It came from the Latin word “fallo” which means “I deceive” and “fallere” which means “to deceive”

1. Fallacies of a Language
a. b. c. d. e. f. Equivocation Amphiboly Composition Division Accent Figures of Speech 2. Fallacies not of a Language
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Accident Confusion of Absolute Statement Begging the Question False Cause Consequent Many Questions Non-Sequitur Ignoratio Elenchi

1. Argumentum ad hominem 2. Argumentum ad populum 3. Argumentum ad misericordiam 4. Argumentum ad verecundiam 5. Argumentum ad baculum 6. Argumentum ad ignorantiam

It is a fallacy consisting of using a word that has the same spelling or sound but the meaning is different, in different parts of the inference. EXAMPLES 1. Every water is in liquid form. We should water the plant everyday. Ergo, we should plant everyday in liquid form. 2. Every pen is a writing instrument. The cage of a pig is a pen. Ergo, the cage of a pig is a writing instrument. back

It is a fallacy expressed in using a statement whose meaning is ambiguous exposing it to various interpretations. EXAMPLES 1. My wife Jenny said to her sister Eva that she has to go to the mall.  Due to this formulation of the argument, we are at the lost of who is actually being referred to as “she”. Is it Jenny or Eva? 2. “While standing one leg, the boy played with his dog”  Who is standing on one leg: the boy or the dog? back

It is a fallacy of considering words or statements as a whole when they should be considered separately. In other words, it is an error of stating that what is true of the parts is also true of the whole. EXAMPLE: Those who topped the 1999 Bar Exam are from Cebu Jose of UST is the 1999 Bar Topnotcher Ergo, Jose of UST is from Cebu


• It is a fallacy of considering words or statements separately when they should have been considered as a whole. EXAMPLE: X University is vital to Catholic Education Mr. Y is a professor of X University Ergo, Mr. Y is vital to Christian Education


This kind of fallacy arises due to difference in interpretation brought about by misplaced emphasis on a phrase, word or syllable in a proposition. EXAMPLE: You may laugh as you like. (Meaning: Others may laugh) You may laugh as you like. (Meaning: You are not prohibited from laughing) You my laugh as you like. (Meaning: It is permissible that you laugh or not to laugh) back

Figures of Speech
This kind of fallacy is a special type of false analogy that consist in wrongly inferring similarity of meaning from similarity of word structure EXAMPLE What is immaterial is not material and what is insoluble is is not soluble; ergo, what is inflammable is not flammable.


This fallacy is involved in affirming or denying of a thing what has been affirmed or denied only of some accidental modification or condition of the thing or vice versa EXAMPLE “You say that you ate what you bought; but you bought a raw meat; ergo, you must have eaten raw meat.


Confusion of Absolute Statement
This fallacy uses a principle that uses absolutely true statements but restricted by practical limitations EXAMPLE “Water boils at 212° Fahrenheit ergo, water boils at 212° Fahrenheit on the top of Mt. Everest


Begging the Question
This fallacy is a.k.a.as petitio principii is involved when we assume a conclusion is proving what is not known in the premises EXAMPLES All in this room are wearing shoes but Martha is in this room ergo, Martha is wearing shoes


False Cause
Also known as “non causa pro causa” This fallacy is involved from a conclusion of causal with a non-causal relationship under the form of “post hoc, ergo propter hoc” (after this, therefore because of this) EXAMPLE Night comes before the day ergo, night causes the day Don’t look directly at the sun otherwise, the sun will punish you A man cannot think without his brain Ergo, a man’s brain is the cause of his thought


This fallacy is involved when we infer that an antecedent is true because the consequent is true EXAMPLE A dog is an animal but Moby Dick is an animal ergo, Moby Dick is a dog A dog is an animal but Moby Dick is not a dog ergo, Moby Dickis not an animal back

Many Question
This is also known as Complex Question This fallacy is involved when we are asking either a multiple question as though it were a single question demanding a yes or no answer EXAMPLE Have you not given up the habit of cheating in my class? Have you stopped beating your wife?


Non Sequitur
It is the Latin of “it does not follow” This fallacy is involved to true but unrelated propositions without any connections EXAMPLES Cows give milk but sheep have wool ergo, goats chew their cud As a student of a Catholic school, I will become a minister later. back

Ignoratio elenchi
It came from the Latin ignoratio = irrelevant elencho = conclusion This fallacy is involved when we prove other conclusions not the issue t be concluded It has various minor forms as presented below:
2. Argumentum ad populum 4. Argumentum ad verecundiam 6. Argumentum ad ignorantiam

rgumentum ad hominem rgumentum ad misericordiam rgumentum ad baculum


Argumentum ad hominem
This fallacy is the Latin for “attack or appeal to the man” This fallacy is involved in court hearings when the defense or prosecution is attacking the dignity of the person or witness instead of weighing the evidences presented EXAMPLE “Your honor, it would be very difficult for us not to believe that the accused of this murder case is not guilty, because his father and grandfather has been convicted of murder several years ago. And besides, the accused is of bad moral reputation.” back

Argumentum ad populum
This is known as “appeal to people” where popular prejudice is preferred rather than truth and reason where an argument may be believed by most, if not by all people, although that argument may not be true EXAMPLE • “Clinically proven safe and effective…” • “The only earth structure visible in space is the Great Wall of China.” • Save the user, jail the pusher • “If you will vote for me…” back

Argumentum ad misericordiam
This is “appeal to pity” a kind of fallacious argument that arises when an appeal to evidence is replaced by an appeal to pity, mercy or sympathy EXAMPLE “Please, just give me a 3.0 grade. Ishould not receive a failing grade since it is my 3rd time to take this Logic subject” “The accused in robbery case must not be put to jail, because he is a father of 12 children and his wife is in the hospital suffering from stage 3 cancer.” back

Agumentum ad vericundiam
This is “appeal to awe, modesty, shame, respect or authority” committed by overawing people by the dignity of those who hold the opinion without special reference to the truth they hold EXAMPLE • The Roman Catholic Church… “The earth is the center of the Universe.”


Argumentum ad baculum
This is “appeal to force or appeal to might” arises when one appeal to intimidation, or use of force in order to gain acceptance of his propositions EXAMPLE President of a state to the citizens: “Commit heinous crimes and you will surely enjoy the lethal injection.” Father to his son: “If you will not be serious with your studies, your future will be bleak. And you can never expect me to lift finger to help when you need me.” back

Argumentum ad ignorantiam
The “appeal to ignorance” is committed when we infer a false statement because it cannot be proved, true because it cannot be refuted. EXAMPLE This evidence must be accepted because it cannot be refuted You cannot declare me guilty since you cannot prove it. back

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