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# Multivariable Calculus

Oliver Knill Math 21a, Fall 2011

These notes contain condensed ”two pages per lecture” notes with essential information only. Remaining space was ﬁlled with problems.

Harvard Multivariable Calculus Math 21a, Fall 2011

Math 21a: Multivariable calculus

Oliver Knill, Fall 2011

1: Geometry and Distance
A point in the plane has two coordinates P = (x, y ). A point in space is determined by three coordinates P = (x, y, z ). The signs of the coordinates deﬁne 4 quadrants in the plane and 8 octants in space. These regions by intersect at the origin O = (0, 0) or O = (0, 0, 0) and are separated by coordinate axes {y = 0 } and {x = 0 } or coordinate planes {x = 0 }, {y = 0 }, {z = 0 }.

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Describe the location of the points P = (1, 2, 3), Q = (0, 0, −5), R = (1, 2, −3) in words. Possible Answer: P = (1, 2, 3) is in the positive octant of space, where all coordinates are positive. The point R = (0, 0, −5) is on the negative z axis. The point S = (1, 2, −3) is below the xy -plane. When projected onto the xy -plane it is in the ﬁrst quadrant. Problem. Find the midpoint M of P = (1, 2, 5) and Q = (−3, 4, 7). Answer. The midpoint is obtained by taking the average of each coordinate M = (P + Q)/2 = (−1, 3, 6).

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The Euclidean distance between two points P = (x, y, z ) and Q = (a, b, c) in space is deﬁned as d(P, Q) = (x − a)2 + (y − b)2 + (z − c)2 .

This deﬁnition of Euclidean distance is motivated by the Pythagorean theorem.

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Find the distance d(P, Q) between the points P = (1, 2, 5) and Q = (−√ 3, 4, 7) and verify√ that 42 + 22 + 22 = √ 24. d(P, M ) + d(Q, M ) = d(√ P, Q). Answer: √ The distance is d(P, Q) = √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 The distance d(P, M ) is 2 + 1 + 1 = 6. The distance d(Q, M ) is 2 + 1 + 1 = 6. Indeed d(P, M ) + d(M, Q) = d(P, Q). A circle of radius r centered at P = (a, b) is the collection of points in the plane which have distance r from P . A sphere of radius ρ centered at P = (a, b, c) is the collection of points in space which have distance ρ from P . The equation of a sphere is (x−a)2 +(y −b)2 +(z −c)2 = ρ2 .

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Is the point (3, 4, 5) outside or inside the sphere (x − 2)2 + (y − 6)2 + (z − 2)2 = 16? Answer: √ The distance of the point to the center of the sphere is 1 + 4 + 9 which is smaller than 4 the radius of the sphere. The point is inside.

In an appendix to ”Geometry” of his ”Discours de la m´ ethode” which appeared in 1637, Ren´ e Descartes (1596-1650). More about Descartes in ”Descartes Secret Notebook” by Amir Aczel.

v3 are called the components of v. c) and Q = (x. y − b − z − c . u3 + v3 . where ∗ is scalar multiplication. associativity u + (v + w) = (u + v ) + w and r ∗ (s ∗ v ) = (r ∗ s) ∗ v as well as distributivity (r +s)v = v(r +s) and r (v +w ) = rv +r w. The addition and scalar multiplication of vectors satisfy the laws you know from arithmetic. . 4/5 and 3/13. The real numbers numbers p. r is deﬁned as v · w = ap + bq + cr . v2 . q. Proof: √ Lets write v = v in this proof. Cauchy (1800) to Hamilton (1850). b.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. The only vector of length 0 is the zero vector |0| = 0. λu2. z ) in space deﬁne a vector v = x − a. u3 + v1 . The angle between two nonzero vectors is deﬁned as the unique α ∈ [0. λu3 . Al Kashi (1400). q. where vectors have two components. 12 | = 13. 1 | 3. Q) from P to Q. u2 + v2 . Using the dot product one can express the length of v as |v | = v · v . π ] which satisﬁes v · w = |v| · |w| cos(α). v2 . c and w = p. The dot product determines distance and distance determines the dot product. The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality tells |v · w| ≤ |v||w|. The length |v| of a vector v = P Q is deﬁned as the distance d(P. We can assume |w | = 1 after scaling the equation. y. Fall 2011 2: Vectors and Dot product Two points P = (a. v3 = u1 + v1 . (v + w ) · (v + w ) = v · v + w · w + 2(v · w ) allows to solve for v · w : v · w = (| v + w | 2 − | v | 2 − | w | 2 )/ 2 . u2 . b. 12/13 . Proof. 1 The addition of two vectors is u + v = u1 . On the other hand. r in a vector v = v1 . Similar deﬁnitions hold in two dimensions. The dot product of two vectors v = a. u3 = λu1 . A vector of length 1 is called a unit vector. The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality allows us to deﬁne what an ”angle” is. u2. 4/13. 4. Examples of unit vectors are |i| = |j | = k | = 1 and 3/5. commutativity u + v = v + u. Vectors can be drawn everywhere in space but two vectors with the same components are considered equal. It points from P to Q and we write also v = P Q. 4 | = 5 and | 3. The diﬀerence u − v can best be seen as the addition of u and (−1) · v. Now plug in a = v · w into the equation 0 ≤ (v − aw ) · (v − aw ) to get 0 ≤ (v − (v · w )w ) · (v − (v · w )w ) = |v |2 +(v · w )2 − 2(v · w )2 = |v |2 − (v · w )2 which means (v · w )2 ≤ |v |2. The scalar multiple λu = λ u1 . 1 We cover 2300 years of math from Pythagoras (500 BC).

The scalar projection v is plus or minus |w| the length of the projection of v onto w. The triangle inequality tells |u + v | ≤ |u| + |v | Proof: |u + v |2 = (u + v ) · (u + v ) = u2 + v 2 +2u · v ≤ u2 + v 2 +2|u · v | ≤ u2 + v 2 +2|u|·|v | = (|u| + |v |)2 . Is the angle between 1. w = AC . 3. 17.Al Kashi’s theorem: A triangle ABC with side lengths a. w which are perpendicular. Answer. 0 . The vector b = v − P (v) is a vector orthogonal to w . For example. b. not deduced. Find a vector which is in the plane deﬁned by v and w and which bisects the angle between these two vectors. We have just proven Pythagoras and AlKashi. v = 2. Given v = 2. Deﬁne v = AB. 0 . The dot product is positive if v and w form an acute angle. Answer: w(F · w/|w|2 ) = 5/2. the force which accelerates or slows down the car. 3 is orthogonal to w = −3. Given two vectors v. negative if that angle is obtuse. 1. Cute! 4 5 6 7 2 Short QED. 1 is applied to a car which drives in the direction of the vector w = 1. 1 onto w = 1. The absolute value of the dot product is the length of the projection. 0 . The zero vector 0 is orthogonal to any vector. −1. 1. 2. −1/2. 2. 5/2. 0 . 2 . Proof. How can we visualize the dot product? Answer: Diﬃcult task but lets try. Pythagoras theorem: if v and w are orthogonal. Under which condition is v+w perpendicular to v − w? Answer: Find the dot product of v + w with v − w and set it zero. 0 . 2 2 3 Find the projection of v = 0. Distance and angle were deﬁned. 10 /15. Two vectors are called orthogonal or perpendicular if v · w = 0. then |v − w |2 = |v |2 + |w |2 . 4. Proof: (v − w) · (v − w ) = v · v + w · w + 2v · w = v · v + w · w. 3 and −15. −1. A wind force F = 2. c and angle α opposite to c satisﬁes a2 + b2 = c2 + 2ab cos(α). ·w w is called the projection of v The vector P(v ) = |v w |2 ·w onto w . Because c2 = |v − w|2 = (v − w ) · (v − w) = |v |2 + |w|2 − 2v · w . 2 and w = 3. . We know v · w = |v| · |w| cos(α) so that c2 = |v|2 + |w|2 − 2|v | · |w| cos(α) = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos(α). Normalize the two vectors to make them unit vectors then add them to get 13. Find the projection of F onto w. Quod erat demonstrandum. 4 acute or obtuse? Answer: the dot product is 1. Ansser: P(v ) = 1/2.

The cross product v × w is anti-commutative. w2 in the plane is the v1 v2 scalar v1 w2 − v2 w1 = det . w3 ) = (−vw. v2 . w3 in space is deﬁned as the vector v × w = v2 w3 − v3 w2 . v2 . w1 . v3 and w = w1 . 5. v × w). 1 . Now. 5 is a scalar and 5 − 8 = −3. Fall 2011 3: Cross product The cross product of two vectors v = v1 . −3 . |v · w| = |v||w| cos(α). v1 w2 − v2 w1 . v2 and w = w1 . 11. We verify for example that v · (v × w) = 0 and look at the deﬁnition. It contains intrinsically both dot and cross product because (0. 2 and 4. Proof: We verify the Lagrange’s identity |v × w|2 = |v|2 |w|2 − (v · w )2 by direct computation. 2. 1 is the vector −13. w1 w2 The cross product of two vectors v = v1 .        1 2 The cross product of 1. v3 w1 − v1 w3 . 3 and 4. The cross product of 1. v1 . The sin formula: |v × w | = |v||w| sin(α). v3 ) ∗ (0. Proof.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. The absolute value respectively length |v × w | deﬁnes the area of the parallelogram spanned by v and w. It was Hamilton who described in 1843 ﬁrst a multiplication ∗ of 4 vectors. w2. The resulting vector is orthogonal to both v and w. 1 To remember it we write the product as a ”determinant”:  k j i i j k         v3  +  v1 v2 v2 v3  −  v1   v1 v2 v3  =  w1 w2 w1 w3 w2 w3 w1 w2 w3 which is i(v2 w3 − v3 w2 ) − j (v1 w3 − v3 w1 ) + k (v1 w2 − v2 w1 ). w2 .

The deﬁnition shot ﬁts with our intuition: |w| sin(α) is the height of the parallelogram with base length |v|. The area does not change if we rotate the vectors around in space because both length and angle stay the same. Area also is linear in each of the vectors v and w . If we make v twice as long, then the area gets twice as large. v × w is zero exactly if v and w are parallel, that is if v = λw for some real λ. Proof. This follows immediately from the sin formula and the fact that sin(α) = 0 if α = 0 or α = π. The cross product can therefore be used to check whether two vectors are parallel or not. Note that v and −v are also considered parallel even so sometimes one calls this anti-parallel. The trigonometric sin-formula: if a, b, c are the side lengths of a triangle and α, β, γ are the angles opposite to a, b, c then a/ sin(α) = b/ sin(β ) = c/ sin(γ . Proof. The area of the triangle is ab sin(γ ) = bc sin(α) = ac sin(β ) Divide the ﬁrst equation by sin(γ ) sin(α) to get one identity. Divide the second equation by sin(α) sin(β ) to get the second identity.

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If v = a, 0, 0 and w = b cos(α), b sin(α), 0 , then v × w = 0, 0, ab sin(α) which has length |ab sin(α)|.

The scalar [u, v, w] = u · (v × w) is called the triple scalar product of u, v, w. The number |[u, v, w]| deﬁnes the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by u, v, w and the orientation of three vectors is the sign of [u, v, w]. These deﬁnitions ﬁt intuition: the value h = |u · n|/|n| is the height of the parallelepiped if n = (v × w) is a normal vector to the ground parallelogram of area A = |n| = |v × w|. The volume of the parallelepiped is hA = (u · n/|n|)|v × w | which simpliﬁes to u · n = |(u · (v × w)| which is indeed the absolute value of the triple scalar product. The vectors v, w and v × w form a right handed coordinate system. If the ﬁrst vector v is your thumb, the second vector w is the pointing ﬁnger then v × w is the third middle ﬁnger of the right hand.

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Problem: Find the volume of a cuboid of width a length b and height c. Answer. The cuboid is a parallelepiped spanned by a, 0, 0 0, b, 0 and 0, 0, c . The triple scalar product is abc. Problem Find the volume of the parallelepiped which has the vertices O = (1, 1, 0), P = (2, 3, 1), Q = (4, 3, 1), R = (1, 4, 1). Answer: We ﬁrst see that it is spanned by the vectors u = 1, 2, 1 , v = 3, 2, 1 , and w = 0, 3, 1 . We get v × w = −1, −3, 9 and u · (v × w ) = 2. The volume is 2. Problem: ﬁnd the equation ax + by + cz = d for the plane which contains the point P = (1, 2, 3) as well as the line which passes through Q = (3, 4, 4) and R = (1, 1, 2). To do so ﬁnd a vector n = a, b, c normal to the and noting (x − OP ) · n = 0. Answer: A normal vector n = 1, −2, 2 = a, b, c of the plane ax + by + cz = d is obtained as the cross product of P Q and RQ With d = n · OP = 1, −2, 2 · 1, 2, 3 = 3, we get the equation x − 2y + 2z = 3.

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Math 21a: Multivariable calculus

Oliver Knill, Fall 2011

4: Lines and Planes
A point P = (p, q, r ) and a vector v = a, b, c deﬁne the line L = { p, q, r + t a, b, c , t ∈ R } . The line is obtained by adding a multiple of the vector v to the vector OP = p, q, r . Every vector contained in the line is necessarily parallel to v . We think about the parameter t as ”time”. For t = 0, we are at P and for t = 1 we are at OP + v. If t is restricted to the parameter interval [s, u], then L = { p, q, r + t a, b, c , s ≤ t ≤ u } is a line segment connecting r (s) with r (u).

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Problem. Get the line through P = (1, 1, 2) and Q = (2, 4, 6). Solution. with v = P Q = 1, 3, 4 we get get L = { x, y, z = 1, 1, 2 + t 1, 3, 4 ; } which is r (t) = 1 + t, 1 + 3t, 2 + 4t . Since x, y, z = 1, 1, 2 + t 1, 3, 4 consists of three equations x = 1+2t, y = 1+3t, z = 2+4t we can solve each for t to get t = (x − 1)/2 = (y − 1)/3 = (z − 2)/4. The line r = OP + tv deﬁned by P = (p, q, r ) and vector v = a, b, c with nonzero a, b, c satisﬁes the symmetric equations x−p y−q z−r = = . a b c

Proof. Each of these expressions is equal to t. These symmetric equations have to be modiﬁed a bit one or two of the numbers a, b, c are zero. If a = 0, replace the ﬁrst equation with x = p, if b = 0 replace the second equation with y = q and if c = 0 replace third equation with z = r .

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Find the symmetric equations for the line through the two points P = (0, 1, 1) and Q = (2, 3, 4) Solution. ﬁrst ﬁrst form the parametric equations x, y, z = 0, 1, 1 + t 2, 2, 3 or x = 2t, y = 1 + 2t, z = 1 + 3t and solve for t to get x/2 = (y − 1)/2 = (z − 1)/3. Problem: Find the symmetric equation for the z axes. Answer: This is a situation where a = b = 0 and c = 1. The symmetric equations are simply x = 0, y = 0. If two of the numbers a, b, c are zero, we have a coordinate plane. If one of the numbers are zero, then the line is contained in a coordinate plane. A point P and two vectors v, w deﬁne a plane Σ = {OP + tv + sw, where t, s are real numbers }.

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An example is Σ = { x, y, z = 1, 1, 2 + t 2, 4, 6 + s 1, 0, −1 }. This is called the parametric description of a plane.

If a plane contains the two vectors v and w , then the vector n = v × w is orthogonal to both v and w . Because also the vector P Q = OQ − OP is perpendicular to n, we have (Q − P ) · n = 0. With Q = (x0 , y0 , z0 ), P = (x, y, z ), and n = a, b, c , this means ax + by + cz = ax0 by0 + cz0 = d. The plane is therefore described by a single equation ax + by + cz = d. We have just shown The equation of the plane x = x0 + tv + sw ax + by + cz = d , where a, b, c = v × w and d is obtained by plugging in x0 .

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Problem: Find the equation of a plane which contains the three points P = (−1, −1, 1), Q = (0, 1, 1), R = (1, 1, 3). Answer: The plane contains the two vectors v = 1, 2, 0 and w = 2, 2, 2 . We have n = 4, −2, −2 and the equation is 4x − 2y − 2z = d. The constant d is obtained by plugging in the coordinates of a point to the left. In our case, it is 4x − 2y − 2z = −4. Problem: Find the angle between the planes x + y = −1 and x√ + y + z = 2. Answer: ﬁnd the angle between n = 1, 1, 0 and m = 1, 1, 1 . It is arccos(2/ 6).

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Finally, lets look at some distance functions.
|P Q·n| . |n|

The distance between P and Σ : n · x = d containing Q is d(P, Σ) = Proof. Project P Q onto n. The distance between P and the line L is d(P, L) =
|(P Q)×u| . | u|

Proof: the area of the parallelogram spanned by P Q and u divided by the base length |u|. The lines L : r (t) = Q + tu, M : s(t) = P + tv have distance d(L, M ) = Proof. Project P Q onto n = u × v. The distance between two planes n · x = d and n · x = e is d(Σ, Π) =
|e−d| . |n| |(P Q)·(u×v )| . |u×v |

Proof: If P is on the ﬁrst and Q on the second plane, the distance is the scalar projection of P Q onto n. Note that P Q · n = d − e.

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A regular tetrahedron has vertices at points P1 = √ the √ √ (0, 0, 3), P2 =√ (0, 8, −1), P3 = (− 6, − 2, −1) and √ P4 = ( 6, − 2, −1). Find the distance between two edges which do not intersect.

we can not ﬁnd explicit expressions for the con2 2 tour curves (x2 − y 2 )e−x −y = c. The collection of all contour curves {f (x. The graph of f (x. z ) = c are not graphs. y ) is a rule which assigns to two numbers x. The set f (x. 0) and (1. 1]. We can visualize it by contour surfaces g (x. 1 The graph of f (x. z ) = z − x2 − y 2 = 0. the function f (x. 3 For f (x. y a third number f (x. y ) = x2 y +2x assigns to (3. z ) assigns to three variables x. y. the level surface g = 0 which is the graph z = f (x. It is helpful to look at the traces. the set x2 − y 2 = 0 is the union of the lines x = y and x = −y . y ) is the surface {(x. y ). for f (x. 2) the number 32 2 + 6 = 24. y ) of a function of two variables. where c is constant. but we can draw the curves with the computer: 2 2 A function of three variables g (x. Most surfaces g (x. The range is the interval [0. y. For example. For example. y. 4 For g (x. y. y ) ∈ D }. y. the range is {f (x. −1). . 0). y ) = c } is called the contour map of f . y ) = x2 + y 2 which is a paraboloid. The curve x2 − y 2 = 1 is made of two hyperbola with with their ”noses” at the point (−1. y )) | (x. for g (x. Fall 2011 Lecture 5: Functions A function of two variables f (x. z ) = c. the level curves f = c are ellipses if c > 0. y. 2 For f (x. y ) = (x2 − y 2 )e−x −y .Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. f (x. z ) = z − f (x. For example. z a real number g (x. The domain D of a function is set of points where f is deﬁned. y ) | (x. y. we have the graph z = x2 + y 2 of the function f (x. y ) ∈ D } in space Graphs allow to visualize functions. y ). the intersections of the surfaces with the coordinate planes x = 0. 1) and (0. The curve x2 − y 2 = −1 consists of two hyperbola with their noses at (0. y. y ) = 1 − (x2 + y 2 ) on the domain D = {x2 + y 2 < 1 } is a half sphere. y ) = 4x2 + 3y 2. y ) = c = const is called a contour curve or level curve of f . z ). y ) = x2 − y 2 . y = 0 or z = 0.

x. y.5 If f (x. Sphere Paraboloid Plane x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 One sheeted Hyperboloid x2 + y 2 − c = z Cylinder ax + by + cz = d Two sheeted Hyperboloid x2 + y 2 − z 2 = 1 Ellipsoid x2 + y 2 = r 2 Hyperbolic paraboloid x2 + y 2 − z 2 = −1 Elliptic hyperboloid x2 /a2 + y 2/b2 + z 2 /c2 = 1 x2 − y 2 + z = 1 x2 /a2 + y 2/b2 − z 2 /c2 = 1 . x) is quadratic in x. then {f = c} is a quadric. z ) is a polynomial and f (x.

It tells also how fast and in which direction we trace the curve. The functions x(t). y (t) = f (t). The parametrization contains more information about the curve then the curve. for f (x) = x2 + 1. the end point of this vector moves along a curve. t sin(t). sin(17t) we have an example of an epicycle. t traces a helix with increasing radius. z (t) = −t it is traced in the opposite direction. . With r (t) = cos(t). sin(5t) deﬁnes a Lissajous curve example. sin(t) + 0. As t varies. It was used in the Ptolemaic geocentric system which predated the Copernican system still using circular orbits and then the modern Keplerian system. The image of r is a parametrized curve in space. If x(t) = t. Fall 2011 Lecture 6: Curves A parametrization of a planar curve is a map r (t) = x(t). The parametrization of a space curve is r(t) = x(t). y (t). The space curve r (t) = t cos(t). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The parametrization r (t) = 1 + 3 cos(t). y (t) = sin(t). we have a vector x(t). With x(t) = cos(−t). where planets move on ellipses and which can be derived from Newton’s laws. If x(t) = cos(2t). y (t) = sin(−t). For a ﬁxed t. z (t) = 2t is the same curve as before but the parameterization has changed. y (t) = sin(2t). y (t) from a parameter interval R = [a. z (t) . 3 sin(t) is a circle of radius 3 centered at (1. y (t) are called coordinate functions. f (t) traces the graph of the function f (x). the curve r(t) = t. With x(t) = 2 cos(t). then r(t) follows an ellipse x(t)2 /4 + y (t)2 = 1.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. y (t). r t We always think of the parameter t as time. z (t) in space.1 cos(17t. 0) r (t) = cos(3t). b] to the plane. The image of the parametrization is called a parametrized curve in the plane. For example. where a circle turns on a circle. the graph is a parabola.

we can ﬁgure out r(t) by integration r (t) = r (0)+ 0t r ′ (s) ds. h + 2t − 10t2 /2 . 1000t. y (t). 10 8 6 4 2 50 100 150 200 250 2 .If r (t) = x(t). The free fall is the case when acceleration is constant. y ′(t). In particular. r ′ (0) = 0. if r ′′ (t) = 0. z (t) is a curve. Its length |r (t)| is called speed and v/|v| is called direction of motion. where R(t) = 0t v (s) ds and v(t) = 0t a(s) ds. then r (t) = 0. Assume we know the acceleration a(t) = r ′′ (t) at all times as well as initial velocity and position r ′ (0) and r(0). 2 . The process of diﬀerentiation of a curve can be reversed using the fundamental theorem of calculus. 0. The addition rule in one dimension (f + g )′ = f ′ + g ′. Then r (t) = r (0)+ tr ′ (0)+ R(t). ˙ z ˙ is ′ called the velocity at time t. z ′ (t) = x. h . ˙ y. If r ′ (t) and r (0) is known. 0. 1000. r(0) = 0. we have the single variable rule. then r (t) = r (0) + tr ′ (0) − F t2 /2. The third derivative r ′′′ is called the jerk. the scalar multiplication rule (cf )′ = cf ′ and the Leibniz rule (f g )′ = f ′ g + f g ′ and the chain rule (f (g ))′ = f ′ (g )g ′ generalize to vectorvalued functions because in each component. The vector r ′′ (t) is called the acceleration. If r ′′ (t) = F is constant. −10 . then r ′ (t) = x′ (t). Any vector parallel to r ′ (t) is called tangent to the curve at r(t).

The answer is 2πR. Fall 2011 7: Arc length and curvature If t ∈ [a. then L = b ′ a |r (t)| dt is called the arc length of the curve. ′ The helix r (t) = cos(t). Therefore. R sin(t) parameterized by 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π is 2π because the speed |r ′ (t)| is constant and equal to R. Find the arc length of r (t) = t2 /2. cos(t). 6t. √ x 1 + x dx = (1 + √ curve. We have |r ′(t)| = 2 + 2 cos(t). 2 + 2 cos2 (u) − 2 sin2 (u) 2du = π 0 4 cos2 (u) 2du = 8 The arc length of the catenary r(t) = t. sin3 (t) ? Answer: We have |r ′ (t)| = 3 sin2 (t) cos4 (t) + cos2 (t) sin4 (t) = (3/2)| sin(2t)|. cosh(t) . b] → r (t) is a curve with velocity r ′ (t) and speed |r ′ (t)|. What is the arc length of the curve r(t) = t. t3 from t = 1 to t = 3. t2 /2 for 1 ≤ t ≤ 2? Answer: Because r ′ (t) = 1. cos(t). we call it ”opportunity”. √ This cubic curve satisﬁes 2 3 2 y = x 8/9 and is an example of an elliptic x2 )3/2 /3. 1]. + t2 = | 1 + t| t 4 5 6 Find the arc length of the curve r (t) = 3t2 . t3 /3 for −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. The arc length of an epicycle r (t) = t + sin(t). cos(t) parameterized by 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π . we immediately have . where cosh(t) = (et + e−t )/2 is the hyperbolic cosine and t ∈ [−1. Because 1 1 2 3 the√ integral can be evaluated as −1 |x| 1 + x2 dx = 2 0 x 1 + x2 dx = 2(1 + x ) /2 /3|1 0 = 2(2 2 − 1)/3. Because a parameter change t = t(s) corresponds to a substitution in the integration which does not change the integral. A substitution t = 2u π 0 7 gives L = 0π 2 + 2 cos(2u) 2du = 4 0π | cos(u)| du = 8. log(t). we have r ′ (t) = 2 1+ 1 t2 and L = 12 1 + t dt = log(t) + t2 |2 1 = log(2) + 2 − 1/2. We have cosh2 (t)2 − sinh2 (t) = 1 . sin(t). so that L = 02π 2 + 2 cos(t) dt. Because the curve constructed in t such a way that the arc length can be computed. 02π (3/2) sin(2t) dt = 6. In space the length is L = b x′ (t)2 + y ′(t)2 + z ′ (t)2 dt. t . 1 = 2. What is the arc length of the curve r(t) = cos3 (t). 1 and constant ′ speed |r (t)| = − sin(t). 1/t.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. a 1 2 3 The arc length of the circle of radius R given by r(t) = R cos(t). where sinh(t) = (et − e−t )/2 is the hyperbolic sine. t has √ velocity r (t) = − sin(t).

which is the graph of a function f has the velocity r ′ (t) = (1. cos(t)) and speed 2t. sin(5t) leads to 02π 9 sin2 (3t) + 25 cos2 (5t) dt which needs to be evaluated numerically. then κ(t) = |T ′ (t)|. f ′ (t))/ 1 + f ′ (t)2 . It measures the rate of change of the unit tangent vector. The curvature if a curve at the point r (t) is deﬁned as κ(t) = |T ′ (t)| . then κ(t) = | sin(t)|/| 1 + cos2 (t) . We see that the s′ cancels in T ′ /r ′. while you ”feel” the acceleration. 2π ] has√the velocity r ′ (t) = √ 2t(− sin(t). sin(t2 ) on t = [0. |r ′ (t)| 3 3 the unit tangent vector. if the curve is parametrized by arc length. It is perpendicular to the curve. The length of the Lissajous ﬁgure r (t) = cos(3t). A useful formula for curvature is κ(t) = |r ′ (t) × r ′′ (t)| |r ′ (t)|3 . the curvature does not depend on the parameterization of the curve. N (t). B (t)) are unit vectors orthogonal to each other. If r(t) is a curve which has nonzero speed at t. You ”see” the curvature. 11 The curve r(t) = t. If we diﬀerentiate T (t) · T (t) = 1. we get T ′ (t) · T (t) = 0 and see that N (t) is perpendicular to T (t). If s(t) be an other parametrization. we have shown: The three vectors (T (t). We do not always have a closed formula for the arc length of a curve. then by the chain rule d/dtT ′ (s(t)) = T ′ (s(t))s′ (t) and d/dtr (s(t)) = r ′ (s(t))s′ (t). then we can deﬁne T (t) = T ′ (t) r ′ (t) . N (t) = |T ′ (t)| . The curvature does not depend on the parametrization. Because B is automatically normal to T and N . Deﬁne the unit tangent vector T (t) = r ′ (t)|/|r ′ (t)| unit tangent vector. meaning that the velocity vector r ′ (t) has length 1. Unlike the acceleration or the velocity. The plane spanned by T and N is called the osculating plane. The plane spanned by N and B is called the normal plane. A large curvature at a point means that the curve is strongly bent. for f (t) = sin(t). f ′ (t)) and the unit tangent vector T (t) = (1. The arc length is still 0 2π 2t dt = t2 |0 2π = 2π . f (t) . Especially. After some simpliﬁcation we get κ(t) = |T ′(t)|/|r ′ (t)| = |f ′′ (t)|/ 1 + f ′ (t)2 For example. 9 10 √ The circle parameterized by r(t) = cos(t2 ). the normal vector and B (t) = T (t)×N (t) the bi-normal vector. |r ′ (t)| The curvature is the length of the acceleration vector if r(t) traces the curve with constant speed 1.The arc length is independent of the parameterization of the curve. Proof.

r sin(t) we have exactly the relation r = t. y ) and (−x. The curve is a spiral. one can choose arctan(y/x) in (−π/2. Remember that for the curve r (t) = r cos(t). θ = arctg(y/x). z ) we speak of cylindrical coordinates. Fall 2011 8: Polar and spherical coordinates r y A point (x. y ) in the plane has the polar coordinates √ 2 r = x + y 2 . −y ) have the same θ value. To get the correct θ. where π/2 when (x. What is the curve r = |2 sin(θ)|? Solution Lets ignore the absolute value for a moment and look at r 2 = 2r sin(θ). We have the relation (x. 2 Here are some surfaces described in cylindrical coordinates: 3 4 5 6 r = 1 is a cylinder. r = |z | is a double cone θ = 0 is a half plane r = θ is a rolled sheet of paper . 1 Describe the curve r = θ in Cartesian coordinates. 1). the radius at θ and θ + π is the same and add the circle of radius 1 centered at (0. Solution A formal substitution gives √ 2 2 x + y = arctan(y/x) but we can do better. π/2]. z ) = (r cos(θ). y. A curve given in polar coordinates as r (θ) = f (θ) is called a polar curve. r sin(θ)). The points (x. Since we have the absolute value. Θ x The formula θ = arctg(y/x) deﬁnes the angle θ only up to an addition of π . y ) is on the positive y axes. If we represent points in space as (x.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. and add π on the left plane including the negative y axes. The curve is a circle of radius 1 centered at (0. −1). It can in Cartesian coordinates be described as r(t) = f (t) cos(t). f (t) sin(t) . This can be written as x2 + y 2 = 2y which is x2 + y 2 − 2y + 1 = 1. r sin(θ). y ) = (r cos(θ).

What is the equation for the surface x2 + y 2 − 5x = z 2 in cylindrical coordinates? r 2 − 5r cos(θ) = z 2 . y. y = ρ sin(θ) sin(φ). Spherical coordinates use the distance ρ to the origin as well as two angles θ and φ. . There are two important ﬁgures to see the connection. ρ sin(θ) sin(φ). φ). The relation is (x. ρ = | sin(3θ)| in spherical coordinates (ρ.7 r = 2 + sin(z ) is an example of a surface of revolution. y Φ Ρ x y r x = ρ cos(θ) sin(φ). θ. z = ρ cos(φ) rΘ x Here are some level surfaces described in spherical coordinates: 8 9 10 11 12 ρ = 1 is a sphere. ρ cos(φ)) . the surface φ = π/2 is a single cone ρ = φ is an apple shaped surface ρ = 2 + cos(3θ) sin(φ) is an example of a bumpy sphere. The distance to the z axes r = ρ sin(φ) and the height z = ρ cos(φ) can be read oﬀ by the left picture the rz -plane. The ﬁrst angle θ is the polar angle in polar coordinates of the xy coordinates and φ is the angle between the vector OP and the z -axis. y = r sin(θ) can be seen in the right picture the xy -plane. Match the surfaces with ρ = | sin(3φ)|. It helps to see this in the rz plane or the xy plane. the coordinates x = r cos(θ). z ) = (ρ cos(θ) sin(φ).

v ). for constant v . Planes. t) = OP + sv + tw Implicit: ax + by + cz = d. v ). The domain of the uv-map is called the parameter domain. z (u. the parametrization. A parametrization of a surface is a vector-valued function r (u. If the ﬁrst parameter u is kept constant. z (u. Keep in mind the following 4 important examples. Similarly. It can be explored with the help of a computer.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. These curves are called grid curves. v = P R. Fall 2011 9: Parametrized surfaces There is a second. v ). y (u. Parametric: r(s. . v ) are three functions of two variables. ﬁnd three points P. The world of parametric surfaces is intriguing. Q. where x(u. the map u → r (u. y (u. Implicit to Parametric: ﬁnd two vectors v. v ) = x(u. R on the surface and forming u = P Q. w normal to the vector n. then v → r (u. v ) traces a curve on the surface. fundamentally diﬀerent way to describe a surface. They cover a wide range of cases. v ). v ) . A parametrized surface is the image of the uv-map. Because two parameters u and v are involved. A computer draws surfaces using grid curves. Parametric to Implicit: ﬁnd the normal vector n = v × w . the map r from the plane to space is also called uv -map. v ) is a curve on the surface. For example.

r (s. Solution. t) = (3 − 3s − 3t. z ) = z 2 − 1 cos(θ). One solution is to solve for z and write it as a graph r (u. Implicit to parametric: again. v 5 sin(u). v. t) = OP + sQP + tRP . f (u. v . where u ∈ [0. √ 2 2 hyperboloid. Parametric to implicit: think about z = f (x. It looks a bit like a hedgehog. cos(v ) . Parametric to implicit: read oﬀ the function g (z ) the distance to the z -axis. 2 z 2 − 1 sin(θ). 4). v ) = u. z < 0. We can also deform a sphere r(θ. ρ cos(v ) . ρ sin(u) sin(v ). Solution. φ) = 2 sin(φ) cos(θ). Parametric to implicit: read oﬀ the radius and the center Implicit to parametric: ﬁnd the center (a. z . y ) = 0. the function g is the key link. We have r = v 5 = z 5 . b. Draw this in the rz -plane. z . In spherical coordinates. 1 + 3t). Solution. b. Implicit: (x − a)2 + (y − b)2 + (z − c)2 = ρ2 . It is a surface of revolution. 1 Describe the surface r (u. Solution. Parametrize the lower half of the ellipsoid x2 /4 + y 2/9 + z 2 /25 = 1. Deform this now to get r (θ. . g (v ) sin(u). Graphs: Parametric: r(u. 2π ] and v ∈ R. 7 − 5s − 4t. v ) = a. v ) = (g (v ) cos(u). Take r (s. 7. √ z) = z 2 − 1 cos(θ). where r = z − 1 √ is given by r (θ. v ) = 2 + sin(13u) + sin(17v )) cos(u) sin(v ). It is an example of a ”bumpy sphere”. The radius ρ is a function of the angles. v ) = v 5 cos(u). Find a parametrization for the plane which contains the three points P = (3.Spheres: Parametric: r (u. c) and the radius r possibly by completing the square. sin(u) sin(v ). 2 Parametrize the upper half of the hyperboloid x2 + y 2 /4 − The round √z = −1. 1). Solution. 2 3 4 5 Describe the surface r (u. v ) Implicit: z − f (x. v ) √ r 2 Implicit: x + y 2 = r = g (z ) can be written as x2 + y 2 = g (z )2 . c + ρ cos(u) sin(v ). z 2 − 1 sin(θ). y ) Implicit to parametric: use x and y as the parameterizations. 2. we have ρ = (2 + sin(13θ) + sin(17φ)). 1) and R = (0. You see that r is small the origin making the surface pointy like a needle at the tip. 3 sin(φ) sin(θ). − 25 − 25u2/4 − 25v 2/9 . 5 cos(φ) . 3. v.Q = (6. Surfaces of revolution: Parametric: (u. v ) = u.

The function f is continuous on R. 0).0 0.0 5 10 .5 0 0. 1 a) f (x.5 1. After deﬁning f (0. y ) → y − 1 for n → ∞. y ) = x4 − y 4 /(x2 + y 2 ) is continuous at (0. f (x. An example of a jump appears with f (x) = sin(x)/|x|. 0) = 0 we see that the function is continuous. You can divide out x2 + y 2 to see that the function is equivalent to x2 − y 2 away from (0.5 Jump f (x) = sin(x)/|x| 5 5 0. y ) it is discontinuous. 2 3 4 5 6 The prototypes in one dimensions are 1. f (x. Fall 2011 10: Continuity A function f (x. An example of a function discontinuous due to oscillations is h(x) = sin(1/x).5 1. Its graph is the devil’s comb. y ) = y + sin(x)/|x| is continuous away from x = 0. y ) → y + 1 and f (−1/n. where it is not deﬁned. It is built up from functions which are continuous using addition. multiplication or composition of functions which are all continuous everywhere. a pole g (x) = 1/x leads to a vertical asymptote and the function going to inﬁnity. y ) → f (a. There are three reasons.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. b). if f is continuous for every point (a.0 0. y ) = x2 + y 4 + xy + sin(y + sin sin sin sin(x)2 is continuous on the entire plane. y ) with domain R is is continuous at a point (a. y ) = sin(1/(x + y )) is continuous except on the line x + y = 0. f (x. b) whenever (x. f (1/n. or it can oscillate. why a function can be discontinuous: it can jump.0 10 5 Diverge g (x) = 1/x 1. y ) → (a. it can diverge to inﬁnity. f (x. b) ∈ R if f (x. 0). At every point (0. b) on R. y ) = 1/(x2 + y 2) is continuous everywhere except at the origin.

7 x +y ) Determine whether the function f (x.5 1. we have y = 0 and f = 0/x4 which can be continuously extended to x = 0 too. where one has a function of one variables. It is not continuous at 0. Use polar coordinates and write What about the function f (x. Solution. y ) = xy x 2 +y 2 2 2 3 2 r sin (θ)(cos(θ) + sin(θ)/r = r sin (θ)(cos(θ) + sin(θ) which shows that the function converges to 0 as r → 0. 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 8 9 10 11 √x +y ) continuous everywhere? Solution. Solution Use x 2 +y 2 2 2 polar coordinates to write this as sin(r )/r which is continuous at 0 (apply l’Hopital twice if you want to verify this).0 One can have mixtures of these phenomena like the function 3 sin(x)/|x| + sin(1/x).5 Oscillate h(x) = sin(1/x) 1. −y Is the function f (x.0 0.0 0. 2) Restrict the function to one dimensional curves and check continuity on that curve.0 0. y ) = x continuous at (0. y ) = x4 +y 2 function x4 /(2x4 ) = 1/(2x2 ). 0)? Solution Use polar coordinates to see x 2 +y 2 that this cos(2θ) and not continuous.5 0. then f (x.1.5 1. ax) = ax3 /(x4 + a2 x2 ) = ax/(x2 + a2 ) which is goes to zero for x → 0 as long as a = 0. If a = 0 however. y ) = sin( is continuous at (0. 2 x +y 2 2 2 . This example is a real shocker because it is continuous through each line through the origin: if y = ax. This function is continuous at 0 by Hˆ opital’s theorem.5 0. x y continuous. 0). y ) = sin( 2 2 to see that this is sin(r )/r . The value depends on the angle and arbitrarily close to 0 the function takes any value from −1 to 1.5 1. which jumps and also has an oscillatory problem at x = 0. Use polar coordinates Is the function f (x. Look on the line x2 = y to get the Is the function f (x. 4 1. +y ? Solution.0 0 2 4 There are two handy tools to discover a discontinuities: 1) Use polar coordinates with coordinate center at the point to analyze the function.0 0.

then fx (x. y + h) − (f (x + h. y ) − f (x. The example f (x. It is called partial derivative of f with respect to x. y )) hfy (x. 1 ∂x ∂y 1 For f (x. y ) is deﬁned as the derivative If f (x. 0) = x. fxy (0. y )]/h. If the classical derivatives fxy . y ) = f (x + h. y ) = f (x + h. 2 3 Find fxxxxxyxxxxx for f (x) = sin(x) + x6 y 10 cos(y ). y ) = (x3 − 3xy 2 )/(x2 + y 2) − 2y (x3 y − xy 3 )/(x2 + y 2 )2 . fy satisfy fxy = fyx . y ) = Clairaut’s theorem: fx (x. y ) of two variables. y ) − f (x. ∂x and fyx = ∂ ∂ f. y ). fxx = 12x2 − 12y 2. y ) = −y . . x3 y −xy 3 x 2 +y 2 contradicts fy (x. y ) − f (x. We extend the deﬁnition and say that a background Planck constant h is positive.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. y ) = −12x2 y + 4y 3. We established an identity which holds for all h > 0. but think. y ) = ∂ f (x. y + h) − f (x. Answer: Do not compute. h2 fyx (x. Proof: we look at the equations without taking limits ﬁrst. y ) h2 fxy (x. y ) is a function of two variables. If only the derivative with respect to one variable appears. An equation for an unknown function f (x. fyy = −12x2 + 12y 2 and see that fxx + fyy = 0. We also write fx (x. 1 ∂x f. y + h) − f (x + h. it is called an ordinary diﬀerential equation. y ) = f (x. y ). y ) − (f (x. fx (0. It is a ”quantum Clairaut” theorem. fy. y ) which involves partial derivatives with respect to at least two diﬀerent variables is called a partial diﬀerential equation. y ) involving partial derivatives. Josef Lagrange had used the term ”partial diﬀerences”. y ) = 4x3 − 12xy 2. The quantum Clairaut theorem holds for any functions f (x.x (0. fy (x. we have fx (x. 0) = 1. y + h) − f (x + h. y ) = (3x2 y − y 3)/(x2 + y 2) − 2x(x3 y − xy 3 )/(x2 + y 2 )2 . y )) No limits were taken. y ) = f (x + h. fyx are both continuous. ∂y f were introduced by Carl Gustav Jacobi. Not even continuity is needed. y ) = [f (x + h. Clairaut’s theorem If fxy and fyx are both continuous. the discrete derivatives fx . then ∂x of the function g (x) = f (x. Compare the two sides for ﬁxed h > 0: hfx (x. fy is called the gradient. y ). y + h) − f (x. For h = 0 we deﬁne fx as before. where y is considered a constant. The partial derivative with respect to y is deﬁned similarly. fy (x. The vector fx . then fxy = fyx . The continuity assumption for fxy is necessary. A function which satisﬁes this equation is also called harmonic. the limit h → 0 leads to the classical Clairaut’s theorem. 0) = −1. The equation fxx + fyy = 0 is an example of a partial diﬀerential equation for the unknown function f (x. y ) = x4 − 6x2 y 2 + y 4 . Fall 2011 11: Partial derivatives ∂ f (x.

x) = e−(x+t) 2 ft = fx is used to model transport in a wire. x) = ei(kx− 2m k t) solves the Schr¨ odinger equation. x) governs the motion of light or sound. x) 1 −x2 /(4t) √ e t describes diﬀusion of heat or spread of an episatisﬁes the heat equation. The function satisfy the advection equation.Here are some examples of partial diﬀerential equations.] . You should know the ﬁrst 4 well. The advection equation f (t. x) = sin(x − t) + sin(x + t) satisﬁes the wave equation. x) = fxx (t. 4 5 The wave equation ftt (t. [Here i2 = −1 is the imaginary i and h ¯ is the Planck constant h ¯ ∼ 10−34 Js. The function f (t. 2 i¯ h f 2m xx 2 The Schr¨ odinger equation ft = h ¯ is used to describe a quantum particle of mass Here are the graphs of the solutions of the equations. The function f (x. demic. x) = fxx (t. function f (t. The function f (t. x) = ft + 6f fx + fxxx = 0 a2 2 models water waves in a narrow channel. x) = 6 7 8 9 The Laplace equation fxx + fyy = 0 determines the shape of a membrane. cosh−2 ( a (x − a2 t)) satisﬁes the KdV equation. 2 2 The eiconal equation fx + fy = 1 is used to see the evolution of wave fronts in optics. The Burgers equation ft + f fx = fxx describes waves at the beach which break. √ 2 The function f (x. The √ 1 −x2 /(4t) e x t satisﬁes the Burgers equation. y ) = x + y 2 satisﬁes the eiconal equation. The function f (t. The heat equation ft (t. Can you match them with the PDE’s? m. x) = t √ 1 −x2 /(4t) 1+ t e 10 11 The KdV equation The function f (t. y ) = x3 − 3xy 2 is an example satisfying the Laplace equation.

1. b.01) = −π 0. yf (x. the linearization can be written as L(x) = f (x0 )+ ∇f (a) · (x − a). 1.01+3π = −0. y ) = f (x0 . Linearization can be used to estimate functions near a point. z0 ) = 5. then f (x0 . 2. y0 . y ) at (a. y ) = fx . b)(x − a) + fy (a. b) + fx (a.01) ∼ L(1+0. It is a relict from old times. 1) = π cos(π ). y0 )(y − y0 ). b) is the linear function L(x. y. ∇f (x. 1. Similarly. z ) = fx . c) is L(x. Fall 2011 14: Linearization The linear approximation of a function f (x) at a point a is the linear function L(x) = f (a) + f ′ (a)(x − a) . 2 3 Find the linear approximation to f (x. y. we have L(x. ∇f (1. Please avoid the notion of diﬀerentials. y. Knowing the linear approximations in both the x and y variables. y Lx y f x The graph of the function L is close to the graph of f near a. 1. Solution. 1+0. c) + fx (a. The linear approximation of a function f (x. Since f (1. 24. y ) = sin(πxy 2) at the point (1. b. b. 1) = 2.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. x + z. y ) = f (x0 . y0 )(y − y0 ). 1). Solution: take (x0 . if x = x0 is ﬁxed y is the single variable. y ) = (πy 2 cos(πxy 2 ). z0 ) = (0. Using the gradient ∇f (x. y ). z ) = y + z. z ) = f (1. 1) equal to ∇f (1. we get to a one-dimensional situation. By keeping the second variable y = b is ﬁxed. b. c)(z − c) . We generalize this to higher dimensions: The linear approximation of f (x. b) = f (a. 1) = 3. z ) at (a. fy .The gradient 4 . −0. 2 · x − 1. z ) = ex yz . 25. 1).00942 .00943 = f (1+0. fy rsp.02) for f (x. z − 1 = 3 + 2(x − 1) + 2(y − 1) + 2(z − 1) = 2x + 2y + 2z − 3. where the only variable is x. In the previous example. c)(y − b) + fz (a. b)(y − b) .8. √ Estimate f (0. and ∇f (x. c)(x − a) + fy (a.01. y + x . 2π cos(π ) = −π. z ) = xy + yz + zx at the point (1. 2 . 1. y ) = f (a. z ) = f (a. fz . where f (x0 . y. y. 2π . 2yπ cos(πxy 2 )) which is at the point (1. b)+ fx (a. 1)? We have (fx (x. y0 . y.01. 2. y. y − 1. Now f (x. y0 )(x − x0 ) + fy (x0 . y0) + fx (x0 . b)(x − a) is the linear approximation. 1+0. we can get the general linear approximation by f (x.01.01 − 2π 0. b. 1 What is the linear approximation of the function f (x. y0)+ fy (x0 . 1) + 2.

y0 . ex z/(2 y ). If we replace t with 1/t = where t = ( √ ( 5 − 1)/2 we see the surface to the middle. y − y0 . At the point (x0 . y. z ) = 8. y0 . 24. 1 and forming ax + by = −4x + y = d. The surface is x + y = d for some constant d.10 = 5.8. 2) of this pair shaped surface? Solution. Find the tangent plane of the later surface at the point (1. y ) = y − x2 = 0 which passes through the point. 1) the gradient is the vector (5. 4 and so the equation of the plane 20x + 4y + 4z = 56.2. 25. z0 )(x − x0 . z ) = (3 + 5t)(−1 + x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 (−2 + t + x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 + 8(x2 − t4 y 2 )(−(t4 x2 ) + z 2 )(y 2 − t4 z 2 )(x4 − 2x2 y 2 + y 4 − 2x2 z 2 − 2y 2z 2 + z 4 ) . For t = 1. 0). 1/10. The linear approximation is L(x. 2.√ √ √ is ∇f (x. What is the equation for the tangent plane at the point P = (2. 5 · 0. y0 . z − 1) = 5x + y/10+5z − 2.8. z0 ) = (0. 1. 0. y. 1/10. y. 0 . Solution: We ﬁnd the level curve of the linearization by computing the gradient ∇f (1. y. 1. z ) = x4 − x3 + y 2 + z 2 = 0 7 is called the piriform. 1. Solution: the tangent line is the level curve of the linearlization of L(x. z ) = (ex yz. 1. We compute the gradient a. 5 Find the tangent line to the graph of the function g (x) = x2 at the point (2.01. . 5)(x − 0. y. 2.02+ 0.1306.05 − 0. z − z0 ) = 5+(5.02) by 5+ 5. b. The Barth surface is deﬁned as the level surface f = 0 of f (x.01. we see to the right the surface f (x. 2). 24. By plugging in the point (1. b = ∇f (2. 1. We get a.01. 4) = −g ′ (2). 4).02 = 5+0. We can approximate f (0. where we have obtained the constant to the right by plugging in the point (x. −0. 6 The quartic surface f (x. 4. √ 5 + 1)/2 is a constant called the golden ratio. 1 = −4. y. The answer is −4x + y = −4 . 5). 1/10.5. z ) = f (x0 . very close to the estimate. y ) of f (x. 64. where d = −4 · 2 + 1 · 4 = −4. c = 20. 0) = 64.02) = 5. 0) we see that x + y = 2. y − 25. The actual value is f (0.13. ex y ). z0 ) + ∇f (x0 . z ) = (2.

y. Similarly. It can be proven by linearizing the functions f and g and verifying the chain rule in the linear case. We have sin′ = cos and cos′ = − sin and from cos2 (x) + sin2 (x) = 1. to ﬁnd derivatives. y (t))y ′(t) . fz (x.y (t+h))−f (x(t). d/dt sin(log(t)) = cos(log(t))/t. y ). z ). dt Now. z ). y (t)) in the limit h → 0 and holds for every h > 0. Here is the proof of the later. Therefore d/dx tan(arctan(x)) = 1/ cos2 (arctan(x)) tan′ (x) = x Now 1/ cos2 (x) = 1/(1 + tan2 (x) so that tan′ (x) = 1/(1 + x2 ).y (t)) h = f (x(t+h). z ) .y (t+h))−f (x(t). y. . 1 Derive using implicit diﬀerentiation the derivative d/dx arctan(x). The left hand side converges to dt ′ ′ the right hand side to fx (x(t).y (t+h))−f (x(t). To ﬁnd arccos′ (x). the identity f (x(t+h). y. write 1 = d/dx cos(arccos(x)) = − sin(arccos(x)) arccos′ (x) = √ √ − 1 − sin2 (arccos(x)) arccos′ (x) = 1 − x2 arccos′ (x) so that arccos′ (x) = −1/ 1 − x2 . Solution. y ) fx (x. y ) or ∇f (x. y (t)) = fx (x(t).y (t+h)) h + f (x(t). then t → f (r(t)) is a function of one variable. fy (x. then the single variable chain rule tells us that d f (g (t)) = f ′ (g (t))g ′(t) dt For example. y (t))x (t) + fy (x(t). y (t))y (t) using the single variable chain rule twice. z ) = If r(t) is curve and f is a function of several variables we can build a function t → f (r (t)) of one variable.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. when we diﬀerentiate f with respect to t and y is treated as a constant: f ( x(t+h) ) − f (x(t)) h = [f ( x(t) + (x(t+h)-x(t)) ) − f (x(t))] [x(t+h)-x(t)] · [x(t+h)-x(t)] h . follows 1 + tan2 (x) = 1/ cos2 (x). y. If r(t) is a parametrization of a curve in the plane and f is a function of two variables. Deﬁne the gradient ∇f (x. y (t))x′ (t) + fy (x(t). The chain rule is useful example. it is d f (x(t). dt Proof. When written out in two dimensions. The multivariable chain rule is d f (r (t)) = ∇f (r(t)) · r ′ (t) . fy (x.y (t)) h d f (x(t). Fall 2011 15: Chain rule If f and g are functions of one variable t. = fx (x.

Compute zx (x. The chain rule is universal: it implies single variable diﬀerentiation rules like the addition. we consider y a ﬁxed parameter and compute using the chain rule fx (x. Yes. Since the chain rule only refers to the derivatives of the functions which agree at the point. y = v (t). y ) = ax + by − c and if the curve r (t) = x0 + tu. x = u(t). x = u(t). 1. z (x. y. 1)/fz (2. Near a point where fz is not zero. y (t)) = const. How does the chain rule relate to other diﬀerentiation rules? Answer. z )/fz (x. r ′ (t) = − sin(t). which is a function of two variables. y ) = x + y. y = v (t). y ) = −fx (x. y ) at the point (x.Write H (t) = x(t+h)-x(t) in the ﬁrst part on the right hand side. we obtain Implicit diﬀerentation: y ′ = −fx /fy . Find the rate of change of the temperature ∇f (x. z ) = c deﬁnes a surface. Mechanical systems are determined by the energy function H (x. b) with r (t) = (u. y ) = x2 − y 3. y ′(x)) = fx + fy y ′ = 0. cos(t) = −2 cos(t) sin(t) − 3 sin2 (t) cos(t). z ) 3 4 The surface f (x. 2 We move on a circle r (t) = cos(t). To do so. 5 6 . z ) = (2. the chain rule follows from linearization. This leads to the following Implicit diﬀerentiation: zx (x. we can compute its derivative! Implicit diﬀerentiation works also in three variables. we do not know y (x). y (t) are called Hamilton equations: x′ (t) = Hy (x. y ) = −fx (2. y ) = 0. h H h As h → 0. y0 + tv parametrizes d d f (r(t)) = dt (a(x0 + tu) + b(y0 + tv )) = au + bv and this is the dot product a line. The ﬁrst variable x is the position and the second variable y is the momentum. f (x(t + h)) − f (x(t)) [f (x(t) + H ) − f (x(t))] x(t + h) − x(t) = · . Then dt ′ of ∇f = (a. 1) = −4/(2/9) = −18. y ). f (x. y. y. y ))1 + fz (x. From d/df (x. sin(t) on a table with temperature distribution f (x. From f (x. the surface can be described as a graph z = z (x. 1. as in one dimensions. Can one prove the chain rule from linearization and just verifying it for linear functions? Solution. y )zx (x. d/dt(x/y ) = fx u′ + fy v ′ = u′ /y − v ′ u/v 2. y (t) solving the system. cos(t) d/dtf (r(t)) = ∇T (r(t)) · r ′ (t) = 2 cos(t). y ). y. y (x)) = ∇f · (1. y. 1. We can compute the derivative zx without actually knowing the function z (x. y ). y ) = −fy (x. the chain rule is also true for general functions. y = v (t). y ) y ′ (t) = −Hx (x. d/dt(x + y ) = fx u′ + fy v ′ = u′ + v ′ . y ) = 0 one can express y as a function of x. If f is a linear function f (x. z ) = x2 + y 2/4 + z 2 /9 = 6 is an ellipsoid. y ) = x/y. y. we also have H → 0 and the ﬁrst part goes to f ′ (x(t)) and the second factor to x′ (t). y ) In a homework you verify that the energy of a Hamiltonian system is preserved: for every path r (t) = x(t). −3 sin(t)2 · − sin(t). E ven so. The equations of motion for the curve r (t) = x(t). we have H (x(t). 1). y ) = 2x. x = u(t). y. The equation f (x. y. z ) zy (x. v ). Solution: zx (x. product and quotient rule in one dimensions: f (x. y ) = xy. z )/fz (x. −3y 2 . d/dt(xy ) = fx u′ + fy v ′ = vu′ + uv ′. f (x.

then Dv T tells us at which rate the temperature changes for us. The directional derivative tells us how the function changes when we move in a given direction. y0 . y. If we move with velocity v on a hilly surface of height h(x. the gradient is perpendicular to the surface. y. If f is a function of several variables and v is a unit vector then Dv f = ∇f · v is called the directional derivative of f in the direction v. We can ﬁnd the constant d by plugging in a point and get 6x+3y +2z = 11. d f (r(t)) = 0. fy (x. fz (x. y ) = fx (x. 1. Because this is true for every curve. y0 . z ) = fx (x. y ). If d d v is a unit vector. then Dv h(x. The plane is 6x + 3y + 2z = d where d is a constant. The following theorem is important because it provides a crucial link between calculus and geometry. Gradient theorem: Gradients are orthogonal to level curves and level surfaces. The symbol ∇ is spelled ”Nabla” and named after an Egyptian harp. The gradient theorem is useful for example because it allows get tangent planes and tangent lines faster: The tangent plane through (x0 . 1). Assume for example that T (x.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. 3. z ) is ax+by +cz = d. where ∇f (x0 . y. then the chain rule tells us dt Dv f = dt f (x + tv ). y. b. z0 ) = a. y ) gives us the slope we drive on. By the chain Proof. If we move with velocity v through space. y. z ). 2z . y. Every curve r(t) on the level curve or level surface satisﬁes dt ′ rule. 2 . The statement in two dimensions is completely analog. . Fall 2011 16: Gradient The gradient ∇f (x. The name directional derivative is related to the fact that every unit vector gives a direction. 1. z ) = 6xy. And ∇f (1. z ). c and d is obtained by plugging in the point. ∇f (r (t)) is perpendicular to the tangent vector r (t). z ). z0 ) to a level surface of f (x. y. y. 1 Find the tangent plane to the surface 3x2 y + z 2 − 4 = 0 at the point (1. z ) in three dimensions is an important object. y ) or ∇f (x. 1) = 6. Solution: ∇f (x. fy (x. y ). z ) is the temperature at position (x. 3x2 .

where f increases most. ∇f · v = |∇f ||v|| cos(φ)| ≤ |∇f ||v|. go towards −v . Directional derivatives satisfy the same properties then any derivative: Dv (λf ) = λDv (f ). 8 . 1 / 5. where ∇f (x. where v = 1. the directional derivative is a generalization of the partial derivatives. 2) this is 2. b = 1/3. 4y . the direction v = ∇f /|∇f | is the direction. At a point where the gradient is not zero. Points (x. 1) = a. Solution: Let ∇f (1. y ). then Dv f = ∇f · v = fx . b . We will see later that points with ∇f = 0 are candidates for local maxima or minima of f . The chain rule told us that this is d/dtf (r(t)). if we walk with unit speed into that direction. 0 . where pressure is p(x. 5 √ √ √ Assume we√ know Dv f (1. It measures the rate of change of f . 2) and want to avoid a thunderstorm. a region of low pressure. Note that we do not know anything else about the function f . The slope in that direction is |∇f |. At the √ point (1. For v = 1. then the directional derivative is ∇f · ∇f /|∇f | = |∇f |. y ) = 0. But as with partial derivatives.2 3 If r (t) is a curve with velocity r ′ (t) and the speed is 1. y ) = 2x. it is a scalar. In which direction do you have to ﬂy so that the pressure decreases fastest? Solution: the pressure gradient is ∇p (x. Find the gradient of f . This means f increases. If you want to head into the direction where pressure is lower. if we move into the direction of the gradient. The directional derivative satisﬁes |Dv f | ≤ |∇f ||v| Proof. This allows us to get a = 7/3. 0. then Dr′ (t) f = ∇f (r(t)) · r ′ (t) is the temperature change. 0 are called critical points and help to understand the function f . . 4 / 17. y ) = x2 + 2y 2. If v = ∇f /|∇f |. 2 / 5 and w = 2. Dv (f + g ) = Dv (f ) + Dv (g ) and Dv (f g ) = Dv (f )g + f Dv (g ). 1) = 5/ 5. one measures at r(t). It is the direction of steepest ascent. We know a + 2b = 3 and 2a + b = 5. 1) = 3/ 5 and Dw f (1. Normalize to get the direction v = 1. 4 You are in an airship at (1.

π ). b). 1 1 2 Find the critical points of f (x. The gradient is ∇f (x. . y ) = y 2 /2 − g cos(x) is the energy of the pendulum. (0. A point (a. It is called the discriminant of the critical point.. we must have x = 0 and cos(y ) + 1 = 0 which means π + k 2π . where f or its derivative is not deﬁned. . −g sin(x)) = (0. y ) = sin(x2 + y ) + y . (0. then the critical point was undetermined and could be a maximum like for f (x) = −x4 . 0 . The gradient is ∇f (x. cos(x2 + y ) + 1 . Deﬁne D = 2 fxx fyy − fxy . This deﬁnition does not include points. 1). f (x. (1. Critical points are candidates for extrema because at critical points. f ′ (x) = 0. we consider points. This function has inﬁnitely many critical points.. . y ) = |x| + |y | is diﬀerentiable on the ﬁrst quadrant. . These points are angles for which the pendulum is at rest. We have ∇f = (y. 1 . (2π. y ) = 4(x3 − y ). y ) = x4 + y 4 − 4xy + 2. As in one dimensions. f ′′ (x) = 0. 0). We usually assume that functions are nice. Let f (x. 2y − 2y (x2 + y 2 ) e−x −y vanishes at (0. where the ”derivative” is zero. (0. Fall 2011 17: Extrema An important problem in multi-variable calculus is to extremize a function f (x. 0) but it is not in the domain. The function f (x. y ) if ∇f (a. (−1.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. y ) of two variables. The critical points are at . in order to look for maxima or minima. 0). . y ) = . all directional derivatives Dv f = ∇f · v are zero. b) is called a critical point of f (x. we needed f ′ (x) = 0. (−π. 3π ). f ′′ (x) < 0 for a local maximum. (π.. 0 for (x. −π ). The graph of f (x. . 2 2 3 4 5 In one dimension. For a critical points. 0). y ) = 2x cos(x2 + y ). −1). 0). . The function has a minimum at (0. The function f (x. b) = 0. 0) and on the circle x2 + y 2 = 1. We can not increase the value of f by moving into any direction. It does not have critical points there. y ) = (x2 + y 2)e−x −y looks like a volcano.. 4(y 3 − x) with critical points (0. The gradient ∇f = 2x − 2 2 2x(x2 + y 2 ). y ) be a function of two variables with a critical point (a. The variable g is a constant. 0).. where the gradient ∇f is deﬁned.. f ′′ (x) > 0 to have a local minimum.(0. If f ′ (x) = 0. or a minimum like for f (x) = x4 or a ﬂat inﬂection point like for f (x) = x3 .

b) is a critical point for f (x.(1. 0). . If D > 0 and fxx (a. y ). we need higher derivatives to determine the nature of the critical point. The Hessian is H (x. 1) we have D = 4. −1) we have D = −4 and so a saddle point. −1). 1). f (4/3. We have now also to look at the boundary y = −1 where the function is g (x) = f (x. −1) and 2x 0 (−1. fyx fyy Second derivative test. If D < 0 then (a. 0) and (0. a local minimum as well as 2 saddle points. −1) = 2x2 − x3 − 1. There are 4 critical points (1. and compare their values with maxima or minima at the boundary. y ) = x3 /3 − x − (y 3 /3 − y ) has a graph which looks like a ”napkin”. b) > 0 then (a. 6 The function f (x. the discriminant is −8 so that this is a saddle point. 1) we have D = −4 and so a saddle point. At (4/3. the discriminant is 8 and H11 = 4/3. With ∇f (x. 1). 4/3. Comparing f (4/3. determine all critical points in the interior the domain. 0). y ) = x2 − 1. y ) = . so that (4/3. We will see next time how to look for extrema on the boundary. Assume (a. The function has a local maximum. fxx = 2 and so a local minimum. To determine the maximum or minimum of f (x. For (−1. −2y ). b) < 0 then (a. 0) is a local maximum. y ) = 4x − 3x2 . fxx = −2 and so a local maximum. 0). y ) = 2x2 − x3 − y 2 on y ≥ −1. It has the gradient ∇f (x. and 4/3 is a local maximum on the line y = −1. 7 Find the maximum of f (x. 4 − 6x 0 the critical points are (4/3. b) is a local minimum. If D > 0 and fxx (a. −y 2 +1 . b) is a local maximum. b) is a saddle point. −1) shows that (4/3. For (1. For (−1. 0) is the global maximum. where 0 is a local minimum. The Hessian matrix which includes all partial derivatives is H = . 0 −2y For (1.Remark: it can be remembered better if knowing that it is the determinant of the Hessian matrix fxx fxy H= . 0). y ) on a domain. In the case D = 0. −1) we have D = 4. At 0 −2 (0.(−1. Since g ′ (x) = 0 at x = 0.

x6 + 3y 2 − 1 = 0. we obtain y = (1 − x6 )/3. 2y = λ6y. y ). 1 Minimize f (x. y ) = x2 + y 2 under the constraint g (x. ± 1/3) and (1. 4y = λ2y . 6y . y ) in the presence of a constraint g (x. The condition that ∇f is parallel to ∇g either means ∇f = λ∇g or ∇f = 0 or ∇g = 0. 2 . The Lagrange equations ∇f = λ∇g lead to the system 2x = λ6x5 . The directional derivative of f in the direction tangent to the level curve is zero if and only if the tangent vector to g is perpendicular to the gradient of f or if there is no tangent vector. y = 0 is the only solution. Fall 2011 18: Lagrange multipliers We aim to ﬁnd maxima and minima of a function f (x. The gradients are ∇f = 2x. If y = 0 then x = 1. we have the solutions (0. The variable λ is a Lagrange multiplier. Find the shortest distance from the origin to the curve x6 + 3y 2 = 1. y ) = x6 + 3y 2 = 1. y ) = λ∇g (x. 4 = λ2 again showing x = 1. y ) = x + y 2 = 1. So.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. just evaluate f on each of the points. 2y . λ are called Lagrange equations. The point x = 1. 0). Lagrange theorem: Extrema of f (x. A necessary condition for a critical point is that the gradients of f and g are parallel because otherwise the we can move along the curve g and increase f . Proof. We see that (0. ± 1/3) are the minima. ∇g = 6x5 . The system of equations ∇f (x. Solution: The Lagrange equations are 2x = λ. g (x. y ) on the curve g (x. Solution: Minimize the function f (x. We get λ = 1/3. If y = 0 we can divide the second equation by y and get 2x = λ. y ) = 0. x = x5 . (−1. y ) = 0 for the three unknowns x. From the constraint equation g = 1. To see which is the minimum. y ) = c are either solutions of the Lagrange equations or critical points of g . 0). so that either x = 0 or 1 or −1. y ) = x2 + 2y 2 under the constraint g (x. y. The case ∇f = 0 can be included in the Lagrange equation case with λ = 0.

The surface area is A(r. from which we get pi = e−(λ+1) . ∇g (x. . . . y = 0.. 2λy.3 Which cylindrical soda cans of height h and radius r has minimal surface for ﬁxed volume? Solution: The volume is V (r. 1 6 7 1 This example appears in a book of Rufus Bowen.. The entropy of p is deﬁned as f (p) = − 6 i=1 pi log(pi ) = −p1 log(p1 ) − p2 log(p2 ) − . g = c or points where ∇g = 0. y. 1). z ) = (2x. The minimum is the south pole (0. y ) = (2y. . p3 . you need to optimize f (x. .. The Gibbs solution is pk = exp(−Ek )/ i exp(−Ei ). z ) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1. 0). . pn ) = − i [pi log(pi ) − Ei pi ] if the energies Ei are ﬁxed. −1 − log(pn )). The Lagrange equations are −1 − log(pi ) = λ. y. + p6 = 1. h) = 2πrh + 2πr 2 . 5 Find the extrema of f (x. Solution: ∇f = (−1 − log(p1 ) − E1 . r = 2h = 1. This is a case where the minimum is a solution to ∇g (x. Solution: compute the gradients ∇f (x. . The ﬁrst equation gives yλ = 2. An unfair dice provides additional information and allows a cheating gambler or casino to gain proﬁt. . ∇g = (1.08. Maximal entropy means least information content. Putting that in the second one gives 2x + 4πy = 4x or 2πy = x.. y. 2x + 4πy ). Find this distribution in general if Ei are given. Nature minimizes the free energy f (p1 . On the curve g (x. 2) With g (x. 1). −1 − log(pn ) − En ). 4 Remarks. y ) = x2 − y 3 the function f (x. 2x + 4πy = λ2xy. p5 . The Lagrange equations ∇f = λ∇g have no solutions. Lecture Notes in Math. λ) = 0 where F (x. y ). 2λz ). . 1) Either of the two properties equated in the Lagrange theorem are equivalent to ∇f × ∇g = 0 in dimensions 2 or 3. . 0. . This means h = 0. . h) = hπr 2 = 1. 3) Either of the two properties equated in the Lagrange theorem are equivalent to ”∇g = λ∇f or f has a critical point”. The third equation ﬁnally reveals 2πy 3 = 1 or y = 1/(2π )1/3 . . p1 + . . The fair dice has maximal entropy. Solution: ∇f = (−1 − log(p1 ). x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1. A dice shows k eyes with probability pk . 4) Constrained optimization problems work also in higher dimensions. Introduce the vector (p1 . With x = hπ. x = 2π (2π )1/3 . 2z ) and solve (0. y ) = 2xy + 2πy 2 under the constrained g (x. y ) = 0.. The Lagrange equation are log(pi ) = −1 − λ − Ei . the Lagrange equations can also be written as ∇F (x. λ) = f (x. 470. 1978 . y ) = x obviously has a minimum (0. 0. The probability distribution pi satisfying i pi = 1 minimizing the free energy is called a Gibbs distribution. ∇g = (1. 2y.54. y ) = 0. y. y. y ) = xy 2 = 1. y ) − λg (x. where C = exp(−1 − λ). y ) = (y 2. − p6 log(p6 ). The proof is the same: Extrema of f (x) under the constraint g (x) = c are either solutions of the Lagrange equations ∇f = λ∇g. 0. 1). −1) the maximum the north pole (0. y = r . xy 2 = 1. The 4’th equation gives z = 1 or z = −1. The last equation 1 = i exp(−(λ +1)) = 6 exp(−(λ + 1)) ﬁxes λ = − log(1/6) − 1 so that pi = 1/6. 0. z ) = z on the sphere g (x. Calculate ∇f (x. . The case λ = 0 is excluded by the third equation 1 = 2λz so that the ﬁrst two equations 2λx = 0. y. . 2xy ). The task is to solve 2y = λy 2. p6 ) with p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 + p5 + p6 = 1. or pi = exp(−Ei )C . . . Assume that the probability that a physical or chemical system is in a state k is pk and that the energy of the state k is Ek . p2 . 1). 2λy = 0 give x = 0. z ) = (0. The constraint p1 + · · · + pn = 1 gives C ( i exp(−Ei )) = 1 so that C = 1/( i e−Ei ). ∇g (x. . p4 . Find the distribution p which maximizes entropy under the constrained g (p) = p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 + p5 + p6 = 1. . 1) = ∇f = λ∇g = (2λx..

y ) = 4x − 4 − 6x 0 3x2 .-2) (-1. 0) and (0. We have to solve both extrema problems with constraints and without constraints. b) a global minimum. This is equivalent that the domain is closed and bounded. b) is called a global maximum of f (x. 0). . y ) = (x2 − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 − 2 which is minimal when x2 = 1. 0). 0) is the global maximum. and 4/3 is a local maximum on the line y = −1. But it might answer some of your questions. 0) is a local maximum. Solution. 0). y ). y 2 = 1. Do you ﬁnd a global maximum or global minimum among them? Solution. Find all extrema of the function f (x. 0 . You can ignore the following Q&A safely. y ) = 0. This can be seen by restricting the function to the x-axis. f (4/3. 0) is a global maximum of the function f (x. ﬁnd them. 1 Does the function f (x. The discriminant is D = fxx fyy − fxy = 36xy and fxx = 6x. 0) = x3 − 3x + 20 which satisﬁes limx→±∞ g (x) = ±∞. ±2). y ) = x3 + y 3 − 3x − 12y + 20 on the plane and characterize them. 3y 2 − 12 = 0. For y = 0 the function is g (x) = f (x. Fall 2011 19: Global Extrema To determine the maximum or minimum of f (x. At (4/3. −1) shows that (4/3. The function has four global minima however. and compare their values with maxima or minima at the boundary. Find the maximum of f (x. b) for all (x. point (-1. if the region Y is compact meaning that for every sequence xn . where f (x. Solution: the function has no global maximum. y ). y ) = 1 − x2 − y 2. the critical points are (4/3. The critical points satisfy ∇f (x. yn we can pick a subsequence which converges in Y . The best way to see this is to note that f (x. Do global extrema always exist? Yes. With ∇f (x. 2) ( 1. we call (a. if f (x. y ) ≥ f (a. so that (4/3. -2) ( 1. −1) = 2x2 − x3 − 1. 0). the point (0. 0 −2 At (0. y ) on a domain. where 0 is a local minimum. ±1). 0 or 3x2 − 3. we determine all critical points in the interior the domain. the discriminant is −8 so that this is a saddle point. −2y ). We have now also to look at the boundary y = −1 where the function is g (x) = f (x. Since g ′ (x) = 0 at x = 0. y ) = 2x2 − x3 − y 2 on y ≥ −1. 2) D 72 -72 -72 72 fxx -6 -6 6 6 classiﬁcation maximum saddle saddle minimum value 38 6 34 2 2 3 There are no global maxima nor global minima because the function takes arbitrarily large and small values. y ) ≤ f (a. A point (a. b) for all (x. 1. There are 4 2 critical points (x. y ) = (±1. For example.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. Comparing f (4/3. y ) = x4 + y 4 − 2x2 − 2y 2 have a global maximum or a global minimum? If yes. the discriminant is 8 and H11 = 4/3. y ) = . They are located on the 4 points (±1. 0) = x4 − 2x2 is a function without maximum. Similarly. y ) if f (x. The Hessian is H (x. 4/3.

independent of the island. and with −1 if it is a saddle point. we could move along the curve and increase f . 0) = 0. In general also. If D > 0 then the sign of fyx fyy fxx is the same as the sign of the trace fxx + fyy which is coordinate independent too. 3. The point (0. 6) Is there a second derivative test for Lagrange? A second derivative test can be designed using second directional derivative in the direction of the tangent. one can form the second derivative matrix H and look at all the eigenvalues of H . 7) Does Lagrange also work with more constraints? With two constraints the constraint g = c. h(x. If D < 0. Extrema of f (x. g = c or solutions to ∇g = ∇h = 0. We can diﬀerentiate to get the critical points but also have to look at the cases x = 1 and x = −1. For a general function approximate by a quadratic one. 1 5) Can we avoid Lagrange by substitution? To extremize f (x. y ) = 0 we ﬁnd y = y (x) from the second equation and extremize the single variable problem f (x. 0). y ) under the constraint g (x. we have a local maximum. ∇f = λ∇g. y ) = (0. At critical points K = D . we just make a list of critical points and pick the maximum and minimum. 0) and the point (x. Then ax2 + 2bxy + cy 2 = a(x + a y )2 + (c − ba )y 2 = b a(A2 + DB 2 ) with A = (x + a y ). then f takes both negative and positive values near (0. h = d or solutions to ∇h = 0. Is there something cool about critical points? Yes. then c − b2 /a < 0 and the function has negative values for all (x. 0) and b is a quadratic function satisfying f (0. derivative test in higher dimensions? Yes. z ) = µ∇h.Bolzano’s extremal value theorem. B = b2 /a2 and discriminant D . 0). The dis2 fxx fxy . y ) is a local maximum. Why is the second derivative test true? Assume f (x. Every continuous function on a compact domain has a global maximum and a global minimum. y. y. . Label each critical point with a +1 if it is a maximum or minimum. y. Here is a formulation in three dimensions. z ) under the constraint g (x. 0) is a minimum. y ) be the height of an island. Assume there are only ﬁnitely many critical points and all of them have nonzero determinant. we can not do the substitution. In general eigenvalues have diﬀerent signs and we have a saddle point type. The number K = D/(1 + |∇f |2 )2 is called the Gaussian curvature of the surface. assume f (x. we have a local minimum. g = c. Why are critical points important? Critical points are relevant in physics because they represent conﬁgurations with lowest energy. z ) = d are either solutions of the Lagrange equations ∇f = λ∇g + µ∇h. If all eigenvalues are negative. The determinant is the product λ1 λ2 of the eigenvalues of H and the trace is the sum of the eigenvalues. y ) has the critical point (0. criminant D is a determinant det(H ) of the matrix H = 1 2 This follows from the Poincare-Hopf theorem. ∇f (x. They are natural. Curvature is remarkable quantity since it only depends on the intrinsic geometry of the surface and not on the way how the surface is embedded in space. y ) = (0. Many physical laws describe extrema. The gradient of f must now be in the plane spanned by the gradients of g and h because otherwise. Instead. z ) = c. y ) = y on x + y = 1 for example we need to extremize 1 − x . The Newton equations mr ′′ (t)/2 − ∇V (r (t)) = 0 describing a particle of mass m moving in a ﬁeld V along a path γ : t → r(t) are equivalent to the property that the path extremizes the are length b S (γ ) = a mr ′ (t)2 /2 − V (r (t)) dt among all paths. y (x)). y. where the actual minima and maxima occur. You see that if a = fxx > 0 and D > 0 then c − b2 /a > 0 and the function has positive values for all (x. 2. 8) Why do D and fxx appear in the second derivative test . h = d or solutions to ∇g = 0. The sum of all these numbers is 1. 4. This is the Theorema Egregia of Gauss. √ 2 2 2 To extremize f (x. if all eigenvalues are positive. h = d deﬁnes a curve. 2 10) Is there a 2. If a = fxx < 0 and D > 0. 9) What does D mean? The discriminant D is deﬁned also at points where we have no critical point.

) n n i ∈[a. The volume below the xy-plane is counted negatively. Fubini’s theorem allows to switch the order of integration over a rectangle.b] n ∈[c. Now perform the integral over y to get 1/4. y ) = 1. then the integral is the area of the region R. If f (x.d] n n holds for all functions. 1 If we integrate f (x. ) n n i j (n . y ) = xy over the unit square we can sum up the Riemann sum for ﬁxed y = j/n and get y/2. Now divide both sides by n2 and take the limit n → ∞. where L(n) is the number of lattice points (i/n. y ) | a ≤ x ≤ b. A type I region is of the form R = {(x. ) = n n i j f( .d] n j ∈[c.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. Fall 2011 20: Double integrals The integral R f (x. y ) dxdy is deﬁned as the limit of the Riemann sum 1 n2 i j f( . y ) dydx . The integral is the limit L(n)/n2 .b] i j ∈[a. c(x) ≤ y ≤ d(x) } . y ) dxdy as the signed volume of the solid below the graph of f and above the region R in the x − y plane. y ) dydx. An integral over such a region is called a type I integral b d x f dA = R a d(x) c(x) f (x. The integral R f (x. For every n the ”quantum Fubini identity” i j f( . This example shows how we can reduce double integrals to single variable integrals. j/n) inside R. c x a b . 2 3 Proof. if the b d d b function f is continuous: a c f (x. y ) dxdy = c a f (x. n )∈R when n → ∞.

.316. y ) = y 2 over the region bound by the xaxes. y ) = x2 over the region bounded above by sin(x3 ) and bounded below by the graph of − sin(x3 ) for 0 ≤ x ≤ π . c 4 Integrate f (x. y ) | c ≤ y ≤ d. An integral over such a region is called a type II integral d R a y b y f dA = b(y ) a(y ) c f (x. 2 0 2 2 . 0 ≤ y ≤ x. because we would have to compute 2 diﬀerent integrals as a type I integral. y ) dxdy . the lines y = x + 1 and y = 1 − x. = − cos(x3 )|π 0 3 3 5 Integrate f (x. It is called moment of inertia..d A type II region is of the form R = {(x. π 1/3 0 sin(x3 ) − sin(x3 ) x dydx = 2 2 π 1/3 0 sin(x3 )x2 dx This can be solved by substitution 4 2 1/3 = . The value of this integral has a physical meaning. The y bounds are x = y − 1 and x = 1 − y 1 0 1−y y −1 y 3 dx dy = 2 1 0 1 1 1 y 3(1 − y ) dy = 2( − ) = . 4 3 10 6 Let R be the triangle 1 ≥ x ≥ 0.. The type I integral 01 [ 0x e−x dy ] dx however can be solved: = 1 0 xe−x dx = − 2 e−x 1 (1 − e−1 ) | = = 0. a(y ) ≤ x ≤ b(y ) } . The problem is best solved as a type I integral. What is e−x dxdy ? 2 2 R The type II integral 01 [ y1 e−x dx]dy can not be solved 2 because e−x has no anti-derivative in terms of elemen2 tary functions.

5 1. This integral can be solved with the substitution x = R sin(u). Fall 2011 Lecture 21: Polar integration 1 The area of a disc of radius R is R −R √ R2 −x2 √ − R2 −x2 1 dydx = R −R √ 2 R2 − x2 dx .5 1. where θ(t) = t.0 0.0 1. 2 3 4 The polar region deﬁned by r ≤ | cos(3θ)| belongs to the class of roses r (t) = | cos(nt)| they are also called rhododenea.5 0.0 0.5 0. The polar curve r (θ) = 1 + sin(θ) is called a cardioid.0 0. 2.5 0.5 1.5 1. A polar region is a region bound by a simple closed curve given in polar coordinates as the curve (r (t).5 0.0 0. The polar curve r (θ) = | cos(2t)| is called a lemniscate. It encloses a ﬂower with two petals.0 1. It looks like a heart.0 .5 0.5 1. We will now see 2 how to do that better in polar coordinates. It looks like an inﬁnity sign. θ(t)).5 0.0 1. It is a special case of a limacon a polar curve of the form r (θ) = 1 + b sin(θ). r (t) sin(θ(t) . Using a double angle formula we get (1+cos(2u) 2 π/2 2 R −π/2 2 du = R π . In Cartesian coordinates the parametrization of the boundary curve is r (t) = r (t) cos(θ(t).0 1. These names reﬂect that polar regions model ﬂowers well. dx = R cos(u) π/2 −π/2 2 R2 − R2 sin2 (u)R cos(u) du = π/2 −π/2 2R2 cos2 (u) du .Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill.0 1. We are especially interested in regions which are bound by polar graphs.5 0.

333 . r sin(θ)) to a sector segment S in the (x. stars. θ) → (r cos(θ). y = r sin(θ). y > 0 }. 9 The Belgian Biologist Johan Gielis deﬁned in 1997 with the family of curves given in polar coordinates as | cos( mφ )|n1 | sin( mφ )|n2 −1/n3 4 4 + ) r (φ ) = ( a b This super-curve can produce a variety of shapes like circles. over the unit disc. (2003). square. 6 Why do we have to include the factor r . It has the area r dθdr . 1 . J. We have earlier computed area of the disc {x2 + y 2 ≤ R2 } using substitution. We have f (x. y ) = 1 {(θ. y ) | 1 < x2 + y 2 < 4. where the region is part of an annular region.338. r (θ)) | r (θ) ≤ | cos(3θ)| }. 2 8 √ Integrate f (x. triangle.To integrate in polar coordinates. y ) = y x2 + y 2 over the region R = {(x. American Journal of Botany. we evaluate the integral R f (x. 2 1 0 π r sin(θ)r r dθdr = 2 1 r3 π 0 sin(θ) dθdr = (24 − 14 ) 4 π 0 sin(θ) dθ = 15/2 For integration problems. when we move to polar coordinates? The reason is that a small rectangle R with dimensions dθdr in the (r. y ) dxdy = R f (r cos(θ). or if you see function with terms x2 + y 2 try to use polar coordinates x = r cos(θ). The super-curve generalizes the super-ellipse which had been discussed in 1818 by Lam´ e and helps to describe forms in biology. It can also be used to produce ”super-shapes”. 7 Integrate the function f (x. R 1 dxdy = 2π cos(3θ ) 0 0 r dr dθ = 2π 0 cos(3θ)2 dθ = π/2 . 1 ”Gielis. θ) plane is mapped by T : (r. y ) = x2 + x2 + xy . 90. r sin(θ)r drdθ 5 Integrate f (x. y ) dxdy = 0 0 (r + r cos(θ ) sin(θ ))r dθdr = 2π/4. y ) plane. y ) = f (r cos(θ). r sin(θ)) = r 2 + r 2 cos(θ) sin(θ) so that 1 2π 2 2 R f (x. A ’generic geometric transformation that uniﬁes a wide range of natural and abstract shapes’. It is more 2 elegant to do this integral in polar coordinates: 02π 0R r drdθ = 2πr 2/2|R 0 = πR .

the surface area is the area of G times |v × w |. v )). t) ∈ G. For a planar region r (s. The vector ru is tangent to the grid curve u → r (u. 1. 0 is part of the xy-plane. The 2 + f 2 . Fall 2011 Lecture 22: Surface area A surface r (u. v. −fv . The two vectors span a parallelogram with area |ru × rv |. 2 The map r (u. Proof. 3 For graphs (u. b]. the surface area is G 2 + f 2 dxdy . v ) and rv is tangent to v → r (u. f ′(v ) sin(u)) and ru × rv = (−f (v )f ′ (v ). 0. So. v ) = L cos(u) sin(v ). .Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. We compute ru × rv = L sin(v )r(u. v ) → u. 2π ] × [0. A small rectangle [u. f ′ (v ) cos(u). we have ru = (1. fv (u. −f (v ) sin(u). 2π ] × [a. f (v ) cos(u)). we have |ru × rv | = L2 sin(v ) The surface area is 4πL2 . 1) has the length 1 + fu v above a region G is G 2 + f 2 dudv . r + rv ] which has the area |ru (u. 1 + fx y 4 Lets take a surface of revolution r (u. cos(u). v ) parametrized on a parameter domain R has the surface area R |ru (u. |ru × rv | = L2 | sin(v )| and R 1 dS = 02π 0π L2 sin(v ) dvdu = 4πL2 For a sphere of radius L. v ) = v. π ] onto the sphere of radius L. v ). v ) . v ) = 2u. 6 and we see for example that the area of r(G) is 6 times the area of G. v ) × rv (u. L sin(u) sin(v ). 0. The parameter region G just gets stretched by a factor 2 in the x coordinate and by a factor 3 in the y coordinate. We have ru = (0. v )| dudv . 1 + fu v For a graph z = f (x. L cos(v ) maps the rectangle G = [0. The surface b area is |ru × rv | dudv = 2π a |f (v )| 1 + f ′ (v )2 dv . f (u. v + dv ] is mapped by r to a parallelogram spanned by [r. f (v ) sin(u)) = f (v )(−f ′ (v ). u + du] × [v. 3v. 1 The parametrized surface r (u. v )| dudv . f (v ) sin(u) on R = [0. ru × rv = 0. f (v ) cos(u). The area of the surface cross product ru × rv = (−fu . fu (u. v )) and rv = (0. r + ru ] and [r. sin(u)). v ). rv = (1. t) = P + sv + tw where (s. v ) × rv (u. y ) parametrized over G. f (v ) cos(u).

. 0 . v sin( u)) and the surface integral 03 02π |ru × rv | dudv √ √ is equal to 03 02π v 1 + 4v 2 dudv = 2π 03 v 1 + 4v 2 dv = π (373/2 − 1)/6. The calculation of |ru × rv |2 = 4 + 3v 2 /4 + 4v cos(u/2) + v 2 cos(u)/2 is straightforward but a bit tedious.. 1] is called a M¨ obius strip..413. π ] × [1. To do so. 2π ] × [−1. 7 The surface parametrized by r (u. Its volume is ∞ 2 1 πg (z ) dz = π . 2]. The integral over [0. v ) = (2+v cos(u/2)) cos(u). v ) = u cos(v ). We will compute in class the surface area. u sin(v ). We use polar coordinates in the yz -plane. (2+v cos(u/2)) sin(u). v ) → (v 2 . the surface area is 2π b a |f (z )| 1 + f ′ (z )2 dz . The paraboloid is parametrized by (u.For a surface of revolution r = f (z ) with a ≤ z ≤ b. 2π ] × [−1. 1] can only be evaluated numerically. we obtain a region S in the xy plane as the image. 6 Find the surface area of the part of the paraboloid x = y 2 + z 2 which is inside the cylinder y 2 + z 2 ≤ 9. Solution. But the only thing which has changed are the names of the variables. The factor |ru × rv | is equal to the radius u. the result is 25. Given a region G in the uv plane like the rectangle [0. In our example. where 1 ≤ z < ∞. What is its surface area? Solution. This is the area of the half annulus S . We could have used polar coordinates directly in the xy plane and compute 0π 12 r dr dθ = 3π . In this example we derive the distortion factor r in polar coordinates. we parametrize a region in the xy plane with r (u.. the surface area is π 2 0 1 u dudv = π (4 − 1) = 3π . v cos(u). 5 Gabriel’s trumpet is the surface of revolution where g (z ) = 1/z . v sin(u/2) 8 on G = [0.

then integrate the middle layer. 1] and f (x. y. If g (z ) is the double inb tegral along the two dimensional slice.y ) R [ g (x. . z ) along a line intersected with the body. then a [ R(z ) f (x. After completing the middle integral. Fall 2011 Lecture 24: Triple integrals If f (x. z ) dz ] dxdy . R under the graph of a function f (x. we have computed the integral on the plane z = const intersected with R. The washer method from single variable calculus reduces the problem directly to a one dimensional integral. y ) and above a region R.y ) f (x. It is the integral What we actually have computed is a triple integral f (x. y. 1 0 1 0 1 0 24x2 y 3z dz dy dx . y. 1 0 To compute the integral we start from the core 24x2 y 3 z dz = 12x3 y 3 . The integral is integrating up f (x. we ﬁx x and y . z ) dxdydz is deﬁned as the n → ∞ limit of the Riemann sum 1 n3 i j k f( . ) .j/n. n n n (i/n. z ) is a function of three variables and E is a solid region in space.y ) R 0 1 dzdxdy . z ) = 24x2 y 3 z . z ) dxdy ] dz . The new sandwich method reduces the problem to a two dimensional integration problem. y ) dA.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. y ) over a common two dimensional region R. y. Here is a simple example: 1 Assume E is the box [0. 2 An important special case of the sandwich method is the volume f (x. When we calculate the most inner integral. then E f (x. 1] × [0. y ) and h(x. The integral becomes h(x. 01 12x3 y 3 dy = 3x2 and ﬁnally and ﬁnally handle the outer layer: 01 3x2 dx =1. The washer method slices the solid along the z-axes. 1] × [0. y. triple integrals can be evaluated by iterated 1D integral computations.k/n)∈E As in two dimensions. . y. The sandwich method sees the solid sandwiched between the graphs of two functions g (x. The two important methods for triple integrals are the ”washer method” and the ”sandwich method”. The most outer integral sums up all these two dimensional sections.

The roof is the function z = x. z ) is deﬁned as R ρ(x. Solution: The sphere is sandwiched between the graphs of two functions. 4 The mass of a body with density ρ(x. Integrating this over θ can be done by integrating (1 + sin(x)3 ) sec2 (x) by parts using tan′ (x) = sec2 (x) leading to the anti √ derivative cos(x)+sec(x)+tan(x). and the planes x = 0. This is a method suitable 1 2 for single variable calculus because we get directly − 1 π (1 − z ) dz = 4π/3. Solution: look at 1/16’th of the body given in cylindrical coordinates 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/4. For bodies with constant density ρ the mass is ρV . y = 6. We have 0 0 1 − r 2 r drdθ = 4π/3. The polar integration problem 16 π/4 0 0 1 6 1 − r 2 cos2 (θ)r drdθ has an inner r -integral of (16/3)(1 − sin(θ)3 )/ cos2 (θ). Solution. Compute the mass of a body which is bounded by the parabolic cylinder z = 4 − x2 . . z > 0. We have to integrate R x dxdy . where V is the volume. Finding the volume of the solid region bound by the three cylinders x2 + y 2 = 1. The roof is √ 2 z = 1 − x because above the ”one eighth disc” R only the cylinder x2 + z 2 = 1 matters. x = z and z = 0 is called the hoof of Archimedes. y. It is historically signiﬁcant because it is one of the ﬁrst examples. With the washer method which is method. Find the volume. y. we slice along √ in this case also called disc 2 2 the z axes and get a disc of radius 1 − z with area π (1 − z ). z ) dV . Look from the situation from above and picture it in the x − y plane. z = 0 if the density of the body is 1. on which Archimedes probed his Riemann sum integration technique. It is the ﬂoor of the solid. x2 + z 2 = 1 and y 2 + z 2 = 1 is one of the most famous volume integration problems. If we use the sandwich method. r ≤ 1. we get √ V = √ 2 which gives a double integral 1 − x2 − y 2 dA which is of course best solved in polar √ R 2π 1 coordinates. R [ 1−x2 −y 2 − √ 1−x2 −y 2 1dz ]dA . −π/2 01 r 2 cos(θ) drdθ = 2/3. The result is 16 − 8 2. It appears in every calculus text book. y = 0. We got a double integral problems which is best done in π/2 polar coordinates. You see a half disc R.3 Find the volume of the unit sphere. Let R be the unit disc in the xy plane. Solution: 2 0 0 2 0 6 0 4−x2 dz dy dx = 2 0 0 6 (4 − x2 ) dydx = 6 (4 − x2 ) dx = 6(4x − x3 /3)|2 0 = 32 5 The solid region bound by x2 + y 2 = 1.

produces the same integration factor r as in polar coordinates. z ) dxdydz = R g (ρ. 2 The most inner integral 0π ρ2 sin(φ)dφ = −ρ2 cos(φ)|π 0 = 2ρ . z ) r drdθdz Remember also that spherical coordinates use ρ. ρdφ = ρ2 sin(φ)dθdφdρ. T (R) f (x. ρ cos(φ)) . y. The coordinate change transformation T (r. A surface of revolution can be described in cylindrical coordinates as r = g (z ). y.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. θ. the angle between the vector and the z axis. The moment of inertia of a body G with respect to an axis L is deﬁned as the 2 triple integral G r (x. Fall 2011 Lecture 25: Spherical integration Cylindrical coordinates are coordinates in space in which polar coordinates are chosen in the xy plane and the z-coordinate is left untouched. because φ does not appear: 02π 2ρ2 dφ = 4πρ2 . y. The ﬁnal integral is 0R 4πρ2 dρ = 4πR3 /3. θ. ρ sin(θ) sin(φ). T (R) f (x. z ) dxdydz = R g (r. θ. The integration factor can be seen by measuring the volume of a spherical wedge which is dρ. The coordinate change is T : (x. z ) dzdydx. z ) ρ2 sin(φ) dρdθdφ 1 A sphere of radius R has the volume R 0 0 2π 0 π ρ2 sin(φ) dφdθdρ . ρ sin(φ) dθ. z ) = (ρ cos(θ) sin(φ). z ). . z ) = R sin(φ) is the distance from the axis L. where r (x. the distance to the origin as well as two angles: θ the polar angle and φ. y. y. r sin(θ). z ) = (r cos(θ). The next layer is.

Solution: we use spherical coordinates to ﬁnd the center of mass 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2π 0 2π 2π x = y = z = 1 =0 V 0 π/6 1 ρ3 sin2 (φ) sin(θ) dφdθdρ = 0 V 0 π/6 1 2π ρ3 cos(φ) sin(φ) dφdθdρ = V 32V 0 π/6 ρ3 sin2 (φ) cos(θ) dφdθdρ 4 2 Find R z dV for the solid obtained by intersecting 2 2 {1 ≤ x + y + z 2 ≤ 4 } with the double cone {z 2 ≥ x2 + y 2}. 5 5 3 5 √ 3 The result for the double cone is 4π (31/5)(1 − 1/ 2 ) .51024 kcal. =( . √ the intersection of the unit sphere with the cone given in cylindrical coordinates as z = 3r . The angular velocity is ω = 2π/day = 2π/(86400s). In spherical coordinates. The rotational energy is 8 · 1037 kgm2 /(7464960000s2) ∼ 1029 J ∼ 2. Example: the moment of inertia of the earth is 8·1037 kgm2 . we have 2 1 0 2π 0 π/4 ρ4 cos2 (φ) sin(φ) dφdθdρ 25 15 − cos3 (φ)) π/4 31 − )2π ( |0 = 2π (1 − 2−3/2 ) . 3 Find the volume and the center of mass of a diamond. the solid R is given by 1 ≤ ρ ≤ 2 and 0 ≤ φ ≤ π/4. we work with the diamond shaped region R in {z > 0} and multiply the result at the end with 2. = (− cos(φ)+cos(φ)3 /3)|π 0 (L /5)(2π ) = · 3 5 15 If the sphere rotates with angular velocity ω . Solution: since the result for the double cone is twice the result for the single cone. then Iω 2 /2 is the kinetic energy of that sphere.For a sphere of radius R we obtain with respect to the z -axis: I= R 0 π 0 0 2π 0 π ρ2 sin2 (φ)ρ2 sin(φ) dφdθdρ R 0 2 =( 0 =( π sin3 (φ) dφ)( ρ4 dr )( R 0 2π 0 dθ) 2pi 0 sin(φ)(1 − cos2 (φ)) dφ)( ρ4 dr )( dθ) 8πR5 4 R5 5 · 2π = . With z = ρ cos(φ).

y ) a vector F (x. A vector ﬁeld in space is a map. y. y /((x + 1)2 + y 2)3/2 is the electric ﬁeld of positive and negative point charge. Q = 3x2 y + y + 2. which assigns to each point (x.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. Clairaut test: if Qx (x. x3 + x − 1 a gradient ﬁeld? Solution: the Clairot test shows Qx − Py = 0. y ) is not a gradient ﬁeld. y ) = P. If this does not hold at some point. z ) in space a vector F (x. then F (x. y ) = P (x. z ). we see more examples on how to construct the potential f from the gradient ﬁeld F . 1 Is the vector ﬁeld F (x. y. y ) . It is called dipole ﬁeld. Q(x. y ). which assigns to (x. We will see next week that the condition curl(F ) = Qx − Py = 0 is also necessary for F to be a gradient ﬁeld. z ). y ) is called a gradient ﬁeld. y ) = 2x + xy + x3 y + c(y ). We integrate the equation fx = P = 3x2 y + y + 2 and get f (x. z ) . . Q(x. Now take the derivative of this with respect to y to get x + x2 + c′ (y ) and compare with x3 + x − 1. y /((x − 1)2 + y 2)3/2 − x + 1. When is a vector ﬁeld a gradient ﬁeld? F (x. y ) = Py (x. Fall 2011 Lecture 26: Vector ﬁelds A vector ﬁeld in the plane is a map. then F (x. We see the solution x3 y + xy − y + 2x . y ) is not zero at some point. y ) = P (x. y. y ) − Py (x. R(x. y ). y. It is shown in the picture below: If f (x. y. For example F (x. Q(x. y ) implies Qx (x. In class. F is no gradient ﬁeld. z ) = ∇f (x. y. We see c′ (y ) = −1 and so c(y ) = −y + c. y ). y. y ) is a function of two variables. Gradient ﬁelds in space are of the form F (x. z ) = P (x. Q(x. y ) = x − 1. y ). y ) = P (x. z ). y ) = ∇f (x. y ) = ∇f (x.

x + y . y ). y ) = −y. y ) = y − x. An example is the harmonic oscillator H (x. F (x. y ) = −y − x. y ) = xy. y ) = y. then Hy (x. Newton’s law mr ′′ = F relates the acceleration r ′′ of a body with the force F acting at the point. Q(x. The ﬂow lines of a Hamiltonian vector ﬁelds are located on the level curves of H (as you have shown in th homework with the chain rule). Is the vector ﬁeld F (x. Vector ﬁelds are important in diﬀerential equations. so a pair (x. y )) = (y. Q(x. F (x. F (x. y ) = x2 + y 2. Its vector ﬁeld (Hy (x. y ). x + y . y ) = − cos(x) + sin(y ) + xy . Is the vector ﬁeld F (x. if x(t) is the position of a mass point in [−1. y ). Can you spot the following vector ﬁelds in the pictures? F (x. −Hx (x. describes the system so that nature knows what the future evolution of the system has to be given that data. y ). −Hx (x. y ) = sin(x) + y. Of course y is the velocity of the mass point. For example. y ) = P (x. the function is f (x. 0 . then x′ (t) = y (t) and y ′(t) = −x(t). Motivation comes also from mechanics: 3 A class of vector ﬁelds important in mechanics are Hamiltonian ﬁelds: If H (x. y ) = P (x. thought of as an initial condition. y ) is a function of two variables. Which ones are conservative? 4 5 6 . cos(y ) + x a gradient ﬁeld? Yes. y ) = xy. 1] attached at two springs and the mass is m = 2. y ) is called a Hamiltonian vector ﬁeld. then the point experiences a force (−x + (−x)) = −2x so that mx′′ = 2x or x′′ (t) = −x(t). x2 a gradient ﬁeld? No. x . y ). −x). 2xy 2 a gradient ﬁeld? Solution: No: Qx − Py = 2y 2 − x is not zero. If we introduce y (t) = x′ (t) of t.2 Is the vector ﬁeld F (x.

the ﬂy experiences at the point r (t) at time t. y. Fall 2011 Lecture 27: Fundamental theorem of line integrals If F is a vector ﬁeld in the plane or in space and C : t → r (t) is a curve deﬁned on the interval [a. z ) be the temperature distribution in a room and let r(t) the path of a ﬂy in the room. 1 Let C : t → r (t) = cos(t). y (t) . The line integral is π 0 π 2 F (r (t)) · r ′ (t) dt = 0 2 4 0 π cos3 (t) sin(t). Solution: We have I = 02π F (r(t)) · r ′ (t) dt = 02π − sin(t). z ) is a force ﬁeld. 0 · −2 sin(t) cos(t). sin(t) be a circle parametrized by t ∈ [0. z ) is an electric ﬁeld. The following theorem generalizes the fundamental theorem of calculus to higher dimensions: Fundamental theorem of line integrals: If F = ∇f . In elecb trodynamics. then f (r(t)) is the temperature.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. It says that ”work” is equal to ”potential energy gain”. if F is a gradient ﬁeld. cos(t) dt = 2π 2 2 0 sin (t) + cos (t) dt = 2π Let r(t) be a curve given in polar coordinates as r (t) = cos(t). The line-integral of the temperature gradient ∇f along the path of the ﬂy coincides with the temperature diﬀerence between the end point and initial point. cos(t) sin(t) . y ) = −xy. y ) = −y. the line integral is the potential diﬀerence between the end points r (b) and r (a). In physics. then the line integral a F (r (t)) · r ′ (t) dt gives the electric potential. The velocity vector is then r ′ (t) = −2 sin(t) cos(t). if F (x. . y. b] then b a F (r (t)) · r ′ (t) dt is called the line integral of F along the curve C . − sin2 (t) + cos2 (t) dt = −2 sin (t) cos (t) dt = −2(t/16 + sin(2t)/64 − sin(4t)/64 − sin(6t)/192)|π 0 = −π/8 . φ(t) = t deﬁned on [0. cos(t) · − sin(t). then b a F (r(t)) · r ′ (t) dt = f (r(b)) − f (r (a)) . Calculate the line integral I = C F (r ) · dr. 0 . the curve is r (t) = cos2 (t). if F (x. Let F be the vector ﬁeld F (x. then b F (r(t)) · r ′ (t) is called power and the line integral a F (r(t)) · r ′ (t) dt is called work. y. The d change of temperature for the ﬂy is dt f (r(t)). In other words. Calculate the line integral C F · dr. Solution: In Cartesian coordinates. x . π ]. 2π ] and let F (x. The short-hand notation C F · dr is also used. 3 Let f (x. − sin2 (t) + cos2 (t)) = (x(t).

. y ) implies Py (x. y ) = P. When is a vector ﬁeld a gradient ﬁeld? F (x. if the region satisﬁes a certain property. The potential function is f (x. The proof of the fundamental theorem uses the chain rule in the second equality and the fundamental theorem of calculus in the third equality of the following identities: b a F (r(t)) · r ′ (t) dt = b a ∇f (r(t)) · r ′ (t) dt = b a d f (r(t)) dt = f (r (b)) − f (r(a)) . 0). y ) = x2 y 2 + x3 . y ) = g (x. 6 Let F (x. The curl of F is zero except at (0. y ) = 2xy 2 + 3x2 . y ) = arctan(y/x) Let F (x. 2yx2 . where it is not deﬁned. Partial diﬀerentiation with respect to x gives fx (x. the line integral γ F dr. F = P. Q = x2− +y 2 x 2 +y 2 has the property that fx = (−y/x2 )/(1 + y 2/x2 ) = P. y ) dt + h(y ) and fy (x. Q . If this does not hold at some point. In some sense. y ). fy = (1/x)/(1 + y 2/x2 ) = Q. Q is no gradient ﬁeld. y ) = Qx (x. the line-integral along any closed curve is zero. y ). Solution: The potential function f (x. It is a gradient ﬁeld because f (x. all the ”curl” is concentrated in that point. y ) = 2xy 2 + h′ (x) which should be 2xy 2 +3x2 so that we can take h(x) = x3 . · − sin(t). Integrating the second equation gives f (x. Find g. then |d/dtf (r(t))| = |∇f ||r ′ (t)| and r ′ (t) is parallel to ∇f (r(t)). h from f (x.4 5 If r (t) is parallel to the level curve of f . y . Find a potential f of F = P. where γ is the unit circle is 2π 0 7 cos(t) − sin(t) . y ) = x2 y 2 + h(x). x . y ) = 2xy 2 + 3x2 and fy (x. y ) satisﬁes fx (x. If r (t) is orthogonal to the level curve. This is called the component test or Clairaut test. y ) = ∇f (x. However. What is wrong? Solution: note that the potential f as well as the vector-ﬁeld F are not diﬀerentiable everywhere. y ) = 2yx2 . dt For a gradient ﬁeld. We will see later that the condition curl(F ) = Qx − Py = 0 implies that the ﬁeld is conservative. cos(t) dt 2 cos2 (t) + sin (t) cos2 (t) + sin2 which is 02π 1 dt = 2π . y ) = 0x P (t. then d/dtf (r(t)) = 0 and r ′ (t) orthogonal to ∇f (r(t)).

Summing up all the line integrals around the boundaries gives the line integral around the boundary because in the interior. y + t) dt. y )ǫ and P (x. y ). If F (x. 1 2 For F (x. The curl(F ) measures the vorticity of the vector ﬁeld. The boundary integrals converge to the line integral of C . y ) = P (x. y ) = 2. x we have curl(F )(x. 3 If F is a gradient ﬁeld then both sides of Green’s theorem are zero: C F · dr is zero by the fundamental theorem for line integrals. y ) ∼ Qx (x. y + t) dt − 0ǫ P (x + t. ∂y ) with F = P. He was a physicist a self-taught mathematician and miller. y )dt + 0ǫ Q(x + ǫ. . and G curl(F ) · dA is zero because curl(F ) = curl(grad(f )) = 0. Green’s theorem: If F (x. y ) = −y. x + ǫ] × [y. Q(x. Fall 2011 Lecture 28: Green’s theorem The curl of a vector ﬁeld F (x. Q(x. All identities hold in the limit ǫ → 0. y + ǫ] is 0ǫ P (x + t. Proof. y ) − Q(x. y ) is a vector ﬁeld and R is a region for which the boundary C is parametrized so that R is ”to the left”. then F · dr = C G curl(F ) dxdy . One can write ∇ × F = curl(F ) because the two dimensional cross product of (∂x . y ) . Because Q(x + ǫ. the line integrals cancel. y ) − Py (x. y ). y ) = Qx (x. Q(x. Q is the scalar Qx − Py . y + ǫ) dt − 0ǫ Q(x. y ) and curl(F ) = Qx − Py = fyx − fxy = 0 by Clairaut’s theorem. y ). this is is (Qx − Py )ǫ2 ∼ 0ǫ 0ǫ curl(F ) dxdy . Summing up the vorticities on the squares is a Riemann sum approximation of the double integral. George Green lived from 1793 to 1841. The integral of F along the boundary of G = [x. y ) = fx (x. A general region G can be cut into small squares of size ǫ. y + ǫ) − P (x. y )ǫ. y ) = P (x. y ) = ∇f is a gradient ﬁeld then the curl is zero because if P (x. y ) = fy (x. y ) ∼ Py (x.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. y ) is the scalar ﬁeld curl(F )(x.

Is the converse true? Here is the answer: A region R is called simply connected if every closed loop in R can be pulled together to a point in R. 0 there. line integrals are path independent and F is a gradient ﬁeld. Treating ∇ as a vector is nabla calculus.t − 1 t for −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. f (a)) to (a. 0 · 1. With the vector ﬁelds F (x. The line integral b b along the curve (t. Given a closed curve C in G enclosing a region R. y ) = x2 − y 2 . use Greens theorem with the vector ﬁeld F = 0. To do so. For F (x. y ) = 0. It had been a consequence of the fundamental theorem of line integrals that If F is a gradient ﬁeld then curl(F ) = 0 everywhere. 4 Find the line integral of F (x. f (t)) is − a −y (t). b]. x . y ) = P. 0) to (b. Green’s theorem assures that C F dr = 0. So F has the closed loop property in G. The line integral is also zero from (b. 0) to (b. 6 An important application of Green is to compute area. Proof. If curl(F ) = 0 in a simply connected region G. 0) because N = 0. y ′ (t) dt . then F is a gradient ﬁeld. f ′(t) dt = a f (t) dt. . y ) = 0. y ) = 1. 0 or F (x. 1]. x have vorticity curl(F )(x. y ) = 0. 0) because F (x. Solution: curl(F ) = Qx − Py = 2y − 2y = −4y so that C F dr = 02 01 4y dydx = 2 2y 2 | 1 0 x|0 = 4. 2xy = P. x . Find the area of the region enclosed by 5 r(t) = sin(πt)2 2 . The line integral around the boundary of G is 0 from (a. 2] × [0. Q along the boundary of the rectangle [0. Q = −y.The already established Clairaut identity curl(grad(f )) = 0 can also remembered as ∇ × ∇f noting that the the cross product of two identical vectors is 0. the right hand side in Green’s theorem is the area of G: Area(G) = C 0. f (b)) and (a. Green’s theorem conﬁrms that this is the area of the region below the graph. 7 Let G be the region under the graph of a function f (x) on [a. x(t) · x′ (t).

we can write curl(F ) = ∇ × F and div(F ) = ∇ · F . the direction in which the wheel turns fastest. there are three fundamental derivatives. the ﬁeld is called incompressible. we had two derivatives. Pz − Rx . is the direction of curl(F ). x2 + z 2 is −2z. If you place such a wheel into the ﬁeld into the direction v . Fall 2011 Lecture 29: Divergence and Curl The curl of a vector ﬁeld F = P. In situations with large vorticity like in a tornado. the curl and the divergence. −2x. Q. ∂y . We can write curl(F ) = ∇ × F . In two dimensions we had The curl of a vector ﬁeld F = P. ∂z . In three dimensions. the ﬁeld is called irrotational. z 2 . Q. If a ﬁeld has zero divergence everywhere. We will see why soon. the divergence is just the curl of a −90 degrees rotated ﬁeld G = Q. one can ”see” the direction of the curl near the vortex center. R ) = ∇ · F = Px + Qy + Rz . In two dimensions. its rotation speed of the wheel measures the quantity F · v . The divergence can also be deﬁned in two dimensions. the gradient and curl. The wheel could actually be used to measure the curl of the vector ﬁeld at any point. a scalar ﬁeld. The divergence of F = P. The curl is often visualized using a ”paddle wheel”. the gradient. The divergence measures the ”expansion” of a ﬁeld. R is the scalar ﬁeld div( P. Q) = ∇ · F = Px + Qy . . Its angular velocity is the length of the curl. Qx − Py . In two dimensions. The divergence of F = P. −P because div(G) = Qx − Py = curl(F ). Q is div(P. With the ”vector” ∇ = ∂x . If a ﬁeld has zero curl everywhere.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. R) = Ry − Qz . −5y 4 . Q. but it is not fundamental. Q is Qx − Py . Q. R is the vector ﬁeld curl(P. 1 The curl of the vector ﬁeld x2 + y 5 . Consequently.

cos2 (v ) so that 2π 0 0 2π π 0 π/2 π − 0. cos(v ) . y. v ). Solution. We do not use this formula for computations because computing n gives additional work. cos2 (v ) · cos(u) sin2 (v ). z 2 through the upper half sphere S parametrized by r (u. We have ru × rv = − sin(v )r and F (r(u. sin(u) sin2 (v ). v )) = 0. The function F · n is the scalar projection of F in the normal direction. Fall 2011 Lecture 30: Flux integrals If a surface S is parametrized as r (u. F · n is the normal component of the vector ﬁeld with respect to the surface. − sin2 (v ) sin(u)−cos3 (v ) sin(v ) dudv which is − π π/2 The ﬂux integral is cos4 (v )/4|0 π/2 cos3 v sin(v ) dv = = −1/4. v ) over a domain G in the uv -plane and F is a vector ﬁeld. The interpretation is that if F = ﬂuid velocity ﬁeld. Because n = ru × rv /|ru × rv | is a unit vector normal to the surface and on the surface. We just determine the vectors F (r (u. With the short hand notation dS = (ru × rv ) dudv representing an inﬁnitesimal normal vector to the surface. One could write therefore F · n dS where dS is the surface element we know from when we computed also S F · dS = surface area. v )). Whereas the formula 1 dS gave the area of the surface with dS = |ru × rv |dudv . v )) and ru × rv and integrate its dot product over the domain. v ) = cos(u) sin(v ). v )) · (ru × rv ) dudv . v ) · n(r (u. 1. 1. sin(u) sin(v ). y (u. cos(v ) sin(v ) dudv .Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. then the ﬂux integral of F through S is G F (r (u. 1 Compute the ﬂux of F (x. 1. v ) = x(u. z (u. the ﬂux integral weights each area element dS with the normal component of the vector ﬁeld with F (r(u. this can be written as S F · dS . . z ) = 0. v ). then S F · dS is the amount of ﬂuid passing through S in unit time.

0 for the front. y. u. Compute the ﬂux of F (x. rv = u. 3. (2 + cos(v )) sin(u). w · 0. 1] × [1/4. Solution. v )) = 1. 0 dudv = w/12 + v/2 . The part soaked up in the front depends only on L and not on the speeds. We know ru × rv = 0. v ) = (2 + cos(v )) cos(u). z ) = 1. w . 0. v ) = 0. Parameterize the front by r (u. The surface area is equal to the ﬂux because F · (ru × rv ) = |ru × rv |. 1. 0. Compute the ﬂux of F (x. 0. v ) = (2 + cos(v )) cos(u). The parametrization r(u. 0. Evaluate the ﬂux integral S curl(F ) · dS for F (x. u2 − v 2 · −2. yz · dS . 1] × [0. −u . z ) = xy. −2r 2 sin(θ). −u + v dudv = R v 2 u − u3 − v 3 + u2 v dudv which is best evaluated using polar coordinates: 1 2π 4 2 3 3 2 0 0 r (sin (θ ) cos(θ ) − cos (θ ) − sin (θ ) + cos (θ ) sin(θ )) dθdr = 0. The head gets the rest. 1/3]. where w is the speed of the rain drops. Solution. Find the ﬂux through your front and top if we assume you are a rectangular box [0. No computation is needed. y. 1 dudv + 0 1/2 0 1 −v. r sin(θ). −x . −u + v . 1 through the torus parameterized as r (u. You walk in the rain with velocity v along the x axis. What is the relation between the ﬂux of the vector ﬁeld F = ∇g/|∇g | through the surface S : {g = 1} with g (x. 4 − u2 − v 2 gives ru × rv = 2u. 4z through the paraboloid z = x2 + y 2 lying above the region x2 + y 2 ≤ 1. r and F (r (u. where both u and v range from 0 to 2π . The rain can be treated a ﬂuid with velocity F = −v. θ) = r cos(θ). We get S F · dS = 02π 01 (−2r 2 cos(v ) − 4r 2 sin(v ) + 4r 3 ) drdθ = 2π . v ) = u. Think about what the ﬂux means. There is no computation is needed. The ﬂux is zero because the vector ﬁeld is tangent to the surface. y. Evaluate the ﬂux integral S 0. 1 and curl(F )(r(u. where both u and v range from 0 to 2π . (2 + cos(v )) sin(u). u + v. sin(v ) . −1 so that ru × rv = −2. Find the ﬂux of the vector ﬁeld G = ∇g × 0. 0. z ) = 2. −z. z ) = 2. 1 . The ﬂux caught by head and shoulder is less if you walk fast. 2. 0. r 2 where rr × rθ = −2r 2 cos(θ). y = u + v. v. Think about what the ﬂux means. u2 + v 2 − 4. Solution: We can parametrize the surface as r (r. If you walk for a ﬁxed distance L and time T = L/v . The ﬂux integral is R 0. where S is the surface with parametric equation x = uv. 1 for the top and ru × rv = 1. y. Solution: ru = v. 2v. 0. 4r 2 . Solution: curl(F ) = −y.2 Calculate the ﬂux of the vector ﬁeld F (x. w · 1. 1 through the torus parameterized as r (u. Solution. zx . v in the yz -plane. 3. 1/2] × [0. 1. 0. u + v. 1 through the surface S . Solution. y. z ) = x6 + y 4 + 2z 8 and the surface area of S ? Solution. 0. The ﬂux integral is 01 01 −2uv +2v (u2 + v 2 −4) −u dvdu = −1/2+1/3+1/2 −4 −1/2 = −25/6. 1] and has an upward orientation. The ﬂux through the surface S consisting of front and top is the amount of water you soak in per second. z = u − v on R : u2 + v 2 ≤ 1. where S is the part of the paraboloid z = 4 − x2 − y 2 that lies above the square [0. yz. the total ﬂux is (L/v )(w/12 + v/2) = L/2 + Lw/(2v ). 0. sin(v ) . The ﬂux S F · dS is 1/4 0 0 1/3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 −v. Your front shirt and trousers catch in unit time the ﬂux of the rain through the front surface. So better run fast! . v )) = −v. 2.

2 3 . Q. If S is a surface in the xy -plane and F = P. sin(u) cos(v ). 0 through the surface parameterized by r (u. z ) = 0. The reason is that the third component Qx − Py of curl(F ) Ry − Qz . sin(u) sin(v ). z ) = −y. 0 so that dr = r ′ (t)dt = − sin(t). A surface is closed if it bounds a solid. y. v )) · ′ 0. a vector w pointing towards the surface and the normal vector n to the surface form a right handed coordinate system. The line integral C F · dr along the boundary is 2π . cos2 (v ) + cos(v ) sin2 (u + π/2) . Calculate the ﬂux of the curl of F (x. 2π ] × [0. then S F (r (u. The ﬂux of the curl of a vector ﬁeld through a closed surface is zero. The surface is parameterized by r (u. 0. v )) · 0. x. then curl(F ) = 0. Pz − Rx . Stokes theorem can be seen as a consequence of Green’s theorem. the integral is again 2π as in the above example.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. 0. If C is the boundary of the surface. z ) · ru × rv = π/2 cos(v ) sin(v )2. Qx − Py is the two dimensional curl: F (r(u. Stokes theorem: Let S be a surface bounded by a curve C and F be a vector ﬁeld. Qx − Py and curl(F ) · dS = Qx − Py dxdy . y. sin(t). 0. 2 . 0 has zero z component. 1 = Qx − Py . cos(t). Because the surface has the same boundary as the upper half sphere. y. the velocity vector v . y. z ) = −y. S C 1 Let F (x. then curl(F )(x. x. Then curl(F ) · dS = F · dr . The integral 02π 0 sin(2v ) dvdu = 2π . 0. v ) = cos(u) cos(v ). v ) so that curl(F )(x. The boundary C of S is parameterized by r (t) = cos(t). 0 dt and F (r(t)) r ′ (t)dt = sin(t)2 + cos2 (t) = 1. 0 and let S be the upper semi hemisphere. v ) = cos(u) sin(v ). Fall 2011 Lecture 31: Stokes theorem The boundary of a surface is a curve oriented so that the surface is to the ”left” if the normal vector to the surface is pointing ”up”. cos(v ) on G = [0. In other words. In this case. 1 dudv = C F (r (t)) r (t)dt. The vector ﬁeld F induces a vector ﬁeld on the surface such that its 2D curl is the normal component of curl(F ). π/2] and ru × rv = sin(v )r(u.

−u2 cos(2v )). Solution. y. y. 2 cos(t). z ) = xey z 3 + 2xyzex +z . The dot product is the power 2 cos2 (t). −2u2 sin(v ). To compute the line integral of this vector ﬁeld along the boundary curve. 0) = 0. the ﬂux of the magnetic ﬁeld through S . 0 and F (r(t)) = 0. Integrating this over [0. The vector ﬁeld on the xy -plane z = 0 is F (x. x3 /3. z > 0 oriented so that the normal vector points upwards. −y. x + z 2 ex +z . where F (x. oriented counterclockwise as viewed from above. 2 sin(t)esin (t) . F (r (u. we get an electric voltage. Stokes theorem assures that the ﬂux integral is equal to the line integral along the boundary of the surface. Evaluate the ﬂux of F (x. We can parametrize the hyperbolic paraboloid as r (u. George Gabriel Stokes Andr´ e Marie Ampere 5 Find C F · dr. x. u sin(v ).4 The electric ﬁeld E and the magnetic ﬁeld B are linked by the ˙ . u . Take a closed wire C B Maxwell equation curl(E ) = − 1 c which bounds a surface S and consider S B · dS . ru × rv = 2u2 cos(v ). 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π . 0 . v )) = u cos(v ). The ﬂux change is related with ˙ ·dS = a voltage using Stokes theorem: d/dt S B ·dS = S B S −c curl(E ) · dS = −c C E dr = U . The curl of F is curl(F ) = (x. The boundary is the ellipse r (t) = cos(t). F (r(u. 0). The ﬂux can be changed by turn around a magnet around the wire or the wire inside the magnet. cos(t). v ) = (u cos(v ). The integral is 01 02π −2r 3 dθdr = π . y. xy and C is the curve of intersection of the hyperbolic paraboloid z = y 2 − x2 and the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 1. yex 2 2 2 2 2 6 . yex +z + zex through the part S of the ellipsoid x2 + y 2/4 + (z + 1)2 = 2. 2 sin(t) . Solution. −u sin(v ). . compute r ′ (t) = 2 − sin(t). Stokes theorem explains why we can generate electricity from motion. where U is the voltage measured at the cut-up wire. z ) = x2 y. 2π ] gives 2π . v )) · ru × rv ) = 2u3 .

• It crowns multivariable calculus reinforcing older concepts. you demonstrate ability of abstract thought. After knowing the deﬁnitions which go into the theorem and the statement of the theorem you can use the theorem as a tool. x. Solution. Then curl(F ) · dS = F · dr . you have ﬁrst to make sure that all deﬁnitions are clear. z ) = −y + sin(x)z. • It explains what curl is. Much easier is to use Stokes theorem and to compute the line integral of F along the boundary of the surface which is an ellipse in the xy plane. it is always a good idea to learn more about a subject than you actually need. z > 0. . v ) · (ru × rv ) dudv G • the dot and cross product appear.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. like with anything in mathematics. z 3 through the surface x2 + y 2 /4 + z 2 + z 4 x2 = 1. we look at more examples. 1 • When understanding it. y. To understand Stokes. This is a problem where the ﬂux integral would be tough to compute. Fall 2011 Lecture 32: Stokes theorem In this section lecture about Stokes theorem. for example to solve complicated line integrals or to avoid complex ﬂux integrals. It is at ﬁrst not so important to worry about the meaning of things too much but to learn how to use the theorem as a tool. especially ﬂuid dynamics and electromagnetism. Here are two very typical examples how to use the theorem: 1 Problem A: Find the ﬂux of the curl of F (x. S C Stokes theorem is important because: • It is an important prototype of a theorem. We would have to parametrize the surface and if we would succeed doing that compute the integral. In the ﬂux integral you can see the triple scalar product • the result relates a single variable integral with a double integral Here is the theorem again Stokes theorem: Let S be a surface bounded by a curve C and F be a vector ﬁeld. because it involves a lot of concepts: • parametrized curves: the boundary of a surface is a curve • parametrized surfaces: the surface is usually given as such • line integral • ﬂux integral I F (r(t)) · r ′ (t) dt F (r(u. • It explains concepts in physics. This is already quite tough for Stokes theorem. 1 As a general principle.

It is proportional to the cos of the angle the wind velocity makes with the wheel normal vector. The ﬂux of the ﬁrst part is equal to the line integral along the boundary. One can see this also by cutting the surface in two pieces and apply Stokes to both pieces.2 Problem B: Find the line integral C F dr . You hold a paddle wheel into the wind. Solution The line integral can not be computed directly. Here are two conceptual problems: 3 If S is the surface x6 + y 6 + z 6 = 1 and assume F is a smooth vector ﬁeld. 0 . This pulling together deﬁnes a surface S to which the curve C is a boundary. The ﬂux of the curl of F through S is zero. −2xz 2 + sin(sin(z ) . y. Solution. It is 03 02π 2r 3 dθdr . Simply connectedness means that one can pull together the loop to a point. The curl of F is 0. Now F has the closed loop property and is therefore a gradient ﬁeld. where C is the circle of radius 3 in the xz -plane oriented counter clockwise when looking from the point (0. Use a convenient surface S which has C as a boundary. One can understand this with Stokes theorem. Explain why S curl(F ) · dS = 0. Given a closed loop C in space. The ﬂux through the second is the line integral along the same boundary but in the opposite direction. A vector ﬁeld F is a wind velocity ﬁeld. 1. 0 . cos(ey ). The wheel velocity is the line integral along a small circle around the wheel. z ) = −y/(x2 + y 2 ). . y. 2x2 + 2z 2 . 4 5 6 Why is simply connectedness of the region under consideration needed to verify that if a vector ﬁeld has zero curl then it is a gradient ﬁeld? This problem appears in the movie ”the beautiful mind”. The ﬂux of curl(F ) through a closed surface is zero by Stokes theorem and the fact that the surface does not have a boundary. An example is F (x. Verify that the ﬂux of the curl through one part of the surface is the opposite than the ﬂux through the other. Verify that if you hold the paddle wheel in the direction where it spins fastest counterclockwise then the wind comes directly from behind the wheel. 0) onto the plane and where F is the vector ﬁeld F (x. x/(x2 + y 2). By Stokes theorem. the line integral is zero. Assume you look at the surface S which is the boundary of a doughnut. then we can ﬁnd vector ﬁelds F which have zero curl everywhere in the region but which are not gradient ﬁelds. Solution. Solution. If the region is not simply connected like the complement of the z -axes. You cut the doughnut in two pieces. The answer is 81π . z ) = 2x2 z + x5 . Solution.

z + dz ]. Let E be a solid with boundary surface S oriented so that the normal vector points outside. we obtain the divergence theorem. Q. Then E div(F ) dV = S F · dS . z ) = x. The divergence of F is the constant function div(F ) = 3 and G div(F ) dV = 3 · 4π/3 = 4π . Fall 2011 Lecture 33: Divergence theorem There are three integral theorems in three dimensions. z ) = Px dxdydz . then more ﬁeld exists the cube than entering the cube. y. Let F be a vector ﬁeld. We have seen already the fundamental theorem of line integrals and Stokes theorem. We see that S r · ru × rv dudv = the divergence theorem allows us to compute the area of the sphere from the volume of the enclosed ball or compute the volume from the surface area. In the limit. 0. If we average the divergence over a small cube is equal the ﬂux of the ﬁeld through the boundary of the cube. dz goes to zero. The ﬂux of F = P. The theorem explains what divergence means. A general solid can be approximated as a union of small cubes. z ) · −1. . The sum of all the ﬂuxes of the cubes is the ﬂux through the boundary of the union. The sum of the ﬂuxes through all the cubes consists now of the ﬂux through all faces without neighboring faces. The divergence measures the expansion of the ﬁeld. If this is positive. z and let S be sphere. 0 + F (x. dy. one can look at a small box [x. y. z ) − P (x. The ﬂux through the boundary is π 2π 2 S |r (u. The sum of all the div(F ) dxdydz is a Riemann sum approximation for the integral G div(F ) dxdydz .Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. where dx. Similarly. y. z ) · 1. y. the ﬂux through the y -boundaries is Py dydxdz and the ﬂux through the two z boundaries is Pz dzdxdy . y. 0. y + dy ] × [z. 1 Let F (x. which completes the list of integral theorems in three dimensions: Divergence Theorem. There is ﬁeld ”generated” inside. The total ﬂux through the faces of the cube is (Px + Py + Pz ) dxdydz = div(F ) dxdydz . To prove this. and ﬂuxes through adjacent sides cancel. x + dx] × [y. R through the faces perpendicular to the x-axes is [F (x + dx. y. 0 ]dydz = P (x + dx. v )| sin(v ) dudv = 0 0 sin(v ) dudv = 4π also. Here is the divergence theorem.

Solution: The answer is 0 because the divergence of curl(F ) is zero.2 0. 3] × [1. 0 · dS = Vol(G). the ﬂux is zero. 2] × [1. 3] × [0. 3] × [0. at distance r from the center of the earth? Solution: The law of gravity can be formulated as div(F ) = 4πρ. z ) = 2x. 0 which has divergence 1. sin(x) through the solid G = [0. The ﬂux of this vector ﬁeld through the boundary of a solid region is equal to the volume of the solid: δG x.0 1.2 What is the ﬂux of the vector ﬁeld F (x. cos(x) and the torus has the parametrization r(θ. 0. (2 + cos(φ)) sin(θ). where ρ is the mass density. 3] × [1. We assume that the earth is a ball of radius R.5 1.4 0. Note that the ﬂux integral here would be over a complicated surface over dozens of rectangular planar regions. y. By the divergence theorem. 2]) which is a cube where three perpendicular cubic holes have been removed? Solution: Use the divergence theorem: div(F ) = 2 and so G dV = 2Vol(G) = G div(F ) dV = 2 2(27 − 7) = 40. φ) = (2 + cos(φ)) cos(θ). Inside the earth. We have (4π )2 ρr 3 /3 = 4πr 2 F (r ) for r < R and (4π )2 ρR3 /3 = 4πr 2 F (r ) for r ≥ R. Find the ﬂux of curl(F ) through a torus if F = yz 2 . 3z 2 + y. 3] × [1. By rotational symmetry. Outside the earth. z ) = x. 2] ∪ [0. 5 How heavy are we. where Mr is the mass of the material inside Sr .0 0. 3 4 Similarly as Green’s theorem allowed to calculate the area of a region by passing along the boundary. the gravitational force is normal to the surface: F (x) = F (r )x/||x||. 2] × [0.8 0.0 . The ﬂux of F through a ball 2 of radius r is Sr F (x) · dS = 4πr F (r ).6 0. 3] × [0.5 2. 2] ∪ [1. 1. 0. the gravitational force F (r ) = 4πρr/3. By the divergence theorem. this is 4πMr = 4π Br ρ(x) dV . y. 3] \ ([0. sin(φ) . z + sin(x) + y. it satisﬁes F (r ) = M/r 2 with M = 4πR3 ρ/3. the volume of a region can be computed as a ﬂux integral: Take for example the vector ﬁeld F (x.

If R is a region with boundary C and F is a vector ﬁeld. then the ﬁeld is a gradient ﬁeld. Green’s theorem. then R curl(F ) dxdy = C F · dr . Find the line integral of the vector ﬁeld F (x. B } and f is a function. t2 from t = 0 to t = 2π . Solution. b 3) If C : t → r (t) = x(t). 3) The theorem justiﬁes the name conservative for gradient vector ﬁelds. then C ∇f · dr = f (B ) − f (A) Remarks. 2) The boundary of the curve can consist of piecewise smooth pieces. 0 and r (2π ) = 1. x we get an area formula. y. 4) Green’s theorem was found by George Green (1793-1841) in 1827 and by Mikhail Ostrogradski (1801-1862). z ) = x2 + y 4 + z . z ) along the path r(t) = cos(5t). 5) If curl(F ) = 0 everywhere in the plane. y ) = 0. 4) The term ”potential” was coined by George Green who lived from 1793-1841. Remarks.Math 21a: Multivariable calculus Oliver Knill. y. y (t) . 1 Let f (x. y ′(t) dt. y (t)). then the line integral between two points P and Q does not depend on the path connecting the two points. 1) The curve is oriented in such a way that the region is to the left. Q(x(t). y (t)) · x′ (t). 2) Gradient ﬁelds are path independent: if F = ∇f . the line integral is a P (x(t). 7) F (x. 1) For closed curves. Stokes Gauss −→ 3 −→ 1 Fundamental theorem of line integrals: If C is a curve with boundary {A. 0. r (0) = 1. the line integral C ∇f · dr is zero. Fall 2011 Lecture 34: Overview All integral theorems are incarnations of the fundamental theorem of multivariable Calculus G 1 1 −→ 1 1 −→ 2 1 −→ 3 FTL FTL Green −→ 1 FTC dF = δG F where dF is a derivative of F and δG is the boundary of G. y. sin(2t). z ) = ∇f (x. The fundamental theorem of line integral gives C ∇f dr = f (r (2π )) − f (r (0)) = 4π 2 . 4π 2 and f (r (0)) = 1 and f (r(2π )) = 1 + 4π 2 . 0. .

5) The ﬂux of the curl through a closed surface like the sphere is zero because the boundary is empty. the line integral is equal to the ﬂux of curl(F )(x. The normal vector of S is ru × rv = 1. x + y 3 along the path r (t) = cos(t). then div(F ) dV = F · dS . 0. 1. By Gauss theorem. then S curl(F ) · dS = C F · dr . 2] × [1. 1. 0 parameterized by R = [0. one obtains the result of Green. the ﬂux is equal to the triple integral of div(F ) = 2z over 2 2 the box: 03 − 1 1 2z dxdydz = (3 − 0)(2 − (−1))(4 − 1) = 27. y. 3) It was discovered in 1764 by Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). 1) Stokes theorem allows to derive Greens theorem: if F is z -independent and the surface S is contained in the xy -plane. 0). v. 0. z ) = −x. 1. −x through S . Such ﬁelds F are also called incompressible or source free. 4) For divergence free vector ﬁelds F . z 2 through the boundary S of the rectangular box [0. y. Remarks. (0. curl(F ) = 0 implies that the line integral depends only on the end points (0. 0 dt = −t /5|−1 = −2/5. z ) = 0. 0. 0 . then the surface to your left. which has veloc1 4 5 1 ity r ′ (t) = −1.2 Find the line integral of the vector ﬁeld F (x. If S is a surface with boundary C and F is a vector ﬁeld. 1). 0. the ﬂux through a closed surface is zero. 0. 0 = 0. Solution. 0 . Divergence theorem: If S is the boundary of a region E in space and F is a vector ﬁeld. y. later it was rediscovered by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) and by George Green. Take the simpler path r(t) = −t. 0 × 0. y. (0. 3 Compute the line integral of F (x. The path C bounds a surface S : r(u. 0). 0). By Stokes theorem. −1) of the path. B S Remarks. 0). 3) Stokes theorem was found by Andr´ e Amp` ere (1775-1836) in 1825 and rediscovered by George Stokes (1819-1903). 5 sin(t) + log(1 + sin(t)) . 4 Compute the ﬂux of the vector ﬁeld F (x. −u · 0. y. 2) It can be helpful to determine the ﬂux of vector ﬁelds through surfaces. The line integral is − 1 t − sin(t). 1 dudv = 0 0 −u dudv = −2. Solution. 1) The divergence theorem is also called Gauss theorem. z ) = x3 +xy. 2] × [0. where t runs from t = 0 to t = π . 0. Solution. 0. 1 so that 2 1 2 1 S curl(F ) · dS = 0 0 0. 2) The orientation of C is such that if you walk along C and have your head in the direction of the normal vector ru × rv . . 2]. 1]. 4) The ﬂux of the curl of F only depends on the boundary of S . −t · −1. v ) = u. (2. y ) = x4 + sin(x) + y. 3] × [−1. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. (2. Stokes theorem. z along the polygonal path C connecting the points (0.