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- PIPE SUPPORT STANDARD
- Valve Sizing Calculations
- Pressure Drop Calculation
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- Orifice Calc: Gas
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- PIG_TRAPS
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- Calculation for Pressure Drop

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In this calculator well known equations have been used. Here you can find all of them for your review.

First of all, pressure drop through the pipe due to friction and local losses can be calculated as follows:

where is:

Dp - pressure drop

rho - fluid density view table

Q - volumetric flow rate

D - pipe diameter

lambda - friction coefficient

L - pipe length

sum ksi - the sum of minor losses coefficient

To calculate mass flow rate following equation has been used:

where is:

G - mass flow rate

For pressure drop calculation because of friction, viscosity of fluid has to be known. Relation between

dynamic and kinematic viscosity is as follows:

where is:

mi - dynamic viscosity view table

ni - kinematic viscosity view table

Velocity of flowing fluid is calculated based on the continuity equation:

To find out if the flow is laminar or turbulent, Reynolds number must be calculated:

Friction coefficient for laminar flow is:

The boundary layer thickness (delta) can be calculated based on the Prandtl equation as:

and when the boundary layer thickness is bigger than pipe roughness and if the flow is turbulent, than

it can be considered as flow in hydraulically smooth pipe and Blasius equation is used.

Pipe diameter can be calculated when volumetric flow rate and velocity is known as:

where is:

D - pipe diameter

Q - volumetric flow rate

V - velocity

If mass flow rate is known than diameter can be calculated as:

where is:

G - mass flow rate

rho - fluid density view table

If the flowing fluid is gas than the density can be calculated if pressure, temperature and gas constant

is known as:

where is:

p - pressure

T - temperature

R - gas constant view table

It is important to say that the flow rate is depending on the pressure difference between two points.

This calculator is for the calculation if you already know the flow rate. If the flow rate is to be

calculated also, than you should use pressure drop calculator.

It is well known that for the completely turbulent flow relationship between fluid flow rate and

pressure drop follows the power low. Flow coefficient is the proportional constant between

pressure drop and flow rate and it is determined experimentally by valve manufactures. It is

expressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u.s. (m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) across

a flow passage.

note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial, Kv-metric)

For correct control valve sizing it is important to calculate flow coefficient using this calculator.

When flow coefficient is calculated for required flow rate and known pressure drop, selection of

proper control valve can be done by selecting control valve with first bigger flow coefficient.

Also using this calculator you can calculate maximum flow rate through control valve for given

pressure drop and known flow coefficient or valve size.

This version of calculator can be used for turbulent flow of water or other incompressible fluid, as

viscosity and expansion effect is not included. It means that for steam and gas control valve you

will need to use other calculation methods. Also, possible flashing and cavitation may reduce the

control valve capacity, as it is not treated in this version calculator.

Read about used theory for control valve sizing calculation

Control valve sizing is based on the calculation of flow coefficient for given pressure drop and fluid flow

rate. Main equation that gives relation between flow rate and pressure drop is:

Cv - flow coefficient in imperial units

Kv - flow coefficient in metric units

Dp - pressure drop through control valve

Q - fluid flow rate

G - specific gravity view table

ro - relative density view table

Flow coefficient is defined as the proportional constant between pressure drop and flow rate and it is

determined experimentally by valve manufactures. It is expressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u.s.

(m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) across a flow passage.

note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial, Kv-metric)

Relation between volumetric and mass flow rate is calculated using well known equation:

Based on the energy conservation low, Venturi tube is one of the easiest to use, not expensive and

very accurate instrument for flow rate measuring of water, air, gas or any other fluid in pipe

systems.

Measure pressure drop from the inlet to the throat and calculate flow rate using this free

calculator.

Flow through Venturi tube calculator can be used for both liquids and gases. Fluid is considered

as incompressible, so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. Also, gas is

considered as ideal.

Read about used theory in flow through Venturi tube calculation

Calculation of flow through the Venturi tube is for incompressible flow, based on the Bernoulli

principle:

where is:

p - pressure

rho - density view table

V - velocity

g - gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)

z - geodetic height

Assumption that pressure lost is negligible:

and:

where is:

Q - volumetric flow rate

D - diameter

Pressure drop through the Venturi tube because of velocity increase can be calculated as follows:

or:

Substituting:

where C is coefficient of discharge. The above equation is main one used for flow calculation in

calculator.

Other values are calculated using following equations:

mass flow:

velocities:

If the calculator is used for gas flow, then gas is considered as incompressible and ideal. Equation for

ideal gas:

Coefficient of discharge C

As fluid exits a reservoir through a small hole and enters another one, or flows out to the open air,

stream lines tend to contract itself, mostly because of inertia. Coefficient of discharge C is used to

include this effect.

For the Venturi tubes with diameters in range of D = (200 - 1200 mm), D2/D1 = (0.4 - 0.7) and ReD =

(2 ·105 - 2 ·106) the coefficient of discharge is C = 0.985.

In this calculator for coefficient off discharge C following equation has been used:

For welded tube, these coefficients are:

a=0.70304970

b=0.00490015

c=-0.00024547

For casted tube are:

a=0.60892370

b=0.00659844

c=-0.00033123

And for machined are:

a=0.49670179

b=0.00873339

c=-0.00044367

Reynolds number on inlet ReD is calculated using well known equation:

Orifice plate flow calculation

Orifice plate is used for flow rate measuring in pipe systems. With orifice plate, pressure drop is

created. Based on the value of pressure drop, flow rate can be calculated. This instrument is very

practical for large tube diameters and for dirty fluid when turbines are not applicable.

Measure pressure drop from position 1 to position 2 and calculate flow rate and more with this

easy to use calculator

Orifice plate calculator can be used for both liquids and gases. Fluid is considered as

incompressible, so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. Also, gas is

considered as ideal.

Read about used theory for flow through orifice calculation.

Calculation of flow rate using orifice plate calculator is for incompressible flow, based on the

Bernoulli principle:

where is:

p - pressure

rho - density view table

V - velocity

g - gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)

z - geodetic height

Assumption that pressure lost is negligible (pressure drop is obvious and included with coefficient of

discharge which is introduced bellow):

and:

and if velocities substituted with flow rate:

D - diameter

Pressure drop through the orifice because of velocity increase can be calculated as follows:

or:

Substituting:

where is:

C - coefficient of discharge

e - expansion coefficient

Coefficient of discharge can be calculated using following equation (ISO):

where is:

beta - diameter relation D2/D1

ReD - Reynolds number which can be calculated as follows:

where is:

ni - kinematic viscosity view table

mi - dynamic viscosity view table

L1 and L2 are functions on tap type and it is:

L1=L2=0 for corner taps

L1=1 L2=0.47 for D & D/2 taps

L1=L2=0.0254/D D[m] for 1" taps

Expansion coefficient e can be calculated (for gases only):

where is:

kappa - isentropic coefficient; kappa = 1.4 for air and other two atom gas molecules view table

Other values are calculated using following equations:

mass flow:

velocities:

If flowing fluid is gas, then it is considered as incompressible and ideal. Equation for ideal gas:

can be used for calculation of temperature T:

Here you can find the list of available fluid properties tables which can be used in calculators on

this site:

Dry air

This table gives values of some dry air physical properties in relation to temperature and pressure.

Gases

This table gives values of some physical properties of some gases

Flue gases

This table is for flue gases. It gives values of some physical properties in relation to the

temperature of gases.

Water

This table gives values of some water physical properties in realtion to temperature. For

temperatures higher than 100 OC, it is for water boiling conditions.

Steam

This table gives values of some saturated steam physical properties in realtion to temperature.

Available tables: dry air gases flue gases water steam

This table gives values of some dry air physical properties in relation to temperature and pressure.

100 bar 175.648 131.36 107.07 91.13 79.66 70.92 58.37 49.71

200 bar 340.34 253.7 205.4 174.3 152.2 135.6 111.8 95.41

300 bar 449.3 350.8 288.6 246.7 216.4 193.4 160.3 137.4

1 bar 1.007 1.006 1.008 1.012 1.018 1.026 1.046 1.69

100 bar 1.43 1.216 1.133 1.096 1.078 1.072 1.075 1.09

200 bar 1.623 1.361 1.229 1.161 1.126 1.108 1.099 1.107

300 bar 1.604 1.409 1.282 1.204 1.16 1.135 1.117 1.12

100 bar 18.3 20.2 21.7 23.4 25.1 26.9 30.4 33.5

200 bar 22.8 23.6 24.4 25.6 26.8 28.5 31.5 34.7

300 bar 28.7 27.8 27.5 28.1 28.8 30.1 33.1 36.1

Available tables: dry air gases flue gases water steam

This table gives values of some physical properties of some gases.

Spec. heat at 20OC and 1 bar Dynamic viscosity

density weight constant

[kg/m3] [kg/mol] [J/kg*K] [J/kg*K] [J/kg*K] [-]

bar

Hydrogen

HCl 1.639 36.47 228 812 583 1.4 -

Chloride

Methyl Chloride CH3Cl 2.308 50.48 164.8 741 582 1.28 9.89

Sulphur Dioxide SO2 2.927 64.06 129.8 633 503 1.25 11.7

Sulphur

H2S 1.539 34.09 244.2 1059 804 1.3 11.66

Hydrogen

Carbon Dioxide CO2 1.976 44.01 189 837 653 1.3 13.7

This table gives values of some physical properties in relation to the temperature of gases.

GAS t [OC] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Nitrogen N2 cp [kJ/kgK] 1.039 1.042 1.052 1.069 1.091 1.115 1.139 1.161 1.181

lambda*103 [W/mK] 24.31 31.52 38.5 44.89 50.71 55.82 60.36 64.2 67.45

Argon Ar cp [kJ/kgK] 0.522 0.521 0.521 0.521 0.521 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52

Butane C4H10 cp [kJ/kgK] 1.591 2.026 2.453 2.813 3.127 3.403 3.642

Ethane C2H6 cp [kJ/kgK] 1.647 2.067 2.49 2.87 3.214 3.519 3.787 4.022 4.216

Ethylene C2H4 cp [kJ/kgK] 1.406 1.737 2.064 2.394 2.721 3.052 3.382 3.709 4.039

mi*10 [Pas]

6

9.6 12.7 15.6 18.2 20.6 22.8 24.9 26.8 28.7

lambda*103 [W/mK] 16.4 29.54 44.19 59.43 75.71 92.34 108.39 123.3 134.9

Helium He cp [kJ/kgK] 5.204 5.204 5.204 5.204 5.204 5.204 5.204 5.204 5.204

Oxygen O2 cp [kJ/kgK] 0.915 0.934 0.963 0.995 1.024 1.048 1.069 1.086 1.1

mi*106 [Pas] 19.2 24.4 29 33.1 26.9 40.3 43.5 46.5 49.3

lambda*103 [W/mK] 24.66 32.91 40.7 48.03 55.01 61.52 67.45 72.8 77.69

Methane CH4 cp [kJ/kgK] 2.165 2.448 2.807 3.175 3.529 3.856 4.153 4.421 4.659

mi*10 [Pas]

6

10.4 13.3 16.1 18.5 20.8 22.7 24.6 26.5 28.2

lambda*103 [W/mK] 30.24 41.29 51.87 62.34 72.22 81.88 91.3 100.5 109.3

Propane C3H8 cp [kJ/kgK] 1.549 2.017 2.458 2.834 3.161 3.449 3.697 3.916 4.093

lambda*10 [W/mK] 15

3

27.4 41.7 57.9 76 95.8

Propene C3H6 cp [kJ/kgK] 1.426 1.8 2.16 2.476 2.753 2.991 3.2 3.388 3.54

mi*10 [Pas]

6

7.84 10.73 13.4 15.92

Sulfur dioxide SO2 cp [kJ/kgK] 0.607 0.662 0.712 0.754 0.783 0.808 0.825 0.837 0.85

lambda*103 [W/mK] 8.37 12.33 16.63 21.17 25.82 30.7 35.82 41.05 46.29

Carbon dioxide CO2 cp [kJ/kgK] 0.815 0.914 0.993 1.057 1.11 1.155 1.192 1.223 1.249

mi*106 [Pas] 13.8 18.4 22.6 26.4 29.9 33.2 36.2 38.1 41.8

lambda*103 [W/mK] 14.65 22.79 30.94 39.08 47.22 54.89 62.1 68.85 75.13

Carbon monoxide CO cp [kJ/kgK] 1.104 1.045 1.058 1.08 1.106 1.132 1.157 1.179 1.999

lambda*103 [W/mK] 23.26 30.12 36.52 42.57 48.5 54.08 59.66 65.01 70.13

Hydrogen H2 cp [kJ/kgK] 14.195 14.448 14.504 14.533 14.581 14.662 14.779 14.93 15.115

mi*106 [Pas] 8.4 10.3 12.1 13.9 15.4 16.9 18.3 19.6 21

lambda*103 [W/mK] 174.4 216.3 258.2 300.1 341.9 383.8 452.7 467.5 509.4

where is for flue gas:

• t - temperature

• cp - specific heat

• mi - dynamic viscosity

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