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In this calculator well known equations have been used. Here you can find all of them for your review. First of all, pressure drop through the pipe due to friction and local losses can be calculated as follows:

where is:

Dp - pressure drop rho - fluid density view table Q - volumetric flow rate D - pipe diameter lambda - friction coefficient L - pipe length sum ksi - the sum of minor losses coefficient

To calculate mass flow rate following equation has been used: where is:

G - mass flow rate

For pressure drop calculation because of friction, viscosity of fluid has to be known. Relation between dynamic and kinematic viscosity is as follows: where is:

mi - dynamic viscosity view table ni - kinematic viscosity view table

Velocity of flowing fluid is calculated based on the continuity equation:

where the cross section of round pipe is:

To find out if the flow is laminar or turbulent, Reynolds number must be calculated:

Friction coefficient for laminar flow is:

for flow in hydraulically smooth pipe (Blasius equation):

for turbulent flow with Re<100 000 (Prandtl equation):

for turbulent flow with Re>100 000 (Karman equation):

The boundary layer thickness (delta) can be calculated based on the Prandtl equation as:

and when the boundary layer thickness is bigger than pipe roughness and if the flow is turbulent, than it can be considered as flow in hydraulically smooth pipe and Blasius equation is used.

Pipe diameter calculation - theory

Pipe diameter can be calculated when volumetric flow rate and velocity is known as:

where is:

** D - pipe diameter Q - volumetric flow rate V - velocity
**

If mass flow rate is known than diameter can be calculated as:

**where is: G - mass flow rate rho - fluid density view table
**

If the flowing fluid is gas than the density can be calculated if pressure, temperature and gas constant is known as:

where is:

p - pressure

** T - temperature R - gas constant view table
**

It is important to say that the flow rate is depending on the pressure difference between two points. This calculator is for the calculation if you already know the flow rate. If the flow rate is to be calculated also, than you should use pressure drop calculator.

Control valve sizing calculation

It is well known that for the completely turbulent flow relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop follows the power low. Flow coefficient is the proportional constant between pressure drop and flow rate and it is determined experimentally by valve manufactures. It is expressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u.s. (m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) across a flow passage. note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial, Kv-metric) For correct control valve sizing it is important to calculate flow coefficient using this calculator. When flow coefficient is calculated for required flow rate and known pressure drop, selection of proper control valve can be done by selecting control valve with first bigger flow coefficient. Also using this calculator you can calculate maximum flow rate through control valve for given pressure drop and known flow coefficient or valve size. This version of calculator can be used for turbulent flow of water or other incompressible fluid, as viscosity and expansion effect is not included. It means that for steam and gas control valve you will need to use other calculation methods. Also, possible flashing and cavitation may reduce the control valve capacity, as it is not treated in this version calculator. Read about used theory for control valve sizing calculation

Control valve sizing calculation - theory

Control valve sizing is based on the calculation of flow coefficient for given pressure drop and fluid flow rate. Main equation that gives relation between flow rate and pressure drop is:

for imperial units, and:

for metric units, where is:

Cv - flow coefficient in imperial units Kv - flow coefficient in metric units Dp - pressure drop through control valve Q - fluid flow rate

G - specific gravity view table ro - relative density view table

Flow coefficient is defined as the proportional constant between pressure drop and flow rate and it is determined experimentally by valve manufactures. It is expressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u.s. (m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) across a flow passage. note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial, Kv-metric) Relation between volumetric and mass flow rate is calculated using well known equation: Also, velocity or pipe diameter can be calculated using following equations:

Venturi tube flow calculation

Based on the energy conservation low, Venturi tube is one of the easiest to use, not expensive and very accurate instrument for flow rate measuring of water, air, gas or any other fluid in pipe systems. Measure pressure drop from the inlet to the throat and calculate flow rate using this free calculator. Flow through Venturi tube calculator can be used for both liquids and gases. Fluid is considered as incompressible, so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. Also, gas is considered as ideal. Read about used theory in flow through Venturi tube calculation

Venturi tube flow calculation - theory

Calculation of flow through the Venturi tube is for incompressible flow, based on the Bernoulli principle:

where is: p - pressure rho - density view table V - velocity g - gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2) z - geodetic height Assumption that pressure lost is negligible:

and:

and if velocities substituted with flow rate:

where is: Q - volumetric flow rate D - diameter Pressure drop through the Venturi tube because of velocity increase can be calculated as follows:

or:

Expressing flow rate from the previous equation leads to:

Substituting:

flow rate can be determined as:

where C is coefficient of discharge. The above equation is main one used for flow calculation in calculator. Other values are calculated using following equations: mass flow:

velocities:

If the calculator is used for gas flow, then gas is considered as incompressible and ideal. Equation for ideal gas:

can be used for calculation of temperature T:

as well as density rho:

where R is gas constant (R=287 J/kgK for air) Coefficient of discharge C As fluid exits a reservoir through a small hole and enters another one, or flows out to the open air, stream lines tend to contract itself, mostly because of inertia. Coefficient of discharge C is used to include this effect. For the Venturi tubes with diameters in range of D = (200 - 1200 mm), D2/D1 = (0.4 - 0.7) and ReD = (2 ·105 - 2 ·106) the coefficient of discharge is C = 0.985. In this calculator for coefficient off discharge C following equation has been used:

where a, b, and c depend on the type of Venturi tube. For welded tube, these coefficients are: a=0.70304970 b=0.00490015 c=-0.00024547 For casted tube are: a=0.60892370 b=0.00659844 c=-0.00033123 And for machined are: a=0.49670179 b=0.00873339 c=-0.00044367 Reynolds number on inlet ReD is calculated using well known equation:

Orifice plate flow calculation

Orifice plate is used for flow rate measuring in pipe systems. With orifice plate, pressure drop is created. Based on the value of pressure drop, flow rate can be calculated. This instrument is very practical for large tube diameters and for dirty fluid when turbines are not applicable. Measure pressure drop from position 1 to position 2 and calculate flow rate and more with this easy to use calculator Orifice plate calculator can be used for both liquids and gases. Fluid is considered as incompressible, so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. Also, gas is considered as ideal. Read about used theory for flow through orifice calculation.

Orifice plate flow calculation - theory

Calculation of flow rate using orifice plate calculator is for incompressible flow, based on the Bernoulli principle:

where is: p - pressure rho - density view table V - velocity g - gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2) z - geodetic height Assumption that pressure lost is negligible (pressure drop is obvious and included with coefficient of discharge which is introduced bellow):

and:

and if velocities substituted with flow rate:

where is: Q - volumetric flow rate D - diameter Pressure drop through the orifice because of velocity increase can be calculated as follows:

or:

Expressing flow rate from the previous equation leads to:

Substituting:

flow rate can be determined as:

where is: C - coefficient of discharge e - expansion coefficient Coefficient of discharge can be calculated using following equation (ISO):

where is: beta - diameter relation D2/D1 ReD - Reynolds number which can be calculated as follows:

where is: ni - kinematic viscosity view table mi - dynamic viscosity view table L1 and L2 are functions on tap type and it is: L1=L2=0 for corner taps L1=1 L2=0.47 for D & D/2 taps L1=L2=0.0254/D D[m] for 1" taps Expansion coefficient e can be calculated (for gases only):

where is: kappa - isentropic coefficient; kappa = 1.4 for air and other two atom gas molecules view table Other values are calculated using following equations: mass flow:

velocities:

If flowing fluid is gas, then it is considered as incompressible and ideal. Equation for ideal gas:

can be used for calculation of temperature T:

as well as density rho:

**Tables of fluid physical propetries
**

Here you can find the list of available fluid properties tables which can be used in calculators on this site: Dry air This table gives values of some dry air physical properties in relation to temperature and pressure. Gases This table gives values of some physical properties of some gases Flue gases This table is for flue gases. It gives values of some physical properties in relation to the temperature of gases. Water This table gives values of some water physical properties in realtion to temperature. For temperatures higher than 100 OC, it is for water boiling conditions. Steam This table gives values of some saturated steam physical properties in realtion to temperature.

**Physical properties of dry air
**

Available tables: dry air gases flue gases water steam This table gives values of some dry air physical properties in relation to temperature and pressure.

t [OC] Density rho [kg/m3] 1 bar 50 bar 100 bar 200 bar 300 bar 1.563 83.794 1.275 1.078 0.932 0.8226 0.7356 0.6072 0.517 36.18 70.92 135.6 193.4 29.8 58.37 111.8 160.3 25.37 49.71 95.41 137.4 -50 0 50 100 150 200 300 400

65.198 53.964 46.25 40.57

175.648 131.36 107.07 91.13 79.66 340.34 449.3 253.7 350.8 205.4 288.6 174.3 152.2 246.7 216.4

Specific heat cp [kJ/kgK]

1 bar 50 bar 100 bar 200 bar 300 bar

1.007 1.212 1.43 1.623 1.604

1.006 1.112 1.216 1.361 1.409

1.008 1.085 1.133 1.229 1.282

1.012 1.018 1.075 1.055 1.096 1.078 1.161 1.126 1.204 1.16

1.026 1.049 1.072 1.108 1.135

1.046 1.061 1.075 1.099 1.117

1.69 1.08 1.09 1.107 1.12

Dynamic viscosity mi*106 [Pas] 1 bar 50 bar 100 bar 200 bar 300 bar 14.65 16.7 18.3 22.8 28.7 17.2 19.42 20.2 23.6 27.8 19.61 20.57 21.7 24.4 27.5 21.82 23.92 22.59 24.4 23.4 25.6 28.1 25.1 26.8 28.8 25.85 26.4 26.9 28.5 30.1 29.47 29.9 30.4 31.5 33.1 32.76 33.1 33.5 34.7 36.1

**Physical propetries of gases
**

Available tables: dry air gases flue gases water steam This table gives values of some physical properties of some gases.

Gas density GAS rho [kg/m3] Molar weight M*103 [kg/mol] Gas constant R [J/kg*K] Spec. heat at 20OC and 1 bar Cp Cv Dynamic viscosity

kapa=Cp/Cv mi*106 [Pa*s] - 0OC and 1 bar

[J/kg*K] [J/kg*K] [-]

Acethylene Ammonia Argon Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxide Butane i-Butane Ethane Ethylene Ethyl Ether Ethyl Chloride Helium Chlor

C2H2 NH3 Ar N2 NO C4H10 C4H10 C2H6 C2H4

1.171 0.771 1.782 1.251 1.34 2.673 2.668 1.357 1.261

26.04 17.03 39.94 28.02 30.01 58.12 58.12 30.06 28.05 74.12 64.5 4.002 70.91

319.6 488.3 208.5 296.7 277.1 143.2 143.2 276.7 296.6 112.2 129 2079 117.3

1683 2219 532 1047 975 1917 1632 1729 1528 2302 1340 5274 481

1352 1680 322 746 696 1733 1445 1222 3181 355

1.25 1.37 1.65 1.4 1.38 1.108 1.2 1.25 1.66 1.36

9.35 9.18 20.9 17 17.8 8.1 7.47 8.5 9.85 286 9.4 18.8 12

C4H10O C2H5Cl He Cl2 0.178 3.217

Hydrogen Chloride Oxygen Krypton Xenon Methane Methyl Chloride Neon Ozone Pentane Propane Propene Sulphur Dioxide Sulphur Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide

HCl O2 Kr Xe CH4 CH3Cl Ne O3 C5H12 C3H8 C3H6 SO2 H2S CO2

1.639 1.429 3.708 5.851 0.717 2.308 0.9002 2.22 2.02 1.914 2.927 1.539 1.976 1.25 1.293

36.47 32 83.7 131.3 16.03 50.48 20.18 48 72.1 44.06 42.05 64.06 34.09 44.01 28.01 28.95 2.016

228 259.9 100.3 63.84 518.8 164.8 411.7 173.4 115.2 188.8 198.8 129.8 244.2 189 297 287 4125

812 913 251 159 2225 741 1038 1717 1863 1635 633 1059 837 1047 1010 14266

583 653 151 96.3 1700 582 620 1575 1650 1437 503 804 653 754 720 10130

1.4 1.4 1.67 1.7 1.31 1.28 1.68 1.29 1.09 1.13 1.17 1.25 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.407

20.3 23.2 21 10.3 9.89 29.7 8.74 7.95 8.35 11.7 11.66 13.7 16.6 17.3 8.42

Carbon Monoxide CO Air Hydrogen H2

0.08985

**This table gives values of some physical properties in relation to the temperature of gases.
**

GAS t [OC] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Nitrogen

N2

cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas]

1.039 16.6

1.042 20.8 31.52 0.521 27.1 21.17 2.026 9.26 23.5 2.067 11.5 31.7 1.737 12.7

1.052 24.6 38.5 0.521 32.1 25.59 2.453 11.67 36.52 2.49 14.1 47.7 2.064 15.6

1.069 28 44.89 0.521 36.7 29.89 2.813 14.03 51.87 2.87 16.4 65.9 2.394 18.2

1.091 31.1 50.71 0.521 41 33.96 3.127 16.38 29.78 3.214 19

1.115 33.9 55.82 0.52 45.22 37.91 3.403 18.74 90.25 3.519 21.4

1.139 36.6 60.36 0.52 48.7 39.43 3.642 21.09 113 3.787 23.8

1.161 1.181 39 64.2 0.52 41.3 67.45 0.52

lambda*103 [W/mK] 24.31 Argon Ar cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.522 21.2

lambda*103 [W/mK] 16.51 Butane C4H10 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1.591 6.84

lambda*103 [W/mK] 13.26 Ethane C2H6 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1.647 8.55

4.022 4.216

**lambda*103 [W/mK] 18 Ethylene C2H4 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*10 [Pas]
**

6

1.406 9.6

2.721 20.6

3.052 22.8

3.382 24.9

3.709 4.039 26.8 28.7

lambda*103 [W/mK] 16.4 Helium He cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 5.204 18.74

29.54 5.204 22.96 179.1 0.934 24.4 32.91 2.448 13.3 41.29 2.017 10.06 27.4 1.8 10.73 25.6 0.662 16.1 12.33 0.914 18.4 22.79 1.045 20.9 30.12

44.19 5.204 26.98 212.8 0.963 29 40.7 2.807 16.1 51.87 2.458 12.48 41.7 2.16 13.4 38.9 0.712 20 16.63 0.993 22.6 30.94 1.058 24.6 36.52

59.43 5.204 30.8 244.2 0.995 33.1 48.03 3.175 18.5 62.34 2.834 14.75 57.9 2.476 15.92 53.7 0.754 23.8 21.17 1.057 26.4 39.08 1.08 27.8 42.57

75.71 5.204 34.33 275.6 1.024 26.9 55.01 3.529 20.8 72.22 3.161 17.15 76 2.753

92.34 5.204 37.57 304.7 1.048 40.3 61.52 3.856 22.7 81.88 3.449 19.4 95.8 2.991

108.39 123.3 134.9 5.204 40.32 332.6 1.069 43.5 67.45 4.153 24.6 91.3 3.697 21.8 1.086 1.1 46.5 72.8 49.3 77.69 5.204 5.204

lambda*103 [W/mK] 143 Oxygen O2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.915 19.2

**lambda*103 [W/mK] 24.66 Methane CH4 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*10 [Pas]
**

6

2.165 10.4

4.421 4.659 26.5 28.2

**lambda*103 [W/mK] 30.24 Propane C3H8 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas]
**

3

100.5 109.3 3.916 4.093

1.549 7.5

**lambda*10 [W/mK] 15 Propene C3H6 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*10 [Pas]
**

6

1.426 7.84

3.2

3.388 3.54

lambda*103 [W/mK] 14 Sulfur dioxide SO2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.607 12.1

0.783 27.5 25.82 1.11 29.9 47.22 1.106 39 48.5

0.808 31.3 30.7 1.155 33.2 54.89 1.132 33.8 54.08

0.825 35 35.82 1.192 36.2 62.1 1.157 36.3 59.66

0.837 0.85 38.6 42.1

lambda*103 [W/mK] 8.37 Carbon dioxide CO2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.815 13.8

41.05 46.29 1.223 1.249 38.1 41.8

lambda*103 [W/mK] 14.65 Carbon monoxide CO cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1.104 16.6

68.85 75.13 1.179 1.999 38.7 41

lambda*103 [W/mK] 23.26 Hydrogen H2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas]

65.01 70.13

14.195 14.448 14.504 14.533 14.581 14.662 14.779 14.93 15.115 8.4 10.3 216.3 12.1 258.2 13.9 300.1 15.4 341.9 16.9 383.8 18.3 452.7 19.6 21

lambda*103 [W/mK] 174.4

467.5 509.4

where is for flue gas:

• • • •

t - temperature cp - specific heat mi - dynamic viscosity lambda - thermal conductivity

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