period. Ignorance in the history of the city in the eleventh century with a glance at the condition of intellectual a subject of which. for had it not been for his heroic courage. tragic nation. Mon. Henry placed country under an eternal debt of gratitude. howculture during the period — we have but little to say. Germany would have fallen into vassalage to the spiritual tyranny of Rome. We close ever. Culture of Rome in the Eleventh Century— Guido of Arezzo invents Musical Notes Condition OF THE Libraries The Pomposa Monte Casino Farfa Gregory of Catino Subiaco Beginning of the collection of Roman Regesta Deusdedit Defective continuation OF the History of the Popes The Regesta of Gregory VII. Wattenbach. eleventh is ^ any such forthcoming.. in was will a predecessor of the of the Hohenstaufens. Germ. . Since the middle of the eleventh century.— 300 indefatigable HISTORY OF ROME struggle against Roman supremacy his was sufficiently glorious. Roman is possessed of literary talent.). There German fidelity dedicated a touching lament to his sad fate (ed. : the well-known Vita Heinrici IV. nor in the something appalling in this intellectual desert. failed to discover a During the tenth century we single Rome. and ever live as a great and history the German 5. xiv. Peter Damiani Bonizo Anselm OF Lucca Polemical Writings concerning the — — — — — — — — — — — — — Investiture.^ Henry champion IV.

3OI the seeds of a newer cultivation had developed in the rest of Italy. . as schools at this time. but had not leisure to educate a cultured clergy. all energies were there consumed in — the great struggle for reform in . Wipo summoned Henry III. 223) : xiii. Germ. these influences. to emulate the example of the Italians and to send the sons of the German nobility to school.— IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen^ p. as were also the better of the cardinals by whom they were surrounded. which continued until the Synod of Sutri (the Romans themselves called them " idiots "). We know nothing of the condition of the Roman Rome became Gallic culture. and great events demanded that they should be Rome alone remained untouched by described. serves to mark the period of profoundest barbarism. exerted themselves to purify churches and convents from moral corruption. who headed the movement.^ 1 In the Tetralogus Wiponis {M. although not in Rome. emancipation from the Church . but it was scarcely in Rome that he had become acquainted with the praiseworthy custom. Documents show us that Doctors of law. educated Germany or Gaul. The famous. until series of popes. . Scholars and Masters existed elsewhere. the popes. The rising freedom of the cities spurred the citizens on to intellectual activity the secular schools made the first attempt to obtain . jurisprudence was cultivated trade created and fostered information. in part in- animated once more by German and it had been animated in the time The reforming of Sylvester IL and Gregory V. popes were foreigners. Wattenbach.. 251 .

. Et ^ stidare sc ho lis 8. Virgil. lib. who described it is the of the great Countess Matilda in verse. CiBuatense/n Damiani. Of inscriptions or epigrams there are also Roman monk but few examples at this period.302 HISTORY OF ROME Nobles and citizens were less educated in Rome than in Bologna or Pisa. where the knowledge of the ancients was taught. in true. any more successful. however. Pavia or Milan. . although even in Rome grammar-schools. Church music. had invented notes and had thereby inaugurated the series of intellectual disTuncfac edidutn per Quilibet iit terratn Teutonicoriu7i^ dives sibi natos instruat omnes Litterulis ^ Legemque suaj?i perstiadeat Ulis — Hoc servant Itali post prima crepundia cuncti. that even rhetoric and dialectic were unknown to the Italians at this period. a Benedictine in the monastery of Pomposa near Ravenna. must always have remained in For the study of grammar was at the existence. roused to emulation . no nor was the lyric poetry of Damiani. scecularium manibus traditur et capitosos syllogisvioi-um rhetorics venustatis color inquiritur^ circulos atque enthymematum mens curiosa rimafur. or that of Alfanus of Salerno. had received a fresh impetus since Guido of Arezzo. icle The example of the rhymed chron- of the life monk Donizo . . non : ig?ioro ad Bonumhominem legis peritum quia cicin mea epistola g)-am77iaticorujn viii. that of William of Apulia. at if any rate an intelligent narrator. and great value was placed on an artificial and rhetorically-coloured style. studies not This should show us. . mandatur tota Juventus. barbaric whom not a the heroic career of Robert Guiscard found.^ In literature and profane science Rome remained behind the rest of Italy in the same degree as in the tenth century. time wide-spread in Italy. of Canossa. . Ep.

^ Rome. several portions of the city must. We still read the in which Guido left happy monk return to teach his relates his triumph. to new invention. cBstivo fervore in a maritimis ac palustribus ftobis minaiite excidiu?n. and shortly to XIX. soon learnt to sing a strophe. The Bishop gave shelter to Guido. . from the fever-stricken desert. after Bishop of Arezzo. as ^ The letter dejectus et artchis in Mabillon. iv. however. Guido says locis : Roma morari : iion poteravi vel modicufn. duce causes sunt And cardinal wrote ignorantice vestra^ una quod . ^ who fratri Michcsli Gzddo per anfractus jnultos Annal. and gave orders that the marvellous system should be taught in the school for choristers letter in the Lateran. fled. The Rome. Tedald. was the unhealthiness of Rome. Boniface.^ It was. promising. next to poverty. or else he himself admits. Among the reasons advanced by a cardinal in the time of Gregory VII. to account for the ignorance of the Roman clergy. 324. The envy of his brethren of the cowl banished Guido from the cloister. summoned him Rome. made no he effort to detain her illustrious guest. 303 by which barbarism was wiped from the human race. have rendered it an actual catacomb. which prevented students from frequenting foreign schools. moreover. Guido of Tedald. and the first inventor in the history of Christian culture became also its first martyr. perhaps. The Pope allowed Guido to explain his antiphonary. was brother of the Marquis beatiss. gave him the ignorant John shelter. indeed.IN coveries THE MIDDLE AGES. Bened. and even likened himself to that artist who was put to death by Tiberius for having discovered an indestructible kind of glass. which kept The marshiness of foreign teachers at a distance.

^ Concil. Sci'iptor. Harduin. at this Neither Lanfranc of Pavia. was attracted to Rome. HISTORY OF ROME and filled with factions. Stud.^ p. Tiraboschi. From the monastery of Bee in Normandy. Rome at this period it we libräriGS Nevertheless is probable that measures may support. the pupil of Lanfranc. hie habitare tion siniiy alia quod paupertas vos ad extranea loca ad discendum non perinittat ahire {Alio Card. this was the Archbishop .304 poor. in Giesebrecht. In 1026 we find the first .^ vi. German who became Bibliothecarius of the Roman Church Pilgrim of Cologne. iii.). Not even of those popes who furthered reform is any decree in favour of schools recorded. to revive the order that schools for the clergy should be erected beside T^e . all churches.^ The decay of learning cooled the ardour (zgritudo loci extraneos. the father of scholastic theology. 248. the tutor of Alexander II. iii. for the comple- qui vos doceajii. 60. vet. Catal. Tiraboschi.. I. prooem. and the papal court time gave no encouragement to learning. and it was reserved for Gregory VII. nov. A/arci. in 1078...^ Conccrnins: the libraries in are in utter ignorance. Bibl. ad Vol. nor the more celebrated Anselm of Aosta. referring to Asseinanni prarfat. while during the twelfth three only are mentioned. Capitularis ad canonicos ii. T. p. Ivi. i. 255. Vatican. De Litter. these entire stars of the first in the eleventh century illumined each in magnitude turn France and the West. from Mai. Colled. vi. and during the thirteenth not a single librarian is known to us by name. xvii. s. the series been taken for their of librarians remaining unbroken have during the eleventh century. and successively died as arch- bishops in Canterbury. eccl. 1580 : Ut omnes episcopi aries litterarum in suis '^ ecclesiis doceri faciant...

quce scribo transferrer sed nee celei-i quidem vacet lectione percurrere. 81.. which was very numerous for that age. La 1061. ^ . Diar.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. De Rossi. Rome.^ Still of ^ more laudable was the activity Monte Casino in the collection and of the monks Monte ^^^^^°- transcription time of Cassiodorus) notz Deest antiquarins (thus the copyists were called as early as the qtti transcribat. 47. Ep. p. and observation proves that the Roman At the libraries were still regarded as important. The collection. Bibl. Rome was still put to shame by the Italian monasteries which here and there cherished learninsr. and before in his elevation to the Papacy. Ital 1884. a catalogue belonging to this time of-the library of Pomposa.^ Rome The abbots Guido and Hieronymus collected books at great expense from all parts of the world for the abbey of Pomposa. Heinrici Clerici ad Stephan. p. Baron. Sed cur queror incuriavi^ cum — modo qtiispiam Gerb. Solinus and Justin. Damiani complains of the dearth of copyists. the author of which boasts that the library in question is We possess the richer than that of Rome. 44. contained. few profane authors although Eutropius and the Historia Miscella^ Pliny. and scarcely any monks remained in Roman monasteries who understood the art of writing Codices. theological writings. U . ^ Ep. the celebrated Gerbert turned to search of books for his library. Seneca. VOL. end of the tenth century. 305 tlon of the Lateran library. Montfaucon. IV. it is true. n. Apostolica. Donatus and the already mutilated Livy are mentioned among a mass of . and that but few were capable of reading at sight that which he had written. della Sed. 37. ad A.

then by Muratori. him numerous and compiled. he wrote the Chronicle of Monte edited by Casino down to the year 1075. influence. as üystoire de i Normant et la chroniqtie de Robert Viscard par Ainiil tiioine de Mont .^ Chronicle of Monte Casino^ are Even the science of medicine. born in Carthage about the year 1060. by . Cassin. and by Leo Marsicanus (later Cardinal-bishop of Ostia under twelfth centuries.. flourished in which. wisdom which he had acquired in the East.306 of manuscripts. and Wattenbach. ix. and Cardinal-archbishop of Ostia (who died after 1115). We Paschalis II. who translated Arab and Greek writings into Latin.) in his great and lasting. was renowned at the convent as a promoter of the science. with lustre in the literary history of the eleventh and ments in Lombard might well dispense with the poetry of an Alberic or an Alfanus. and Constantine Africanus. Paris. This scholar was a veritable marvel of Chaldaean wisdom. It has been lastly Angelo della Noce in 1665. owing to Arab the neighbouring Salerno. 1835. was also cultivated in the monastery. a member of the family of the Marsian counts. a Desiderius or an Oderisius. Genn. and was the first — — ^ Amatus wrote the History of the Normans in the time of the Abbot Desiderius it has only been preserved in an old French translation. Leo. but the services rendered by Amatus in his History of the Normans about 1080. At the instance of the Abbot Oderisius. is HISTORY OF ROME the age of The golden age Owing Desiderius. of the monastery to manuscripts were collected them were more profane writings than are to be found present day the scholar gazes with reverence on the many beautiful parchelsewhere. edited by Champollion-Figeac. and among Even at the character which were copied at Monte Casino shines the instigation of the abbot. made use of this work. Mon.

but Farfa steadily upheld the rights of the imperial Farfa. At time Otto III. Boncompagni {Atti Pont. is To To this necessity due the celebrated register of Farfa documents compiled at the end of the eleventh century. some of writings. The monk Gregory of Catino.. x'ln. Galen. d. 1877.^ While Monte Casino rendered such services to learning. 1851. Ibid. " Die Uebersetzung arab. we observed whose the zeal of the Abbot Hugo. de' miovi Lincei. xxii. F. who Wissensch. according d. Hebrew and Arabic. Wüstenfeld.. to collect all successfully continued the task until 1125. Historic Farfenses. p. the Benedictine abbeys of Farfa and Subiaco in the neighbourhood of Rome acquired no such renown.. prosecuted his laborious work between the years 1092 and 1099. The of literary activity of the brethren of Farfa was solely of a the monastic character. commanded by the Abbot Berard documents relating to Farfa. 39. 10. depicting the decline of the abbey. d. 2 Destritctio Farfensis ad Imperatoreni. two reforming popes had even issued from the monastery. is next heard of as a translator of astronomical works from to the researches of B. : De dimimitione Monasterii. Werke in das Latein. Mon. Gesch." Abhdl. Ace. Greek and Arabic manuscripts. 307 Europe whose knowledge of Arabic is established beyond a doubt. and translated and Arabian writers. after which his pupil Todinus less II. power. .IN scholar in THE MIDDLE AGES. p. p. Monte Casino zealously espoused the cause of Rome. Germ. zu Göttingen. 247). possess. ^ when the He collected Hippocrates.^ we still abbey was the defend the freedom of this continued effort of his successors. Qiicerimonium Printed by Bethmann in the Ordo Farfensis. lived in Spain (1116-1138). Plato Tiburtinus. a noble Sabine.

and popes. but aimed rather at producing documentary proofs of the rights of Farfa. deeds of emphyteusis.^ present his- The care with which the monks transferred to parchment the diplomas register of princes. as also the Liber Einpliiteiiseos seu Largitorium) in Muratori. Rome been begun by J. For Gregory did not desire to compile a historical work. Vol. Galletti This abbot. which fall was happily contains sent back from Paris after the of Napoleon. /. of more than three hundred years tion. c. and it is with justice that a Defence of the Imperial Rights in connection with tasks. ^ This is the celebrated Cod. 2 The Chronica Farfensis (the original remains at Farfa. Vatican. acts of law-suits. di Stor. work on the Dukes of Patria in ii. and historical dates to the formless. the field who with deserves praise for his labours in of medieval Roman history. and the abbey fell into the papal power. This excellent collection it of Regesta forms one of the chief sources for the historian of the Roman Middle Ages materials for . Balzani. . and further added diplomas. Georgi and U. has lately appeared. the of possessions. della Societä Rom. The Sessorian library in Rome incomplete copies from the hand of Fatteschi. thence partly derived the materials for his excellent Spoleto. over a space commands admira- Gregory collected the leases in a separate manuscript. It was carried on by ^Gregory to 1105.^ 8487. emperors. It is exhaustively treated of by Bethmann. Only since 1879 has the work of publishing the Regesta of Farfa in the Bibl. 2. has been it drawn upon tory of the since the last century. and from the have been derived also city.308 HISTORY OF ROME itself documents come to an end. deeds. nay monstrous Chronicle of Farfa^ These various archivist The same belong rather to the province of the archivist and advocate than to that of the historian. ii.

Adenolfus. Ilpizo. the Abbot Humbert.^ p.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and gradually subjugated the surrounding country. beautified cloistered it by buildings. Girardo. Fatteschi's copy Levi in the Sessoriana. ^ even in the Fecit in specu ecclesiam pulcherrimam et firtjiam cooperta criptd p. show eleventh century. was a of these documents ^ compiled. has been edited by L. the Crescentii grotto-church in the Sabina. Gottifredo. working it into a chronicle. has been attributed to him.^ Subiaco also compiled a similar register in the eleventh century.Although it grew rich. erected the court-yard.. &c. In the time of Leo IX. The episcopal church of Tivoli also possessed a store of archives. Rudolfus. such as Arnolfus. This codex. 309 the investiture. Imper. Albertus. a Subiaco. 1885.^ however. without. and began the remarkable The abbey. called Santo-Speco. xxiv. Rome. the Marsian counts. however. however. Lando. Orthodoxa defensio imperialism de investittira^ scripta nomine congregationis Farfensis sub Heinr. Murat. Theodoricus. valuable Not until the second register dis- half of the twelfth century. Names Balduin. Bethmann. was exhausted by constant divisions. Allodi and G.. The Acts of Subiaco show how thickly the adjacent country was settled by Germans. Guido. Farolf. He saw the manuscript only in a fifteenth centuiy codex. Script.. and other petty tyrants in the neighbourhood. Frenchman. Chron. 932. Ildeprand. Ibid. the ancient monastery acquired no great degree of importance. Sublacense.. this Lambertus. // Regesto Sublacense. Albericus. . ^ The Registrum is : Stiblacense It is preserved in this abbey. a polemical work belonging to the time of the struggle for reform. and carried on at the same time fierce struggles with the bishopric of Tivoli. Baduaro. 558.

collected or compiled them. with the object of defending the privileges of the Roman Church against the imperial power. the registers of the Patrimonia and of the Census.. d. Vat. : 1880).2 repeatedly included in the Census-registers were lists of the Canon Benedict. deeds of gift. 2 Rome. Val. In the collection of documents which he dedicated to Victor III. 1869. but by its age. even ancient leases from the time of the first Gregory. Rom. feudal contracts. Soc. No one. The reinvigoration of the Papacy ought. 310 HISTORY OF ROME tinguished not by the documents. and of Cencius. it seems .f Deusdedit exigims prbr. Pap(Z Vidori III.. and catalogues of the After the end of the twelfth century these popes. by Liugi Bruzza {Studi e Documenti di Sio7-ia e Diritto. The archives of the convents in the city were full of documents. Indeed. During the its number of disturbances of the tenth and eleventh centuries a portion of the Lateran archives must unquestionably Cardinal have perished nevertheless those which remained would have amply rewarded the trouble of a collector. edita. sulla collectio Deusdedit Venet. the Gregorian Cardinal Deusdedit brought together diplomas of the emperors. Enrico Stevensohn. tituli apostolorum in eudoxia. is preserved in the Vatican archives. towards the end of the eleventh century a beginning of a work of this kind was made.^ vol. of Albinus. Cod.. The on fol. . viii.. {Arch. R.^ The Church in Rome must have had still more cause for a like activity. in Eudoxia Collectio cationum e Cod. 8 deaL atque aplico viro Pont. 1885). Osserv. D. apostolor. however. xii. is preface 3833 (unique) from the beginning of scvc. ^ Regesio delta Chiesa di Tivoli. This codex has Deusdedit presbyteri been edited by Monsignor Pio Martinucci : cardlis Tit.

^ v. banished from Regensburg by Henry IV. important epochs ^ in the history is of the popes would have beginning oi sac. iii. 1862). and V. of of Apulia. or of formless notices of the'pope^. The portions in question are derived from authors of imperialist sympathies in the time of Henry HI. Vatican. Vita Gregorii PP. but is only wrote about 1128. . himself was written. was written by an archdeacon of Toul. 80. the nature of chronicles. of only a very miserable work the life of Gregory VII. Bruno of Segni. who has edited afresh the Vitce Pontificum Romanor.^ 1984. of William and of Leo Marsicanus. The life of Leo IX. VII. ed. Regensburg. of Gaufried Malaterra. IV. see Pertz.. p. ix. also by S. in more detail.IN to THE MIDDLE AGES..^ No stronger reproach can be levied against the Roman clergy than the fact that they were incapable of transmitting to posterity the great events of their age. i. Cod. xii. Vita et Gesta Hildebrandiy of the beginning of xii. from the end of scbc. The work of Watterich. and. period of reform to be written Rome was obliged to leave the biographies of the greatest popes of the by foreigners. Archiv. a party pamphlet. a German canon of .. xiii. Muratori. although in a very defective manner. and at the wish of Gregory VII. to the end of sac. 841. who proved capable. . This mediocre author. by Paul of Bernried. (Leipzig. Bethmann. one of the most produced Milan. 3 II have given a new impulse to the writing of its history but even in this century the Roman continuation of the History of the Popes merely consists The of very scanty catalogues.. it of more use for the Concerning xi. The work of the schismatic Cardinal Benno. s<zc. lived in Rome. however. 2 is very valuable..^ In an age when Italian historiography the works of Arnulf and Landulf in Amatus.

viii. and Gregory VII. This celebrated collection. a pendant to the letters of Gregory I.312 Theietters VII. Peter Damiani. his writings. letters to con temporaries.. theological thinker. those of Leo I. alone remain. We have spoken of his works. ii. HISTORY OF ROME remained unrecorded. then and were Jaffe Giesebrecht. the culture of the eleventh century . inflexible. this brilliant genius of the second order only be- longed to Rome in passing. but priceless material. in which a feeling of mysticism is united to a noble Damiani imbibed a great part of Christian spirit. and poems show him to have been man well versed in grammar and theology. which have happily been preserved.. panegyrics on monasticism. he says and yet he was a trained grammarian : . In them the historian finds and the biographer discovers a faithful mirror of the great. but by no means a philosophic homilies... lives of the saints. and exegetical treatises. like Donatus. grammatica Christus Gregory I. an amiable dreamer. emended by VII. condemned the rules of inea c.. In Opuscula est.. xiii. of his regesta papal down to Innothe Of letters.. Gregory are only the small Regesta of The Bibliotheca. has justly been regarded as the genuine production of tury. and cold intellect of a monarch whose spiiit was never graced or warmed by any gift of the muse.. cent III. lib. his of 400 remains— ^ .. 2 Damiani himself. John VIII. Gregory I. but for the numerous letters of Gregory VII.^ they were The Regesta of Gregory were printed since 1591 published by in vol.^ The antithesis of Gregory was Peter Damiani. and have frequently made use of his writings. viii. Roman literature in the eleventh cen- From these letters the historian of literature may form an opinion of the Latinity of the Roman chancery at this time. ii. Ep.

^ Neither did the learned Bishop Anselm of Lucca. was.. then by Jaffe in vol. Pontif. 313 Within the narrow literature circle of the history of Roman This Bonizo. it murdered by the imperialists. and after is unknown fortunes. U 2 . we may doubtfully venture to quote the name is of one author of the Gregorian period. however.). owing to numerous errors and distortions. In his chief work. Scriptor. written though they be in the spirit of a partisan. Hugo Saur {Forschungen IV. Germanicar. he was perse- Bonizo. This is erroneously called by Zaccagni {Mscr. Gestis. of also collected the Decretals in ten books. Rer. the spiritual adviser of Matilda. quired renown as a historian of the popes of believed. edited ii. It was edited by Mai v^nritten at after Stenzel and Giesebrecht have ztir length on Bonizo. who was Bishop cuted by Henry. and added as an introduction an abstract of the History of the Popes.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. He 794. Concerning the Persecution of the Churchy he gives a cursory and ignorant outline of the history of the Church up to the time of n. belong to the in city. whose cause he was so zealously for reform active. of Sutri about 1075. vol. 7143) Chronica Zaccagni. we possess the first attempt at a history of the Papacy. .. and in his books. 1868. His recital is fairly clear and free from fanaticism his material. ii. Bonizo's statements have been repeated in many other collections of papal biographies and chronicles. The great battle Bonizonis ad gave rise to a long and ^ Amicum sive de persecutione ecclesia libri 9. Boicar. his Bibliotheca Rer. He ac- his time.. VOL. deutschen Geschiehte^ viii. after Henry which he describes the events in detail until the death of Gregory VH. Vat. also de Rom. by Oefele. is frequently valueless. One of Gregory's most zealous adherents.

. for the most part in France. after an interval of nearly eight centuries. owing to the revolution of 1859. for and against the Dominium Temporale and the secular sovereignty of the Pope. in the same way that these writings concerning the quarrel for investiture serve as authorities to us. hundreds of such pamphlets have been produced. And at the present time also the city of Rome itself which contributes the smallest share to this deluge of pamphlets and writings for and against the unity of Italy. when.314 violent HISTORY OF ROME. in our own days. has fallen into deadly strife with the Italian nation itself. movement in the literature of Germany and The rise of a similar literature of pamphlets Italy.^ 1 / The literature of brochures of the present time (after 1859) will serve as sources to posterity. recalls in various ways the period of the it is war of investiture. Since the appearance of Ls Pape et le Congres. the Papacy.


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:m£S^miA . Ferdinand History of the city of Rome in the middle ages 47083724 ^^-^T^S^f^^ffm^ >/ •. 4 pt.G8413 1894 v..»^..4^. SvT^I^: ^(^r/ .V/V . m^u^sim: ! 'flu* ..* .- ' DG 811 .:5^^.l IMS Gregorovlus.