This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Pro

TRN00XXXX-X/000X

Trademarks

AccuDraw, Bentley, the “B” Bentley logo, MDL, MicroStation and SmartLine are registered trademarks; PopSet and Raster Manager are trademarks; Bentley SELECT is a service mark of Bentley Systems, Incorporated or Bentley Software, Inc. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Acrobat logo, Distiller, Exchange, and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Windows, Microsoft and Visual Basic are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. Other brands and product names are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Patents

United States Patent Nos. 5,8.15,415 and 5,784,068 and 6,199,125.

Copyrights

2000-2006 Bentley Systems, Incorporated. MicroStation 1998 Bentley Systems, Incorporated. IGDS file formats 1981-1988 Intergraph Corporation. Intergraph Raster File Formats 1993 Intergraph Corporation. Portions 1992 – 1994 Summit Software Company. Portions 1992 – 1997 Spotlight Graphics, Inc. Portions 1993 – 1995 Criterion Software Ltd. and its licensors. Portions 1992 – 1998 Sun MicroSystems, Inc. Portions Unigraphics Solutions, Inc. Icc 1991 – 1995 by AT&T, Christopher W. Fraser, and David R. Hanson. All rights reserved. Portions 1997 – 1999 HMR, Inc. All rights reserved. Portions 1992 – 1997 STEP Tools, Inc. Sentry Spelling-Checker Engine 1993 Wintertree Software Inc. Unpublished – rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. All rights reserved.

4/17/2008 Copyright © 2006 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Do Not Duplicate

2

STAAD.Pro

TRAINING MANUAL ADVANCED TOPICS

A Bentley Solutions Center www.reiworld.com www.bentley.com/staad

2006 . Although every effort has been made to ensure the correctness of these programs. Published October. Pro is a suite of proprietary computer programs of Research Engineers. © 2006 Bent ley Syst ems. error or misrepresentation in or as a result of the usage of these programs. a Bentley Solutions Center. REI will not accept responsibility for any mistake. Incorporat ed. All Right s Reserved.STAAD.

bending moment and shear force diagrams. slabs and panel type entities are represented using triangular and quadrilateral finite elements. These utilities allow the user to create the geometry. 6.). culverts and other embedded structures. 1. etc. columns.commercial buildings. beam. etc. A library of exposed functions called OpenSTAAD which allows users to access STAAD.Pro is a general purpose structural analysis and design program with applications primarily in the building industry . C++. links with other popular softwares for niche areas like reinforced and prestressed concrete slab design. aluminum. VBA. orient cross sections as desired. etc. Design engines for code checking and optimization of steel. Result viewing. aluminum and timber members. Peripheral tools for activities like import and export of data from and to ot her widely accepted formats. apply loads explicitly as well as have the program generate loads. .Pro STAAD. VB. footing design. Graphical model generation utilities as well as text editor based commands for creating the mathematical model. Delphi. 5. Design of shear and moment connections for steel members. assign materials like steel. Beam and column members are represented using lines. retaining walls. timber. Java. OpenSTAAD allows users to link in-house or third-party applications with STAAD. time history . The program hence consists of the following facilities to enab le this task. etc. dams. slabs and shear walls. design parameters etc. turbine foundations. etc. frequency extraction. plate and solid stress contours. Solid blocks are represented using brick elements. bridges and highway structures. Reinforcement calculations for concrete beams. FORTRAN. steady state. Walls. finite element analysis. and dynamic response (spectrum. Thus. 4. industrial structures.About STAAD.Pro. assign properties. Analysis engines for performing linear elastic and pdelta analysis. chemical plant structures. result verification and report generation tools for examining displacement diagrams. specify supports.Pro’s internal functions and routines as well as its graphical commands to tap into STAAD’s database and link input and output data to third -party software written using languages like C. steel connection design. 3. 2. concrete.

International Design Codes This document contains information on the various Concrete.Pro package. of several countries. The topics covered include model generation.About the STAAD.Pro Documentation The documentation for STAAD. Steel. Graphical Environment This document contains a detailed description of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of STAAD. structural analysis and design. These manuals are normally provided only in the electronic form at.Pro consists of a set of manuals as described below. See the back cover of this book for addresses and phone numbers. Technical Reference Manual This manual deals with the theory behind the engineering calculations made by the STAAD engine. copy protection issues and a description on how to run the programs in the package. result verification. Examples Manual This book offers examples of various problems that can be solved using the STAAD engine.Pro Extension component(s) is available separately. computer system requirements. The documentation for the STAAD. Getting Started and Tutorials : This manual contains information on the contents of the STAAD. and report generation. . with perhaps some exceptions such as the Getting Started Manual which may be supplied as a printed book to first time and new-version buyers. Users who wish to obtain a printed copy of the books may contact Research Engineers. and Aluminum design codes. that are implemented in STAAD. installation process. REI also supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no cost for those who wish to print them on their own. All the manuals can be accessed from the Help facilities of STAAD.Pro. It also includes an explanation of the commands available in the STAAD command file.Pro. Tutorials that provide detailed and step -by-step explanation on using the programs are also provided. The examples represent various structural analyses and design problems commonly encountered by structural engineers.

participation factors • Response Spectrum Analysis • Time History Analysis for seismic accelerations • Time History Analysis subjected to a harmonic loading • Time History Analysis subjected to a random excitation Mat Foundations • Automatic Spring Support Generation • Modeling soil supports as compression only • Viewing soil pressure diagrams and intensities Load Generation • Moving Loads • Floor Loads • Wind Loads . frequencies.Table of Contents Modeling Problems • • Zero Stiffness Conditions Understanding Instabilities Dynamic Analysis • Seismic Analysis using UBC and IBC codes • Calculating mode shapes.

.

Zero Stiffness .

.

o. It means that the structural conditions which exist at that node and degree of freedom result in the structure having no ability to resist a load acting along that d. because a zero value could be a potential cause of instability in the model along that d. If it were declared as STAAD SPACE.f. it will result in a warning along the MZ d. .1 Question : Answer : What does a zero stiffness warning message in the STAAD output file mean? The procedure used by STAAD in calculating displacements and forces in a structure is the stiffness method. These warnings can also appear when other structural conditions such as member releases and element releases deprive the structure of stiffness at the associated nodes along the global translational or rotational directions. one for each of MX. One of the steps involved in this method is the assembly of the global stiffness matrix. MY and MZ.f) has a zero value.f.o.f at which the zero stiffness condition exists.f at that node.o. If the structure is defined as STAAD PLANE.o. On this model. where cable members are pinned supported at their base will also generate these warnings for the rotational d.o.f. and perhaps additional warnings for the translational d. STAAD verifies that no active degree of freedom (d. at the supported nodes of the cables.o. A tower held down by cables. defined as a PLANE or SPACE frame. there is no rotational stiffness at that node along any of the global d. Question : What are examples of cases which give rise to these conditions? Answer : Consider a frame structure where some of the members are defined to be trusses. there will be at least 3 warnings. A warning message is printed in the STAAD output file highlighting the node number and the d. During this process.o.o. if a joint exists where the only structural components connected at that node are truss members.f.f.

at all nodes where you have only solids.o. these zero stiffness warning messages may appear.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 In a SPACE frame structure. The joint is thus deprived of any rotational stiffness. If no load acts at and along the d. Question : Why are these warnings and not errors? Answer : The reason why these conditions are reported as warnings and not errors is due to the fact that they may not necessarily be detrimental to the proper transfer of loads from the structure to the supports. and may result in a lack of equilibrium between the applied load and the support reaction.o. Solid elements have no rotational stiffness at their nodes. . that point may not be a trouble-spot. A zero stiffness message can tell us whether any of those d. So.f are obstacles to the flow of the load.STAAD.f where the stiffness is zero. connections may be modeled in such a manner that all members meeting at any given node have a moment release along all 3 axes. Question : What is the usefulness of these messages : Answer : A zero stiffness message can be a tool for investigating the cause of instabilities in the model. An instability is a condition where a load applied on the structure is not able to make its way into the supports because no paths exist for the load to flow through.

Understanding Instabilities .

.

if you have 3 members meeting at a point. STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. and they are all truss . WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL. When you declare all members connecting at specific nodes to be truss members. Such a column has no capacity to transfer shears or moments from the regions above it to the supports. one of them is purely vertical and the other 2 are purely horizontal.1 Question : I have instability warning messages in my output file like that shown below.0000000E+00 EQN NO 127 ***NOTE . and may result in a lack of equilibrium between the applied load and the support reaction.VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY **NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS DURING DECOMPOSITION. Answer : An instability is a condition where a load applied on the structure is not able to make its way into the supports because no paths exist for the load to flow through. Examples and causes of Instability : Defining a member as a TRUSS when it needs shear and bending capacity. What are these? ***WARNING .000E-09 THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES. A framed structure with columns and beams where the columns are defined as "TRUSS" members is definitely a cause of instability.3274384E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0. For example. the alignment of the members must be such that the axial force from each member must be able to make its way through the common node to the other members. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR IS 1.INSTABILITY AT JOINT 26 DIRECTION = FX PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.

when k1>>k2. member properties. A=1 and hence. On the other hand. .Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 members. 1/(1-A) =1/0. When the supports of the structure are such that they cannot offer any resistance to sliding or overturning of the structure in one or more directions.k1. k1 and k2 being the stiffness coefficients of two adjacent members. Imagine for example. huge variations in stiffnesses of adjacent members are not permitted. Releases completely deprive a member of any ability to transmit a particular type of force or moment to the next member. Artificially high E or I values should be reduced when this occurs. constants etc. Improper support conditions. FY or FZ.. Thus. a 2D structure (frame in the XY plane) that is defined as a SPACE FRAME with pinned supports and subjected to a force in the Z direction will topple over about the X-axis. A math precision error is caused when numerical instabilities occur in the matrix decomposition (inversion) process. with columns pinned at their base.STAAD. and each column attached to 2 orthogonal beams at the top. where A=k1/(k1+k2). the load will be transmitted into the horizontals in the form of shear. Connecting a very stiff member to a very flexible member. When a very "stiff" member is adjacent to a very "flexible" member. This is an inherent weak point of trusses. and a potential cause of instability. viz. or k1+k2 . Excessive number of releases. A better option to calling a member a TRUSS is to define it as a frame member and use partial moment releases at its ends. Another example is that of a space frame with all the supports released for FX. One of the terms of the equilibrium equation takes the form 1/(1-A). if they are frame members. the axial force from the vertical member cannot be transmitted into the horizontal members. a portal frame that looks like a table. For example. Math precision errors are also caused when the units of length and force are not defined correctly for member lengths.

10. having distinct node numbers. Simply because lines appear to cross each other in space. and node 83 also has coordinates of (7. the beam has no common nodes with the element. then. For example. One tool for creating such common nodes is available under the Geometry menu. This condition. 0). Duplicate nodes. one attached to node 5. 10. When members cross each in space. 4 and 1.STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 If the beams are pinned connected to top of the column. The beam is hence behaving as a simply supported beam at that location. The user has to ensure that. but the same X. leading to instability about the global MY degree of freedom at the pinned support. Go to Tools – Check Duplicate Nodes to detect and merge such sets of nodes into a single node. and the other to node 83. It is called Intersect Selected Members. Thus. Improper connection between members. it doesn’t guarantee that STAAD will assume a connection between those members. Z coordinates. They are 2 or more nodes. . The element is connected between 2. if node number 5 has coordinates of (7. No transfer of loads is possible between these entities. If you have 2 members. 0). MY and MZ has been switched off at the beam-ends. In the figure shown below. Improper connection between members and plate elements. that point of contact should be represented by a common node between the members. 3. it is customary to specify releases on the beams along the lines 2 3 START MX MY MZ The above release signifies that 100% of the resistance to MX. Y. node 5 and 83 are considered duplicate. along with the pinned column base. those 2 members are not connected to each other at that point in space. if a connection exists between 2 members. the beam goes from node 5 to node 6. deprives the column of any ability to transmit torsion to the base.

See the Generate Plate Mesh and Generate Surface Meshing options of the Geometry menu.STAAD. using finer meshes of elements always helps.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 In order for the above set of entities to be properly connected. as shown below. . the element would have to be broken into 2. and the beam too needs to be split at node 2. While there are no simple tools for splitting elements. both of which are in the Geometry menu. A beam in the situation above may be broken up into pieces by using means like Insert Node. or Break Beams at Selected Nodes.

6 -4 10 0. the tool for detecting such members is Tools – Check Overlapping collinear members. 4 10 0 0. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2. 6 -4 10 0. members 2 and 101 are overlapping collinear. 101 5 6 FINISH Here. 2 0 10 0. 5 13 10 0. 3 10 10 0. 2 2 3. When 2 members are collinear. 5 13 10 0.STAAD. and further. 4 10 0 0. members 2 and 101 are overlapping collinear. 2 0 10 0. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2. An example of 2 members which would qualify as overlapping collinear is: STAAD SPACE UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0. again. but they are not attached to each other. again . Another example is: STAAD SPACE UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0. But even though they are connected to each other at node 2. but the 2 members are not connected at that node. and collinear. 3 10 10 0. those 2 members are considered as overlapping collinear members. 3 3 4. 3 3 4. 101 2 5 FINISH Here.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 Overlapping members. at least one of the nodes of one of those members happens to lie within the span of the other. Member 2 is entirely confined within the span of member 101. In STAAD. 2 2 3.

These are elements whose nodes intersect other elements at points other than the defined nodes. The figure above represents such a condition.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 member 2 is entirely confined within the span of member 101. Elements 1 and 2 share only one common node which is node 4. The next figure shows what needs to be done to ensure proper connection. 5 and 3. Our original element 1 is converted to 3 triangular elements to accomplish it. From the Tools menu.STAAD. and collinear. choose Check Overlapping Plates to detect such conditions in the model. there is no connection along that boundary. This entails plates whose boundaries with adjacent plates are not attached at the nodes or plates within other plates (in the same plane). Overlapping plates. . Though the drawing appears to indicate a common boundary along nodes 4.

this singularity can safely be "fixed" by STAAD with a weak torsional spring. .Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 7 Question : Answer : If there are instability messages. sometimes an engineer will release the MX torsion in a single beam or at the ends of a series of members such that technically the members are unstable in torsion. does it mean my analysis results may be unsatisfactory? There are many situations where instabilities are unimportant and the STAAD approach of adding a weak spring is an ideal solution to the problem. This column will be unstable in torsion but can be safely "fixed" by STAAD with a weak torsional spring. If there is no torque applied. For example. Similarly a column that is at a pinned support will sometimes be connected to members that all have releases such that they cannot transmit moments that cause torsion in the column.STAAD.

The STAAD output file will contain a report similar to the following. the structure will undergo excessive deflections at that degree of freedom. Question : Answer : If there are instability messages.STAAD. This check will tell us whether all the applied loading flowed through the model into the supports.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 8 Sometimes however. if STAAD adds a weak spring. are there any simple checks to verify whether my analysis results are satisfactory? There are 2 important checks that should be carried out if instability messages are present. there may be large displacements because there are loads in the section that are in the direction of the extremely weak spring. an applied load acts along an unstable degree of freedom. a section of a structure has members that are overly released to the point where that section can rotate with respect to the rest of the structure. A satisfactory result would require that the applied loading be in equilibrium with the support reactions. A static equilibrium check. for every primary load case that has been solved for : . The joint displacement check. a. One may use the PRINT STATICS CHECK option in conjunction with the PERFORM ANALYSIS command to obtain a report of both the results mentioned in the above checks. and causes excessive displacements at that degree of freedom. This check will tell us whether the displacements in the model are within reasonable limits. Another way of saying it is. If a load passes through a corresponding unstable degree of freedom. b. In this case.

52966E-04 5 RY= 1.23 MY= 0.STAAD.23 MY= 0. ii. The "MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENTS" are within reasonable limits.07535E-03 8 Go through these numbers to ensure that i.00499E-04 25 Y = -3.18670E-02 23 RX= 1.50 ***TOTAL REACTION LOAD( KG METE ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1 ) SUMMATION FORCE-X = 0.00 SUMMATION FORCE-Y = -817. .84 SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 0. The "TOTAL APPLIED LOAD" values and "TOTAL REACTION LOAD" values are equal and opposite.22373E-04 23 RZ= 1.00 SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGINMX= -291.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 9 ***TOTAL APPLIED LOAD ( KG METE ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1) SUMMATION FORCE-X = 0.50 MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENTS ( CM /RADIANS) (LOADING 1) MAXIMUMS AT NODE X = 1.00 MZ= 3598.00 SUMMATION FORCE-Y = 817.00 SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGINMX= 291.18980E-01 12 Z = 1.84 SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 0.00 MZ= -3598.

f. you are willing to allow the member to have a small amount of stiffness for that d. connections always have some amount of force and moment capacity.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 10 Question : Answer : What is the meaning of this message. then ignore nearly singular messages. .f).STAAD. Use PARTIAL RELEASES to enable the connection to retain at least a very small amount of capacity. rather than fully eliminating the stiffness for a certain moment degree of freedom (d. especially if truss members are present or when MEMBER RELEASE commands are used and certain degrees of freedom are subjected to a 100% release.o. The advantage of this command is that the extent of the release is controlled by you. In reality. Question : Answer : How to avoid instabilities if TRUSSES or RELEASES are the cause? There is a rather simple way to eliminate instabilities.E-9) * (the corresponding stiffness matrix diagonal). If the computed diagonals become zero then the matrix is singular and the structure is unstable. a diagonal matrix is computed. This is a mechanism by which you can declare that.E-7) * (the corresponding stiffness matrix diagonal). These computed diagonals are the same as or smaller than the global stiffness matrix diagonals.o. "Probable cause warningnear singular" While performing the triangular factorization of the global stiffness matrix. If the overall results look OK. Likewise in STAAD we say that the structure is nearly unstable/singular if any computed diagonal is less that (1. In STAAD we say that the structure is unstable/singular if any computed diagonal is less that (1. at the start node or end node of a member.

c.99 b. if you specify 5 START MY MZ it means MY and MZ are 100% released at the start node.98. If the displacements are large. 5 START MP 0. Check to make sure the instability warnings no longer appear. Run the analysis. Change the declaration of the truss members in your model from MEMBER TRUSS to MEMBER RELEASE memb-list START MP 0.99 memb-list END MP 0. reduce the extent of the release from 0.99 you are saying that the bending and torsional stiffnesses are 99% less than what they would be for a fully moment resistant connection. . Thus. Then check your nodal displacements. the 1% available stiffness might be adequate to allow the load to pass through the node from one member to the other.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 11 For example. But if you say. has a pinned connection at its start node. this is what may be done : a.99 or MEMBER RELEASE memb-list Both MP 0. if member 5.STAAD.99 to say 0. So.

Pro 2002 onwards. You can refer to Section 5. When a joint is unstable.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 12 Repeat steps (b) and (c) by progressively reducing the extent of the release until the displacements are satisfactory. .97 MPZ 0. When they look reasonable. it means that the joint and some or all of the joints before it in the list form an unstable structure. you can apply these partial releases to individual moment degrees of freedom. and the global degrees of freedom at that node which are unstable. even fixing every subsequent joint in the list would not make it stable. If you click on this.STAAD. there is. A zero for a d. Go to the Post processing mode. That is. The lower table has all of the joints in the order that gives the stiffness matrix the minimum bandwidth which minimizes the running time. STAAD. If instabilities are present.95 This flexibility permits you to adjust just the specific degree of freedom that is the problem area.f indicates that all is well. the Nodes page along the left side should contain a subpage by the name Instability. you could say MEMBER RELEASE memb-list Both MPX 0.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for details. 1 indicates it is unstable.99 MPY 0. For example. Question : Answer : Is there any graphical facility in STAAD by which I can examine the points of instability? Yes. Click on the row and the node and all members connected to it will be highlighted in the drawing. two tables will appear along the right hand side.22. and.o. check the magnitude of the moments and shear at the nodes of those members and make sure that the connection will be able to handle those forces and moments. The upper table lists the node number.

STAAD. If a column is pinned at the base and floor connections are released in global My. then the whole structure is free in that direction. the column will be torsionally unstable.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 13 If the instability is at the last joint [or sometimes the last joint and one other joint]. but only one joint on the column will be reported as unstable and it could be any joint on the column. . Note that the instability is reported at the last joint in the list that is on the unstable component.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 14 .STAAD.

Seismic Analysis Using UBC And IBC Codes .

.

The generalized procedure used in those methods consists of 3 steps Step 1 : Calculate Base Shear = Factor f * Weight W where "f" is calculated from terms which take into consideration the Importance factor of the building. it undergoes vibrations. forces and reactions resulting from the seismic activity. Step 2 : The base shear is then distributed over the height of the building as a series of point loads.1 Basic principle When a building is subjected to an earthquake. induce forces in the building. W is the total vertical weight derived from dead weight of the building and other imposed weights. Step 3 : The model is then analyzed for the horizontal loads generated in step 2. etc. . when accelerated along the direction of the earthquake. The weights of the structure. an elaborate dynamic analysis called time history analysis is required to solve for displacements. Normally. However. Site Class and soil characteristics. codes like UBC and IBC provide a static method of solving for those values.

Let us examine this procedure using the example problem shown below.5 0 . STAAD SPACE SET NL 5 The structure is defined as a space frame type. . 9 40 20. 5 40 10 0 . which appears within a load case. The maximum number of primary load cases in the model is set to 5. 4 27 10 0 . 8 20 20.STAAD. 6 40 0 0 7 0 20.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 The input required in STAAD consists of 2 parts. Part 1. UNIT KIP FEET JOINT COORD 1 0 0 0 .5 0 REPEAT ALL 1 0 0 11 Joint coordinates are specified using a mixture of explicit definition and generation using REPEAT command.5 0 . 3 13 10 0 . which appears under a heading called DEFINE UBC LOAD or DEFINE IBC LOAD contains the terms used to compute "f" and "W" described in step 1. 2 0 10 0 . contains the actual instruction to generate the forces described in step 2 and analyze the structure for those forces. Part 2.

9 7 8 10 . 28 11 16 . 13 5 8 21 10 11 25 . 31 18 14 32 11 17 . MEMBER PROPERTIES 1 5 8 11 21 25 28 31 TA ST W14X90 2 3 4 22 23 24 TA ST W18X35 9 10 29 30 TA ST W21X50 41 TO 44 TA D C12X30 45 TO 47 TA D C15X40 6 7 26 27 TA ST HSST20X12X0. 7 4 6 . 29 16 17 30 . 8 2 7 . 12 2 8 . 26 10 12 . 33 14 17 41 2 11 44 45 7 16 47 51 1 11 52 10 2 53 2 16 54 11 7 55 6 14 56 15 5 57 5 18 58 14 9 Member incidences are specified using a mixture of explicit definition and generation. 6 1 3 .STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 MEMBER INCI 1 1 2 5 . 11 9 5 . 27 13 15 .5 51 TO 58 TA LD L50308 12 13 32 33 TA ST TUB2001205 .

4 YRANGE 20 21 FLOAD 0. and.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 Various section types are used in this model. The vertical loads may be specified in the form of selfweight.3 I 1 RWX 2. Floor weight is used when a pressure acting over a panel has to be applied when the structural entity which makes up the panel (like a aluminum roof for example) itself isn’t defined as . Importance factor.3 There are two stages in the command specification of the UBC loads. SUPPORT 1 6 10 15 FIXED Fixed supports are defined at 4 nodes.STAAD. Among them are double channels. the vertical loads (weights) from which the base shear will be calculated. hollow structural sections and double angles. CONSTANTS E STEEL ALL POISSON STEEL ALL DENSITY STEEL ALL Structural steel is the material used in this model. member weights. MEMBER TENSION 51 TO 58 Members 51 to 58 are defined as capable of carrying tensile forces only. UNIT POUND DEFINE UBC ACCIDENTAL LOAD ZONE 0.9 RWZ 2. joint weights. element weights or floor weights.9 STYP 4 NA 1 NV 1 SELFWEIGHT FLOOR WEIGHT YRANGE 9 11 FLOAD 0. Here we specify parameters such as Zone factor. site coefficient for soil characteristics etc. The first stage is initiated with the command DEFINE UBC LOAD.

.STAAD. It is important to note that these vertical loads are used purely in the determination of the horizontal base shear only. We can view the values and position of the generated loads with the help of the PRINT LOAD DATA command used above along with the PERFORM ANALYSIS command. deadweight and other vertical loads may be added to the same load case (they are not in this example). corresponding direction (X in the above case) and a factor by which the generated horizontal loads should be multiplied. The selfweight and floor weights are shown in this example. Along with the UBC load. LOAD 1 UBC LOAD X This is the second stage in which the UBC load is applied with the help of load case number. LOAD 2 UBC LOAD Z We define load case 2 as consisting of the UBC loads to be generated along the Z direction.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 part of the model. In other words. the structure is not analyzed for these vertical loads. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA CHANGE A linear elastic type analysis is requested for load case 1. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA CHANGE The analysis instruction is specified again. A CHANGE command should follow the analysis command for models like this where the MEMBER TENSION command is used in conjunction with UBC load cases. The structure will be analyzed for those generated loads.

the region is defined as being located within the bounds YRANGE of 9-11 ft. The selfweight is applied in the global Y direction acting downwards.4 signifies that the pressure is 0.4 Kip/sq. The YRANGE (and if specified. a pressure load (force per unit area) is converted by the program into specific points forces and distributed forces on the members located in that region. LOAD 4 REPEAT LOAD 1 1.4 YRANGE 20 21 FLOAD -0. PERFORM ANALYSIS CHANGE The analysis instruction is specified again. in the first line in the above FLOOR LOAD specification. The FLOAD specification is used to specify the value of that pressure. In a floor load generation. All values need to be provided in the current UNIT system.0 Load case 4 illustrates the technique employed to instruct STAAD to create a load case which consists of data to be assembled from other load cases already specified earlier.0 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 9 11 FLOAD -0. The -0. the XRANGE and ZRANGE) values are used to define the region of the structure on which the pressure is acting. the entire floor within the YRANGE will become a candidate for the load.STAAD.3 In load case 3 in this problem. For example. We would like the .0 3 1. Since XRANGE and ZRANGE are not mentioned. a floor load generation is performed. ft in the negative global Y direction.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 LOAD 3 SELF Y -1. The program will identify the members lying within the specified region and derive MEMBER LOADS on these members based on two-way load distribution. Then. we apply 2 types of loads.

PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK CHANGE The analysis instruction is specified again.STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 7 program to analyze the structure for loads from cases 1 and 3 acting simultaneously. FINISH The STAAD run is terminated. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK CHANGE The analysis instruction is specified again. we instruct STAAD to create a load case consisting of data to be assembled from cases 2 and 3 acting simultaneously.0 3 1. LOAD LIST 4 5 PRINT JOINT DISPLACEMENTS PRINT SUPPORT REACTIONS PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 51 TO 58 Various results are requested for just load cases 4 and 5. LOAD 5 REPEAT LOAD 2 1.0 In load case 5. .

STAAD. they can be solved using a static approach. That is to say. they are defined in the form of selfweight. The data specified over there is used just to compute the V. In STAAD. all code related seismic methods follow a procedure called static equivalent method. Answer : . joint weight. member weight. there is no double counting. the V is discarded. These are calculated usually using an equation called H = constant x V where H is the horizontal load which is calculated. once the H is derived from the V. That is what you'll find in example 14. they have to be explicity specified with Load cases. one has to first come up with static loads. That means. joint load commands. The vertical load comes from selfweight. V is the applied vertical load. If a user wants the structure to be analysed for the vertical loads. the V has to be defined under commands like DEFINE IBC LOAD or DEFINE IBC LOAD There. The horizontal load comes from the UBC LOAD X and UBC LOAD Z commands. Hence. So. etc. why do I have to specify them again under the actual load case? Won't STAAD be double-counting those weights? Generally. Load cases 1 & 2 contain a horizontal load and a vertical load.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 8 Question : When I specify vertical weights under the DEFINE UBC LOAD command. even if seismic forces are dynamic in nature.

The value based on Method B is called Tb. it appears that for the mass displacement along a given axis STAAD. The value based on Method A is called Ta.Pro 2003 to use this.Method A and Method B. Is this true? You can verify this by adding the "ACCIDENTAL" option to Example Problem 14 and comparing the reactions. and is defined through the means of an actual load case. it is the amount of lumped weight at the joint and a fraction of this weight eventually makes up the total base shear for the structure. What is the difference between a JOINT WEIGHT and a JOINT LOAD? The JOINT WEIGHT option is specified under the DEFINE UBC LOAD command and is used merely to assemble the weight values which make up the value of "W" in the UBC equations.32.12 of the Technical Reference manual. Answer : . In other words. You can specify a negative value for f2 if you want the minus sign for the torsional moments.STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 9 Question : We would like to know what Ta and Tb in the static seismic base shear output stand for. We know that both are computed time periods. but we would like to know why there are two values for it. Answer : The UBC and IBC codes involve determination of the period based on 2 methods . You will need STAAD. Use the "ACC f2" option as explained in the command syntax in section 5.Pro only considers the displacement in one direction rather than a plus or minus displacement. A JOINT LOAD on the other hand is an actual force which is acting at the joint. Question : Answer : Question : When using the "ACCIDENTAL" option in the "DEFINE UBC LOAD" command.

Select the load case corresponding to the IBC load command.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 10 Question : Answer : How do I display the Load values of an IBC2000 load case? First run the analysis. Then go to the View menu. . Click on the Loads and Results tab. choose Structure Diagrams. click on OK.STAAD. Switch on the checkbox for Loads.

Frequencies And Participation factors .Calculating Mode Shapes.

.

If one is interested in the fundamental mode. there are 2 methods for obtaining the frequencies of a structure.1 In STAAD. The mode shapes can be viewed graphically to verify that they make sense. Needless to say. 2. 1. Hence. the user is required to specify all the masses in the model along with the directions they are capable of vibrating in. For example. the loading on the model should cause it to displace in a manner which resembles the fundamental mode. not vertical loads. resemble one of the vibration modes. The type of loading which creates a displaced shape which resembles this mode is a lateral force such as a wind force. it is extremely important that the displaced shape that the calculation is based on. the program extracts as many modes as the user requests (default value is 6) in ascending order of strain energy. if one were to use the Rayleigh method. The Rayleigh method using the CALCULATE RAYLEIGH FREQUENCY command The elaborate method which involves extracting eigenvalues from a matrix based on the structure stiffness and lumped masses in the model. If this data is correctly provided. the fundamental mode of vibration of a tall building would be a cantilever style mode. The Rayleigh method in STAAD is a one-iteration approximate method from which a single frequency is obtained. For the eigensolution method. where the building sways from side to side with the base remaining stationary. It uses the displaced shape of the model to obtain the frequency. . the loads which should be applied are lateral loads.

(Versions of STAAD prior to STAAD/Pro 2000 calculated only 3 modes by default). this mass comes from the selfweight. the first few modes may be sufficient to obtain a significant portion of the total dynamic response. This is like saying that the command CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 6 has been specified. the limitations of the mathematical process used in extracting modes may limit the number of modes that can actually be extracted. (One measure of the importance of modes is the participation factor of that mode. Due to these reasons. STAAD calculates only the first 6 modes. For a structure. If the inspection of the first 6 modes reveals that the overall vibration pattern of the structure has not been obtained. The number that follows this command . To calculate selfweight. and from permanent/imposed loads on the building. These are explained in association with an example problem provided at the end of this section. However. and is hence specified under the command CONSTANTS.) In many cases. In a large structure. The CUT OFF MODE SHAPE command Theoretically.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 Eigenvalue extraction method The input which is important and relevant to the analysis of a structure for frequencies and modes – using the eigenvalue extraction method is explained below. a structure has as many modes of vibration as the number of degrees of freedom in the model. Further. in the absence of any explicit instruction. 2. the extraction process can also be a very time consuming process. one may ask STAAD to compute a larger (or smaller) number of modes with the help of this command. The DENSITY command One of the critical components of a frequency analysis is the amount of "mass" undergoing vibration.STAAD. 1. density is required. not all modes are of equal importance.

this command accompanies the loads which are to be used in generating the mass matrix. In other words.18. member and element releases. The method involves 2 matrices . poisson's ratio. The stiffness matrix.. Frequencies and modes have to be calculated when dynamic analysis such as response spectrum or time history analysis are carried out. modulus of elasticity. 3. etc.STAAD. and the mass matrix. It is specified inside a load case. In our example. When STAAD encounters the commands for response spectrum (see example 11) and time history (see examples 16 and 22). the MODAL CALCULATION REQUESTED command is not explicitly required. Some information on this is available in Section 1. But in such analyses. The MASSES which are to be used in assembling the MASS MATRIX The mathematical method that STAAD uses is called the subspace iteration eigen extraction method. member and element properties.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 is the number of modes being requested. This is the command which triggers the calculation of frequencies and modes. it automatically will carry out a frequency extraction without the help of the MODAL .the stiffness matrix. 4. command.3 of the STAAD. . support information. member offsets. we are asking for 10 modes by specifying CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 10. usually called the [K] matrix.Pro Technical Reference Manual. The MODAL CALCULATION REQUESTED command. is assembled using data such as member and element lengths.

However. iii. Similarly. the element pressure load is also specified along all 3 directions. ii.global X. STAAD uses the load data specified in the load case in which the MODAL CAL REQ command is specified. notice that we are specifying the selfweight along global X. some of the important aspects to bear in mind are: i.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 For assembling the mass matrix. Y and Z directions. As much as possible. If the structure is declared as a SPACE frame.global X. if a weight if not specified along a certain direction. this does not guarantee that STAAD will automatically consider the masses for vibration in all the available directions. STAAD is programmed to algebraically add the weights at nodes. the acceleration due to gravity. If the structure is declared as a PLANE frame. Internally. not masses. all he/she has to do is not provide the directions in which those weights cannot vibrate in. the total weight . You have control over and are responsible for specifying the directions in which the masses ought to vibrate. In our example. So. there are 2 possible directions of vibration . called the [M] matrix. there are 3 possible directions . and global Y. We have chosen not to restrict any direction for this problem. The mass matrix is assembled using only the masses from the weights and directions specified by the user. STAAD will convert weights to masses by dividing the input by "g". global Y and global Z. In other words. So. If a user wishes to restrict a certain weight to certain directions only. the corresponding degrees of freedom (such as for example. provide absolute values for the weights. global Z at node 34) will not receive a contribution in the mass matrix. The input you specify is weights. and others as negative. if some weights are specified as positive numbers.STAAD.

75 10. 63 20 7. 25 7 12. 55 35 15 5. 19 20 21.75 5. 48 42 15 16 45. 18 20 15 0. 11 0 15 20. 23 31 32. 53 14 46 19 18. 33 40 15 20. 21 20 15 15. 11 5 29. 51 44 45 48 47. MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 7. 43 10 15 5.5 5. 6 40 0 20. 46 40 41 44 43.75 0. 39 20 11. 6 36 18. 49 13 43 46 14. 27 30 15 20. 62 20 7.25 15. 36 17 22. 15 9 10. 19 20 15 5. 46 15 15 5.25 0. 40 5 15 5. 22 30 31. 47 15 15 10. ELEMENT INCIDENCES SHELL 41 7 8 40 12. 55 47 48 21 20. 42 5 15 15. 31 24 25. 14 8 9. 54 30 15 15. 57 35 15 15.STAAD. 2 0 0 20. 38 20 7. 30 23 24. . 48 15 15 15. 47 41 42 45 44.25 10. 56 48 17 22 21. 68 20 0 10. 35 16 17. 24 30 15 0. 16 10 15 20. 52 45 16 17 48. 29 40 15 0. 17 15 15 20. 13 7 8. 52 30 15 5. 37 22 26. 7 4 37. 45 10 15 15. 69 20 0 15. 64 20 3. 10 0 15 15. 38 26 27. 50 43 44 47 46. 65 20 3. 58 20 11. 10 39 22. 30 40 15 5. 66 20 3. 35 20 7. 7 0 15 0. 43 9 10 42 41. 31 40 15 10. STAAD SPACE * EXAMPLE PROBLEM FOR CALCULATION OF MODES AND FREQUENCIES UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0. 61 20 7. 20 21 22. 4 34 35. 33 11 15. 25 35 15 0. 59 20 11. 26 12 13. 16 10 11. 49 25 15 5. 56 35 15 10. 28 14 18. 5 40 0 0. 23 25 15 0. 20 20 15 10. 45 12 40 43 13. 29 18 23. 60 20 11. 5 35 36. 14 15 15 0. 41 5 15 10. 12 5 15 0. 67 20 0 5. 4 20 0 20. 34 15 16. 3 20 0 0. 15 5 15 20. 3 3 34. 13 10 15 0. 28 35 15 20. 37 20 3. 18 19 20.5 0. 9 38 39. 2 2 11. 39 27 28. 9 0 15 10.75 20. 26 25 15 20.5 20.5 10.25 20. 40 28 33. 34 20 3. 36 20 11. 8 0 15 5. 32 40 15 15. 44 10 11 15 42.25 5. 54 46 47 20 19. 32 25 29.75 15. 8 37 38. 12 6 33. 17 18 19. 50 25 15 10.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 at a given node is the algebraic summation of all the weights in the global directions at that node. 21 29 30. 27 13 14. 44 10 15 10. 42 8 9 41 40. 51 25 15 15. 53 30 15 10. 22 20 15 20.5 15. 24 32 33.

MEMBER PROPERTY 1 TO 40 PRIS YD 1 ZD 1 ELEMENT PROPERTY 41 TO 88 THICKNESS 0.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 57 18 19 49 23. 70 55 56 31 30.STAAD. 67 53 54 57 56.0 SELFWEIGHT Y 1. 84 63 38 37 66. 63 50 51 54 53.0 ELEMENT LOAD 41 TO 88 PR GX 300. 74 19 20 59 58. 76 21 22 39 60. 83 62 63 66 65. 82 61 62 65 64. 64 51 26 27 54. 69 25 55 30 29. 79 59 60 63 62. 62 49 50 53 52. 73 18 19 58 36. 60 21 22 26 51. 80 60 39 38 63.0 41 TO 88 PR GY 300. 86 64 65 68 67. 85 34 64 67 3. 66 52 53 56 55. 87 65 66 69 68. 78 58 59 62 61. 72 57 28 33 32.0 41 TO 88 PR GZ 300. 68 54 27 28 57. 71 56 57 32 31. 65 24 52 55 25. 58 19 20 50 49.5 CONSTANTS E CONCRETE ALL DENSITY CONCRETE ALL POISSON CONCRETE ALL CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 10 SUPPORTS 1 TO 6 FIXED UNIT POUND FEET *MASS DATA AND INSTRUCTION FOR COMPUTING FREQUENCIES AND MODES LOAD 1 SELFWEIGHT X 1. 77 36 58 61 35. 59 20 21 51 50.0 . 88 66 37 4 69. 61 23 49 52 24. 75 20 21 60 59.0 SELFWEIGHT Z 1. 81 35 61 64 34.

View .Output File .STAAD. i. Mode number and corresponding frequencies and periods Since we asked for 10 modes.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 7 MODAL CALCULATION REQUESTED PERFORM ANALYSIS FINISH Understanding the output : After the analysis is completed.STAAD output. This file can be viewed from File . look at the output file. we obtain a report which is as follows: .

89 percent participation. This makes the structure extremely stiff in that plane. we said that one measure of the importance of a mode is the participation factor of that mode. SUMM-Y and SUMM-Z columns show the cumulative value of the participation of all the modes up to and including a given mode. It would take a lot of energy to make the structure vibrate along the Z direction.30 or more - . Modes are extracted in the ascending order of energy. The reason for this can be understood by a close examination of the nature of the structure. The higher modes are high energy modes. Participation factors in Percentage In the explanation above for the CUT OFF MODE command. But for the Z direction.STAAD. compared to the lower modes. We can see from the above report that for vibration along X direction. It is likely that unless we raise the number of modes extracted from 10 to a much larger number . the first 5 modes are sufficient.6%. The SUMM-X. the first mode has a 90. we barely obtained 0. Our model has a shear wall which spans in the YZ plane. One can infer from those terms that if one is interested in 95% participation along X. even with 10 modes. It is also apparent that the 4th mode is primarily a Y direction mode due to its 50.5 % participation along Y and 0 in X and Z.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 8 ii.

The size to which the mode is drawn is controlled using the "Scales" tab of the "Diagrams" dialog box. See the next item for the method for viewing the shape of vibration. select Post-processing from the mode menu. thus canceling each other's effect. Torsional modes too exhibit this behavior. Localized modes. where small pockets in the structure undergo flutter due to their relative weak stiffness compared to the rest of the model. The Animation option of the Results menu can be used for animating the mode. also result in small participation factors.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 9 using the CUT OFF MODE SHAPE command. iii. The mode number can be selected from the "Loads and Results" tab of the "Diagrams" dialog box which comes up when the Animation option is chosen.STAAD. The Dynamics page on the left side of the screen is available for viewing the shape of the mode statically. Viewing the mode shapes After the analysis is completed. This is caused by the fact that the vibration pattern of the model for that mode results in symmetrically located masses vibrating in opposing directions. we may not be able to obtain substantial participation along the Z direction. Another unique aspect of the above result are the modes where all 3 directions have 0 or near 0 participation. . This screen contains facilities for graphically examining the shape of the mode in static and animated views.

Mode Shape. Normalized Mode Shape. Generalized Weight and Generalized Mass Each eigenvector {q} has an associated generalized mass defined by Generalized Mass (GM) = { q } T [ M ] { q } Generalized Weight (GW) = GM * g .. (Eigenvalue. i.[ K ] { q } = o Where [ m ] = the mass matrix (assumed to be diagonal.e.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 10 How are modes. Modal Vector. no mass coupling) ω = the natural frequencies (eigenvalues) { q } = the normalized mode shapes (eigenvectors) Frequency (HZ or CPS) = ω/2 π The solution method used in STAAD is the Subspace iteration method.STAAD. Modal Frequency and Eigenvector. Normal Modes. frequencies and the other terms are calculated The process of calculating the MODES and FREQUENCIES is known as Modal Extraction and is performed by solving the equation: ω2 [ m ] { q } . Natural Frequency. Please note that various nomenclature is used to refer to the normal modes of vibration.

The sum of the modal weights for the computed modes may be compared to the total weight of the structure (only the weight that has not been lumped at supports). ∑ (q j. then rerun the eigensolution asking for a greater number of modes. This is the modal weight of a mode as a percentage of the total weight of the structure. The summation of modal weights for all modes in a given direction is equal to the Base Shear which would result from a one g base acceleration.i )( w j.A participation factor (Qi) is computed for each eigenvector for each of the three global (Xi) translational directions.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 11 Participation Factors . modal response analysis. The difference is the amount of weight missing from a dynamic. N is the number of modes. . STAAD prints the " MASS PARTICIPATION FACTOR IN PERCENT " for each mode. Also a running sum for all modes is given so that the last line indicates the percent of the total weight that all of the modes extracted would represent in a 1g base excitation. base excitation.i ) j=1 N Qi = GW Modal Weights .The modal weight for each mode is (GW)(Q i ²). If too much is missing.STAAD.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 12 .

Response Spectrum Analysis .

.

the peak response is calculated. For various values of frequency of the SDOF system and various damping ratios. like displacements.10. the mass data and other details explained in the chapter on calculating modes and frequencies are all applicable in the case of spectrum analysis also. results of a spectrum analysis.32.1 of the Technical Reference manual. The dynamic analysis of a MDOF system having "n" DOF involves reducing it to "n" independent SDOF systems. The command syntax for defining response spectrum data is explained in Section 5. The modal superposition method is used and the maximum modal responses are combined using SRSS. the mode and frequency calculation is a pre-requisite to performing response spectrum analysis. forces and reactions do not have any sign. Structures normally have multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF). Because spectrum analysis requires modes and frequencies. . Consequently. In other words. CQC and other methods available in STAAD. the sign of the results is lost.1 Description Response spectra are plots of maximum response of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems subjected to a specific excitation. It is important to understand that once the combination methods like SRSS or CQC are applied.

these force values do not necessarily indicate whether these forces occur at the same instant of time. The sign of these forces cannot be determined due to the fact that the method used to combine the contribution of modes does not allow for the determination of the sign of the forces.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 Calculation of Base Shear in a Response Spectrum Analysis The base shear. the member forces are computed accurately only at the 2 ends of the member. acceleration and multiplying the resulting value by the SCALE FACTOR. Further. reported in the response spectrum analysis is obtained as A*B*C*D where A = Mass participation factor for that mode for that direction B = Total mass specified for that direction C = Spectral acceleration for that mode D = direction factor specified in that load case A is calculated by the program from the mass matrix and mode shapes B is obtained from the masses specified in the response spectrum load case C is obtained by interpolating between the user provided values of period vs. D is specified by the user Bending Moment Diagram for a load case that involves the Response Spectrum Analysis In a response spectrum analysis in STAAD. for a given mode for a given direction. .STAAD.

it makes no sense to calculate the intermediate section forces based on the end force values. it is obvious that the results will be only approximate. STAAD merely plots a straight line that joins the bending moment values at the start and end joints of the member which are as mentioned earlier. Normally. Also. In the UBC method. This may not necessarily be true in reality. this comparison isn't meaningful : 1. due to the special nature of these end force values as described in the paragraph above. only a single period is used. the assumption is that this period is associated with a mode that encompasses a significant portion of the overall response of the structure. However. . the results can vary significantly depending on the type of method used in the combination. In order to calculate these section force values. Due to this reasoning.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 In order to draw the bending moment diagram. 3. the forces at the member ends have to be used. both of which are only approximate methods. the contribution from the various modes is combined using an SRSS method or a CQC method. Comparison of results of a spectrum analysis (which uses the UBC spectrum data) with the results of an equivalent UBC static analysis For the following reasons. absolute (positive) values. In a spectrum analysis. One very important drawback of both these methods is that the sign of the displacements and forces cannot be determined. the bending moment diagram simply cannot be drawn accurately for the response spectrum loading. If 100% participation from the modes isn't utilized in the displacement calculation. If 2. one needs to know the moments at the intermediate section points on the member. In a spectrum analysis. the number of modes to be combined is a decision made by the engineer.STAAD. Current versions of STAAD do not let the user draw the diagram at all from certain places such as the Member Query.

Question : Answer : What is the Scale Factor (f4) that needs to be provided when specifying the Response Spectra? The spectrum data consists of pairs of values which are Period vs. 4. One of the commonly used normalization factors is 'g'. In a response spectrum analysis. The acceleration or displacement values that you obtain from the geological data for that site may have been provided to you as normalized values or un-normalized values. If your spectrum data is unnormalized. that fact is not brought to light in the UBC static equivalent approach. If the spectrum data you specify in STAAD is a normalized spectrum data. Displacement.) Make sure that the value you provide for the SCALE FACTOR is in accordance with the length units you have specified. (A common error is that if the scale factor is 'g'. Normalization means that the values of acceleration or displacement have been divided by a number (called normalization factor) which represents some reference value. Accn. Due to these reasons. the scale factor is 1. or Period vs. soil structure coefficient. there is no need to provide a scale factor(Another way of putting it is that if you provide un-normalized spectrum values. a direct comparison of the results of a spectrum analysis and a static equivalent approach is not recommended.2 when the length unit is in INCHES. etc. you should provide the NORMALIZATION FACTOR as the SCALE FACTOR. which happens to be the default value also. which are incorporated through an emperical formula.STAAD. the acceleration due to gravity. The UBC static equivalent method involves several parameters such as Importance factor.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 more than one mode is required to capture the overall response of the structure.) . there is no facility available to incorporate these factors in a direct manner. users erroneously provide 32.

Hence. spectral displacement. Question : Answer : What is the Direction Factor that needs to be provided when specifying the Response Spectra? The Direction factor is a quantity by which the spectral displacement for the associated direction is multiplied. the period is determined.2 inch/sq.0. The X direction spectral displacement = sd * 0. 3.4 inch/sq.65 DISP DAMP 0.. . if you provide a normalized acceleration value of 0.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 STAAD will multiply the spectral acceleration or spectral displacement values by the scale factor.5 Z 0.05 SCALE 32.7 Y 0.5 The Z direction spectral displacement = sd * 0.STAAD.sec. For each mode. participation factor. For example. 2. the mode shape value corresponding to that degree of freedom. Call this "sd" Calculate the spectral displacement for each direction by multiplying "sd" by the associated Direction factor. it has the same effect as providing an un-normalized acceleration value of 193.65 These factored values are then multiplied by a. Corresponding to the period.5 and a scale factor of 386. b.7 The Y direction spectral displacement = sd * 0. Call the result T(m) where "m" stands for the mode number.sec. and a scale factor of 1. the spectral displacement for that mode is calculated by interpolation from the input pairs of period vs. if the command reads as SPECTRUM SRSS X 0.2 the following is done: 1.

3 and use the critical value from amongst these 2 load combination cases for design purposes. Answer : . One way to deal with the problem is to create 2 load combination cases for each set of load cases you wish to combine. if the dead load case is 1. What you accomplish from this process is that you are considering a positive effect as well as the negative effect of the spectrum load case. The limitation of these methods is that the sign of the response cannot be determined after the method is applied. Why? How do I know that the positive value is always critical. For example. That will provide the node displacement corresponding to that degree of freedom. and the spectrum load case is 5. subject them to the SRSS calculation. This is the reason why the output you get from STAAD for a response spectrum analysis are absolute values.STAAD. the contribution of the individual modes is combined using methods such as SRSS or CQC to arrive at the overall response.3 LOAD COMB 11 1 1. you could create LOAD COMB 10 1 1.1 5 -1. especially from the design standpoint? In a spectrum analysis.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 Once the T(m) is determined for all modes. Question : The results of the response spectrum load case are always positive numbers.1 5 1.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 7 Question : In the Technical Reference manual section 5. you should provide the NORMALIZATION FACTOR as the SCALE FACTOR. Accn. and a scale factor of 1. there is no need to provide a scale factor(Another way of putting it is that if you provide un-normalized spectrum values.81.) Make sure that the value you provide for the SCALE FACTOR is in accordance with the length units you have specified. The acceleration or displacement values that you obtain from the geological data for that site may have been provided to you as normalized values or un-normalized values.sec.sec. (A common error is that if the scale factor is 'g'. or Period vs. you state: " Note. if you provide a normalized acceleration value of 0. the scale factor is 1.4.STAAD. .2 when the length unit is in INCHES.. etc.)" What does "g acceleration units" mean? Related question : What is the Scale Factor (f4) that needs to be provided when specifying the Response Spectra? Answer : The spectrum data consists of pairs of values which are Period vs.5 and a scale factor of 386. If your spectrum data is unnormalized.2 inch/sq.) STAAD will multiply the spectral acceleration or spectral displacement values by the scale factor. Normalization means that the values of acceleration or displacement have been divided by a number (called normalization factor) which represents some reference value. Displacement. One of the commonly used normalization factors is 'g'. users erroneously provide 32.1. 386. the acceleration due to gravity.4 inch/sq.10. if data is in g acceleration units. which happens to be the default value also.32. it has the same effect as providing an un-normalized acceleration value of 193.0. If the spectrum data you specify in STAAD is a normalized spectrum data. then set SCALE to a conversion factor to the current length unit (9. Hence.

ASCE4-98 & TEN Percent for combining the responses from each mode into a total response. the load case for response spectrum might look something like this : LOAD 20 SPECTRUM IN X DIRECTION * SELFWEIGHT X 1 SELFWEIGHT Y 1 SELFWEIGHT Z 1 . SRSS. The mass matrix is supposed to be populated with terms for all the global directions in which the structure is capable of vibrating. dead loads are always applied in the Y axis direction (downwards). So the user has selected a damping when he selects the acceleration curve. ABS. But. I have some doubts in how to use the Spectrum command. Why? The spectral acceleration versus period curve is for a particular value of damping. and TEN do not use.STAAD. and TEN do not use damping unless Spectra-Period curves are made a function of damping. The CQC & ASCE4 methods require damping. the loads must be specified in all the possible directions of vibration. The damping on the SPECTRUM command only affects the calculation of the closely spaced modal interaction matrix which SRSS. When I’m going to run a spectrum analysis and I use the same dead loads. CQC. First of all. ABS.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 8 Question : STAAD allows me to use SRSS. To enable this. do I have to modify the direction of the loads? Answer : Question : Answer : The load data you provide in the load case in which the SPECTRUM command is specified goes into the making of the mass matrix. Consequently. ABS.

07 0.1667 0. 0.13 313 314 474 477 UNI GX 6. 0. 0.3713.14.0625 0.32 389 TO 391 FY 560 420 424 FZ 47. 1 0.0833 0. 10 0.3713. 0. 0.13 313 314 474 477 UNI GZ 6. 0.14. 0. 0.29 JOINT LOAD 420 424 FX 47.3479.05 0.29 274 TO 277 UNI GZ 1. 0.1 0. 0.36 272 466 998 UNI GY 4.0303 0.2941.3333 0.1895 0.32 389 TO 391 FZ 560 SPECTRUM CQC X 1 ACC SCALE 9. 0.0625 0.6667 0.29 274 TO 277 UNI GY 1.05 0.001372.2941.81 DAMP 0. .1636.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 9 MEMBER LOAD 274 TO 277 UNI GX 1. 0.2463.4 0.36 272 466 998 UNI GX 4.3713. 0.3479.1056. 0.81 DAMP 0.13 313 314 474 477 UNI GY 6. 0.0833 0.25 0.0769 0. 0.0769 0. 0. 2 0.3713.32 389 TO 391 FX 560 420 424 FY 47.2455. 0.07 0.3713.025 0. LOAD 21 SPECTRUM IN Z DIRECTION SPECTRUM CQC Z 1 ACC SCALE 9.2111.025 0.5 0.1636.STAAD. 0.1759. 0.0704.36 272 466 998 UNI GZ 4.2857 0.0344.125 0.2815.2455.3713.1407.0303 0.

753447E+02 4. Question : Can I decide how many modes I want to include in the spectrum analysis? Answer : Question : Answer : Use the command CUT OFF MODE SHAPE.3713.25 0.1667 0.0704. what are the dynamic.873190E+02 3. Modal weight is the total weight actually used in the modes.6667 0.2815.3713.3713. 0. 29. In the results. 0.292104E+02 -4. SRSS MODAL COMBINATION METHOD USED. Missing Weight is the amount of weight missing in the modes. Refer to example problems 11. 10 0.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 10 0.125 0. Question : Answer : Can I specify a different spectrum for each of the 3 directions (x .840284E+02 POUN 7.165253E+02 8. 0.2463. and modal weights? The dynamic weight line contains the total potential weight for base shear calculations.2111.324991E+02 POUN .1056. 2 0. 0.3333 0.1 0. 0. 0.2857 0. 0.1407.0344. etc. 1 0.001372. y or z)? Yes.1895 0.165294E+02 8.1759. 28. missing.4 0. If you algebraically add up Dynamic & Missing. you should get Modal. 0.STAAD.5 0.118054E+01 -3. 0. DYNAMIC WEIGHT X Y Z MODAL WEIGHT X Y Z 8.3713.165276E+02 POUN MISSING WEIGHT X Y Z -4.

generated by that mode in that direction.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 11 Question : Answer : What is meant by MASS PARTICIPATION FACTORS IN PERCENT? When the weight of the building is accelerated in a certain direction. The percentage of the weight of the building. Refer your Example 11 results. with each part coming from a specific mode. which is the spectrum case. It is a reflection of the "part" of the base shear. and. it will get subtracted. Answer : When you combine these results with those from the dead load case. The sum of the values of these parts is called the base shear. are both equal and have the same sign. b. when the numbers are subjected to the SRSS. the vertical reaction from the lateral load case will add to that from the vertical load case. one support should have less force than the other. The primary reasons for this are a. Why do I not see that in the results? The support reaction values from a response spectrum analysis (like any other results from a response spectrum analysis) are absolute quantities. at the other. their sign is lost the values do not necessarily reflect the result at the same instant of time. . it leads to the same value at both supports. participating in the vibration in a mode in a specific direction is called the PARTICIPATION factor. Consequently. The support reactions that we are getting are the same for both the supports for load cases 3 & 4. That force can be broken down into small parts. it produces a force in that direction. At one support. the reactions from case 2. Question : I am a little bit confused with the response spectrum analysis results.STAAD. In combining lateral loads (response spectrum loading in this case) with vertical loads. CQC or other methods.

Can you please let me know if we can print nodal acceleration from response spectra runs? If so. SRSS. there is no reasonable way to obtain it.ACC file will be created. The numbers are all peak positive values. etc. In Excel. Answer : . you can open it using any text editor. Alternatively. A . how do I print the data in the report format or display it in the Post-Processing mode? Question : Answer : Add the word SAVE at the end of the SPECTRUM command. it is likely that the peak base shear will be much less than the sum of the peak reactions. Why? Also.Pro. Since the values from a response spectrum analysis are absolute quantities (numbers without sign). perform a time history analysis where the sign of the values is obtained for each time step. Question : In a response spectrum analysis using the STAAD. like one can for a UBC analysis? Unfortunately No. which values should be taken for designing the foundation? the base shear value or the support reaction value? If it is the base shear value then what is the method generally used to distribute this base shear to all the supports? The results are statistical. the base shear is not matching with the summation of the support reaction values in that direction.STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 12 If you want the results to truly reflect the sign. since the ACC file is simply a text file. and in Excel too. However. Question : Answer : Is it possible to get the vertical distribution of the total base shear in a response spectrum analysis. CQC. There is unfortunately no facility available for displaying it in the post-processing mode. use a static equivalent method like that stipulated by the UBC code. You may add up the shears in the columns above that level for an approximate estimate. you can use the graph generation facilities for plotting it. Since each of the reactions at the time of peak base shear could be less than that reaction's peak and could be positive or negative.

However. the Response Spectrum method will result in a base shear that is much lower than an absolute sum of the base shears of all the modes. In Answer : . then the answers will be close. So when that value is SRSSed with that supports reaction value from all the other modes. all results from a Response Spectrum analysis are a result of a square root of a sum of the squares (SRSS) of the desired output quantity from each mode. Answer : Question : I am getting a large Difference in the results ( Base shear ) of between Seismic Coefficient Method (UBC) Response Spectrum Method. Can you explain why? Also. Question : The base shear reported by STAAD does not match with the Summation of Support Reactions in the relevant direction. these are peak values that may have occurred at different times. If there are several components of reaction at a joint. the CQC method produces a higher base shear than the SRSS method. that would not be the peak reaction at the support. The reactions within a single mode may have equal and opposite reactions of the various supports such that the base shear for that mode is near zero. the reaction printed by STAAD is the peak value. I want to know the reason for the same. in that same mode.STAAD. that same mode may be a major contributor to the final result for the support reaction while that mode contributes little to the base shear. Therefore the contribution of that mode to a SRSS of all the modal base shears will be nearly zero. Even if you could. If the base shear is spread over many frequencies.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 13 There is no way to distribute the base shear to the supports. Of course if all the support reactions in all of the modes have the same sign. When the SRSS method is used. a particular support may have a large reaction value. The theory of SRSS combination is that the peak value from each mode will occur at a different time and is statistically independent.

Question : I am trying to correlate the relationship between the base shears and the Global Support Reactions. For close spaced eigenvalues the CQC method will amplify the response of those modes as compared to the SRSS method. I'm thinking that STAAD solves a reaction for each mode and subsequently sums them in either SRSS or CQC. the total base shear in the x-direction does not add up to the total reaction in the x-direction for the dynamic load case. Answer : . Could you try to explain? Every individual output result value in a response spectrum analysis is independent and all results are absolute (positive). I believe that the UBC approach is closer to the absolute response since a static case is entirely in phase. but I am trying to justify in my mind why the total base shear in the X direction is not also the total Global Reaction in the X direction.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 14 STAAD 200x the base shear is also printed using Absolute Sum combination which assumes that the modes are all in phase and peaks occur at the same time.STAAD. For example. You will note that in many problems the absolute sum result is much higher than the SRSS result. on the attached model.

-12. 17.4=96. .1.1. 0.1 1. 0.5.05 0.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 15 Lets say you have two modes and 4 supports in the x direction.9 0.5 2. 1.2 12.1. 19.5526. 43.0+19.6176. -5.7 0.9806 DAMP 0.5876.0 19. In effect the procedure says that the maximum likely reaction value at each support is as shown. 0. This is due to the fact that the individual maximums would not occur at the same time and not necessarily with the same sign. ==== 19 -15.6 46. 0.2 (Sum of ****************************************************** *** Note that SRSS base shear (39.4 ==== 96. 1.2).8702.3 0. 1. Question : For Load case 1.9545. However the maximum likely sum is the Base shear as shown.0752. 1. ==== 35 325 386 2138 153 ==== 1586 18.STAAD.8 10. -3. I have SPECTRUM SRSS X 1 ACC SCALE 0.03 0.2+12. So the base shear magnitude is usually much less than the sum of the reactions.7 1.9 1.15 2. 1. 0.8077.1667. Then for the SRSS combination method the results are computed as follows: ****************************************************** *** Support# Mode 1 Mode 2 Sum of Squares Square root Reaction Reaction SRSS 1 2 3 4 SRSS Base Shear Reactions) 1586 = 39. 0.3 2. 0.7.1 0.5 0.05 1.6+46.8) does not equal the sum of the SRSS reactions (18.

1 0. 4. 2.0429.7.7 0. 3.3 0.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 16 2.9 0. 6 0.6176. 7 0.9 1.397. 6 0. 2.8077.1249. 3. 1.2881.1 0. I have SPECTRUM SRSS X 1 Z 1 ACC SCALE 0. 3.5 0.9806 DAMP 0.0429.05 1. 30 0.2881.1667.0053.1714.1714.0429.336.1534.STAAD.15 2. 3.0023. LOAD COMBINATION SRSS 5 Überlagerung .1928.5 0. 3.1 1.0752.3 0. 0. 3.8702.0911.9 0.5. 7 0.1534.2497. 2.021.0053. 3.5526. 10 0.9 0.1 0. 2.0328.05 1. 0.2185.1136. Load combination 5 is an SRSS of 1 & 2.5. 4. 0.2 2.7 0.1 1.2185.1 0.1 0.5 0. 0.1667.1928. 7 0.1.1 0.03 0. 0.1381.7. 1.021.3 0.4762. 10 0. 1.1381.1136.5 2. 3.6176.021. 4. 4. 1. 2.7 1.5 0.1. 3. 20 0.4762.0583. 1. 8 0.9806 DAMP 0. 3. 2. 1. 6 0.1249. 2. 20 0.5 2.5 0.0911.3 0.9545.8077.397.336.9 0.05 0.5526.1928. 3. 4. 30 0.1 0.9 0.3 0. For Load case 2. 2. 0. 2.2497.1 0. 2. 4.2497. 8 0.0328.8 0.1249. 0.1. 1.0023. 8 0.3 0. 2. 4.9545.9 1. 3. For Load case 3.7 0.9 0.1.3 0.7 0. 0.5876.5876.1 0. 4. 1.3 2. 2. 0.0583.1534.1714.05 0.7 1. 3. 4.1381.1.4762. I have SPECTRUM SRSS Z 1 ACC SCALE 0. 0.7 0. 0.9 0. 30 0.3 0.8 0. 0.0053.3 0.8 0.9 0. 0.0328.8702. 2.5 0.1 0.0583.0911. 1.2881.7 0.1136.7 0.5 0. 3.03 0. 20 0.5 0.1.3 2.7 0. 0. 10 0.3 0.0752.2185.3 0.336.397. 1.1 0.0023. 2. 3.

An earthquake with a 100% intensity in X and another with a 100% intensity in Z is not the same as one with a 141. Load combination 5 will not produce the same result as load case 3.STAAD. Another reason for the difference has to do with the Direction factor.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 17 1 1.0 2 1. The combination methods such as SRSS or CQC are not linear.4% intensity at a 45 degree angle to X and Z. Load case 2 means the earthquake is acting in the Z direction at an intensity of say 100%.0 Should load case 5 produce the same answers as load case 3? Answer : Load case 1 means the earthquake is acting in the X direction at an intensity of say 100%.414%. load case 3 means the earthquake is acting at a 45 degree angle to the X and Z directions at an intensity of 141. . Then.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 18 .STAAD.

Time History analysis of a structure for seismic accelerations .

.

(If one wishes to specify a forcing function.TXT file is a simple . That file must reside in the same folder as the one in which the data file for this structure resides. There are two stages in the command specification required for a time-history analysis.806 READ EQDATA.TXT.TXT". the arrival time.31. only one data set is defined. Here. In this file. It means that we have chosen to specify the time vs.1 Time history analysis is an extension to the process of calculating modes and frequencies in the sense that it occurs after those are calculated.) Notice the expression "READ EQDATA. The input which is relevant to the time history analysis of a structure for seismic accelerations is explained below. Stage 1 : The first stage is defined as shown in the following example. Example : UNIT METER DEFINE TIME HISTORY TYPE 1 ACCELERATION SCALE 9. which is apparent from the fact that only one TYPE is defined.05 Each data set is individually identified by the number that follows the TYPE command. ground acceleration data in the file called EQDATA. the characteristics of the earthquake.TXT ARRIVAL TIME 0. As explained in the small examples shown in Section 5.0 DAMPING 0. the keyword FORCE or MOMENT must be used instead. and damping are defined. The word ACCELERATION that follows the TYPE 1 command signifies that this data set is for a ground acceleration.4 of the Technical Reference manual. the EQDATA.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

2

text file containing several pairs of time-acceleration data. A sample portion of that file is as shown below. 0.0000 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.006300 0.003640 0.000990 0.004280 0.007580 0.010870

While it may not be apparent from the above numbers, it may also be noted that the geological data for the site the building sits on indicate that the above acceleration values are a fraction of "g", the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, for example, at 0.02 seconds, the acceleration is 0.00364 multiplied by 9.806 m/sec^2 (or 0.00364 multiplied by 32.2 ft/sec^2). Consequently, the burden of informing the program that the values need to be multiplied by "g" is upon us. We do that by specifying the term “SCALE 9.806” alongside “TYPE 1 ACCELERATION”. The arrival time value indicates the relative value of time at which the earthquake begins to act upon the structure. We have chosen 0.0, as there is no other dynamic load on the structure from the relative time standpoint. The modal damping ratio for all the modes is set to 0.05. Stage 2 : UNIT POUND FEET LOAD 3 DYNAMIC LOAD CASE SELFWEIGHT X 1.0 SELFWEIGHT Y 1.0 SELFWEIGHT Z 1.0 ELEMENT LOAD 41 TO 88 PR GX 300.0 41 TO 88 PR GY 300.0 41 TO 88 PR GZ 300.0

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

3

Load case 3 is the dynamic load case, the one which contains the second part of the instruction set for a dynamic analysis to be performed. The data here are a. loads which will yield the mass values which will populate the mass matrix the directions of the loads, which will yield the degree of freedom numbers of the mass matrix for being populated.

b.

Thus, the selfweight, as well as the imposed loads on the structural slab are to be considered as participating in the vibration along all the global directions. This information is identical to what is specified in the situation where all that we are interested is frequencies and modes. GROUND MOTION X 1 1 The above command too is part of load case 3. Here we say that the seismic force, whose characteristics are defined by the TYPE 1 time history input data, acting at arrival time 1, is to be applied along the X direction. Example: LOAD 1 Mass data in weight units GROUND MOTION direction Type# Arrival Time# PERF ANAL FINISH

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

4

Time History Analysis for a Structure subjected to a Harmonic Loading .

.

1 A sinusoidal loading is one which has the characteristic of repetitiveness. A sinusoidal loading usually can be described using the equation.4 of the Technical Reference Manual for a list of input parameters that . a set of discrete timeforce pairs is generated from the forcing function and an analysis is performed using these discrete time-force pairs. Users may refer to section 5. The time values are chosen from time '0' to n*tc in steps of "STEP" where n is the number of cycles and tc is the duration of one cycle. a forcing function is a continuous function. F (t) = F0sin (ω t + φ) In the above equation. as in the case of a tower at the top of which are two radar antennas which cause a rotational type of dynamic loading with a specified rotation rate and a nominal turning circle.31. F(t) = Value of the force at any instant of time "t" F = Peak value of the force ω = Frequency of the forcing function φ = Phase angle A plot of the above equation is shown in the figure below. STEP is a value that the user may provide or may choose the default value that is built into the program. However. STAAD will generate a table consisting of the magnitude of the force at various points of time. What that means is that based on the number of cycles that the user specifies for the loading. in STAAD. Definition of input in STAAD for the above forcing function As can be seen from its definition.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 need to be specified for a Time History Analysis on a structure subjected to a Sinusoidal loading.) The command FUNCTION COSINE indicates that instead of providing the data set as discrete TIME-FORCE pairs. such as FREQUENCY.0 DAMPING 0. The word FORCE that follows the TYPE n command signifies that this data set is for a forcing function. In this file. UNIT KIP INCH DEFINE TIME HISTORY TYPE 1 FORCE FUNCTION SINE AMPLITUDE 10. a sinusoidal function.STAAD. is provided. which is apparent from the fact that two TYPEs are defined. Each data set is individually identified by the number that follows the TYPE command. AMPLITUDE. which describes the variation of force with time. Some typical input that normally appears prior to these commands is also included.06 There are two stages in the command specification required for a time-history analysis. The first stage is defined above.8 FREQUENCY 47 PHASE 30 CYCLES 150 TYPE 2 FORCE FUNCTION COSINE AMPLITUDE 12. (If one wishes to specify an earthquake motion. STAAD internally generates discrete TIME-FORCE pairs . and number of CYCLES of application are then defined. the parameters of the sinusoidal loading are provided. two data sets are defined. Here.0 3. A typical example of input specification for the above is shown below.3 FREQUENCY 28 PHASE 40 CYCLES 200 ARRIVAL TIME 0. an ACCELERATION may be specified. The parameters of the cosine function.

at .0 SELF Z 1. The weights (from which the masses for the mass matrix are obtained) are specified in the form of selfweight and joint loads.5 10 FY 7. At joint 14.0 SELF Y 1. The forcing function described by the TYPE 1 load is applied on joints 7 it starts to act starting at a time defined by the 1st arrival time number.5 TIME LOAD 7 FX 1 1 14 FZ 2 1 17 FZ 2 2 The above is the second stage of command specification for time history analysis. The 2 sets of data specified here are a) the weights for generation of the mass matrix and b) the application of the time varying loads on the structure.5 10 FZ 7. The arrival time value indicates the relative value of time at which the force begins to act upon the structure. LOAD 2 LOADING FOR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS SELF X 1.0 JOINT LOAD 10 FX 7. the sinusoidal force is applied using the "TIME LOAD" command.31. Following that. LOAD 1 DEAD LOAD SELF Y -1. The modal damping ratio for all the modes is set to 0. the TYPE 2 force is applied along FZ.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 of data from the sine function in steps of time defined by the default value (See section 5. Finally.STAAD. also starting at arrival time number 1.0 The above is a static load case.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for more information).075.

[ K ] { q } = o Where [ m ] = the mass matrix (assumed to be diagonal. starting at arrival time number 2.. For each degree of freedom.2 2 1.e. i.STAAD. support reactions and joint displacements are calculated for every time step. LOAD COMB 3 1 1. no mass coupling) ω = the natural frequencies (eigenvalues) { q } = the normalized mode shapes (eigenvectors) Frequency (HZ or CPS) = ω/2 π The solution method used in STAAD is the Subspace iteration method. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT SUPPORT REACTIONS PRINT MEMBER FORCES PRINT JOINT DISPLACEMENTS The member forces. How modes.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 joint 17. the maximum value of these values is extracted from these histories and reported in the output file using the above commands. . the TYPE 2 force is applied along FZ. frequencies and the other terms calculated The process of calculating the MODES and FREQUENCIES is known as Modal Extraction and is performed by solving the equation: ω2 [ m ] { q } .4 The static and dynamic load cases are combined through the above case.

∑ (q j. Modal Frequency and Eigenvector.The modal weight for each mode is (GW)(Q i ²). The sum of the modal weights for the computed modes may be compared to the total weight of the structure (only the weight that has not been lumped at supports). base excitation. N is the number of modes.i )( w j. Generalized weight and generalized mass Each eigenvector {q} has an associated generalized mass defined by Generalized Mass (GM) = { q } T [ M ] { q } Generalized Weight (GW) = GM * g Participation Factors . The summation of modal weights for all modes in a given direction is equal to the Base Shear which would result from a one g base acceleration. If too much is missing.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 Please note that various nomenclature is used to refer to the normal modes of vibration.STAAD. Normal Modes. then rerun the eigensolution asking for a greater number of modes. modal response analysis. Natural Frequency. . This is the modal weight of a mode as a percentage of the total weight of the structure. Modal Vector.A participation factor (Qi) is computed for each eigenvector for each of the three global (Xi) translational directions. The difference is the amount of weight missing from a dynamic. Normalized Mode Shape. (Eigenvalue. Mode Shape. STAAD prints the " MASS PARTICIPATION FACTOR IN PERCENT " for each mode. Also a running sum for all modes is given so that the last line indicates the percent of the total weight that all of the modes extracted would represent in a 1g base excitation.i ) j=1 N Qi = GW Modal Weights .

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 .

Time History Analysis for a Structure subjected to a random excitation .

.

35 0.1 A random excitation is a force which varies with time.015 -800 0.02 -800 0.0 0.2 0.04 -250 0.065 -280 0.000001 0.0 DAMPING 0.035 -350 0.0 0.1 -420 ARRIVAL TIME 0.085 -440 0. An example of it is shown below.08 -550 0.075 -600 0.0 DAMPING 0.01 -800 0.025 -800 0. DEFINE TIME HISTORY TYPE 1 FORCE 0.0 0.1 0. and not necessarily in an orderly fashion.0 0.07 For a blast type of loading.07 -450 0.06 -350 0.0 1.00001 -0.4 0.09 -415 0.055 -600 0. UNIT METER KNS DEFINE TIME HISTORY TYPE 1 FORCE 0.05 .1 80.05 -730 0.005 -650 0. An example of the same is a blast loading.03 -700 0.095 -410 0.0 0. The only difference between this type of loading and the sinusoidal loading is that the force versus time data has to be defined explicitly under the DEFINE TIME HISTORY command.045 -500 0.0 ARRIVAL TIMES 0. there will be a sudden spike in the value of the force over a very short period of time.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 .

Mat foundations .

.

Subgrade modulus has units of force per length^3. The resistance of the soil is represented through a term called Modulus of Subgrade Reaction. computing the influence area for each node can become quite tedious and time-consuming. A mat foundation is a large concrete slab sitting on soil. Each node of the meshed slab will then have an influence area or a contributory area.1 Description STAAD has the ability to generate supports for structures like slabs on grade. which also go by the name mat foundations. . the definition of which may be found in many textbooks on foundation analysis. The support for the structure is the soil itself. The problem with using this method is that. the spring will have units of force/length. So. for irregularly-shaped or large slabs with many nodes. The model below exemplifies the problem. which is to say that soil within the area surrounding that node acts like a spring. The general approach to solving such problems is to sub-divide the slab into several plate elements. The influence area is then multiplied by the subgrade modulus to arrive at the spring constant.

Pro 2002 Build 1004.STAAD. it was based on this method. This method calculates the influence area of the various nodes using the Delaunay triangle method. STAAD has two options for such supports: a) The ELASTIC MAT option b) The PLATE MAT option The ELASTIC MAT option : When the spring support generation facility was first introduced in STAAD. we refer to facility as SPRING SUPPORT GENERATION . STAAD will calculate the influence areas of all the nodes by itself and derive the spring constants for you. In STAAD. In fact. . this was the only method available until and including STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 This is where the Foundation type of support can be useful.

This is the limitation of this feature. For the model comprised of plate elements 100 to 102 in the figure below. a polygon. the sides of the polygon have to be assembled by lining up points along the edges.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 The distinguishing aspect of this method is that it uses the jointlist that accompanies the ELASTIC MAT command to form a closed surface. a single ELASTIC MAT command will not suffice because the internal angle between the edges 1-8 and 8-7 at node 8 is 270 degrees. The example below explains the method that may be used to get around a situation where a convex polygon is not available. the internal angle formed by 2 adjacent lines connecting 3 consecutive nodes in the list should be less than 180 degrees. Consequently. While forming the closed surface. the region should have the shape of a convex polygon. Without a proper closed surface. erroneous spring constants. which is to say that. namely. Failure to form straight edges and convex polygons can lead to erroneous influence area values and consequently. while specifying the joint-list.STAAD. the list should have at a minimum. the area calculated for the region may be indeterminate and the spring constant values may be erroneous. . Hence. which violates the requirements of a convex polygon. The edge detection aspects of this method are very sensitive to out-of-straightness. one wishes to generate the spring supports at nodes 1 to 8. 3 nodes. which may occur if the coordinates of the nodes aren't precise to a significant number of digits. The area within this closed surface is then determined and the share of this area for each node in the list is then calculated. However. Also. one should make sure that these joints make up a closed surface.

STAAD. Because this method uses nodes to generate contours. . or solids.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 So. one should break it up into 2 commands: 1 2 3 8 ELASTIC MAT DIREC Y SUBG 200. it may be used whether the mat is defined using plates. This is the advantage of this method. Joints 3 and 8 will hence get the contribution from both of the above commands. 3 4 5 6 7 8 ELASTIC MAT DIREC Y SUBG 200.

01 PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 5000.01 length units. the rules used by the program in converting a uniform pressure load on an element into fixed end actions at the nodes are used in calculating the influence area of the node. which is that the contour formed by the nodes of the mat must form a convex hull. In the selection box for choosing the type of result to plot. This is not currently available with the ELASTIC MAT method. and click on the Plates page. choose base pressures. Example SUPPORTS 17054 TO 17081 PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 5000. The advantage of this method is that it overcomes one of the major limitations of the Delaunay triangle method.Pro 2002 Build 1005. The second example instructs STAAD to internally generate supports for the nodes at the corners of plate elements which lie in the global XZ plane bound by the YRANGE value of -0. go to the post-processing mode. . which is then multiplied by the subgrade modulus to obtain the spring constant. Another advantage of the PLATE MAT method is that it enables us to view soil pressure contours beneath the base of the slab. the influence area can be calculated using the principles used in determining the tributary area of the nodes from the finite element modeling standpoint. This feature has been available since STAAD.01 and +0.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 The PLATE MAT option : If the foundation slab is modeled using plate elements.0 PRINT YR -.0 The first of the above 2 commands instructs STAAD to internally generate supports for the nodes at the corners of plate elements 17054 TO 17081. In other words.STAAD. After the analysis.01 0.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 Question : How do I tell STAAD that my soil spring is effective only in COMPRESSION. An example of such a report is shown below.STAAD. use the command PRINT SUPPORT INFORMATION . and should not be considered when it goes into tension? This may be done by using the ELASTIC MAT or PLATE MAT command in conjunction with the SPRING COMPRESSION command. Use the PRINT option available with the ELASTIC MAT or PLATE MAT commands. Example problem 27 illustrates this. Is it possible to get a report which shows the influence area generated by STAAD for each support node? Yes. The program iteratively solves the problem so that the final answer reflects the condition corresponding to actual contact between slab & soil. Answer : Question : Answer : To get a report of the spring constants themselves. This will produce a report of the influence areas.

or excessive settlements. without undergoing a shear failure. In the post-processing mode. If the actual pressure exceeds the capacity. The Summary tab will show the maximum and minimum pressure along with the associated node for each of the 3 global directions. The modulus of subgrade reaction is a measure of the stiffness of soil if it were to behave like a spring. The modulus of subgrade reaction is the quantity by which the influence area of a support node is multiplied by to get the equivalent spring constant which can be used at the analysis stage.Pro Technical Reference manual. the maximum soil pressure you get from STAAD’s soil pressure diagram should be within the limits of the soil’s bearing capacity. as explained in section 5. It is the relationship between bearing pressure and soil deflection. One would provide this as an input item when one wishes STAAD to generate spring supports using the ELASTIC MAT command.3 of the STAAD.27. A table will appear along the right side of the screen showing these values. it is an indication of failure. This capacity is referred to as the soil bearing capacity. How does subgrade modulus differ from soil bearing capacity? A soil must be capable of carrying the loads it is subjected to.STAAD. Question : Answer : .Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 7 Question : Answer : Is it possible to find out the base pressure at each node for each load case? Yes. At the end of the mat foundation analysis. go to the Node – Base pressure page.

how do you use that to come up with the subgrade modulus that STAAD uses for elastic mat definitions? One doesn't use the bearing capacity of soil to determine the subgrade modulus. It hence has units of force per unit area.STAAD. with specific values listed for specific types of soil. Subgrade Modulus on the other hand is a measure of the "spring constant" of soil.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 8 Question : If you have the value for soil bearing pressure. bearing capacity (or bearing pressure) is the pressure at which the soil fails. you will find a few sections devoted to that topic. Answer : . Instead. If you have a look at the text book "Foundation Analysis and Design" by Joseph Bowles. It is the distance that a unit area of soil would deflect under a unit load. it is a separate attribute of soil. either in shear or compression. The basic difference between these 2 attributes is that.

Generating loads from moving load-causing units .

.

5 TYPE 2 -3. LOAD GENERATION 75 TYPE 1 -3. The spacing between the axles in the direction of movement (longitudinal direction) is specified after the DISTANCE command.8 TYPE 2 LOAD 34. it is the distance between the 2 prongs of an axle of the truck. there are 2 spacings between them.3 1.278 0.5 DISTANCE 1. Since there are 3 axles. 6.9 DISTANCE 1.5 WIDTH 1.9 34.3 94.9 34. The mobile loads are discretized into several individual immobile load cases at discrete positions. Stage 1 is as shown in the example below. XINC 1.7 The above lines represent the first out of two sets of data required in moving load generation. 4.5 This constitutes the second of the two sets of data required for moving load generation.3 94. that is.3 WIDTH 1. The type number (1) is a label for identification of the load-causing unit.9 34.3 1.0 Load case 1 is a static load case. For the first of these load cases. there are 4 axles and 3 spacings. XINC 1. WIDTH is the spacing in the transverse direction. LOAD 1 SELF Y -1. Defining the input data There are 2 stages for specifying these types of loads.6 108. such as a truck. 3 axles ( 119. For the TYPE 2 truck.1 This type of loading occurs classically when the load-causing units move on the structure. Y and Z location of . as in the case of trucks on a bridge deck.5) are specified with the LOAD command.6 108. 75 load cases are generated using the Type 1 and Type 2 vehicles whose characteristics were described earlier.778 1. the X.9 0. DEFINE MOVING LOAD TYPE 1 LOAD 119.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

2

the reference load (see section 5.31.1 of the Technical Reference Manual) have been specified after the command TYPE 1 and TYPE 2 respectively. The X Increment of 1.5ft denotes that the vehicle moves along the X direction and the individual positions which are 1.5ft apart will be used to generate the remaining 74 load cases. The basis for determining the number of load cases to generate, 75 in the example above, is as follows : As seen in Section 5.31.1 of the Technical Reference manual, the reference wheel is on the last axle. The first load case which is generated will be the one for which the first axle is just about to enter the bridge. The last load case should be the one for which the last axle is just about to exit the bridge. Thus, the total distance travelled by the reference load will be the length of the vehicle (distance from first axle to last axle) plus the span of the bridge. Let us call this term "D". If we want the vehicle to move forward in 1.5 feet increments (each 1.5 foot increment will create a discrete position of the truck on the bridge), it would required (D/1.5+1) cases to be generated. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA The load generation commands are followed by the PERFORM ANALYSIS command. The PRINT LOAD DATA option is used to obtain a report in the output file of the values and positions of the generated loads.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

3

Question : Answer : Question :

I want to move a crane along a beam. How do I use the moving load generation for this case? Use the same procedure as in the case of a bridge. Set the WIDTH value to zero. Could you tell me how I can display the generated moving loads graphically? I want to see whether I enter and generate the moving loads correctly. If you wish to obtain the position of the concentrated loads generated from a moving vehicle, this is what you can do. First, make sure the input file does have the commands required to generate loads from a vehicle. Example 12 is a good reference. Then, run the analysis. After the analysis is successfully completed, the "Select Load" drop down list box will contain individual load case numbers for each generated load case. For example, if your sequence of load data is LOAD 1 LOAD 2 LOAD 3 LOAD GENERATION 30 then, after the analysis, the load selection box will list them as LOAD 1 LOAD 2 LOAD 3 LOAD GENERATION, LOAD # 4 LOAD GENERATION, LOAD # 5 LOAD GENERATION, LOAD # 6 etc.

Answer :

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

4

Select those cases, and switch on the load display icon. Or, right click the mouse on the drawing area. Select Structure Diagrams. In the Loads and Results tab, switch on the check box for Loads, select the load case from the list, and click on Apply. Keep changing the load case, and keep clicking on Apply.

Question: Answer :

Is there any way to generate a moving load on an inclined member ? Yes you can. Have a look at Section 5.32.12 of the Technical Ref Manual. You will find an option called YRANGE. So, have the load located at an elevation below the lower node of the member, and provide a YRANGE which will enable the program to apply the load on members whose longitudinal axis lie in the range between the lower and upper ends of the inclined member. However, there is no guarantee that it will work every time.

Question : Answer :

How do I define the moving load data through an external file? See example below : Example : When data is provided through the external file "MOVLOAD" Data in the input file UNIT KIP FEET DEFINE MOVING LOAD FILE MOVLOAD TYPE 1 AXLTYP1 TYPE 2 AXLTYP2 1.25

0 7.5 .0 AXLTYP2 20 20 10 7.STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 Data in the external file "MOVLOAD" AXLTYP1 10 20 15 5.5 6.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 .STAAD.

Pressure loads on panels – Floor loads .

.

. you may directly specify the JOINT LOADs and MEMBER LOADs on those members instead of using the FLOOR LOAD option to generate loads for those members. the input required from the user is very simple . similar to the squares of a chessboard. Y and Z coordinates in space. of the area over which the pressure acts. It merely transmits the load to the beamcolumn grid. In the process of converting the pressure to beam loads. The floor slab is a non-structural entity. and the region of the structure in terms of X. Users can verify the accuracy of the values of the joint and member loads generated by the FLOOR LOAD and AREA LOAD option by using the command PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA The output file will contain the values of the generated loads. and the program converts the pressure to individual beam loads. Since the slab is not part of the structural model. If the values are not what you expect. This is a facility where you specify the load as a pressure. is not meant to be an integral part of the framing system. using a triangular or trapezoidal load distribution method.load intensity in the form of pressure. The load on each panel is then transferred to beams surrounding the panel. There are uniform area loads on the floor (think of the load as wooden pallets supporting boxes of paper). which. is there a way to tell the program to transmit the load to the beams without manually figuring out the beam loads on my own? Answer: STAAD's FLOOR LOAD option is ideally suited for such cases. STAAD will consider the empty space between crossing beams (in plan view) to be panels. Thus.1 Question : I am modeling a steel building consisting of columns and beams. though capable of carrying the loads acting on it.

Question : Answer : Are there any graphical tools to examine the individual panels the program considers in processing the floor load command? Yes. Display Floor Load Distribution will show the division of panels into influence areas based on a colorcoded scheme (see figure below). Under Loading Display Options. Click the right mouse button.4 in the STAAD. Display Floor Loads will show the triangular and trapezoidal loading on the individual members around each panel. and section 5. and select Labels.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 STAAD also provides an option called ONEWAY load if the distribution is desired along the shorter direction of a panel instead of a 2-way action. .STAAD. This and additional information on the FLOOR LOAD facility is available in example problem 15 in the examples manual.32.Pro Technical Reference manual.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

3

Question : Answer :

When does one use FLOOR LOAD and when does one use ELEMENT LOAD? When modeling a grid system made up of horizontal beams and the slabs which span between the beams, there are 2 approaches one may take : 1. Model the beams only, and do not include the slabs in the model. However, the large in-plane stiffness of the slab may be taken into account by using the master-slave relationship to tie together the nodes of the deck so that a rigid diaphragm effect is simulated for the horizontal plane at the slab level. Include the slabs by modeling them using plate elements.

2.

The question that arises is, how does one account for the distributed loading (load per area of floor) which is present on top of the slab? If you model the structure using method (1), the load can be assumed to be transferred directly on to the beams. The slab-beam grillage is assumed to be made up of a number of panels, similar to the squares of a chessboard. The load on each panel is then transferred to beams surrounding the panel, using a triangular or trapezoidal load distribution method. You can do this in STAAD by defining the load intensity in the FLOOR LOAD command. In other words, the pressure load on the slabs (which are not included in the model) are converted to individual beam loads by utilizing the FLOOR LOAD facility. In method (2), the fact that the slab is part of the model makes it very easy to handle the load. The load can be applied on individual elements using the ELEMENT LOAD facility. The connectivity between the beams and elements ensures that the load will flow from the plates to the beams through the columns to the supports.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

4

Question :

I have a floor made up of several panels. The floor consists of straight-line edges but with a concave face and a convex face, like a boomerang. The total floor area is 381 sq.m. and I am applying a floor load of 1 t/sq.m. on the entire area. Thus, expecting a total load of 381 t. From analysis I get total load as 810.2 t which is not correct. When I try to apply floor load to individual panel I get nearly the expected load. But when the floor load is applied on group of panels or on entire area, graphically it shows wrong distribution of load and total load is also not correct.

Answer :

The problem you mention is one of the limitations of the floor load routine. If you have a floor whose shape contains a mixture of concave and convex edges, break up the floor load command into several parts, as you have done. This will force the program to localize its search for panels and the solution will be much better. If you don't do this, the entire floor will end up being treated as one giant panel with unsatisfactory results. The example below illustrates a case where the floor has to be subdivided into smaller regions for the floor load generation to yield proper results. The internal angle at node 6 between the sides 108 and 111 exceeds 180 degrees. A similar situation exists at node 7 also. As a result, the following command LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 11.9 12.1 FLOAD -0.35 will not yield acceptable results.

STAAD.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics

5

Instead, the region should be subdivided as shown in the following example LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 11.9 12.1 FLOAD -0.35 XRANGE -0.1 15.1 ZRANGE -0.1 8.1 YRANGE 11.9 12.1 FLOAD –0.35 XRANGE 4.9 10.1 ZRANGE -7.9 16.1

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 .STAAD.

Wind load generation .

.

and in example problem 15 of the Examples manual.026 .2 YR 0. or walls made of wood or other material that was not considered to be part of the structural model. the basis of this generation is that the program first identifies panels – regions circumscribed by members and the ground – and assumes that the wind pressure acts on the panel area. which takes as input wind pressure.028 HEI 10. and height ranges over which those pressures act and generates nodal point loads on windward and leeward sides of buildings. Until and including STAAD. This facility has been enhanced in STAAD.12 of the Technical Reference manual. So. The first intensity acts from the ground (the datum) to . This may be found in sections 5.Pro 2003. the force on that panel is calculated by multiplying the pressure by the panel area. So.Pro 2004 by considering lattice type open structures also. this type of load generation is applicable to “closed” structures such as office buildings where the component constituting the panels could be a glass façade. this feature is capable of generating loads on panel type of exposed faces.31. Consequently.022 . Defining the input data There are 2 stages for specifying these types of loads. 100.015 . Stage 1 is as shown in the example below.32.Pro is a facility. EXPOSURE 1.3 and 5. 60. UNIT KIP FEET DEFINE WIND LOAD TYPE 1 INT .1 Description Wind load generation in STAAD. 75. The numbers which follow the word INTENSITY are the wind pressures. 30.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 2 10 ft. TYPE 1 The second part of the command consists of the actual load application and is done through the WIND LOAD command as shown above. the structure has openings at certain heights and so on. the second from 10 ft to 30 ft. EXPOSURE factors. . LOAD 1 DW SELFWEIGHT Y -1. TYPE 1 LOAD 3 WINDZ WIND LOAD Z 1. In order to distinguish the wind load having one set of characteristics from another wind load with a different set of characteristics. each wind load is identified using a TYPE command followed by an identification number. each with certain characteristics. They are not terminologies that the user will find from any code or handbook that provides guidelines on loading for structures.0. and so on.2.STAAD. LOAD 2 WIND WIND LOAD X -1. all nodes between 0 and 75 feet are assigned a value 1. which are magnification or reduction factors for the resulting generated loads should be specified if their value is different from 1. In other words. Here. the TYPE command and the number are entirely a creation of the user. Question : Answer : What is the significance of the TYPE command and the number that follows? STAAD permits the definition of several different wind loads. The advantage of this feature is that the user is now able to communicate to the program information such as that the wind pressure is different at different heights.

Any reduction or magnification of the resulting force is achieved by multiplying the generated values by exposure factors for nodes.STAAD. Does the wind load command in STAAD take into account any wind codes like ASCE 7? Does it take into account the drag factor. or shape factor for different shapes like angle. Influence area of a node is defined as the region surrounding a node over which any wind pressure acting over that area is transmitted entirely into that node as a concentrated force. Question : Answer : . This will yield the concentrated horizontal force for the joint.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 3 Question : Answer : What is Wind Intensity? Wind intensity as required for input in STAAD is merely the wind pressure in units of Force per unit area. It also does not take into account any of the other factors you mentioned. It is based purely on the concept of influence areas of nodes and multiplying them by the user defined wind pressures for the respective heights. Influence area is equal to influence length multiplied by influence height where: influence length is half the distance from the joint to the joints to the left and to the right of the joint and influence height is the distance from the joint to the joints at the top and to the bottom. channel etc. The user is required to compute the pressure from any coefficients that codes require. The exposure factor becomes useful for situations where the entire panel area is not effective due to the presence of openings or needs to be magnified due to a curvilinear shape of the load bearing panel. WIND LOAD generation in STAAD is not based on any code. Multiply the influence area of each joint by the wind intensity and the exposure factor for the joint.

how can I make the software take the discs into account which are also exposed to wind? The influence area calculation will work correctly if and only if the exposed area is parallel to one of the global planes. Wind forces can be computed for horizontal (X and Z) directions only. Answer : Question : Answer : Question : Answer : Question : Answer : . Can the wind force be generated in the Y-direction? No. apply the load using the ELEMENT PRESSURE option instead of using wind load generation for those panels. What influence do finite elements have on wind load generation? The presence or absence of elements. not perpendicular to X or Z axes? The feature works best when the panels are parallel to one of the global planes. A region which is curvilinear in shape cannot be handled by the program. Wind load generation is possible only with panels surrounded by members as described above. If the panels are already defined using plate elements.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 4 Question : If I have wind speeds from different directions acting on a tower having (round shaped) discs fitted to it. along or perpendicular to the direction of wind has no effect on wind load generation. The program does have some capability for generating loads on inclined planes too.STAAD. However. other load generation methods like the "ELEMENT LOAD JOINTS" option may be used.. viz. if the user finds the results unsatisfactory. What if the windward face of the structure is inclined to the X and Z axes.

Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 5 Question : I have three questions. WIND LOAD WIND LOAD WIND LOAD WIND LOAD +X -X +X -X +f +f -f +f Answer : See the figure below for the meaning of the four commands.STAAD. 1) How can I tell STAAD that the load is acting on the LEEWARD side and not on the WINDWARD side of the building? 2) How do I specify that a load acts from east to west instead of west to east? 3) How do I specify a suction load instead of one which bears against the structure? The command syntax accommodates all of the above. along the X direction. Y Y X or Z X or Z X or Z Y +f Y -X or -Z +f X or Z X or Z X or Z -f -X or -Z -f . For example. the following four types are allowed.

STAAD. It is assumed that all members of the structure within the specified ranges are subjected to the pressure and hence. These are structures like electrical transmission towers. that exposed area is multiplied by the wind pressure and divided by the member length to arrive at a uniform distributed member load. the program first calculates the exposed surface area of individual members of the model. For those. .Pro 2004. in which the region between members is “open” allowing the wind to blow through. Then.Pro Training Manual – Advanced Topics 6 Question : Answer : Can STAAD perform wind load generation on open-lattice structures? In STAAD. The concept of members on the windward side shielding the members in the inside regions of the structure does not exist for open structures. they will all received the load. the wind load generation facility has been enhanced for generating loads on open structures too.

important

important

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd