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Cryptography

Cryptography

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Published by Divya Shritha
cryptography
cryptography

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Published by: Divya Shritha on Aug 05, 2013
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12/02/2014

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Cryptography

K.Divya JNTUH-126

AGENDA • History • Terms & Definitions • Symmetric and Asymmetric Algorithms • Hashing • Attacks on Cryptosystems Cryptography 2 .

and nonrepudiation • The science of keeping data secure • Two transformation algorithms: Enciphering and Deciphering Cryptography 3 . data integrity. authentication.What is Cryptography • Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security such as confidentiality.

• Used to protect information • Can ensure confidentiality – Integrity and Authenticity too Cryptography 4 .. • Hidden writing.Contd.

History – The Manual Era • Dates back to at least 2000 B.C. • Pen and Paper Cryptography • Examples – Scytale – Atbash – Caesar – Vigenere Cryptography 5 .

History – The Mechanical Era • Invention of cipher machines • Examples – Confederate Army’s Cipher Disk – Japanese Red and Purple Machines – German Enigma Cryptography 6 .

History – The Modern Era • Computers! • Examples – Lucifer – Rijndael – RSA – ElGamal Cryptography 7 .

Jargon • Plaintext – A message in its natural format readable by an attacker • Cipher text – Message altered to be unreadable by anyone except the intended recipients • Key – Sequence that controls the operation and behavior of the cryptographic algorithm • Key space – Total number of possible values of keys in a crypto algorithm Cryptography 8 .

Plain text Cryptography 9 .

Cipher Text Cryptography 10 .

Cryptography Cryptography 11 .

Cryptographic Methods • Symmetric – Same key for encryption and decryption – Key distribution problem • Asymmetric – Mathematically related key pairs for encryption and decryption – Public and private keys Cryptography 12 .

CFB.Symmetric Algorithms • DES – Modes: ECB. CBC. CM • 3DES • AES • IDEA • Blowfish Cryptography 13 . OFB.

Asymmetric Algorithms • Diffie-Hellman • RSA • El Gamal • Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Cryptography 14 .

DES • This has been a US government standard for many years (although recently complimented with AES). • Increased processing speeds (in recent years) are making brute force attacks on DES more viable Cryptography 15 . the other 8 bits are parity bits). only 56 bits are used for the encryption. so it is no longer viable. • It uses a 64-bit key (actually.

Each of these prime numbers contains hundreds to thousands of bits. Shamir. • RSA starts with picking two HUMONGOUS prime numbers. and Adelman (RSA) • RSA is the most famous public key algorithm. • Security of RSA relies on two assumptions • Factoring is required to break the system • Factorization cannot be done in polynomial-time Cryptography 16 . • The two prime numbers remain secret (they are the private key). • Their product. p and q. n = p * q.Rivest. is the public key.

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